Title: State Water Use Plan - Dept. of Environmental Regulation - State of Florida
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 Material Information
Title: State Water Use Plan - Dept. of Environmental Regulation - State of Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Dept. of Environmental Regulation
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - State Water Use Plan - Dept. of Environmental Regulation - State of Florida (JDV Box 91)
General Note: Box 23, Folder 1 ( Miscellaneous Water Papers, Studies, Reports, Newsletters, Booklets, Annual Reports, etc. - 1973 -1992 ), Item 3
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004500
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text



State


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Plan


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This document was promulgated
at a cost of $604.50, or $2.42 per
copy.

Its purpose is to present the
State Water Use Plan as required
in 186.021(3), F.S.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Table of Contents
Introduction
Statement of Purpose
Organization and Format

GOAL (6): Health
POLICY CLUSTER (30): Environmental Health Care Protection
GOAL (7): Public Safety
POLICY CLUSTER (35): Safe and Secure Citizenry
GOAL (8): Water Resources
POLICY CLUSTER (37): Protection of the Water Supply
POLICY CLUSTER (38): Protection of Water Resources
POLICY CLUSTER (39): Protection of Natural Systems
GOAL (9): Coastal and Marine Resources
POLICY CLUSTER (40): Protection of Coastal Resources
POLICY CLUSTER (41): Protection of Marine Resources
POLICY CLUSTER (42): Public Safety and Access in Coastal Areas
GOAL (10): Natural Systems and Recreational Lands
POLICY CLUSTER (43): Protection of Natural Systems
POLICY CLUSTER (44): Protection of Endangered Species
POLICY CLUSTER (45): Land Management and Use
POLICY CLUSTER (46): Parks and Recreation
GOAL (13): Hazardous and Nonhazardous Waste
POLICY CLUSTER (50): Reducing Hazardous Waste and Materials
POLICY CLUSTER (51): Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment and
Disposal
GOAL (14): Mining
POLICY CLUSTER (52): Reclamation of Mined Areas
POLICY CLUSTER (53): Mining Regulation
POLICY CLUSTER (54): Environmental Protection
GOAL (15): Property Rights
POLICY CLUSTER (56): Protecting Property Rights
GOAL (16): Land Use
POLICY CLUSTER (57): Balanced and Planned Development
POLICY CLUSTER (58): Natural Resources Preservation
GOAL (17): Public Facilities
POLICY CLUSTER (59): Maximizing the use of Existing Public
Facilities
POLICY CLUSTER (60): Planning for Public Facilities
GOAL (19): Transportation
POLICY CLUSTER (64): Transportation to Aid Growth Management
GOAL (20): Governmental Efficiency
POLICY CLUSTER (65): Intergovernmental Coordination
POLICY CLUSTER (66): Efficiency in Government
GOAL (21): The Economy
POLICY CLUSTER (67): Economic Stability
GOAL (22): Agriculture
POLICY CLUSTER (69): Agriculture Industry
GOAL (25): Plan Implementation
POLICY CLUSTER (74): Intergovernmental Coordination and
Cooperation
POLICY CLUSTER (75): Citizen Participation


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Page
APPENDIX 137
Fiscal Analysis 139
Glossary 143
State Water Policy 147


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INTRODUCTION


The State and Regional Planning Act of 1984, Chapter 186, Florida
Statutes, requires the Department of Environmental Regulation to
prepare the State Water Use Plan and to submit the Plan to the
Executive Office of the Governor within six months after the adoption
of the State Comprehensive Plan, or by January 1, 1986, with final
submission to the Legislature occurring in March, 1986. This plan is a
critical step in preparing Florida to meet the challenge of rapid
growth without damaging important water resources.

Growth is tied to water resources and, although not a constraint from a
statewide perspective at the present time, short term problems are
expected to occur from time to time in areas which are densely
populated and in which currently developed resources are marginally
adequate. Overall, Florida is blessed with large amounts of clean
water that should more than adequately meet anticipated uses for the
foreseeable future. The critical issues to be addressed over that
period relate to determining how, where, and under what conditions
water resources will be distributed to accommodate growth and to
protecting the water resource itself from the impacts of growth. The
issue of the distribution of water is only now being seriously
addressed; the issue of the protection of the resource is a key element
of state policy and programs, and is reflected in numerous regulatory,
management and acquisition programs. Actions to protect the quality of
the resource can continue to be a major constraint on growth and will
continue to influence the choice of areas most suitable for growth.

Two assumptions are fundamental to this plan and helped to guide its
development. These are: that growth will place continued pressure on
available water supplies and the overall quality of the waters of this
state, and that existing practices and resource levels will be
inadequate under this pressure to ensure that environmental quality
will remain constant and that additional measures and resources will be
required if we are to improve or even maintain present water quality to
meet future needs.

Accomplishment of the objectives of this plan will require extensive
resource obligations by state agencies, water management districts,
regional planning agencies, local governments and the private sector.
The ability or willingness to provide those resources represents not
just a budgetary decision, but a policy decision of the first
magnitude. Protection of the environment in the face of rapid growth,
cannot be provided at even a maintenance level without proportionate
and absolute increases in expenditures at all level. To upgrade or
restore water resources would require still further increases. In
short, the magnitude of funding required to implement the planned
activities will require the consideration of a variety of funding
techniques.

Of special importance are the additional financial resources which will
be required to provide for a significantly increased workload, both for
the Department and for the water management districts. Particularly









noteworthy are the Suwannee and St. Johns River Water Management
Districts, whose additional capabilities are limited by statutory
millage caps, and the Northwest Florida Water Management District,
which currently lacks a consistent, dependable and adequate source of
revenue due to a constitutional millage cap.

The policies in this plan are mutually supportive; individual policies
should be applied within the context of the entire plan, not in
isolation. This plan outlines in broad terms a strategy to ensure that
in the year 2005 the quality of life in Florida is as good as or better
than it is today.


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PURPOSE OF THE
STATE WATER USE PLAN

Florida Statute 186.021(3) requires the Department of Environmental
Regulation to produce by January 1, 1986 a State Water Use Plan as
authorized by 373.036 F.S. Within this context, the State Water Plan
is a critical element of an integrated, strategic planning process and
is designed to provide intermediate guidance between the State
Comprehensive Plan and the plans of individual state agencies, regional
planning councils, water management districts and local governments
with regard to water resources.

While technically designated as an agency functional plan, the State
Water Use Plan, along with the State Land Development Plan, has broader
applicability than agency functional plans. Agency functional plans
define objectives and operating policies for a single agency that
implement the goals and policies of the State Comprehensive Plan. The
State Water Use Plan defines objectives and operating policies which
implement selected goals and policies of the State Comprehensive Plan
and it provides guidance for all state agencies as they develop their
agency functional plans and to the Water Management Districts as they
develop their water management plans. The plan provides guidance to
all sectors of the state for the orderly management of growth, and
expresses how Florida's water resources should be managed to prevent
and correct inappropriate water uses, ensure the best development of
water resources, conserve water, protect the environment and natural
resources, and enhance the quality of life of Florida's citizens.

In preparing the State Water Use Plan, the Department was guided by two
principal sources. First, 186.022 F.S. requires that agency functional
plans be consistent with Chapter 187, F.S., the State Comprehensive
Plan. Using a format provided by the Office of the Governor that is
based upon the 25 goals and 362 policies of the State Comprehensive
Plan, The State Water Use Plan develops objectives and operating
policies that respond directly to that guidance.

In addition, the Department incorporated the guidance provided to the
State Water Use Plan in Chapter 373, F.S. Section 373.016 F.S.
provides clear legislative intent as follows:

(1) The waters in the state are among its basic resources. Such
waters have not heretofore been conserved or fully controlled
so as to realize their full beneficial use.

(2) It is further declared to be the policy of the Legislature:

(a) To provide for the management of water and related land
resources;
(b) To promote the conservation, development, and proper
utilization of surface and ground water;


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(c) To develop and regulate dams, impoundments, reservoirs,
and other works and to provide water storage for
beneficial purposes;
(d) To prevent damage from floods, soil erosion, and
excessive drainage;
(e) To preserve natural resources, fish and wildlife;
(f) To promote the public policy set forth in s. 403.021;
(g) To promote recreational development, protect public
lands, and assist in maintaining the navigability of
rivers and harbors; and
(h) Otherwise to promote the health, safety, and general
welfare of the people of this state.

Subsection 373.019(4) provides important guidance by defining the key
concept of water law in Florida -- reasonable-beneficial use. That
definition is:

"Reasonable-beneficial use" means the use of water in such
quantity as is necessary for economic and efficient utilization
for a purpose and in a manner which is both reasonable and
consistent with the public interest.

Finally, additional legislative guidance is provided in 373.036 where
the Department is asked to give consideration to the following
additional factors:

-The attainment of maximum reasonable-beneficial use of water for
such purposes as those referred to in subsection 373.036(1);

-The maximum economic development of the water resources
consistent with other uses;

-The control of such waters for such purposes as environmental
protection, drainage, flood control, and water storage;

-The quantity of water available for application to a
reasonable-beneficial use;

-The prevention of wasteful, uneconomical, impractical, or
unreasonable uses of water resources;

-Presently exercised domestic use and permit rights;

-The preservation and enhancement of the water quality of the
state and the provisions of the state water quality plan;

-The state water resources policy as expressed by Chapter 373,
Florida Statutes.

While this State Water Use Plan receives policy guidance from Chapter
373, F.S., the process for its development is driven by the provisions
of Chapter 186, F.S. As a consequence, the basic concept,










organization, format, development process, and intergovernmental roles
of the present document are very different from the preceding State
Water Use Plan. The previous plan was developed by the five water
management districts with the assistance of the Department of
Environmental Regulation and was a series of detailed documents to be
used by the districts as operational guides for the implementation of
their programs. At the state level, the five districts and the
Department of Environmental Regulation negotiated the state water use
policy, a concise statement of water policy that would be used by the
districts and the State in making water decisions. This policy was
formalized in Chapter 17-40, F.A.C. As described earlier, the present
State Water Use Plan is an integral element of a comprehensive state
planning effort. It is to be developed by the Department of
Environmental Regulation with input from the water management districts
and other governmental entities and is intended to provide guidance to
state agencies, regional agencies, and local governments in how the
water related policies of the State Comprehensive Plan will be
implemented.










ORGANIZATION AND FORMAT OF
THE STATE WATER USE PLAN


The State Comprehensive Plan is composed of 25 goals, or long-term ends
toward which state agency activities are to be directed, and 362 plan
policies designed to achieve the goals. This document presents the
goals and policies which the Department of Environmental Regulation
considers most relevant to the State Water Use Plan. The State
Comprehensive Plan's 25 goals and 362 policies have been organized into
75 Policy Clusters by the Executive Office of the Governor. The
Department has selected 29 Policy Clusters judged to have relevance to
water use issues. Within each selected cluster only those individual
policies clearly related to water issues were retained.

The major sections of this document are organized around the goals of
the State Comprehensive Plan, while the major subsections are organized
around the policy clusters associated with each goal. Each policy
cluster is followed by a background statement that briefly summarizes
the current water related conditions and trends relative to the policy
cluster.

The operational elements of the document are the objectives,
subobjectives, and operating policies of each subsection. Objectives
are intermediate ends that are used to measure state agency progress
toward achieving the goals of the various policies of a policy cluster.
The specific policy, or policies, of a cluster that an objective is
concerned with is identified by a listing, in brackets, after each
objective. In some cases, an objective may have several dimensions.
Objectives of this type have been split into subobjectives. When
subobjectives are used, specific operating policies that apply to each
subobjective are identified by a listing, in brackets, following each
subobjective. Objectives and subobjectives are followed, in the
document, by operating policies, or methods and guides, by which
state agencies and regional and local governments are to achieve the
objectives and subobjectives. Acronyms of state agencies concerned
with each specific operating policy are listed in brackets following
each operating policy statement. A list of acronyms used may be found
on the next page.

For ease of identification and ready reference, each objective,
subobjective, and operating policy has been alphanumerically coded.
Objectives are identified by both the policy cluster they are part of
and capital letters. Each subobjective follows its associated
objective and is numerically listed, while operating policies are
identified by lower case letters. For example, the first subobjective
for the first objective in Policy Cluster 40 is 40/A/1, while the first
operating policy for the same objective would be 40/A/a.

To improve the usefulness and effectiveness of this document in the
multiple agency planning approach to water related issues, cost










estimates for each of the operating policies have been determined.
Each operating policy is followed by a statement of the cost involved
with the implementation of the policy.

ACRONYMS FOR AGENCIES


Department
Department
Department
Department
Department
Department
Department
Department


Agriculture and Consumer Services
Community Affairs
Environmental Regulation
General Services
Health and Rehabilitative Services
Natural Resources
Education
Transportation


Executive Office of the Governor
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Coordinating Council
Marine Fisheries Commission
Public Service Commission
Regional Planning Council
State University System
Water Management District


DACS
DCA
DER
DGS
DHRS
DNR
DOE
DOT
EOG
GFWFC
IFAS
KOECC
MFC
PSC
RPC
SUS
WMD


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GOAL (6): HEALTH


Florida shall cultivate good health for all its citizens, promote
individual responsibility for good health, assure access to
affordable, quality health care, and reduce health care costs as a
percentage of the total financial resources available to the state
and its citizens.

POLICY CLUSTER (30): ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CARE PROTECTION

11. ADULTS:

(o) Provide for stringent regulations and enforcement to prevent
exposure of humans to environmental toxins, carcinogens, and
radiation.

19. Expand and improve current efforts to protect public health
through clean air and water requirements.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROTECTION

Florida has a responsibility to protect the health of its citizens and
to carry out this duty, the state must assure the quality of its water
resources. In the face of Florida's rapid development, the state must
not only continue its current efforts to prevent surface and
groundwater pollution on a state and local level, but must strive to
find new and better technologies for the treatment of wastewater and
stormwater. Furthermore, the state must prevent the contamination of
its water resources from hazardous substances by regulating activities
which threaten surface and groundwater. Some of the issues involved in
providing health care protection are also addressed in the background
statements of the following policy clusters:

(37): Protection of the Water Supply
(38): Protection of Water Resources
(40): Protection of Coastal Resources
(50): Reducing Hazardous Waste and Materials
(51): Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment and
Disposal

At the present time, Florida has plentiful supplies of high quality
surface and groundwater. However, we are now being faced with
recurring crises of chemical contamination of our aquatic habitats and
our drinking water, both of which are prime concerns of environmental
health. There are currently over 75,000 synthetic and organic
chemicals in use, and the short and long-term health effects of but a
few are known. Chemical pollution from hazardous waste dumps,
stormwater runoff, and industrial discharge is washed into our aquatic
habitats where it can be absorbed by fish and shellfish, thereby
entering the human food chain.









Over the past five years, Florida's citizens have seen many examples of
how fragile our state's ecosystems are. Evidence continues to
accumulate that strict attention must be paid to above-ground
activities in order not to endanger our much needed resources below
ground, and to prevent widespread exposure to airborne toxic materials.
For instance, agricultural use of the nematocide ethylene dibromide
(EDB) has led to contamination of more than 1,000 private drinking
water wells and at least six city water systems (DER, 1985). Florida
leads the Southeastern United States with thirty-seven hazardous waste
sites eligible for clean-up monies under the EPA's "Superfund" program.
In fact, one of the state's most important aquifers, the Biscayne, has
been heavily impacted due to its proximity to three nearly contiguous
"Superfund" sites in Southern Florida (DER, 1985).

Another major threat to environmental health is leaking underground
storage tanks. There are an estimated 60,000 underground storage tanks
located in 18,000 facilities that are registered with the DER, and many
more older tanks that are not registered. Hundreds of these tanks are
on the DER's list of facilities that have leaked contaminants to
groundwater, and the list appears to be growing by around 20 sites per
month. It is estimated that over 30% of all underground storage tanks
over fifteen years old may leak, an indication that we may have an even
greater threat in the future.

Expertise at the grass roots level to monitor and assess the severity
of these problems and the ability to develop effective prevention plans
or post hoc solutions are lacking. These few examples of conditions
which exist to bring about environmental tragedies, point to the need
for Florida's continued commitment to provide the best possible
environmental conditions for its citizens.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1995, the threat of Florida's environmental health due to
surface and groundwater pollution will be less than it is in
1985.
(State Plan Policies 11(o) and 19).
Measure: Amount of pollutants in water.

(1) By 1990, 90% of Florida's industrial and domestic dischargers
of wastewater will be in compliance with Florida's surface
and groundwater standards. (State Plan Policy 1(o) and 19)
(Operating Policies a, b, c, d, g)
Measure: Percent of industrial and domestic dischargers in
compliance with state standards.

(2) By 1986, 50% of the public wellfields for major water systems
will be afforded special protection. (State Plan Policy
11(o) and 19). (Operating Policy f)
Measure: Percentage of public wellfields for major
public water supply systems protected.


1 _










(3) By 1990, Florida will plug 80% of its abandoned free flowing
artesian wells. (State Plan Policy 19). (Operating
Policy e)
Measure: Percent of abandoned artesian wells plugged.
(4) By 1995, Florida will have cleaned up 100 major polluted
groundwater sites. (State Plan Policy 19). (Operating
Policies h and i)
Measure: Number of polluted groundwater sites cleaned up.

(5) By 1995, initiate a cleanup of 1200 petroleum contaminated
groundwater sites. (State Plan Policy 19). (Operating
Policy j)
Measure: Number of petroleum contaminated groundwater sites
for which cleanup has been initiated.

OPERATING POLICIES

(a) Protect surface and groundwater resources needed for water supply.
(WMDs, PRCs, local governments, and regional water supply
authorities).
Costs: Costs covered under Policy Clusters 37, 38, & 43.

(b) Ensure that the quality of public drinking water from surface and
groundwater meets state standards. (DER and HRS).
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/C/a & b.

(c) Require permits for all activities that may be a source of surface
or groundwater pollution such as construction, expansion,
modifications, or operation unless otherwise exempted. Review all
regulations on a periodic basis. Ensure that the best available
scientific knowledge is incorporated into the water quality
standards and regulatory criteria. (DER and WMDs).
Costs: Cost covered under 8/38/A/a and 20/66/C/a.

(d) Require local governments to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control surface and groundwater pollution.
(RPCs, DCA, and local governments).
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/b and 8/38/B/b.

(e) Ensure that each known abandoned artesian well is plugged, and
mitigate damage to the groundwater resource if degraded. (DER and
WMDs).
Costs: Cost included under 8/38/B/e.

(f) Prohibit or severely limit discharges of pollutants which may
impact on public and community water supply wellfields, high
recharge areas, and areas designated in local government
comprehensive plans as future water supply sources. (DER, HRS,
WMDs, and local governments).
Costs: Cost covered under 8/38/B/g.

(g) Develop new pollution control technology for the treatment,
disposal, reclamation and reuse of wastewater and stormwater









discharges into surface and groundwater. (DER and WMDs).
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/D/b, 8/37/E/c & 8/38/B/h & i.

(h) Restore polluted surface and groundwater, and ensure their
subsequent maintenance.
(DER and WMDs).
Costs: See Policy Clusters 38 and 50.

(i) Require immediate cleanup of accidental or illegal discharges of
pollutants by requiring cleanup by dischargers or by direct state
action. (DER).
Costs: Costs covered under 13/50/A/a-b.



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GOAL (7): PUBLIC SAFETY


Florida shall protect the public by preventing, discouraging, and
punishing criminal behavior, lowering the highway death rate, and
protecting lives and property from natural and manmade disasters.

POLICY CLUSTER (35): SAFE AND SECURE CITIZENRY

25. Require local governments, in cooperation with regional and state
agencies, to adopt plans and policies to protect public and
private property and human lives from the effects of natural
disasters.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
SAFE AND SECURE CITIZENRY

Florida's combination of geographic and geological features make the
state a desirable place to live. Unfortunately, this same combination
of features combined with a lack of proper environmental planning has
proved to be a mixed blessing. Today large portions of the citizenry
live in areas subject to the effects of natural and manmade disasters.

Florida's extensive coastline is one of its most significant features.
The attractiveness of coastal living has resulted in intense pressure
to develop Florida's coastal areas. Almost 75 percent of the
population of the state lives in coastal regions. This has brought a
large portion of the general population within the reach of one of
nature's most destructive forces: hurricanes. Those citizens living
closest to the coast are threatened by not only the wind and high tides
of hurricanes, but by a moving wall of water called the storm surge.
Storm surges are so powerful that they can plane large parts of barrier
islands and the coast perfectly flat, leaving behind only the most
solidly constructed buildings and the wreckage of weaker buildings.
The continued major buildup along the coast makes efforts to plan for
successful hurricane evacuations more difficult, thus making more
likely the possibility of a major disaster occurring with tremendous
loss of life and property.

Inland residents are also faced by threats from natural disasters,
predominately flooding. Just as with coastal areas there has been an
unplanned building boom in low lying areas, due to the relatively low
cost of land within these areas. The problem has been intensified by
manmade modifications, such as dredging and filling in floodplains and
diversion, damming and channelization of watercourses. This unwise
development has placed upon state and local governments the need to
divert revenues to install drainage and flood control systems to
protect their citizens.

Droughts also cause major problems in Florida. During the severe
drought of 1980, many communities in south and central Florida were
faced with water shortages as aquifers became contaminated by salt
water intrusion due to excessive drawdown during a period of low
replenishment. This problem can only become more severe with continued









unplanned growth throughout the state. Ironically, efforts to provide
for future water shortages through damming and diversion of surface
waters in the past have, in some cases, exacerbated flood control
problems.

The most cost-effective method of protecting Florida's citizens from
the effect of natural disasters is in the adoption of proper growth
planning and management and non-structural approaches to natural
disaster control. Toward this end progress has been made in the past
and will increase in the future. Restrictions on development in
floodplains have been imposed by both state and local governments. New
construction along coastlines is required to be above the 100 year
flood elevation and is controlled by coastal control lines. As
Florida's population continues to increase and the demand for more
development rises, methods that have worked well in the past will have I
to be supplemented with increased planning efforts at all levels of
government.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1995 all flood prone areas of the state will be covered by
emergency evacuation and flood control plans. (State Plan
Policy 25)
Measures: (1) Number of emergency evacuation plans.
(2) Number of flood control plans.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Require all regional and local government planning bodies to
prepare, and keep updated, emergency evacuation plans for
high hazard areas within their jurisdiction. (DCA, RPCs,
local governments)
Costs: No new cost. Existing program cost.

(b) Provide technical assistance to regional and local
governments to protect against damage from flooding. (DER,
DNR, DOT, DCA, WMD)
Costs: Existing program cost.

(c) Require regional and local agencies to protect inhabitants,
land, and other property from flooding through the structural
and nonstructural management of water systems. (DER, WMDs,
DCA)
Costs: ($27,000,000/year) Existing Cost. These costs
reflect an average annual cost for public works projects
which address protection of property from flooding, erosion
and other surface water caused damage. The cost is shared in
various proportions by local, state, and federal governments.
Approximate 56% construction, 40% operation and maintenance,
and 4% for studies. See 8/37/B/a, b and c for related water
quantity management costs.









(B) By 2005 Florida citizens will be protected against the effects of
droughts and emergency water supply shortages. (State Plan Policy
25)
Measure: Number of households losing water service due to
droughts.

OPERATING POLICIES

(a) Require regional and local governments to identify alternate
water systems in their comprehensive plans. (DER, DCA, RPCs,
Local governments).
Costs: No cost.

(b) Provide technical assistance to regional and local
governments in identifying possible sources of water for
emergency use. (DER, DNR, WMDs, DCA)
Costs: No cost.

(C) By 1995, the average yearly ratio of flood insurance claims to
flood insurance policies for the period 1985-1995 will be reduced
as compared to the rate for the period 1975-1985. (State Plan
Policy 25)
Measures: Number of claims made against the National Flood
Insurance Program.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Require all new costs to protect citizens from floods in
floodplains be borne as a cost of development. (DER, DNR,
DCA, RPCs, local governments).

(b) Improve nonstructural methods of flood control. (DER, DNR,
WMD, DCA, RPCs, Local Governments). Costs: $50,000/year for
six years. Total $300,000 research effort cost.

(c) Require all new projects affecting floodplains or located in
floodplains to utilize nonstructural methods of flood control
to avoid the channelization and over-drainage of natural
river systems (DER, DNR, DOT, WMDs, RPCs, local governments).
Costs: No costs.

(d) Develop more stringent regulation and standards for
development in coastal and floodplain high hazard areas.
(DER, DNR, DCA, DOT, RPCs, local governments).
Costs: $200,000. Estimated cost for a DCA coordinated
effort to develop more stringent regulations and standards.

(e) Better enforce existing criteria for any structural work that
must be done in waters of the state to protect water quality
and the natural hydrologic functioning of these systems and
develop stricter criteria where needed. (DER, DNR, WMDs, DCA)
Costs: No costs.













GOAL (8): WATER RESOURCES


Florida shall assure the availability of an adequate supply of
water for all competing uses deemed reasonable and beneficial and
shall maintain the functions of natural systems and the overall
present level of surface and ground water quality. Florida shall
improve and restore the quality of waters not presently meeting
water quality standards.

POLICY CLUSTER (37): PROTECTION OF THE WATER SUPPLY

1. Ensure the safety and quality of drinking water supplies and
promote the development of reverse osmosis and desalinization
technologies for developing water supplies.

2. Identify and protect the functions of water recharge areas and
provide incentives for their conservation.

3. Encourage the development of local and regional water supplies
within water management districts instead of transporting surface
water across district boundaries.

5. Ensure that new development is compatible with existing local and
regional water supplies.

11. Promote water conservation as an integral part of water management
programs as well as the use and reuse of water of the lowest
acceptable quality for the purposes intended.


BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTION OF THE WATER SUPPLY

Florida is blessed with plentiful supplies of high quality surface and
groundwater and it would appear that from a statewide perspective there
should be enough water to meet the future needs of the state for some
time to come. The challenge will be to ensure that water will be
available in appropriate locations and in sufficient amounts to meet
Florida's rapid growth without damaging the water resources and the
natural systems that are dependent upon water. Such a rich endowment
of water, however, is no basis for the wasteful misuse of the resource,
and a policy of vigilant management and protection is required if
Florida's needs are to be effectively met into the next century. One
important issue is that of protecting drinking water supplies, and
ensuring that drinking water supply systems meet state standards.
While 100 percent compliance with these standards is not feasible,
because of unavoidable minor violations (mainly record-keeping and
reporting violations), the state must strive for as high a compliance
rate as possible as these violations are indications of potential
problems. In particular, the state must ensure that swift enforcement
action is taken against persistent violators of state drinking water
standards.






I

Perhaps the principal water issue is one of distribution. While it is
likely true that Florida has more than adequate supplies of water to
meet anticipated needs, it is evident that there are some areas of the
state that are experiencing periodic shortfalls. Growth has occurred
and will probably continue to occur in urban coastal areas that have
limited amounts of groundwater, with approximately 80 percent of
Florida's new growth expected to take place in such areas, the
provision of water is an issue of considerable importance. This
projected development can have severe impacts. The state must prevent
overdraft of groundwater. This is a condition which occurs when
withdrawals of groundwater over time exceed recharge capacity. The
increased drain on groundwater associated with development can lead to
lowered lake and river levels and to the drying of wetlands, and may
also result in land subsidence with potential catastrophic impacts on
property and human life. Declining water levels may cause gradual
deterioration of groundwater quality by encouraging the intrusion of
saline water into fresh water aquifers. Thus, the state must seek to
control withdrawals of groundwater and must protect those areas where
acquifers are recharged. The state must provide special protection,
such as more stringent requirements for discharge, within prime
recharge areas, those recharge areas where in excess of ten inches per
year recharge to the aquifer occurs.

In order to cope with this distributional imbalance, a number of
strategies may be employed. The first strategies are those that do not
require the development of new water resources, but allow instead the
more efficient use of existing water resources. These strategies -
conservation, reuse, and reclamation prevent or delay the need to
develop new water resources and reduce the strain on local water
supplies. Though significant, the potential for reduction in use
through reuse is limited since the amount of water being actively used
at any given point is a relatively small part of the total water
potentially available for use. The thrust of the initiative for
efficiency in water use must come on the demand side; Florida must
strongly emphasize water conservation. One potential area where
conservation may be effective is in agriculture. Irrigation consumes
more fresh water than any other use and more efficient irrigation
methods could conserve substantial amounts of water. Another potential
area for conservation is in industrial use of water. This is
especially critical because of Florida's rapid growth.

Once maximum conservation, reclamation, and reuse is attained, however,
continued growth is dependent upon new water supplies. One
increasingly attractive option is desalinization of brackish water,
which is in abundant supply. There are currently over 100 reverse
osmosis plants operating in Florida. Although desalinization of
seawater remains relatively expensive, desalinization of abundantly
available brackish water costs only a fifth as much, and has the
potential to provide coastal areas with the demanded water without
additional strain on local fresh water supplies and without
transporting water, if brine disposal does not pose a problem.









Another strategy, of course, is the expensive, politically difficult
and potentially environmentally damaging process of transportation of
water from areas of abundance with little demand to areas of high
demand with limited supplies. As water demands in some areas of the
state increase, the importation of water may become the only viable
solution. However, the long distance transportation of water should be
a solution of "last resort" and should be employed only after other
options have been exhausted.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) Through 1995, surface water supplies will be managed to promote
conservation, preserve natural resources, and ensure that
available quantities are used for reasonable-beneficial uses that
do not interfere with existing legal uses and are consistent with
the public interest. (State Plan Policies 1, 3, and 5)
Measures: (1) Whether a statewide surface water inventory
program has been established.
(2) Percent of local plans which include policies for
control of development that protect existing and
future surface water supplies.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Improve existing monitoring programs, develop an inventory of
surface water use, and develop forecasts of the demand for
and potential supply of surface water available for
reasonable-beneficial uses. (WMDs and DER)
Costs: ($692,200/Year) Program Improvement and Expansion
The figure of $692,200 is the total estimated cost to DER,
WMD's, and the federal government to create a coordinated
inventory of surface water use with the development of
supply/demand forecasting.

(b) Ensure that surface water necessary for the protection and
procreation of fish and wildlife, functioning of natural
ecosystems and recreation and navigation is reserved and that
use of surface water is limited to reasonable-beneficial
uses. (DER, DCA, DNR, GFWFC, DOT, WMDs, RPCs, local
governments)
Costs: ($2,300,000/Year)
Assumes development of local watershed management plans as a
subunit of the local government comprehensive plans. Costs
are estimated at an additional $50,000 per plan. Assumes 67
counties and 391 municipal plans for a total new cost of
$22,900,000. Also, $100,000 for a state sponsored
information program to educate local government officials in
watershed management principles and functions is included.









(c) Protect surface water supply sources. (WMDs, local
governments, and regional water supply authorities)
Costs: ($97,000,000/year) Existing 1984 WMDs costs.
Costs include WMDs water quantity/supply costs and district
regulatory programs such as consumptive use permitting,
pumping. Land acquisition costs are covered in policy
clusters 39 & 43. This cost was derived from estimates
prepared for the state comprehensive plan by DER. See
8/37/A/a, b, c for related costs.

(d) Optimize the use of water supplies within local regions prior
to any diversion of surface water across water management
district boundaries. (WMDs)
Costs: ($50,000/year) New Costs
This is an estimate of the average yearly cost to DER to
perform a new regulatory and review function relating to
diversion of surface waters across WMD district boundaries.
See 8/37/B/f for related policy.

(e) Ensure that all local plans include policies for the control
of development which protect existing and future surface
waters from degradation. (DER, DCA, WMD's, Local
Governments).
Costs: Costs covered under existing DCA local plans review
program.

(f) Ensure that facilities to treat and distribute surface water
for drinking water have available capacity to support
projected needs prior to authorizing new development. (DER,
local governments)
Costs: ($10,016,890/year Average: 1986 2005 =
$20-0-,340,000)
Assumes 13% of drinking water derived from surface water.
Cost represents treatment and transmission facilities.
Estimates were taken from "Florida's Infrastructure needs and
resources, 1982-2000", N.G. Sipe & E.M. Starnes; November,
1983. The 1982 dollar values were adjusted by an average
1985 consumer price index of 325. An average yearly cost
derived from the adjusted Sipe and Starnes cost (1986-2000)
was extrapolated to provide an estimate of cost for the years
2001-2005. These costs are all primarily local government
and private sector.

(B) Through 1995, groundwater supplies will be managed to promote
conservation, preserve natural resources, and ensure that
available quantities are used for reasonable-beneficial uses which
do not interfere with existing legal uses and are consistent with
the public interest. (State Plan Policies 1, 2, 5, and 11)
Measures: (1) Whether a statewide groundwater inventory program
has been established.
(2) Percent of local plans which include policies for
control of development that protect existing and
future groundwater supplies.

20

1









(1) By 1988 eliminate overdraft of Florida's potable groundwater
supply. (State Plan Policy 5) (Operating Policies a, h)
Measure: Whether overdraft of Florida's potable groundwater
supply has occurred.

(2) By 1995 Florida will be providing special protection for 50%
of its prime recharge areas. (State Plan Policy 2)
(Operating Policies a, b, e)
Measure: Percent of prime recharge areas protected.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Develop and maintain a statewide groundwater basin resource
inventory which identifies: groundwater basins and
associated recharge areas; areas in the basins that are prone
to contamination or overdraft from development; criteria to
establish minimum and maximum seasonal surface and ground-
water levels; areas suitable for future water resource
development within the groundwater basins; sources of
wastewater discharge suitable for reclamation and reuse, and
existing groundwater uses and potential quantities of
groundwater available for consumptive uses. (WMDs)
Costs: ($3,000,000/year) Program Expansion and New Cost.
These costs do not cover groundwater monitoring network after
operation and development. The estimate is for the
development and maintenance of a coordinated statewide
groundwater basin inventory. Costs are primarily WMD's
though DER will also contribute information from its
groundwater monitoring network. The average is about
$600,000/year per district though individual districts may
require a greater share.

(b) Require local government planning to use the water management
district's groundwater basin resource inventory and reflect
the limitations of the available groundwater and other water
supplies in their plans. (DCA, RPCs and local governments)
Costs: No costs.

(c) Protect inhabitants, land, and other property from the
effects of shortages of groundwater by implementing water
conservation programs. (WMDs, local government).
Costs: ($3,590,000/year) New Costs
Estimated cost of reducing overall groundwater consumption
use by user classification by 15% by 1995. Local Government
cost is estimated to be about $32,000,000 from 1985 to 1995.
The costs to the five water management districts are
$300,000/year and the yearly cost to the state is estimated
at $30,000.




I




(d) Ensure that groundwater necessary for the protection and
procreation of fish and wildlife, functioning of natural
ecosystems and recreation and navigation is reserved from use
and that use of groundwater is limited to
reasonable-beneficial uses. (WMDs, RPCs, local governments)
Costs: Cost are covered under 8/37/b and c.

(e) Protect groundwater resources needed for water supply. (WMDs,
and local governments)
Costs: Costs are covered under 8/37/A/b & c, 8/39/A/g and
TO143/B/a.

(f) Optimize the use of water supplies within local regions prior
to any diversion of groundwater across water management
district boundaries.
(WMDs)
Costs: ($200,000/year) New Cost
Assumed cost to be divided among the WMD's to support source
development at the local level and in regulating the
diversion of groundwater across WMD bounaries. 8/37/1/e
address the same issue for surface water diversions. The
combined surface and groundwater costs to pursue this
activity is $250,000.

(g) Ensure that facilities to treat and distribute groundwater
for drinking water have available capacity to support
projected needs prior to authorizing new development. (DER,
local government)
Costs: ($67,036,110/year=average: 20 year total=$1.341
Billion)
Assumes 87% of the State's drinking water is derived from
groundwater. Costs derived by adjusting estimates found in
"Florida's infrastructure needs and resources: A preliminary
analysis": N.G. Sipe and E. M. Starnes; November, 1983, by
average 1985 CPI of 325. Average yearly costs between
1986-2000 were derived and then extrapolated to estimate
potential costs between 2001-2005. Costs are primarily local
and private sector cost.

(h) Ensure that major potable groundwater supplies are not
overdrawn by implementing a consumptive use regulatory
program. (WMD)
Costs: See 8/37/A/b and c for consumptive use and regulatory
program cost estimate.

(i) Require coordinated and standardized forecasts of future
water demands. (DER, WMDs, RPCs, local government
Costs: Costs provided under related policies 8/37/A/a and
877T7B/a.









(j) Ensure that all local government plans include policies for
the control of development which protect existing and future
groundwater supplies from degradation. (DER, DCA, WMD's &
Local government)
Costs: Cost covered under DCA local plan review program.

(C) By 1990 Florida public water supply systems will attain 90%
compliance with state standards. (State Plan Policy 1) (Operating
Policies a, b)
Measure: Percent of public water supply systems in compliance
with state standards.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Ensure that the quality of public drinking water from surface
water meets state standards. (DER, HRS)
Costs: $317,666/year existing cost.
This figure represents 13% of the current public drinking
water program. It was estimated that about 13% of the
state's drinking water supply come from surface water
sources.

(b) Ensure that the quality of public drinking water from
groundwater systems meets state standards. (DER, HRS) Costs:
($2,385,000/Year) Existing Program Cost
Estimate based on 87% of the current DER cost to operate the
public water supply program. 87% approximates the percentage
of the state's drinking water derived from groundwater. See
8/37/C/a for the program cost attributable to surface water.

(D) By 1995 the cost of providing water through desalinization shall
not exceed the cost of providing water through the long distance
transport of water. (State Plan Policy 1)
Measure: Ratio of cost of desalinized water to cost of
transported water.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Improve the quality and increase the quantity of water
available through desalinization and other innovative
techniques. (DER, DHRS, WMDs and RPCs)
Costs: ($150,000/Year) New research costs.

(b) Sponsor research for brine wastewater disposal that leads to
increased use of desalinization. (DER)
Costs: ($200,000/Year) New research costs.









(E) By 1995 water conservation efforts will have resulted in increased
efficiency in water used and necessary for irrigation, mining,
power development, and domestic, municipal, and industrial uses.
(State Plan Policy 11)
Measure: Water use in irrigation, mining, power development, and
domestic, municipal, and industrial uses.

(1) By 1995 Florida will reduce per capital usage of potable
water by 15%. (State Plan Policy 11) (Operating
Policies a, b, c, d)
Measure,: Reduction in per capital usage of potable
water.

(2) By 1995 Florida will have no net increase in per capital
industrial use of water based upon present levels of
use. (State Plan Policy 11) (Operating Policy c)
Measure: Per capital industrial use of surface water

(3) By 1995 Florida will reuse 9% of its wastewater. (State
Plan Policy 11) (Operating Policy a)
Measure: Percent of wastewater reused.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Publicly owned or investor owned water and wastewater systems
should provide incentives for customers who use effective
water or wastewater saving devices. (HRS, DER, WMDs, PSC,
and local governments)
Costs: No Cost

(b) Require that new buildings and renovations have water-saving
devices installed. (WMDs, DGS, SUS, RPC's and local
governments)
Costs: No Cost

(c) Require the consideration of water conservation measures for
all users through regulatory and nonregulatory programs and
review processes at all levels of government. (WMDs, RPCs,
DER and local governments)
Costs: ($3,374,500/year(avg): 20 year total = $67,940,000)
The cost estimated reflects the specific development of a
wastewater reuse program affecting DER, WMDs and local
governments.
1) DER Administrative costs (yearly) $ 208,000/yr
DER Rulemaking (one year) $ 208,000
WMDs Administration (yearly) $ 249,000/yr
WMDs Rulemaking (one year) $ 187,000
Research (5 year effort) $ 160,000/yr
Local Facility Construction $3,000,000/yr


24





it









2) Year 1 $ 550,000
Year 2-6 $18,085,000
Year 6-20 $48,855,000
TOTAL: $67,490,000
Avg. Yearly 20 year cost = $ 3,374,500


(d) Require local governments to adopt and implement contingency
plans for water shortages that are consistent with Water
Management District Water Shortage Plans. (DCA, RPCs and
local governments)
Costs: No Cost




C









GOAL (8): WATER RESOURCES


Florida shall assure the availability of an adequate supply of
water for all competing uses deemed reasonable and beneficial and
shall maintain the functions of natural systems and the overall
present level of surface and groundwater quality. Florida shall
improve and restore the quality of waters not presently meeting
water quality standards.

POLICY CLUSTER (38): PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES

9. Protect aquifers from depletion and contamination through
appropriate regulatory programs and through incentives.

10. Protect surface and groundwater quality and quantity in the
state.

12. Eliminate the discharge of inadequately treated wastewater and
stormwater runoff into the waters of the state.

13. Identify and develop alternative methods of wastewater treatment,
disposal, and reuse of wastewater to reduce degradation of water
resources.



BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES


Perhaps no other state has as much high quality water as Florida. The
state has copious good quality surface waters with 10,000 miles of
streams and 8,000 lakes1. In addition, the state has 11,000 miles of
coastline fronting on the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and
adjacent coastal estuaries. Most of the waters of the state today
continue to meet established water quality standards. However, water
sampling indicates some streams that are in marginal condition. The
cumulative impact of continued rapid development in Florida threatens
these waters. Lowering of groundwater levels leads to lowered lake
levels and reduced stream and river flows. Development continues to
impact on wetlands, which may lead to a decline in water quality
because of the elimination of their filtering capacity. Furthermore,
much development has occurred adjacent to surface waters because of
their beauty and recreational opportunities, which has increased the
pollutant load in these waters, both because stormwater runoff carries
agricultural and urban pollutants into the water, and because the
waters serve as disposal sites for domestic and industrial wastewater.

Groundwater quality has not been as well studied as surface quality.
Problems with groundwater contamination often have been noticed only
after damage has occurred. However, following the passage of the Water
Quality Assurance Act of 1983, groundwater monitoring has increased.
The Water Quality Assurance Act provided legislative authority to the









Department of Environmental Regulation and the Water Management
Districts to protect wellfields from contamination; to establish a
Pesticide Review Council to review restricted-use pesticides and test
groundwater for pesticide residues; to clear up hazardous waste sites
that threaten or have, contaminated groundwater or surface water; to
plug an estimated 15,000 free-flowing artesian wells2, some of which
discharge saline water into fresh, and some of which waste good-quality
groundwater, and to prevent and control spills of hazardous substances
into groundwater, among other programs.

The principal polluter of Florida's surface waters is stormwater,
accounting for perhaps as much as 50 percent of the total pollution
load. Urban runoff, agricultural and mining activities contribute a
variety of sediments, chemicals, and nutrients which can lead to the
degradation of water quality. Stormwater accounts for 80-95 percent of
the heavy metals and almost all of the sediments in the state's surface
waters, provides 450 times more suspended solids than secondarily
treated sewage and injects nutrient loads that are equal to those
contributed by sewage. As more development accompanies growth in
Florida over the next decade or so, the issue of how to manage storm-
water will likely become the dominant water quality issue. Currently,
state authority only extends to stormwater discharges directly into
state waters. In order to effectively control stormwater pollution
resulting from new development, a blanket policy is needed, to cover
direct and indirect discharges. The state is also faced with the
problem of retrofitting existing development to treat stormwater.
Watershed management plans are needed for stormwater. Such plans could
address the cumulative impacts of stormwater on Florida's waters, as
well as the issue of how to retrofit local government master systems,
which are currently "grandfathered" in under existing regulations. The
state must also determine who will operate and maintain these systems.

Leaking underground storage tanks are another major threat to water
quality. There are presently approximately 60,000 underground tanks
located in 18,000 facilities that are registered with the Department of
Environmental Regulation and many more older tanks that are not
registered. Approximately three-quarters of these facilities are
gasoline stations. There are presently hundreds of sites on the
Department's list of facilities that have leaked contaminants to
groundwater, a list which grows by about 20 sites per month3. Further,
as tanks grow older, there is a growing likelihood that they will leak.
It is estimated that as many as one-third of the tanks over fifteen
years old are leaking, an indication that underground tanks may become
an even greater threat in the future.

Wastewater represents still another area of concern. The quantities of
domestic wastewater that must be collected and treated are enormous --
approximately a billion gallons per day. Forty-seven percent of the
state's households employ on-site treatment and disposal systems such
as septic tanks. If properly used, on-site systems can provide cheap,
reliable treatment, but if care is not taken, biological or viral
contamination of water supplies may result. The rest of the
wastewater is handled in central treatment facilities, most of which

I









are quite small. Three-quarters of these plants have a capacity of
less than 100,000 gallons per day. Treatment levels vary from plant to
plant4, from no treatment at all to state of the art. Through a system
of permits, DER places discharge limitations on all new and existing
waste disposal plants. Domestic waste treatment plant and water
treatment plant operators must be certified. Currently, 90% of
industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants in the state are
in compliance with discharge limitations or have projects underway to
bring them into compliance. While 100 percent compliance with these
standards is not feasible, because of unavoidable minor violations
(mainly record keeping and reporting violations), the state must strive
for as high a compliance rate as possible. Although these violations
do not necessarily represent a threat to the environment or human
health, they do indicate a potential for future problems. In
particular, the state must ensure that swift enforcement action is
taken against persistent violators of state standards. Also, new
technologies for treating and managing wastewaters need to be explored.
Waste streams are already significant, especially in populous areas,
and with the anticipated growth in Florida's population, methods of
reclamation and reuse should be researched so that wastewaters may
become potential water sources, not products to be disposed of.

1 Water Resources Atlas, p. 73.
2 Ibid., p. 46.
3 Department of Environmental Regulation records.
4 Water Resources Atlas, pp. 84-5.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) In 1995, the quality of Florida's surface waters will be as good
or better than it is in 1985. (State Plan Policies 10, 12, and
13)
Measure: Surface water quality.

(1) By 1987 each new development in Florida will treat its
stormwater runoff so that at least 80% of the pollutants are
removed. (State Plan Policies 10, 11 and 13) (Operating
Policies a, b, c, d, h, i, j, k)
Measure: Percent reduction in stormwater pollution from new
development.

(2) By 2005 reduce stormwater pollution resulting from existing
development into natural surface water systems by 30%. (State
Plan Policies 10, 11, and 13) (Operating Policies a, b, c, d,
f, g, h. i, k)
Measure: Reduction in stormwater pollution from existing
development.

(3) By 1995 90% of Florida industrial and domestic dischargers of
wastewater and leachate will be in compliance with state








standards. (State Policy 12) (Operating Policies a, b, c, d,
e, g, i, j)
Measure: Percent of industrial and domestic discharges of
wastewater and leachate in compliance with state standards.
OPERATING POLICIES:
(a) Require permits for all activities that may be a source of
surface water pollution such as construction, expansion,
modification, or operation unless exempted. Review all
regulations on a periodic basis. Ensure that the best
available scientific knowledge is incorporated into the water
quality standards and regulatory criteria. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: ($58,840,000/Year) These are approximate current
costs. $18,000,000/year = The estimate of the cost of DER's
present surface and groundwater quality programs for
permitting, compliance, enforcement and management and
standards/rule development. $40,840,000/year represent costs
to the WMDs for their present water quality program efforts
(costs derived from estimates prepared for the state
comprehensive plan: 1984 dollars). Estimate includes St.
John's, Northwest and Suwannee River WMD's acceptance of
stormwater permitting delegation.
(b) Require local government to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control surface water pollution. (DER,
Local governments, RPCs and DCA).
Costs: ($794.5 million per year) Existing and new cost. The
cost associated with operating with this operating policy
represents several of the major water pollution control
activities.
1. New stormwater control costs $487.5 million per year.
This does not include stormwater facility retrofitting.
Assumes capital cost of $3000/acre and operation and
maintenance costs at 25% of accumulated capital costs.
Retrofitting costs are primarily private and local government
costs.
2. Wastewater treatment plant construction average yearly
cost of $305 million per year. The breakdown for costs
between 1986 and 2005 are:
1985-2000=5,362,000,000 avg. 357,467,000/year
2001-2005= 740,000,000 avg. 148,000,000/year
TOTAL= 6,102,000,000 avg. 305,100,000/year
Estimates for 1985-2000 are from: U.S. EPA 1984 Needs
Survey Report to Congress EPA 430/9-84-011, February 1985.
They include the cost of backlog construction needs. From
2001-2005 it was assumed that no more backlog exist and that
the yearly need for new WWTP construction is $148
million/year.



30


I










3. Water quality management planning 2 million/year.
Total planning cost would be $10,000,000 and would be
completed by 1991. Included in the $10 million is an annual
cost to DER of $166,000 for review and coordination and a one
time rulemaking cost of $104,000. Water quality management
plans would be developed at the county level.

(c) Develop and implement comprehensive basin plans for major
hydrologic systems to assess and abate the impacts of
pollution on the systems. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: ($1,000,000/year) New Costs
New costs to develop and implement comprehensive basin plans.
Development of these plans is tied to the development of WQM
plans and local watershed management plans. The cost is
viewed as a yearly cost. This is a very preliminary estimate
and will undergo further revision.

(d) Conduct long-term monitoring of surface waters, determine
water quality trends, and maintain a water quality data base
to provide all levels of government with sound scientific
data for environmental decisions. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: ($3,525,000/year) New Costs
Assuming that the existing level of water quality monitoring
is continued and the new Tallahassee DER laboratory is
constructed: an additional $3,525,000/year will be necessary
to implement the long term monitoring to the degree
appropriate to support SWUP objectives for surface water.

(e) Evaluate water reclamation and reuse alternatives for
proposed wastewater disposal to surface water, including
consideration of economic and environmental feasibility.
(DER, WMDs and PSC)
Costs: Costs covered in related policies 8/37/E/c and
8/38A/b.

(f) Require that best available control techniques be employed
for controlling stormwater runoff during urban renewal,
modernization, or major modifications to urban
infrastructure. (DER, DOT, and WMDs)
Costs: ($1,129,650,000/year) New Costs
Stormwater retrofitting costs are in addition to those for
$6000/acre for 37.5% of all urban acres as of 1982 and
operation and treatment maintenance costs at 25% of
accumulated capital costs. Assumes 80% treatment efficiency.
It should be noted that this estimate for reducing stormwater
pollution via retrofitting is for only 37.5% of existing
development and that the costs are primarily carried by local
governments and the private development sector.

(g) Sponsor retrofitting programs to reduce surface water
pollution from discharge of domestic wastewater. (DER, DOT
and WMDs)




I



Costs: Cost covered under 8/38/A/b.

(h) Develop predictive water quality models based on land use to
determine the relationship between pollution and its effects
on surface waters, including the effectiveness of nonpoint
source best management practices. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: ($2,000,000/year) New Costs
These are preliminary cost estimates of necessary program
improvements to perform the special monitoring studies and
modeling that would be associated with developing predictive
water quality models that are based on land use. Costs would
include new personnel, monitoring costs, coordination needs
with RPCs WMDs and local governments, contractual costs,
equipment (such as, computers/software for modeling) and
other non-personnel costs. See 8/39/A/a for a related cost.

(i) Develop new pollution control technology for the treatment,
disposal and reclamation and reuse of wastewater and
stormwater discharges into surface waters. (DER)
Costs: Cost covered under 8/37/E/c.

(j) Manage surface waters to maximize the treatment potential of
natural or restored systems without degradation of such
systems. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: No costs
Costs for the mentioned management activities are inherent in
existing program costs of both DER and water manangment
districts.

(k) Restore polluted surface waters and ensure their subsequent
maintenance. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: Existing program costs, see 8/38/A/a, b & f.

(1) Reduce degradation of water resources through alternative
methods of stormwater treatment, disposal and reuse. (DER,
WMDs, local governments)
Costs: See 8/38/A/b, 8/37/E/c and 8/38/B/i

(B) In 1995 the quality of Florida's groundwater will be as good or
better than it is in 1985. (State Plan Policies 9, 10, 11, 12,
and 13)
Measure: Quality of Florida's groundwater.

(1) By 1990 50% of the public wellfields for all major public
water supply systems will be afforded special protection.
(State Plan Policy 9, 10, and 12) (Operating Policies a, b,
c, d, g, j, 1)
Measure: Percent of public wellfields for major water supply
systems protected.

(2) By 2005 Florida will plug 80% of its abandoned artesian
wells. (State Plan Policy 10) (Operating Policy e)









Measure: Percent of abandoned artesian wells plugged.

(3) By 1995, Florida will have cleaned up 100 major polluted
groundwater sites. (State Plan Policies 9 and 10) (Operating
Policies j, k)
Measure: Number of polluted groundwater sites cleaned up.

(4) By 1995 initiate a cleanup of 1200 petroleum contaminated
groundwater sites. (State Plan Policies 9 and 10) (Operating
Policies j, k)
Measure: Number of petroleum contaminated groundwater sites
cleaned up.

(5) By 1990 95% of Florida industrial and domestic wastewater
facilities will be in compliance with groundwater standards.
(State Plan Policy 10) (Operating Policies a, b, f, h, i)
Measure: Percent of industrial and domestic facilities in
compliance with groundwater standards.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Require permits for all activities that may be a source of
groundwater pollution such as construction, expansion,
modification, or operation unless otherwise exempted. (DER
and WMDs)
Costs: ($2,000,000/year) New Costs
These costs are to operate a groundwater program as described
in the policy. This cost is in addition to the current cost
for the existing groundwater program operated by DER.

(b) Require local government to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control groundwater pollution. (DER,
local governments, RPCs, and DCA)
Costs: Costs covered in 8/37/B/b & d

(c) Establish a groundwater quality monitoring network designed
to detect or predict contamination of groundwater resources.
Provide groundwater quality information to regional, state,
and federal agencies, and local governments. (DER, WMDs,
DCA, RPCs, and local governments)
Costs: ($1,300,000/year) New and existing costs
Cost to operate groundwater monitoring network as it is
presently designed.

(d) Prevent overdraft of groundwater that will result in
contamination from salt water intrusion, surface pollutants,
or any other adverse environmental impacts. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: Cost covered in 8/38/B/g and 8/37/A/c, d & e

(e) Ensure that each known abandoned artesian well is plugged,
and mitigate damage to the groundwater resource if degraded.
(DER and WMDs)








Costs: ($1,400,000/year for ten years) New Costs
This is the estimated cost per year for an artesian well
plugging program.
(f) Evaluate water reclamation and reuse alternatives for
proposed wastewater disposal to groundwater including
consideration of the economic and environmental feasibility.
(DER, WMDs and PSC)
Costs: Costs covered in 8/37/E/c & 8/38/A/b.
(g) Prohibit or severely limit discharges of pollutants which may
impact on public and community water supply wellfields, high
recharge areas, and areas designated in local government
comprehensive plans as future water supply sources. (DER and
WMDs)
Costs: $627,975/year average) New cost. The majority of
these costs are personnel costs to staff the DER operated
regulatory program to assess and monitor the new G-1
Groundwater Classification (zones of influence around
wellfields). Also see 8/38/B/g and 8/37/A/c, d & E.
(h) Determine the relationship between pollution and its effects
on groundwater, including an evaluation of the potential uses
of treated wastewater; the effectiveness of disposal by land
application; the feasibility of water reclamation and reuse;
and the effectiveness of groundwater clean-up techniques and
strategies. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: $500,000 for 10 years & $200,000 for 10 years new
cost. Research cost for studies to determine the
relationship between pollution and its effects on
groundwater.

(i) Develop new pollution control technology for the treatment,
disposal, and reclamation and reuse of wastewater and
stormwater discharges into groundwater. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: $200,000/year new cost. New research cost to support
studies of pollution control technology for stormwater
discharges. See 8/37/E/c for related costs.

(j) Require immediate cleanup of accidental or illegal discharges
of pollutants by dischargers or by direct state action.
(DER)
Costs: Costs covered under 13/50/A/b

(k) Require cleanup of petroleum contaminated groundwater sites.
(DER, local government)
Costs: Costs covered under 13/50/A/a.



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34 1

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(1) Require local governments to use the groundwater quality
information in their regulatory and land use planning
decisions. (DER, WMD's, DCA, RPC's, local governments)
Costs: No cost.

(C) By 1989 Florida's educational system will have integrated water
resource education programs into its curriculum to stress the
importance of environmental protection, water resource
conservation and management, and the preservation of natural
systems. (State Plan Policy 10)
Measure: Whether water resource education programs are integrated
into education system.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Develop and implement water resource and conservation
education programs for Florida's school systems. (DOE)
Costs: $1,000,000/year: Estimated new program cost.

(b) Inform the public about environmental conditions in Florida
using all available public information media. (DER, WMDs,
DNR, GFWFC, and DCA)
Costs: $1,000,000/year: Estimate for continuation of
present programs and some program expansion.

(c) Provide special training and information assistance to
citizens concerned with compliance with Florida's
environmental laws. (DER)
Costs: No cost





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GOAL (8): WATER RESOURCES


Florida shall assure the availability of an adequate supply of
water for all competing uses deemed reasonable and beneficial and
shall maintain the functions of natural systems and the overall
present level of surface and groundwater quality. Florida shall
improve and restore the quality of waters not presently meeting
water quality standards.

POLICY CLUSTER (39): PROTECTION OF NATURAL SYSTEMS

4. Protect and use natural water systems in lieu of structural
alternatives and restore modified systems.

6. Establish minimum seasonal flows and levels for surface water
courses with primary consideration given to the protection of
natural resources, especially marine, estuarine, and aquatic
ecosystems.

7. Discourage the channelization, diversion or damming of natural
riverine systems.

8. Encourage the development of a strict floodplain management
program by state and local governments designed to preserve
hydrologically significant wetlands and other natural floodplain
features.

14. Reserve from use that water necessary to support essential
nonwithdrawal demands, including navigation, recreation, and the
protection of fish and wildlife.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTION OF NATURAL SYSTEMS

Modern water management employs a mix of structural and nonstructural
techniques. In the past, structural techniques have predominated.
Examples of structural techniques are the digging of drainage canals,
and damming for flood control, water supply, and navigation. In the
last decade, however, Florida has adopted policies which require the
use of nonstructural water management whenever feasible. Nonstructural
water management involves adaptation to existing hydrologic conditions.
It includes the modification of human behavior -- keeping development
out of floodplains, for example, or requiring individuals to bear the
losses if they do build in floodplains -- rather than attempting to
modify natural systems to prevent flooding. Examples of nonstructural
management in Florida are floodplain acquisition under the "Save Our
Rivers" program and implementation of floodplain ordinances by local
governments. The nonstructural approach often has advantages over the
traditional structural approach. It is more adaptable to changes in
conditions than are fixed structures. It can often avoid structural
risks and engineering problems. Furthermore, it can be beneficial to
the environment, can save energy, and may sometimes be accomplished
more quickly than structural alternatives. Of course, a balanced






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approach to water management is needed. Although nonstructural
alternatives are preferred, they are not always appropriate,
particularly in areas where significant growth has already taken
place.
Accompanying the trend toward nonstructural water management have been
some attempts to restore natural systems affected by structural
projects. The proposed restoration of the Kissimmee River is an
example. However, restoration, even when complete, cannot be expected
to bring a system back into its original condition. Florida has
several programs which attempt to prevent this problem by acquiring
valuable resources before they are damaged, including the "Save Our
Rivers" Program and the Conservation and Recreational Lands Program
(CARL).
In the past, channelization, diversion and damming of natural riverine
systems, as well as drainage of wetlands, were conducted for flood
control, water supply, increased land use, or navigation. The state
water policy, Chapter 17-40, Florida Administration Code, adopted in
1982, discourages these activities in order to protect valuable
ecosystems.
Other work is under way to protect marine, estuarine and aquatic
ecosystems -- springs, lakes, rivers, tidal creeks, mud flats, bays and
estuaries -- to ensure that adequate water is available to protect
these systems, and to meet essential nonstructural demands--including
navigation, recreation, and protection of fish and wildlife. Another
action which is necessary to protect aquatic and estuarine ecosystems
is to reserve instream flows and lake levels to maintain system
functions for the benefit of fish and wildlife populations, outdoor
recreation, navigation, and waste assimilation. Unfortunately,
determining the amount of water needed to protect the aquatic, biologic
and aesthetic values of a stream and to preserve fisheries is very
difficult, due to the wide variety of habitats and streamflow
conditions encountered, and the lack of data. Current instream flow
estimates are crude and should be used with caution. Waters reserved
instream are not available for withdrawal uses; thus accurate
determination of amounts to be reserved is very important.
OBJECTIVE:
(A) Maintain and restore natural water systems so they continue to
function as well as they do now. (State Plan Policies 6, 7, 8,
14)
Measure: Number of natural systems functioning as well as in
1985.

(1) By 1995 Florida will determine the water quality and quantity
needs and establish an ongoing management and protection
program for 25% of Florida's natural systems. (State Plan
Policies 4, 6, 7, 8, and 14) (Operating Policies a-n)
Measure: Percent of Florida's natural systems with ongoing
management and protection programs.

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(2) By 1989 all wetlands systems will be mapped. (State Plan
Policies 4, 6, 7, 8) (Operating Policy f)
Measure: Acres of wetlands systems mapped.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Protect the type, nature and functions of floodplains,
wetlands, waterways, estuaries and lakes. When
appropriate, incorporate wetlands and natural storage
areas into surface water management systems. (DER,
WMDs, DNR, GFWFC, DCA, RPCs, and local governments)
Costs: ($3,500,000/Year) New Cost Program Expansion
Much of the cost to carry out this policy are covered
under multiple policies throughout this plan. The costs
presented here are those necessary to determine the
water quality and quantity needs and to coordinate
specific basin management and protection programs of
the type that have been done for the Apalachicola Bay,
Charlotte Harbor and the Suwannee River. Cost assumes
25% of the states basins covered by 1995.

(b) Assist local governments in developing their watershed
management plans which coordinate land use and
infrastructure development. (DER, DOT, WMDs, DCA, and
RPCs)
Costs: ($150,000/Year) New Cost
Estimated cost for new positions to coordinate watershed
management plan assistance program from the state level
to local governments.

(c) Establish consumptive use and other regulatory programs
which provide for minimum flows and levels and provide
protection to natural ecosystems. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: Cost covered under 8/37/A/c

(d) Adopt strict criteria for structural work in river
systems that will protect water quality and the natural
functioning of rivers. (WMD)
Costs: ($50,000/Year for three years) New Cost
New cost to support criteria/rule development for
structural work river systems.

(e) Develop guidelines for land use planning and development
in sensitive river ecosystems. (DCA, RPCs and local
governments)
Costs: ($50,000/year for three years) New Cost
New cost to support the development of guidelines for
land use planning and development in sensitive river
ecosystems.

(f) Assess wetlands to determine their condition and areal
extent on a biennial basis. (DER).
Costs: ($500,000/Year for five years; $100,000/year for
15 years) New initial five year cost is to develop the








wetland inventory system. The continuing cost is to maintain
and update the inventory.
(g) Protect environmentally sensitive natural water systems and
endangered species habitats. (WMDs, DNR, GFWFC, RPCs and
local governments)
Costs: ($12,500,000/year) New Cost
Estimated cost to develop and perpetuate land management
programs for the large areas of environmentally sensitive
natural water systems under state control. Assumed to be
primarily a WMD cost.
(h) Sponsor research into the dynamics of natural water systems,
their primary productive benefits, instream flow needs of
fish and wildlife, and overall water management needs. (DER,
WMDs, DNR, and GFWFC)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/a,d and h.
(i) Coordinate management of interstate water resources through
interstate agreements and programs. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: ($50,000/year) New Cost
Cost to DER to administer a program of coordination and
interstate agreements on water resources.
(j) Identify and prioritize natural systems requiring protection
and management. (DNR, DCA, DER, GFFC)
Costs: ($150,000/Year for five years) New Cost
Estimated cost to identify natural systems requiring
protection and to develop priority system.
(k) Develop sediment criteria to identify pollution sources to
complement water column criteria for determining the health
of a water body. (DER, WMDs, DNR)
COST: ($50,000/year for three years) New Cost
Cost for a three year study to develop sediment criteria.
(1) Adopt criteria for considering the cumulative impacts of
dredge and fill permits upon natural water systems. (DER,
DNR)
COST: ($75,000/Year for two years) New cost; estimated cost
for one position, travel and associated public
hearing/comments, revisions necessary for adoption.


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(m) Adopt criteria for mitigation of unavoidable loss of natural
system functions due to development activity. (DER, DCA,
DOT, DNR, WMDs)
COST: ($75,000/Year for two years) New cost estimated cost
for one position, travel, public hearings/comments, revisions
necessary for adoption.













GOAL (9): COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES


Florida shall ensure that development and marine resource use and
beach access improvements in coastal areas do not endanger public
safety or important natural resources. Florida shall, through
acquisition and access improvements, make available to the state's
population additional beaches and marine environment, consistent
with sound environmental planning.

POLICY CLUSTER (40): PROTECTION OF COASTAL RESOURCES

4. Protect coastal resources, marine resources and dune systems from
the adverse effects of development.

6. Encourage land and water uses which are compatible with the
protection of sensitive coastal resources.

10. Give priority in marine development to water-dependent uses over
other uses.
BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTION OF COASTAL RESOURCES

Florida's 11,000 mile coastline is the dominant physical feature of the
state, its foremost recreational asset, and an essential part of the
state's economic base. Florida's coastline contains 20 major bays and
estuaries.i The estuary, where fresh and saltwater mix, is one of the
most fragile and least understood resources of the State. The
preservation of this critical resource is a priority of the highest
order.

The estuarine environment is ranked by many experts as the single most
important factor that affects the health of our saltwater fisheries.
The near-shore estuarine habitat is a proven nursery ground. Without
this habitat an estimated 75% of the major recreational and commercial
fish and shellfish fisheries would decline or collapse. Increased
population and subsequent urbanization and industrialization has
lowered water quality, increased sediment contamination,2 and hurt
saltwater fisheries. The loss of open bay areas and protective
vegetative covers, alteration of fresh water plan patterns and
pollution threaten the high productivity of Florida's estuaries and
coastal resources.

There is intense demand to develop in coastal and estuarine areas.
More than 79% of the state's 11.5 million people live in coastal and
estuarine areas. Coastal counties absorbed over 72% of Florida's
population growth in the 1970's, and are expected to absorb more than
82% in the 1980's.

The bay and estuarine areas are also the location of the state's
estimated 1,533 marinas. Currently, 78% of the demand for berths are
being met by exisitng marinas. However, estimates for berths are






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expected to increase 61% by 2005.3 The increase in boating traffic and
the demand for new marinas will place additional stress on the coastal
and estuarine environment.
The potential for this development to damage sensitive coastal
resources is extensive. Unrestrained pumping of local groundwater
supplies to support new growth can lead to overdraft of drinking water
aquifers and result in salt water intrusion, thereby losing the water
source. Further, coastal development requires substantial
infrastructure investments which can damage coastal resources directly
and can indirectly encourage additional coastal development and thereby
increase degradation of the resource. In general, the protection of
sensitive coastal resources is best served by minimizing development
and state policy should, through its infrastructure investment
decisions, seek to restrain growth in such areas.
Additionally, the concentration of most of present population and its
future growth in low lying coastal areas creates a dilemma in the
provisions of infrastructure. While the state should not provide
incentives to further development through infrastructure investments,
it must remain aware of the need to be able to evacuate its citizens in
the event of a hurricane or other major storm event.

1 DER Estuarine Research Group.
2 "Trace Metal and Synthetic Organic Concentrations in Selected Bays
and Estuaries." Florida Scientist 59, 1986 (in press)
3 Towards a Proactive Statewide Marina Siting Program: Summary
Report and Recommended Implementation Strategies, DNR, 1985
OBJECTIVE:
(A) By 1995, Florida's estuarine systems will comply with water
quality standards and there will be a net increase in functioning
estuarine habitat. (State Plan Policies 4, 6, and 10)
Measures: (1) Percent compliance of estuarine systems with state
water quality standards.
(2) Percent increase in functioning estuarine habitat.
(1) By 1990 all public and commercial marinas (including
condominium facilities) in the state will be regulated.
(State Plan Policy 4, 6, 10) (Operating Policies a, b, e)
Measure: Percent of marinas regulated.
(2) By 1995 90% of the wastewater being discharged on
environmentally sensitive barrier islands, coastal areas, and
into adjacent waters, shall meet state ground and surface
water standards. (State Plan Policy 4) (Operating Policies
a, b, f)
Measure: Reduction in wastewater discharges into
environmentally sensitive coastal areas, barrier
islands, or adjacent waters.


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(3) By 2005 reduce the amount of untreated stormwater entering
into estuarine systems by 50%. (State Plan Policy 4, 6)
(Operating Policies a, b, c)
Measure: Reduction in amount of untreated stormwater runoff
to estuarine systems.

(4) By 1995 acquire 55,000 acres of land adjacent to
environmentally sensitive estuarine systems. (State Plan
Policy 4) (Operating Policy c, d)
Measure: Acres of land acquired adjacent to sensitive
estuarine areas.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Prohibit discharges of pollutants which adversely affect
estuarine systems. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: No cost.

(b) Assess and abate water pollution in designated estuarine
areas. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: See 8/38/A/a for basic water quality program costs.

(c) Protect environmentally sensitive estuarine systems and
estuarine habitats of endangered species. (WMDs, DER, DNR,
and local government)
Costs: ($32,385,716/year) New costs
This estimate was based on acquiring 55,000 acres of
sensitive estuarine systems. Ten year total estimated cost
$323,857,000.

(d) Protect the ecological functions of estuaries by reflecting
seasonal variations in all minimum and miximum flows and
levels. (WMDs)
Costs: No cost.

(e) When considering land development and other regulatory
decisions for marine development, give priority to
water-dependent uses such as ports, marinas, and industry and
commerce over non-water-dependent uses such as intensive
urban and residential development and industry and commerce.
(DER, DNR, DCA, WMDs, RPCs, and local government)
Costs: No costs.

(f) Sponsor research into the impacts of human actions on the
functioning of natural coastal systems and develop methods to
minimize or eliminate adverse effects. (DER, DNR, MFC,
WMDs)
Costs: ($100,000/year)
Estimate of cost of research and production of final report.









OBJECTIVES:


(B) By 1995 all flood prone areas of the state will be covered by
emergency evacuation and flood control plans. (State Plan
Policies 4, 6)
Measures: (1) Number of emergency evacuation plans.
(2) Number of flood control plans.

OPERATING POLICY:

(a) Require all regional and local government planning bodies to
prepare, and keep updated, emergency evacuation plans for
high hazard areas within their jurisdiction. (DCA, RPCs,
local governments)
Costs: No new cost. Existing program cost.

(C) By 1988 eliminate overdraft of Florida's potable groundwater
supply. (State Plan Policy 4)
Measure: Whether overdraft of Florida's potable groundwater
supply has occurred.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Ensure that major potable groundwater supplies are not
overdrawn by implementing a consumptive use regulatory
program (WMD)
Costs: See 8/37/A/b and c for consumptive use and
regulatory program cost estimate.
(b) Prevent overdraft of groundwater that will result in
contamination from salt water intrusion, surface pollutants,
or any other adverse environmental impacts. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: Cost covered in 8/38/B/g and 8/37/A/c, d & e

(D) By 1988, the development of state financed public works
facilities and related infrastructure will be restricted or
prohibited in high-hazard areas. (State Policies 4, 6)
Measure: Amount of state public works and infrastructure
investments made in high-hazard areas.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) The use of state funds to support development or replacement
of public works facilities (i.e. treatment plants, sewers,
etc.) and other infrastructure will be prohibited on
undeveloped barrier islands. (all agencies)
Costs: No cost, see Policy Cluster 40 and 41 for related
costs.

(b) Transportation investments in environmentally sensitive areas
shall be made only when they are clearly in the public
interest. (DER, DOT, DCA, DNR, WMDs, and local
governments).
Costs: No costs.

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GOAL (9): COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES


Florida shall ensure that development and marine resource use and beach
access improvements in coastal areas do not endanger public safety or
important natural resources. Florida shall, through acquisition and access
improvements, make available to the state's population additional beaches
and marine environment, consistent with sound environmental planning.

POLICY CLUSTER (41): PROTECTION OF MARINE RESOURCES

7. Protect and restore long-term productivity of marine fisheries habitat and
other aquatic resources.

8. Avoid the exploration and development of mineral resources which threaten
marine, aquatic and estuarine resources.
BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTION OF MARINE RESOURCES

The marine waters of Florida provide habitat and food for a wide variety of fish,
shellfish, sponges, corals, and other aquatic resources. Their long-term
productivity is essential to providing food for Florida's residents. Besides
living resources, Florida's marine waters contain offshore mineral resources
located on the Outer Continential Shelf (OCS), which will play an increasingly
important role as less expensive resources are depleted. In Federal waters
off Florida, the OCS is currently being explored for new oil and gas
deposits. Florida's marine waters may see an increase in industrial interest due
to recent exploration and leasing.1 Florida's offshore lands are also very rich
in non-energy minerals such as phosphorites, sand and gravel. There has been
very limited exploitation of either energy or non-energy minerals to date.
Because of this, marine habitats have not been severely impacted by these
activities.

However, industrialization, rapid population growth, and urbanization pose a
grave threat to marine resources. Discharges of stormwater and wastewater into
marine waters, along with dredge and fill are believed to be the major activities
with potential for significant impact on marine ecosystems. Major beach
renourishment projects can result in severe impact on near shore water quality
and marine resources. Offshore mining and mineral extraction can also have a
severe impact on these resources.

In response to this, the Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) actively
implements the statutes and rules of the Florida Coastal Management Program2 and
promulgates rules that protect marine and aquatic resources. The Stormwater Rule
seeks to eliminate the hazardous impact of stormwater pollution on natural
surface water bodies resulting from existing development. Another rule covers
industrial and domestic sewage discharges into the sea and the coastal areas of
the state by establishing standards for treatment technology and effluent level
limitations. Discharges of untreated wastes have been the major cause of most of
the destruction of our marine and aquatic resources. However, current
regulations prohibit untreated discharges except in specific cases.






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In addition, DER regulates development and dredging projects near or in the
coastal areas through the Dredge and Fill Rule, which protects these areas
from pollution and prevents damage to marine habitats. Currently, the
Minerals Management Service is drafting new rules for the exploration and
extraction of non-energy minerals for the outer continental shelf.

Since development will inevitably be part of Florida's future it is
important that comprehensive planning, sound regulation and effective
enforcement of protective standards are carried out to secure the
safety of Florida's marine resources. However, it is important to note
that too much regulation may hamper the development required to support
the growing population. Thus, Florida has to achieve an equilibrium that
maintains the long-term viability of its marine and aquatic resources, and,
at the same time, allows responsible development to support our population.

1 Department of Interior Lease Sale #94
2 The Florida Coastal Management Program, pp. 11-34, 1-80.

OBJECTIVE:

(A) By 1995, there shall have been no significant losses of marine
habitat or degradation of water or sediment quality due to
offshore exploration and development for mineral and energy resources.
Measures: (1) Number of acres of habitat lost.
(2) Decline in water and sediment quality.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Compile and organize the available data bases into a
structured marine environmental study program that will
provide information to all levels of government and the
scientific community. (DER, DNR)
Costs: 500,000/year New cost. Estimated cost to develop and
implement a permanent marine study program. Personnel,
contractual, equipment and other costs included.

(b) Develop statewide resource management plans that use a
cost-risk analysis to balance environmental protection
safeguards with the extraction of the state's mineral and 1
non-mineral resources with its associated industries. (DER,
DNR, DCA)
Costs: $100,000/year for 5 years New cost. Estimate for
preparing plans. Mapping of marine environments and data
base development needed for plan development are costed
separately under 9/41/A/a & c.

(c) Identify and map sensitive marine areas. (DER, DNR)
Costs: $75,000 for one year New cost. Estimate of cost to
perform a small scale pilot study on a segment of marine
environment. Pilot study is necessary before attempting a
statewide effort. Study would use most current aerial and
satellite imagery.










(d) Prohibit or severely limit pollutant discharges and dumping which
may result in adverse impacts upon the marine environment. (DNR,
DER)
Costs: $16,350,000 New program cost. Estimated cost to
develop a program to identify sources of pollution and
develop and implement appropriate remedial plans. This
estimate represents total program setup and operation.

(e) Protect environmentally sensitive marine areas by limiting or
prohibiting offshore development. (DER, DCA, local governments)
Costs: No cost.

(f) Restore degraded marine water and sediment quality to near
natural levels. (DER, DNR)
Costs: $192,000,000 Total program cost; New cost.
Estimated cost to develop and implement plans to restore
degraded marine environmental quality and reestablish marine
habitats to near natural levels. Over 20 year time frame
results in approximately 10 million per year annual cost.


(B) In 1995, the quality of Florida's surface waters will be as good or
better than it is in 1985. (State Plan Policy 7)
Measure: Surface water quality.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Require local government to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control surface water pollution. (DER, Local
governments, RPCs and DCA.
Costs: Cost covered under 8/38/A/b.

(b) Require that best available control techniques be employed for
controlling stormwater runoff during urban renewal, modernization,
or major modifications to urban infrastructure. (DER, DOT, and
WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 2/38/A/f.

(c) Adopt more stringent regulations governing discharges into
freshwater aquatic, estuarine, and marine habitats of threatened
and endangered species. (DNR, DER, WMDs, FDA)
Costs: Costs covered under 10/44/C/b.

(d) All transportation projects will conform to state environmental
regulations. (DER, DOT, DNR, DCA, WMDs, and local governments).
Costs: No costs.

(e) Ensure that port dredging does not breach drinking water
acquifers. (DER, DNR)
Costs: No costs.

(f) Adopt criteria for considering the cumulative impacts of dredge
and fill permits upon natural water systems. (DER, DNR)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/39/A/1.






(C) By 1988, the development of state financed public works facilities and
related infrastructure will be restricted or prohibited in high-hazard
areas. (State Policy 7)
Measure: Level of state infrastructure on state financed public
works facilities development occurring in high-hazard
areas.
(a) Manage beaches to avoid the need for beach renourishment. (DNR)
Costs: Costs covered under 9/42/A/b.


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GOAL (9): COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES


Florida shall ensure that development and marine resources use and
beach access improvements in coastal areas do not endanger public
safety or important natural resources. Florida shall, through
acquisition and access improvements, make available to the state's
population additional beaches and marine environment, consistent
with sound environment planning.

POLICY CLUSTER (42): PUBLIC SAFETY AND ACCESS IN COASTAL AREAS

3. Avoid the expenditure of state funds that subsidize development in
high-hazard coastal areas.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PUBLIC SAFETY AND ACCESS IN COASTAL AREAS

Development in high-hazard coastal areas poses problems for the public
safety of Florida's citizens. These problems include the possibility
of harm from floods and storms, and the difficulty of speedy disaster
evacuation. Development in these areas also places strains on
Florida's waters both because heavy water use may cause the intrusion
of saline water into groundwater, and because development close to
sensitive estuarine resources may harm those resources. Unfortunately,
the pressure to develop coastal areas is intense. The state must
discourage development in high-hazard areas, by avoiding state
expenditures which might encourage such development, and by
implementing programs and regulations which will protect sensitive
estuarine areas. A discussion of the issues involved in protection of
coastal resources and estuarine and aquatic ecosystems can be found in
the background statements for Cluster #39, Protection of Natural
Systems, and Cluster #40, Protection of Coastal Resources.

OBJECTIVE:

(A) By 1988, the development of state financed public works facilities
and related infrastructure will be restricted or prohibited in
high-hazard areas.
Measure: Level of state infrastructure on state financed public
works facilities development occurring in high-hazard
areas.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) The use of state funds to support development or replacement of
public works facilities (i.e. treatment plants, sewers, etc.) and
other infrastructure will be prohibited on undeveloped barrier
islands. (Local governments and state agencies)
Costs: No cost, see Policy Cluster 40 and 41 for related costs.

(b) Manage beaches to avoid the need for beach renourishment. (DNR)
Costs: ($2.6 million/year) Current program costs for DNR
Division of Beaches and Shores beach management program. Does not
include beach acquisition.













GOAL (10): NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS


Florida shall protect and acquire unique natural habitats and
ecological systems such as wetlands, tropical hardwood hammocks,
palm hammocks, and virgin longleaf pine forests, and restore
degraded natural systems to a functional condition.

POLICY CLUSTER (43): PROTECTION OF NATURAL SYSTEMS

1. Conserve forests, wetlands, fish, marine life, and wildlife to
maintain their environmental, economic, aesthetic, and
recreational values.

7. Protect and restore the ecological functions of wetlands systems
to ensure their long-term environmental, economic and recreational
value.

8. Promote restoration of the Everglades system and of the
hydrological and ecological functions of degraded or substantially
disrupted surface waters.

9. Develop and implement a comprehensive planning, management and
acquisition program to ensure the integrity of Florida's river
systems.
BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTION OF NATURAL SYSTEMS

Natural systems such as rivers, lakes, wetlands and estuaries are
dominated by the availability and quality of freshwater. These natural
systems are of great economic and ecological value to Florida.
Unfortunately, their value has not always been understood or
appreciated and some systems have been severely damaged. The
preservation and, where possible, restoration of these critical
resources is an important item on Florida's environmental agenda in the
next century.

Estuaries produce numerous kinds and vast amounts of sport and
commercial fishes. Estuaries also provide other ecological services.
They buffer coastal environments from developed uplands and watersheds
by sequestering heavy metals, biocides and other contaminants in
runoff. Chemical and biological processes retain and recycle nutrients
and organic matter. Fresh water flows into Florida estuaries from
streams and rivers or is discharged from underground water sources.
Changes in the quantity, timing and quality of fresh water reaching an
estuary are crucial to its health and productivity, including harvests
of sport and commercial fishes. Unfortunately, discharges of rivers
may also import contaminants to estuaries, substances which by their
quantity or toxicity are harmful to estuarine life.

Research into the condition of Florida's estuaries reveals that
approximately 600 square miles are degraded. Although water in these
estuaries meets Florida's water quality standards, analysis of bottom









sediments reveals that chemical pollution has occurred and is probably
still occurring. These estuarine systems are still viable, but their
nature has been damaged and they no longer function as they once did.
Their productivity has been reduced. It is necessary to improve their
overall pollution climate. It is not sufficient to focus on the
maintenance of good water quality; many factors, including sediment
chemistry, which determine the ability of the estuarine system to
support its living resources, must be considered. In addition to these
600 square miles, 19 square miles of estuaries have been determined to
be significantly polluted with chemicals to the point where their
functions have been destroyed. These areas must be restored to a
functioning status.

There are approximately 11.4 million acres of wetlands in
Florida about 30 percent of its total land area. Wetlands contain
or support a large number of plant and animal species. Across the
U.S., one third of all bird species, 190 species of amphibians, and
5,000 species of plants are thought to live in wetlands.2 Wetlands
help to improve water quality by trapping nutrients and other
contaminants. Wetlands also store flood waters, protect shorelines and
banks from erosion, and provide recreational and aesthetic benefits.
A wetland may be considered to be functioning if it carries out one of
the following: water supply functions, enhancement of water quality,
storm buffering or serving as a wildlife habitat.

Unfortunately, between 1850 and 1973, the state's functioning wetlands
declined by 12 million acres, a 60 percent loss.3 Since 1955 it is
estimated that 3.4 million acres were lost, and wetland losses
continue.4 Wetlands also are adversely affected by development of
uplands, leading to accelerated runoff, lowering of the water table,
and increases in sediment erosion and transport to wetlands.

The Conservation and Recreation Lands and Save Our Rivers programs are
designed to help protect these areas by removing them from the private
domain and placing them under public management and protection. The
Areas of Critical State Concern Program is another means of managing
and protecting some wetland areas, although only five percent of the
state's areas can be so designated. In 1984, the Florida Legislature
passed the state's first law written specifically to protect wetlands.
This legislation increased the Department of Environmental Regulation's
jurisdiction over wetlands, including the Everglades, and expanded the
criteria for evaluation of dredge and fill permit applications. DER
now has explicit authority to consider cumulative impacts of projects
on wetlands. The law shifted regulation of agricultural activities
to water management districts. The water management districts are









assessing the effects of agricultural development on habitats of
endangered species, and incorporating requirements in agricultural
permitting to protect wetland areas and protect natural hydroperiods.

Many surface water ecosystems in Florida have been degraded or
substantially disrupted. One of the most important of these is the
Everglades. Over the last century, major flood control and drainage
facilities constructed in the state have been concentrated in the
Everglades-Kissimmee-Okeechobee area. This has caused significant,
well-documented problems in the natural environments of the Everglades
system. Overdrainage has caused a loss of aquatic habitats and has
permitted the invasion of exotic plant species. Management of water
levels in cycles designed to provide flood protection and water
supplies has resulted in major changes in water cycles which have upset
the natural rhythms of many ecosystems. This has resulted in
significant declines in bird populations and in aquatic species.
Finally, water quality in the Everglades has been impacted by urban and
agricultural runoff. In 1983, Governor Graham created the Save Our
Everglades program to coordinate the efforts of the Department of
Environmental Regulation, the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, the Department of Natural Resources, the Department of
Community Affairs, and the South Florida Water Management District.

Natural riverine systems also can be adversely affected by activities
that alter water flow. This is of substantial concern to Florida,
since the state has over 1,700 streams and rivers. In the past,
Florida's rivers have been dammed, channelized and dredged. Water is
removed from river systems for irrigation, municipal water supplies,
industrial use, and flood control. This may dramatically affect flow
rates, and adversely affect aquatic and biological resources.5 In
addition, changes in land use within the watershed have altered the
character of many rivers. Point and nonpoint discharges of pollutants
may reduce dissolved oxygen or contribute toxic substances.

1 "Florida's Wetlands: The Soul of the State," pamphlet issued by
DER.
2 Water Resources Atlas, p. 92.
3 Victoria J. Tschinkel, 1984, "Wetlands: The Importance of Our
Aquatic Ecosystem," Florida Naturalist (Spring) pp. 5-11. Cited in
Water Resources Atlas, p. 95.
4 Paul S. Thompson, 1984. Wetlands in Florida. Cited in Water
Resources Atlas, p. 95.
5 Water Resources Atlas, pp. 99-102.








OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1995, the state will have begun to restore and subsequently
preserve degraded natural systems on an approved restoration
priority list. (State Plan Policies 7, 8, and 9) I
Measure: Number of restoration programs implemented.

(1) By 2005 Florida will restore 62,000 acres of degraded lakes.
(State Plan Policy 1) (Operating Policies a, b)
Measure:. Acres of degraded lakes restored.

(2) By 2005 Florida will restore or reclaim 220,000 acres of
degraded wetlands. (State Plan Policies 1 and 7) (Operating
Policies a, b, c, d)
Measure: Acres of wetlands restored or reclaimed.

(3) By 2005 Florida will restore 98 miles and upgrade 2,720
miles of degraded rivers. (State Plan Policies 1 and 9)
(Operating Policies a, b)
Measure: Miles of rivers restored. Miles of rivers
upgraded. i

(4) By 2005 Florida will upgrade the overall pollution climate
of 600 square miles of degraded estuaries. (State Plan
Policy 1) (Operating Policies c, d)
Measure: Square miles of degraded estuaries upgraded.

(5) By 2005 Florida will restore 19 square miles of chemically
polluted estuaries. (State Plan Policy 1) (Operating
Policies a, b, c, d)
Measure: Square miles of chemically polluted estuaries
restored. I

OPERATING POLICIES: I

(a) Develop and approve a restoration priority system which ranks
proposed restoration projects. (DER, DNR, DCA, GFWFC and
WMDs)
Costs: ($119,292/Year for five years) This estimate
reflects the cost associated with three additional personnel
and related costs.

(b) Restore degraded or modified natural systems and preserve
them following restoration. (DER, DNR, GFFC, DOT, WMDs, and
local government)
Costs: ($30,322,000/Year) New Costs. This estimate
includes the cost of eight additional positions, restoration
costs of 62,000 acres of lakes, 384,000 estuarine acres and
restoration on three river systems.

(c) Conduct long-term studies of revegetated mangrove and
seagrass areas and follow-up previous revegetation sites to I
determine the survivability of the plants and the functional
quality of the restored area. (DNR, DER) I

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Costs: ($200,000/Year) New research studies cost.

(d) Reintroduce native successional plants and animals into the
restored and functioning mangrove and seagrass areas. (DNR.
DER)
Costs: ($300,000/Year) New Costs. Estimated cost to
reintroduce native plants and animals to restored areas. 500
acres per year restored at approximately $6000/acre. Costs
was estimated on cost of $5000/acre for planting of seagrasses
and $7000/acre for the replanting of mangroves or an
approximate cost of $6000/acre average. It was assumed that
500 acres per year could be restored. Reintroduction of
animal species was not included in this estimate.

(B) By 1990 Florida will manage its publicly owned or controlled
natural systems to ensure the protection of those resources.
(State Plan Policy 1)
Measure: Percent of publicly owned or controlled natural systems
covered by state water quality and quantity management program.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Ensure the appropriate use, development, and protection of
modified natural systems. (DER, DCA, DNR, GFWFC, WMDs and
RPCs)
Costs: ($42,100,000/year) New Costs. This estimate assumes
that the planning and regulation elements of the policy are
within the current capabilities of state. Regional and local
governments, and are therefore no-cost items. Costs presented
are for the acquisition of 650,000 acres of wetlands. These
costs are spread over 1987-1997.

(b) Sponsor research into the dynamics of natural water systems,
their primary productive benefits, the instream flow needs of
fish and wildlife, the protection of the habitats of
endangered species, and overall management needs. (DER,
WMDs, DNR, GFWFC, and DCA)
Costs: ($320,000/year) New Costs. This estimate is based
upon personnel costs for eight new positions. Cost found in
9/40 and 10/44/A/a-c.

(c) Ensure that federal projects provide environmental
enhancement consistent with this plan. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: Cost for review function included under 8/38/A/a.

(C) By 2005 there will be an increase in the number of functioning
wetlands in Florida over those in 1985. (State Plan Policy 8)
Measure: Acres of functioning wetlands systems.









OPERATING POLICIES:


(a) Mandate restoration or mitigation in dredge and fill,
management and storage of surface waters, and mining
regulation programs, ensure that adverse impacts to the type,
nature and function of affected wetlands are fully offset.
(DER, DCA, DNR, WMDs)
Costs: No Costs.

(b) Develop criteria for the mitigation of adverse impacts on
wetlands. (WMDs, DER, DNR, and DCA)
Costs: Covered under 8/38/A/a.

(c) Protect the ecological functions of wetlands by reflecting
seasonal variations in all minimum and maximum flows and
levels. (WMDs)
Costs: No cost.

(d) Ensure that mitigation of projects meets established goals.
(DER, DCA, DNR, DOT, and WMDs)
Costs: ($240,000/Year) New cost. This estimate is based
upon the cost of six additional positions.

(e) Assess the cumulative impact of losses of small wetlands.
(DER, DCA, DOT, and WMDs)
Costs: Covered under 8/39/A/f.

(f) Regulate the use of wetlands through preservation, management
and, where appropriate, mitigation programs. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: No additional costs.

(D) By 1995 Florida will have acquired an additional 650,000 acres of
wetlands. (State Plan Policies 1, 7 and 9) (Operating Policy a)
Measure: Acres of wetlands acquired.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Establish a priority ranking system for wetlands to be
acquired by the state which at a minimum considers the
magnitude of existing and future threats to the wetlands
integrity, and the potential wildlife habitat, water quantity
and quality benefits. (DER, WMDs, DNR, GFWFC, and RPCs)
Costs: ($75,000/Year for two years) Total=$150,000; new
cost estimated cost state agency to establish priority
ranking system.

(b) Acquire wetlands so as to ensure the continuation of their
functional integrity. (WMDs, DNR, GFWFC and local
governments)
Costs: Covered under 10/43/B/a and 10/43/E/d.

(c) Coordinate the acquisition of wetlands with the established
needs of a state priority ranking system and basin and









watershed management plans. (WMDs, DNR, GFWFC, DER and local
governments)
Costs: No cost.

(d) Encourage local governments to protect existing wetlands in
their jurisdictions through land use regulations, incentives
and local acquisition programs. (WMDs, RPCs, DNR, GFWFC,
DER)
Costs: No cost

(E) By the year 2000 the Everglades will look and function more as it
did in 1900 than when the Save Our Everglades Program was started
in August, 1983. (State Plan Policy 8)
Measure: Appearance and function of Everglades.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Reestablish the values of the Kissimmee River. (DER, KOECC)
Costs: Land Acquisition $48.5 million (state cost)
Construction Estimated $75 million (there may be Federal
cost sharing not yet determined.)
$2 million Lower Kissimmee Best Management Practice Program.

(b) Protect and improve the water quality in Lake Okeechobee.
(DER, WMDs, KOECC)
Costs: $40 million. Costs are based on estimates of
reducing backpumping to Lake Okeechobee and improving water
quality in Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough.

(c) Restore more natural water flow in the Everglades including
the Holey Land and Rotenberger tracts. (DER, WMDs, KOECC)
Costs: Land Acquisition $4 million
Construction $6.6 million (all state costs)
Operation of restoration project $7 million

(d) Manage the deer herd in Water Conservation Area 3 at a
population level that can survive high water levels. (GFWFC)
Costs: (Management of the herd size is part of ongoing Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission practices.)

(e) Include necessary hydrological improvements and animal
protection measures in converting Alligator Alley to
Interstate-75. (DOT, DER, WMDs)
Costs: Construction $14 million
($11.75 state costs/$2.25 Federal costs)

(f) Restore the hydrological and biological conditions of
Everglades National Park. (DER, WMDs, DNR, GFWFC)
Costs: Land Acquisition $48-$65 million
For flood protection in the East Everglades related to
modified water delivery schedule. $20 million.




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(g) Protect the Florida Panther through improved management and
public acquisition of land in the Big Cypress Preserve and
Fakahatchee Strand. (DNR, GFWFC)
Costs: Land acquisition Big Cypress $62.4-$67.4
million (State costs are $10.1 million). Fakahatchee Strand
$60 million (State $43 million/Federal $17 million).





















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GOAL (10): NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS


Florida shall protect and acquire unique natural habitats and
ecological systems such as wetlands, tropical hardwood hammocks,
palm hammocks, and virgin longleaf pine forests, and restore
degraded natural systems to a functional condition.

POLICY CLUSTER (44): PROTECTION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES

3. Prohibit the destruction of endangered species and protect their
habitats.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES

Florida must protect its plant and animal species that are endangered
or threatened. Each species is the product of millions of years of
evolution within its ecosystem. Native fish and wildlife communities
have evolved with characteristic species compositions, densities and
distributions as a result of factors and interactions between the
members of the various communities. Because of this, each species
plays an important part in the proper maintenance of its ecosystem, and
its disappearance may have consequences that are not just ethical or
scientific, but economic. For example, the Perdido Key beach mouse
(Peromyscus poliontus trissyllepsis) plays a vital role in the
maintenance of coastal dune plant communities which in turn stabilize
the dunes themselves. The loss of either the beach mouse or dune
vegetation can expose coastal communities to costly storm damage.
Another example can be found in the manatee, which plays an important
role in keeping Florida's waterways clear of aquatic vegetation.

Despite their importance to various ecosystems, numerous species of
plants and animals are faced with the threat of extinction. The
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission currently lists 108
species of animals as species of special concern, threatened, or
endangered, while the Florida Department of Agriculture lists 423 plant
species as threatened or endangered. One of the primary reasons for
the loss of species within Florida is habitat loss or modification due
to development or pollution. Habitats of native fish and wildlife
communities are being eliminated or altered by man through land use
conversion, alteration of the hydroperiod, and economic uses such as
forestry, recreation, and cultural practices. Additionally, the
invasion of native fish and wildlife communities by exotic plants and
animals is altering the species composition in some native endangered
species communities, which can reduce the population of endangered
species through either predation or competition.









To prevent the further destruction of species that are important from
an ecological, economic, and aesthetic point-of-view, the state will
manage its water resources in such a way as to protect the habitats of
these species, and will move to prevent the incorporation of exotics
into native wildlife communities.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 2000 Florida shall identify all fresh water aquatic and marine
habitats of endangered and threatened species. (State Plan Policy
3)
Measures: (1) The number of critical habitats identified.
(2) Estimates of species populations.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Adopt guidelines, classifications, and procedures to identify
habitat types which may be important to endangered species.
(DNR, GFWFC, DACS)
Costs: ($100,000/year) Estimate based on the need to
establish a scientific protocol, followed by the
establishment of a classification system and implementation
costs.

(b) Sponsor research aimed at discovering the early decline of
species populations and the areas in which declines are most
likely to occur. (DNR, GFWFC, DACS)
Costs: ($500,000/year) Estimated research costs. This cost
and those for 10/44/A/a and 10/44/A/c are closely related to
form a research budget to conduct the necessary studies on
the habitat needs and population dynamics of various Florida
endangered species.

(c) Conduct and sponsor research concerning habitat requirements
for fish and wildlife in various community types. (DNR, |
GFWFC)
Costs: ($400,000/year) Estimated research costs. This i
policy is closely related to the two preceding policies. The
cost is viewed as a continuing cost for habitat studies which
would be integrated with endangered species population
studies.

(B) By 1995 endangered species's populations and distributions will
exceed those of 1985 and the manatee population will be maintained
at Florida's manatee habitat carrying capacity. (State Plan
Policy 3)
Measures: (1) Size of endangered population and their
distributions.
(2) Number of manatees.


---M










OPERATING POLICIES


(a) Minimize the probability of the introduction of exotic
species into native communities. (DNR, GFWFC, WMDs, RPCs)
Costs: No cost.

(b) Manage native fish, plant, and wildlife populations to
maintain characteristic species composition, density, and
distribution. (DNR, GFWFC)
Costs: No cost.

(C) By 2005 natural water systems which provide habitats of endangered
and threatened species will be protected through comprehensive
planning, regulation and land acquisition at all levels. (State
Plan Policy 3)
Measures: (1) The number of species downgraded from endangered
to threatened.
(2) The number of species downgraded from threatened
to species of special concern.
(3) The number of species removed from the species of
special concern listing.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Ensure the appropriate use, development, and protection of
the habitats of threatened and endangered species. (DNR,
DER, WMDs, DCA, GFWFC, RCPs, Local governments)
Costs: Costs are existing plan review and development review
costs carried on by the various agencies and local
governments.

(b) Adopt more stringent regulations governing discharges into
freshwater aquatic, estuarine, and marine habitats of
threatened and endangered species. (DNR, DER, WMDs, FDA)
Costs: ($50,000/year for two years) Estimated cost to
study, develop and adopt more stringent regulations for such
discharges into threatened or endangered species habitat.
The development of such regulations would be closely related
to having identified and classified habitats. See
10/44/A/a-c for related costs.

(c) Protect environmentally sensitive fresh water aquatic,
estuarine, and marine habitats and breeding areas of
threatened and endangered species. (DNR, DER, WMDs)
Costs: Costs are covered under 9/40/A/c. 10/43/B/a and
22/69/a.




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(d) Consider fish, plant, and wildlife preservation and their
habitat preservation in land and water regulatory and
planning programs. (DNR, DER, GFWFC, WMDs, DCA, RPCs, Local
governments)
Costs: No costs.



















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GOAL (10): NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS


Florida shall protect and acquire unique natural habitats and
ecological systems such as wetlands, tropical hardwood hammocks,
palm hammocks, and virgin longleaf pine forests, and restore
degraded natural systems to a functional condition.

POLICY CLUSTER (45): LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE

5. Promote the use of agricultural practices which are compatible
with the protection of wildlife and natural systems.

6. Encourage multiple use of forest resources, where appropriate, to
provide for timber production, recreation, wildlife habitat,
watershed protection, erosion control, and maintenance of water
quality.

10. Emphasize the acquisition and maintenance of ecologically intact
systems in all land and water planning, management and
regulation.


BACKGROUND STATEMENT
LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE

Florida has a duty to protect its natural habitats and unique
ecosystems. Responsible land management is crucial in order to fulfill
this duty. It may take several forms. The state may acquire and
manage lands which are particularly environmentally sensitive or
ecologically valuable, or it may regulate private land uses, and in
some cases, the state may manage privately owned lands. An example of
this are the Wildlife Management Areas administered by the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission.

Because so many of Florida's natural systems have been modified, those
ecosystems which have remained intact are of especial ecological value
to the state. Land and water planning processes should emphasize their
acquisition and preservation.

In cases where acquisition is not feasible or desirable, the state
should ensure that lands committed to natural uses, such as
agricultural, wetland and forest areas, are responsibly managed.
Population growth has placed stresses on these areas, and much of the
land committed to these uses has been lost to urbanization. The land
that remains must be managed in a multi-use context to ensure that
goals of agriculture or timber production, recreation, provision of
wildlife habitat, and maintenance of water quality and quantity are all
met.

Agriculture may have a particularly severe impact on wildlife habitats
and on the functioning of natural systems. Agriculture is by far the








largest user of fresh water in the state; in 1980, over 1500 million
gallons per day were consumed by irrigation.1 Furthermore,
agricultural activity may have an adverse impact on water quality.
Agricultural runoff may contain sediments and pesticide residues. In
order to maintain the level of the water table and to provide water for
other uses, water-conserving irrigation methods should be employed, or,
in some cases, less intensive agricultural practices used. Less
intensive agriculture should also lessen agricultural impact on water
quality. In addition, to protect surface waters, agricultural best
management practices should be followed to minimize soil erosion and
pollution from runoff.

1 Water Resources Atlas, p. 283


OBJECTIVES:
(A) By 1995, Florida will have acquired an additional 705,000 acres
of environmentally sensitive land.
Measure: Acres of environmentally sensitive land acquired.
(1) By 1995, Florida will have acquired 650,000 additional acres
of wetlands. (State Plan Policy 10) (Operating Policy b) I
Measure: Acres of wetlands acquired.
(2) By 1995, Florida will have acquired 55,000 acres of land
adjacent to environmentally sensitive estuarine systems.
(State Plan Policy 10) (Operating Policy c)
Measure: Acres of land acquired adjacent to sensitive
estuarine areas.
OPERATING POLICIES: I
(a) Protect environmentally sensitive natural water systems and
endangered species habitats. (WMDs, DNR, RPCs, local
governments)
Costs: Management costs covered under 8/39/A/g.
Acquisitions costs covered under 10/43/B/a and 10/43/E/a-e.
(b) Protect environmentally sensitive estuarine systems and I
estuarine habitats of endangered species. (WMDs, DNR, local
governments)
Costs: Management costs covered under 8/39/A/g.
Acquisition costs covered under 10/43/B/a.

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(B) By 1990, Florida will manage all its publicly owned or controlled
natural systems. (State Plan Policy 10)
Measure: Percent of publicly owned or controlled systems with
management programs implemented.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Ensure that surface water necessary for the protection and
procreation of wildlife, functioning of natural ecosystems,
recreation and navigation is reserved, and that use of
surface water is limited to reasonsable-beneficial uses.
(DER, DCA, DNR, GFWFC, DOT, WMDs, RPCs, local government)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/A/b.

(b) Ensure the appropriate use, development, and protection of
modified natural systems. (DER, DCA, DNR, GFWFC, WMDs,
RPCs)
Costs: Costs covered under 10/43/B/a.

(c) Sponsor research into the dynamics of natural water systems,
their primary productive benefits, the instream flow needs
of fish and wildlife, the protection of endangered species
habitats, and overall water management needs. (DER, WMDs,
DNR, GFWFC, DCA)
Costs: Costs covered under 10/43/B/c and 10/44/A/a-c.

(d) Within two years of any public acquisition of land, ensure
that water management plans are in place for that land.
(DNR, DACS, GFWFC, DOT, WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/39/A/g.

(C) Increase the number of multi-use lands that utilize quality fish
and wildlife management practices. (State Plan Policy 6)
Measure: Acres of multi-use lands.

OPERATING POLICY:

(a) Manage forest resources to ensure their functions in
providing wildlife habitat, watershed protection, flood and
erosion control and maintaining water quality. (DACS,
GFWFC, DNR)
Costs: Current program costs.

(D) By 1995, Florida will reduce fresh water use for agricultural
purposes by 5%. (State Plan Policy 5)
Measure: Reduction in use of fresh water in agriculture.





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OPERATING POLICIES:
(a) In issuing or renewing consumptive use permits, require
water conservation and reuse measures where economically and
environmentally feasible. (WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 28/37/A/c.
(b) Promote efficiency in agricultural water use by employing
water conservation practices, reclaimed water, and best
management practices. (DER, WMDs, DACS)
Costs: No cost, see 8/37/E/c and Policy Cluster 69.
(E) By 1995, Florida agricultural practices will have resulted in a
15% reduction in sediment, pesticides and other pollutants in
surface waters. (State Plan Policy 5)
Measure: Reduction in sediment, pesticides and other
pollutants.
OPERATING POLICY:
(a) Issue surface water management permits to eliminate or
minimize the transport of sediment and contaminants into
surface waters. (WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/A/c.


















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GOAL (10): NATURAL SYSTEMS AND RECREATIONAL LANDS


Florida shall protect and acquire unique natural habitats and
ecological systems such as wetlands, tropical hardwood hammocks,
palm hammocks, and virgin longleaf pine forest, and restore
degraded natural systems to a functional condition.

POLICY CLUSTER (46): PARKS AND RECREATION

11. Expand state and local efforts to provide recreational
opportunities to urban areas, including the development of
activity-based parks.

12. Protect and expand park systems throughout the state.

13. Encourage the use of public and private financial and other
resources for the development of recreational opportunities at
the state and local levels.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PARKS AND RECREATION

Florida is blessed with a unique natural environment conducive to
outdoor recreation. To maximize the enjoyment and recreational
opportunities that can be derived from it, the state must protect its
parks and other endangered lands. With Florida's rapid population
growth and urban development, there is a need to take a more aggressive
stance in preserving these resources. Prudent planning and effective
implementation of programs are required to preserve the recreational
opportunities of these parks. In cases where these lands have been
modified, attempts must be made to restore them to their original
condition.

Through the years, the state has inaugurated several programs designed
to provide for outdoor recreation, including state parks, wilderness
areas, acquatic preserves, environmentally endangered lands, and
recreational trails. One of the oldest active land purchase programs
is the Conservation and Recreational Lands Program (CARL), financed by
severance taxes from the phosphate and oil and gas industries. Another
is the Save Our Rivers Program, operated by the water management
districts. $300 million has been allotted solely for the purchase of
lands which have water resource values. It is also hoped that by 1995,
55,000 acres will be acquired.

The primary issue here, however, is the competition between the state's
environmental interest in these publicly purchased lands and estuarine
systems, and the economic losses to the local tax rolls and other costs
to local government, both real and perceived. Florida faces the
problem of weighing the natural and recreational values to be protected
by its purchase against possible economic losses.

Clusters #39, #40, and #43 provide objectives and operating policies
concerning the protection of natural systems and coastal resources.
Review of the clusters will provide additional insights.









OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1988 no degradation to water and water dependent resources
within the State Park and Preserve System will have occurred.
(State Plan Policy 12)
Measure: Water quality in park and preserve resources.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Develop watershed management plans for land adjacent to or
upstream of state parks and preserves. (DER, DNR, DCA)
Costs: $500,000/Year for six years new cost assumes DNR
will prepare plans for the various state parks and preserves
and that these plans will be coordinated with local
government watershed management plans and state basin
plans.

(b) Ensure that public use of water and water dependent
resources within the State Park or Preserve System does not
significantly degrade the resource. (DNR)
Costs: No new costs. Covered by existing parks and
preserve system management costs.

(c) Ensure the protection of water resources and wildlife
habitat through the management of minimum and maximum flows
and levels. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: See Policy Cluster 37 for related costs.

OBJECTIVES:

(B) By 1995 the development of water and water dependent parks and
recreation facilities will have met needs indicated by the rate I
and distribution of population growth. (State Plan Policies 11,
12, 13).
Measure: Increase in parks and recreation facilities as a
function of population growth.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Acquire water and water dependent resources for the
expansion of the State Park and Preserve System, giving
priority to unique, high quality and disappearing resources
and areas with accessibility to population centers. (DNR)
Costs: See Policy Cluster 39 and 43 for estimates of land
acquisition and management costs. It is assumed that the
majority of the land to be included into the parks and
preserves of the state will be included in the cost
presented in those clusters.

(b) Encourage public and private joint ventures in the
development of water-related parks and recreational
facilities (DNR, local governments)
Costs: No cost.









GOAL (13): HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE

All solid waste, including hazardous waste, wastewater, and all
hazardous materials, shall be properly managed, and the use of
landfills shall be eventually eliminated.

POLICY CLUSTER (50): REDUCING HAZARDOUS WASTE AND MATERIALS

3. Identify and cleanup hazardous waste sites.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE

One of Florida's major thrusts is the reduction of hazardous and
non-hazardous wastes. Improper disposal of hazardous materials could
contaminate underground and surface water supplies, as well as air and
land. Though less toxic than hazardous materials, non-hazardous wastes
which are usually dumped in landfills, threaten the quality of
groundwater, especially in areas where the water table is high.
Pollution by this type of waste could easily reach groundwater during
high rainfall.

It is estimated that 600,000 tons of hazardous waste are produced in
Florida annually. In fact, the state ranks sixth nationally on the
number of hazard us sites included or proposed for the Superfund
cleanup program. A problem of such magnitude has prompted the 1980
Florida Legislature to pass an act that enables the Department of
Environmental Regulation to track hazardous waste from "cradle to
grave". The stringent regulation by DER even requires recording of
every unit of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal,
without discounting its movement.

One of the major sources of hazardous waste is leaking storage tanks.
In Florida, it is estimated that there are 60,000 storage tanks.
Three-fourths of these are operated by gas stations. However, there is
no accurate information on the number of abandoned underground tanks.
The likelihood of leakage increases as storage tanks grow older.
Approximately, 50 percent of the underground tanks are ten years old or
older. As of December 1985, out of 372 active cases of contamination,
142 involve underground tanks, 21 above ground tanks, 102 piping leaks,
and 138 from spills or unknown origin. Statewide there may be as many
as 6,000 sites affected by petroleum products. Though not all of them
may require cleanup, substantial amounts of resources are needed to
address the problems of some major sites.2

To date, 37 of the contaminated sites are proposed or included for
Superfund cleanup. As of October 1982, Florida has received
approximately $17.5 million in Superfund resources for state emergency
response, containment efforts, site assessments, and feasibility
studies to determine long-term solutions.3 It is projected, that by
1986, 18 sites will have completed the required feasibility studies and
10 sites will be in the design and construction stage.








Contaminated areas that do not qualify under the Superfund cleanup
program can be covered by the Water Quality Assurance Trust Fund.
However, the prohibitive cost and large magnitude of resources have put
a strain on DER's cleanup activity. Clearly, the existing resources
are not enough to handle the bulk of the cleanup task. To effectively
protect its ground and surface waters, from both hazardous and
non-hazardous waste, the State must enhance its cleanup efforts through
increased resources and improved regulatory activities. Efforts to
identify and investigate leaking storage tanks, and monitoring of those
that are not currently leaking must be intensified.

1 DER Records
2 Fact Sheet, Jan 31, 1986, DER
3 DER Records

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1995, Florida will have cleaned up 100 major polluted
groundwater sites. (State Plan Policies 9 and 10)
Measure: Number of major polluted groundwater sites cleaned up.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Require immediate cleanup of accidental or illegal discharges
of pollutants by dischargers or direct state action. (DER)
Costs: (A minimum of $23,040,000/year) new costs. A yearly
average cost was figured from the varying 10 year cost on the
basis of 10 sites per year. The number of sites addressed
each year is likely to increase over time. New cost
estimates are likely to be developed.

(B) By 1995, initiate a cleanup of 1200 petroleum contaminated
groundwater sites. (State Plan Policies 9 and 10)
Measure: Number of petroleum contaminated groundwater sites in
compliance with groundwater standards.
OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Require cleanup of petroleum contaminated groundwater sites.
(DER and local governments)
Costs: Average yearly cost = $38,836,900 new cost. First
year costs are estimated at $27,625,000 which includes both
cleanup funds and program administration cost. One hundred
twenty (120) sites would be addressed during the first year.
Approximately $39,427,000/year would be required in
subsequent years. Second and subsequent year costs reflect
the start of cleanup on 120 additional sites per year and
continued cleanup costs for sites already into the cleanup
process. These costs and the need to maintain a reserve of
$25,000,000 in case of catastrophic wellfield failure
indicate a trust fund with a $25,000,000 floor and a
$50,000,000 cap may be necessary.


I










GOAL (13): HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND WASTE

All solid waste, including hazardous waste, wastewater, and all
hazardous materials, shall be properly managed, and the use of
landfills shall be eventually eliminated.

POLICY CLUSTER (51): WASTEWATER AND SOLID WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

1. By 1995, reduce the volume of non-hazardous solid waste disposed
of in landfills to 55 percent of the 1985 volume.

7. Encourage the research, development, and implementation of
recycling, resource recovery, energy recovery, and other methods
of using garbage, trash, sewage, slime, sludge, hazardous waste,
and other waste.

9. Identify, develop, and encourage environmentally sound wastewater
treatment and disposal methods.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
WASTEWATER AND SOLID WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

Florida's population produces tremendous amounts of wastewater and
solid waste. Approximately 10 million Florida residents generate an
average five pounds of solid waste per day, which translates to an
annual state total of eight million tons of solid waste that must be
collected and disposed of.1 Quantities of domestic wastewater are also
enormous. Per capital, about 100 gallons of wastewater are generated
for a daily total of one billion gallons. The magnitudes of wastes and
wastewater pose a grave threat to Florida's high quality surface and
groundwater.2

Various alternatives for wastewater treatment and disposal are used.
Approximately 40 percent of Florida's households rely on on-site
facilities such as septic tanks. There are many central wastewater
treatment plants throughout the state, but most of them are relatively
small; their average capacity is less than 100,000 gallons per day.3
This poses problems for control and management. The use of regional
facilities can increase efficiency of control.

Another method of disposing of domestic and industrial wastewater is
through underground injection systems (UIC), in which wastes are placed
in injection wells below the water table. There are presently 19
privately owned and 33 municipally owned underground injection wells,
which are stringently regulated by the Department of Environmental
Regulation to ensure that wastes are injected in the proper hydrologic
layer and depth, and stay confined in that area.4 DER also regulates
the closure, plugging and abandonment of wells, requiring users of UIC
to demonstrate financial capability should they decide to abandon their
wells.






I


Solid waste is primarily disposed of in landfills. The construction I
and operation of landfills is regulated by DER, which sets groundwater
monitoring requirements, gas control requirements, and setback
requirements. Landfills may be used for twenty years or more. When
they are closed, DER regulates closure to ensure that the areas are
properly covered and revegetated to avoid public health or
environmental hazards. The high water table and large annual rainfall g
can pose problems for the use of landfills in Florida, since improper
landfill design may result in groundwater contamination. Of the 190
active landfills in Florida, 56 are known or suspected to be causing
groundwater pollution and eight are on the Superfund National Priority I
List.5 It is projected that the number of landfills will be
significantly reduced in the next ten years and that other alternatives
will be used. I
With Florida's rapid population growth, urbanization and
industrialization, wastewater and solid waste are expected to increase.
Existing treatment facilities may not be able to handle the increase.
If, due to poor planning, this problem is not anticipated, the adverse
impacts of these wastes may be difficult to handle. Incentives must be
developed and applied to encourage reduction in the amount of solid
waste generated, to recover and reuse materials, and to help reduce the
volume of this waste by incineration in waste-to-energy facilities.
1 Water Resources Atlas, p. 135 I
2 Water Resources Atlas, p. 84
3 Water Resources Atlas, p. 85
4 DER Records
5 DER Records

OBJECTIVES: i
(A) By 1995, Florida will reuse 9% of its wastewater.
Measure: Percentage change in wastewater reused.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Publicly owned or investor owned water and wastewater systems
should provide incentives for customers who use effective
water or wastewater saving devices. (HRS, DER, PSC, WMDs,
local governments) I
Costs: No costs. See 8/37/E/a for related policy.

(b) Require the consideration of water conservation measures for
all users through regulatory and non-regulatory programs and










review process at all levels of government. (WMDs, RPCs,
DER, local governments)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/E/c.

(c) Sponsor introduction or development of alternative methods
for advanced wastewater treatment.
Costs: $5,000,000/per year. New cost. Estimated cost
assumes the creation of a state grant program to communities
needing advanced wastewater treatment. This grant program
would be only for use by facilities introducing or developing
advanced wastewater treatment methods. See 8/38/A/b for
major STP costs. DER Program administrative cost would be
approximately 2% of total yearly cost.

(B) By 1995, reduce the volume of solid waste disposed of in
landfills by 55% of the 1985 amount. (State Plan Policy 1)
Measure: Volume of solid waste disposed of in landfills.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Ensure the protection of water resources by reducing the
volume of waste placed in landfills. (DER, local
governments)
Costs: $25,000,000/year new cost. Assumes local governments
institute programs to reduce by 10% the volume of solid waste
through recycling of secondary wastes. Estimated cost of $25
per ton of waste for collection and processing. Very
preliminary estimate.

(b) All local governments will develop and implement plans to
reduce the volume of solid waste going into landfills. (DER,
local governments)
Costs: $12,500,000/year for 3 years. New Cost. Assumes the
development and implementation of waste separation and
recycling programs. Grant/loan program: Possible 50/50
sharing of cost between the state and local governments.
Very preliminary estimate.

(c) Sponsor research and development of new alternatives for
disposal of solid waste to minimize the need for landfills.
(DER)
Costs: $50,000/year for 5 years new cost. Estimated cost of
a coordinated research effort to study and develop these
alternatives.

(d) Improve public awareness about solid waste management. (DER,
local governments)
Costs: $100,000/year new cost. Estimated cost for solid
waste management education program.

(e) Require local governments to develop plans, programs and
facilities for the transfer and handling of hazardous waste









and materials. (DER, local governments)
Costs: ($7,400,000 per year) Estimated cost.for county
operated plans, programs and facilities for all of Florida's
counties.

(C) By 1995, all active municipal solid waste landfills in the
state must be in compliance with state criteria and standards.
Measure: Number of municipalities that comply with state
standards.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Intensify surveillance and assessment of solid waste disposal
facilities and practices to assure compliance with state
criteria and standards.
Costs: $4,000,000/year existing and new cost. Assumes
current DER program is expanded from $1,200,000/year to
$2,000,000. Also assumes that local programs expend
approximately $2,000,000/year statewide meeting this
objective.

(b) Develop new criteria and standards for solid waste disposal
facilities and practices as new technical information becomes
available which demonstrates need for change. (DER)
Costs: Cost to develop criteria and standards covered under
DER solid waste program yearly costs. (Existing costs.)



























7C










GOAL (14): MINING


Florida shall protect its air, land and water resources from the
adverse effects of resource extraction and ensure that the
disturbed areas are reclaimed or restored to beneficial use as
soon as reasonably possible.

POLICY CLUSTER (52): RECLAMATION OF MINED AREAS

3. Require that disturbed areas, except those selected to be
reclaimed by nature, be reclaimed to productive and beneficial
use within a period determined by the state to be reasonable and
practical.

4. Require state reclamation standards to be simple and
well-coordinated, and to be consistent with the protection of the
public interest and conservation of natural resources.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
RECLAMATION OF MINED AREAS

Phosphate mining disturbs between 5,000 and 6,000 acres a year, all of
which must be reclaimed under current state law. This mining process
consists of a temporary disturbance of the top 40 feet of land to
separate the phosphate rock from the sand and clay. The shallow
aquifer is also temporarily disturbed during this time, but after
reclamation the water table once again reaches its normal level.
Approximately 50% of the total area disturbed will be covered by waste
clay settling areas which are typically elevated above normal ground
level. Although these areas take a long time to settle they will
eventually be used for agricultural purposes and in some cases
wetlands. 1

Although the phosphate industry has been required to reclaim their
mined lands since 1975, reclamation is not proceeding in a one-to-one
process, and the land has not yet been reclaimed acre-by-acre. In
1983, 2,148 acres of land were reclaimed, and in 1984, 1,007 acres were
reclaimed. This reclaimed land represents approximately 27% of the
annual acreage mined. Estimated costs of reclaiming this mined land
run as high as $4,000 per acre. At the present time, there are an
estimated 60,000 acres of land in Florida that phosphate companies are
responsible for reclaiming. Florida must take steps to increase the
amount and to ensure the proper reclamation of these mined lands.2

There are also an estimated 100,000-150,000 additional acres of mined
lands in Florida that are in need of some form of reclamation. These
lands are from older mining operations completed before reclamation was
required and from other mining operations such as limestone and peat,
which are not presently required to reclaim their mined lands. Between
50,000-60,000 acres of these lands are waste clay settling areas, or
slime ponds. The state needs to conduct research to determine the








extent of environmental damages on these lands and establish new
regulations, policies and procedures in order to ensure their proper
reclamation.3 Additionally, an assessment needs to be made to
determine which lands simply require reclamation--a return to some
functional use--and which lands require restoration--a return to a use I
identical to the land's use and function prior to the mining.

Sand, gravel and rock mining have also contributed to Florida's 1
environmental problems, although not as significantly as phosphate
mining. Since any surface mining activity disturbs land and water
resources, steps must be taken to minimize their effects on the
environment through proper restoration and reclamation.

1 Florida Phosphate Council
2 DNR estimates
3 DNR estimates

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 2005, there will be an increase in the number of functioning
wetlands in Florida over those in 1985. (State Plan Policy 4)
Measures: Percent increase in the number of functioning
wetlands.

OPERATING POLICY:

(a) Mandate restoration or mitigation in dredge and fill,
management and storage of surface waters, and mining
regulation programs, when necessary, to ensure that adverse
impacts to the type, nature and function of affected
wetlands are fully offset. (DER, DCA, DNR, and WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered in 43/C/a.

(B) By 1995, 40% of the lands mined since 1975 and which are subject
to the mandatory reclamation requirement will be reclaimed.
(State Plan Policies 3 and 4) (Operating Policies a and b)
Measures: Percent of lands mined since 1975 and which are
subject to the mandatory reclamation requirement which
have been reclaimed.

OPERATING POLICIES: I

(a) After completion of resource extraction activities, ensure
that land and waters affected by these activities are
reclaimed to a functional condition as soon as possible.
(DER, DNR, and WMDs)
Costs: ($120,000/year) Cost based on the need for three
additional personnel to insure compliance. I

(b) Require mining operations to demonstrate their ability to
provide the necessary resources to complete restoration.
(DER, DNR, and WMDs)
Costs: No additional costs.









GOAL (14): MINING


Florida shall protect its air, land and water resources from the
adverse effects of resource extraction and ensure that the
disturbed areas are reclaimed or restored to beneficial use as
soon as reasonably possible.

POLICY CLUSTER (53): MINING REGULATION

1. Develop a comprehensive approach to the regulation of resource
extraction.

2. Require mining operations to provide evidence of financial
responsibility to ensure the reclamation of mined lands.

9. Require that mining and reclamation regulation recognizes the
geological constraints and inherent differences in the types and
locations of resources to be mined.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
MINING REGULATION

Florida has been blessed by an abundance of mineral deposits. Resource
extraction of oil, gas, peat, limerock, gravel, and phosphate
significantly contribute to Florida's economy. The state receives
almost $85 million annually from mineral severance taxes. At the same
time that resource extraction has done much to boost Florida's economy,
it has presented the state with an environmental challenge. With the
exception of oil and gas, most of the mineral deposits in the state lie
close to the surface and are most economically extracted by strip
mining. This has left the landscape dotted with borrow pits and
unreclaimed areas which can act as sources of soil erosion, with
sediment and mining by-products ultimately finding their way into
Florida's streams, rivers, and estuaries. Occasionally these mined
areas go unreclaimed because of financial insolvency on the part of the
mining company.

Reclamation has proved difficult due to physical and administrative
problems. Some extraction industries do not lend themselves readily to
reclamation. Settling ponds, used by some industries, may take decades
to stablize to the point where the land can be put back into useful
production. Administratively, no single comprehensive permitting
system exists to oversee the extraction of minerals and subsequent
environmentally safe reclamation of mined areas. This has produced a
situation that, from the point-of-view of the mining industry, is
inefficient, costly, and filled with uncertainty. Environmentally, the
lack of a comprehensive regulatory program has created delays in
restoration efforts and allowed some operations to avoid financial
responsibility for cleanup efforts. To avoid needless costs, both
monetary and environmental, associated with mineral extraction, the









state should develop a comprehensive approach to regulation.
Because there are different state-of-the-art technologies used for
extracting the various minerals found in Florida, no single set of
permitting criteria is possible which satisfies all conditions. Thus,
adjustment must be made to ensure that full environmental protection is
achieved while permitting the maximum amount of mining economically
feasible.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1990, Florida will comprehensively regulate resource extraction
and reclamation. (State Plan Policies 1, 2, 9)
Measures: (1) Adoption of a statute and regulations covering
resource extraction.
(2) Amount of mining acreage undergoing reclamation.
(3) Number of financial responsibility statements
filed with the state.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Require mining interests to provide proof of financial
responsibility for reclamation costs. (DER, DNR, DCA, RPCs,
local governments)
Costs: No costs.

(b) Develop a single comprehensive regulatory system that
oversees appropriate phases of the resource extraction and
reclamation process. (DER, DNR, DCA, WMDs, RPCs, and local
governments)
Costs: ($240,000/year)
Costs based upon the need for six additional personnel to
develop and administer an additional permitting system.

(c) Develop regulations that take into account differences in
mining procedures which are needed to economically extract
the materials being produced, as well as protect local
environmental resources. (DER, DNR, DCA, WMDs, RPCs, and
local governments)
Costs: Costs accounted for in 14/53/A/b.







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GOAL (14): MINING


Florida shall protect its air, land and water resources from the
adverse effects of resource extraction and ensure that the
disturbed areas are reclaimed or restored to beneficial use as
soon as reasonably possible.

POLICY CLUSTER (54): ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

5. Prohibit resource extraction which will result in an adverse
effect on environmentally sensitive areas of the state which
cannot be restored.

6. Minimize the effects of resource extraction upon ground and
surface waters.

8. Reduce the adverse impacts of waste disposal associated with
resource extraction.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Mineral extraction is a major economic asset to Florida. Led by a
phosphate industry that produces 20% of the world's annual output and
80% of the nation's needs, mining industries associated with oil and
gas, peat, limerock, gravel, clay, titanium, and fuller's earth
contribute importantly to the state and national economy, with exports
of phosphate, in particular, contributing significantly to the U.S.
balance of trade.1 The state receives approximately $85 million
annually from a mineral severance tax, half of which is deposited in
the Conservation and Recreation Lands Trust Fund for the purchase of
environmentally sensitive lands.

These economic benefits, however, are sometimes diminished by the
adverse environmental impacts associated with mining activities.
According to a 1979 USDA study, only three states have had more
acreage disturbed by surface mining than Florida. Improper mining
techniques can result in the degradation of surface and groundwater,
the alteration of surface drainage patterns, the removal of topsoil,
and the loss of important, environmentally sensitive resources such as
endangered species habitat and pristine wetlands. The state must
protect its environment against these threats by the regulation of
mining activities, strict enforcement of rules, and swift punishment of
offenders.

The phosphate industry is also a major user of water resources. While
important gains have been made in the efficiency of water use,
phosphate mining is still the third largest industrial user of water,
using 194 million gallons a day in 1980.2 Although Florida has 3
million acres of peat reserve, ranking fourth in the nation, peat
mining has not been a significant activity. For 1981 and 1982, peat
production was only 157,000 tons and 120,000 tons respectively.3 Over









three-fourths of Florida's peat reserve is in the Northern Everglades,
with the largest deposit located in Loxahatchee National Refuge.
Currently, this area is used for recreation, as a storage reservoir and
as a wildlife refuge.4 Since this peat reserve is extremely important
to the Everglades ecological system, it should be given the state's I
highest level of protection. Hence, Florida's vast peat resources
should remain largely undisturbed.

Florida's rapid development and the consequent need for construction
and industrial materials, have contributed to the bulk of sand, gravel,
and stone extraction. In 1982, about 66 million tons were mined,
valued at $212 million. The state's reserve base for these materials
is estimated to be 5.7 billion metric tons.5 Peat, sand, gravel and
stone mining have contributed to Florida's environmental problems,
although not as significantly as phosphate mining. However, any
surface mining activity disturbs land and water resources. Such
disturbance must be minimized through restoration and reclamation.

The state must ensure that Florida's mining activities meet state
surface and groundwater standards. While 100% compliance is not
feasible because of unavoidable minor violations (mainly record keeping
and monitoring violations), the state must strive for as high a
compliance rate as possible. In particular, Florida must ensure that
swift enforcement action is taken against violators of these
standards.

An issue of concern is the increasing attention directed by mining
and oil and gas interests at known and potential resources within both
state and federal offshore waters. Future decisions concerning the
exploration for and development of these resources will have important
impacts on the quality of the marine environment.

1 Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida,
Tallahassee, FL, April, 1985, pp. 33-4.
2 Water Resources Atlas, p. 193.
3 Florida Statistical Abstract, p. 300
4 Assessment of Peat Resources of Florida, p. 75.
5 Ibid, p. 300


OBJECTIVES:

(A) After 1990 there will be no further mining of environmentally
sensitive land and water areas which cannot be reclaimed and are
therefore inappropriate for resource extraction. (State Plan
Policy 5, 6 and 8)
Measure: The number of environmentally sensitive land and water
areas which cannot be reclaimed that have been disturbed
by mining.










OPERATING POLICIES:


(a) Identify all environmentally sensitive land and water areas
which are inappropriate for resource extraction and regulate
these areas to prohibit their mining. (DER, DNR, GFWFC, and
WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 14/52/B/a and 14/53/A/b

(b) Conduct research in order to develop criteria for determining
which resources, particularly wetlands, cannot be restored to
fully functioning systems and protect them from mining (DER,
DNR)
Costs: ($1,000,000). New research costs.

(B) By 1995, 90% of Florida's mining activities will be in compliance
with state and local government standards. (State Plan Policies 6
and 8).
Measure: Percent of mining activities in compliance with state
and local government standards.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Balance the need for resource extraction with protection of
surface and groundwater resources when issuing consumptive
use permits. (WMDs)
Costs: No additional costs.

(b) Develop and implement comprehensive basin plans for major
hydrologic systems to assess and abate the impacts of
pollution on these systems. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: ($150,000) Personnel costs to manage the program,
indirect costs not included.

(c) Protect receiving waters from degradation resulting from
resource extraction. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: No additional costs; covered by 14/52/B/a and
14757/A/b.

(d) Ensure the appropriate use, development and protection of
modified natural systems. (DER, DCA, DNR, GFWFC, WMDs, RPCs,
and local governments)
Costs: No additional costs, covered under 10/43/B/a.

(e) Require all mining activities that may be a source of surface
and groundwater pollution to obtain permits for construction,
expansion, modification, or operation unless otherwise
exempted. Review all regulations on a periodic basis.
Ensure that the best available scientific knowledge is
incorporated into the water quality standards and regulatory
criteria. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: No additional costs, covered under 14/52/B/a and
14/53/A/b.








(C) By 1995, there shall have been no significant losses of marine
habitat or degradation of water or sediment quality due to
offshore exploration and development for mineral and energy
resources.
Measures: (1) Number of acres of habitat lost.
(2) Decline in water and sediment quality.
OPERATING POLICIES: |
(a) Compile and organize the available data bases into a
structured marine environmental studies program that will I
provide information to all levels of government and the
scientific community. (DER, DNR)
Costs: Covered under 9/41/A/a. j
(b) Develop statewide resource management plans that use a
cost-risk analysis to balance environmental protection with
the extraction of the state's mineral and non-mineral
resources with its associated industries. (DER, DNR, DCA)
Costs: Covered under 9/41/A/b.
(c) Identify and map sensitive marine areas. (DER, DNR)
Costs: Covered under 9/41/A/c.
(d) Prohibit pollutant discharges and dumping which may result in I
adverse impacts upon the marine environment. (DNR, DER)
Costs: Covered under 9/41/A/d. 1
(e) Protect environmentally sensitive marine areas by limiting or
prohibiting offshore development. (DER, DCA and local
government)
Costs: Covered under 9/41/A/e.
(f) Restore degraded marine water and sediment quality to near
natural levels. (DER, DNR)
Costs: Covered under 9/41/A/f.

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GOAL (15): PROPERTY RIGHTS


Florida shall protect private property rights and recognize the
existence of legitimate and often competing public and private
interests in land use regulations and other government actions.

POLICY CLUSTER (56): PROTECTING PROPERTY RIGHTS

3. Encourage acquisition of lands by state or local government in
cases where regulation will severely limit practical use of real
property.


BACKGROUND STATEMENT
PROTECTING PROPERTY RIGHTS

One of Florida's foremost responsibilities is the protection of the
property rights of its population. The state recognizes the
conflicting interests that arise between the public and private
sectors. The acquisition and management of environmentally valuable
lands may be an effective method for meeting the state's goal of
protecting Florida's environmental resources without raising the
potential for conflict over property rights.

Thus far, Florida has aggressively pursued the acquisition of
environmentally sensitive areas and endangered lands. These areas
include areas of ecological significance, where development by either
the public or private sector may lead to the deterioration of submerged
lands, and inland and coastal marshes and wilderness. Natural
floodplains, marshes and estuaries which are used for flood protection
or are necessary to enhance the quantity and quality of water are also
classified as areas for state acquisition. The state began acquisition
in 1972 with the Environmentally Endangered Lands Program, which was
funded by $200 million in bonds. Other important acquisition programs
are the Conservation and Recreational Lands (CARL) program, which
involves an annual expenditure of $20 million, and the Save Our Rivers
and Save Our Coast programs. These programs are almost exclusively
voluntary acquisition programs, with eminent domain used only in very
limited circumstances. The expenditures thus far have only scratched
the surface, however. Florida must continue the acquisition of
environmentally sensitive lands in order to provide maximum protection
of important environmental resources.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 2005 Florida shall have acquired all environmentally sensitive
resources requiring acquisition. (State Plan Policy 3)
Measure: Number of acres of environmentally sensitive lands
acquired.









OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Identify resources to be acquired. (DER, DNR, DCA, DOT)
Costs: No additional costs; currently funded program.

(b) Prioritize state acquisitions of environmentally sensitive
resources. (DER, DNR, DCA, DOT)
Costs: No additional costs; funded under 10/43/D/d.

(c) Acquire important environmentally sensitive lands. (DNR,
WMDs)
Costs: No additional costs; current funded program.

(d) Ensure, prior to acquisition, that environmentally important
or sensitive resources cannot be adequately protected through
regulation or management. (DNR, WMDs)
Costs: No cost.










GOAL (16): LAND USE


In recognition of the importance of preserving the natural
resources and enhancing the quality of life of the state,
development shall be directed to those areas which have in place,
or have agreements to provide, the land and water resources,
fiscal abilities, and the service capacity to accommodate growth
in an environmentally acceptable manner.

POLICY CLUSTER (57): BALANCED AND PLANNED DEVELOPMENT

4. Develop a system of intergovernmental negotiation for siting
locally unpopular public and private land uses which considers the
area of population served, the impact on land development patterns
or important natural resources and the cost-effectiveness of
service delivery.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
BALANCED AND PLANNED DEVELOPMENT

Florida is one of the nation's fastest growing states. Each week 6000
new residents migrate into the state. On an annual basis this amounts
to over a quarter of a million new citizens each year. Each of these
new citizens places an additional demand upon the water and land
resources of the state. Currently, the limited land and water
resources of Florida's coastal areas have become the target of the
major portion of this mass migration. By the year 1990 over 82 percent
of Florida's growth will have occurred in coastal regions which do not
have the resources, at this time, to support them. In order to
support this continual growth without a massive use of taxpayer
dollars, careful planning of development will become a necessity.

One of the keys to effectively meeting this growth is the timely
provision of critical infrastructure and public facilities. In the
past, development decisions have been too often made based upon only a
short-term economic analysis. The effect has been to site some
facilities, including locally unpopular land uses (LULUs), at either
too great a distance from the centers they serve; or so close to the
population centers that development soon spreads beyond them. This has
created a two-fold effect. Facilities, such as landfills, wastewater
treatment plants, and hazardous waste storage and treatment facilities
risked becoming economically inefficient and unused because of their
remoteness, or hazards to the public health because of their close
proximity to the general population.

Florida's water resources have also been threatened by the effects of
unplanned and uncontrolled growth. Facilities such as landfills and
hazardous waste sites represent possible sources of contamination of
groundwater, which in Florida is the major source of drinking water.
Wastewater treatment plants present a continual problem of possible
contamination of surface waters with their discharges. At the same
time that these types of facilities pose a threat to Florida's drinking
and recreational waters, expanding populations have created a need for
more facilities and more water.









Perhaps the most difficult problem, however, is accommodating public
opposition to siting. Delays in achieving final decisions withhold
needed facilities and add to the costs. Improved processes for making
fair, well-planned and expeditious decisions are needed.

These conflicting needs can only be met by balanced, rational, planned
development, which ensures that water resource dependent facilities are
properly sited to meet the present and future needs of the state's
population. Florida's citizens must be assured that no matter where
they choose to live, Florida's water resources and water resource
related facilities will be adequate to support the quality of life that
each citizen has a right to enjoy.


1 Executive Office of the Governor, Trends and Conditions for Florida,
Tallahassee, FL, April, 1985, p. 24.


OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1990 state, regional, and local agencies shall have integrated
land development and use criteria into their water resource
planning (State Plan Policy 4)
Measure: Number of local governments that effectively integrate
land development and use in their water resource
planning.

OPERATING POLICIES

(a) Require local government to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control surface water pollution. (Local
governments, RPCs, and DCA)
Costs: Covered under 8/38/A/b.

(b) Require local government to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control groundwater pollution. (Local
governments, RPCs, and DCA)
Costs: Covered under 8/38/B/b.

(c) Develop and implement comprehensive basin plans for major
hydrologic systems to assess and abate the impacts of
pollution on the systems. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: Covered under 8/38/A/c.

(d) Assist local governments in developing their watershed
management plans which coordinate land use and infrastructure
development. (DER, DOT, WMDs, DCA, and RPCs)
Costs: Covered under 8/39/A/b.

(e) Assist local governments in developing comprehensive impact
review procedures for the evaluation of developments having
impacts on water and water dependent resources. (DER, DCA,


_ _~_I










DNR, GFWFC, WMDs, RPCs, local governments)
Costs: No cost.

(f) Ensure that surface water necessary for the protection and
procreation of wildlife, functioning of natural ecosystems,
recreation and navigation is reserved, and that use of
surface water is limited to reasonable-beneficial uses.
(DER, DCA, DNR, GFWFC, DOT, WMDs, RPCs, local governments)
Costs: Covered under 8/37/A/b.

(g) Ensure that groundwater necessary for the protection and
procreation of wildlife, functioning of natural ecosystems,
recreation and navigation is reserved, and that use of
groundwater is limited to reasonable-beneficial uses. (WMDs,
RPCs, local governments)
Costs: See 8/37/B/d and 8/37/A/b.

(h) Identify and prioritize natural systems requiring protection
and management. (DNR, DCA, DER, GFWFC)
Costs: 8/39/A/j covers general priorities of natural
systems. 10/43/A/a covers wetland priorities. 10/44/A/a
covers endangered species habitats.

(i) Protect groundwater resources needed for water supply.
(WMDs, local governments)
Costs: Covered under Policy Clusters 37, 38, 39 and 43.

(j) Prohibit or severely limit discharges of pollutants into
public and community wellfields, high recharge areas and
areas designated in local government comprehensive plans as
future water sources. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: Covered under 8/38/B/g.

(B) By 1993, all siting of state "locally unpopular land uses" will be
conducted through an adopted intergovernmental siting process.
(State Plan Policy 4)
Measures: (1) Adoption of a process to site locally unpopular
land uses.
(2) The time required for a project to complete the
siting process.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Establish criteria for making decisions for siting each type
of locally unpopular land use. (All)
Costs: $150,000/Year for six years; Total=$900,000 New
Cost assumes the establishment of a committee/working group
to study and develop recommended criteria for the siting of
the various types of locally unpopular land uses: the holding








of public hearings, allowing for public comments, revisions,
and the adoption of intergovernmental siting processes for
each locally unpopular land use.
(b) Ensure the protection of important water and water dependent
resources in the siting process. (All)
Costs: No cost.
(c) Implement an intergovernmental process to negotiate the
siting of locally unpopular land uses. (All)
Costs: ($200,500/year) New Costs. Costs for committee/work
group to develop siting criteria for locally unpopular
land uses over eight years.



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GOAL (16): LAND USE


In recognition of the importance of preserving the natural
resources and enhancing the quality of life of the state,
development shall be directed to those areas which have in place,
or have agreements to provide, the land and water resources,
fiscal abilities, and the service capacity to accommodate growth
in an environmentally acceptable manner.

POLICY CLUSTER (58): NATURAL RESOURCES PRESERVATION

6. Consider, in land use planning and regulation, the impact of land
use on water quality and quantity, the availability of land,
water, and other natural resources to meet demands, and the
potential for flooding.

7. Provide educational programs and research to meet state, regional
and local planning and growth-management needs.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
NATURAL RESOURCES PRESERVATION

In order to ensure its future, Florida must preserve its water
resources. Successful preservation of the state's natural water
resources cannot depend solely upon direct action, but must also use
such indirect methods as growth management and land use and resource
planning.

In the past, water resources and their distribution were not given
sufficient consideration in developmental decisions. The result of
unwise development has, in some cases, led to the wholesale plundering
of water resources through activities such as diversion, damming, and
unsuitable flood control measures and excessive drawdown of aquifers to
meet competing needs. The need to dispose of the wastewater and waste
products from both industrial and residential development has also
posed a threat to the state's surface and ground water resources.

To some extent protection and preservation of the state's water
resources has been provided through regulatory activities of state
agencies. Examples of this can be found in rules governing the deep
well injection of industrial wastes and discharges of wastewater into
surface waters. Agency rules have been supplemented by direct actions
such as restoration of disrupted water systems and land acquisitions
through programs such as the Save Our Rivers, Save Our Coast, and CARL
programs. Unfortunately, such actions by themselves are not sufficient
to adequately protect the state's water resources.

The best methods of preservation are those that are based upon
prevention rather than cure. Educational programs and proper land use
planning are two of the best of these methods. Emphasis must be placed
upon methods that will solve problems of the uneven distribution of the
state's water resources and the need for new development. New
development must be guided to areas where sufficient water resources








exist, and away from areas subjected to periodic flooding. Industries
and public facilities must be planned for to ensure that they are sited
in areas that can adequately handle their wastes. The planning and
land use management process must be made more efficient by research
designed to achieve a more precise understanding of the inter-
relationship between land use and water resources.

The effort to preserve the state's water resources can only be
successful if the citizens of the state play a major role in the
effort. Educational programs must be undertaken to inform the citizens
of the benefits of the state's water resources and the adverse effects
that the loss of these resources will have upon each citizen. Citizens
must understand the importance of proper land use management and
planning, and insist that all levels of government utilize proper
planning and management in their growth management decisions.

OBJECTIVES:

(A) By 1990 land use planning at the state, regional, and local level
will incorporate measures for the protection of natural
resources. (State Plan Policy 6)
Measures: (1) Number of regional and local plans that contain
provisions for the protection of natural
resources.
(2) Number of state agency functional plans that
incorporate provisions for the protection of
natural resources, for agencies with land use
responsibilities.

OPERATING POLICIES:

(a) Ensure that surface water necessary for the protection and
procreation of wildlife, functioning of natural ecosystems,
recreation and navigation is reserved, and that use of
surface water is limited to reasonable-beneficial uses.
(DER, DCA, DNR, GFWFC, DOT, WMDs, RPCs, local governments)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/A/b.

(b) Protect surface water supply sources. (WMDs, regional water
supply authorities, local governments)
Costs: Covered under Policy Clusters 37, 39 & 43.

(c) Require local government planning to use the Water
Management District's groundwater basin resource inventories
and reflect the limitations of the groundwater and other
water supplies in their plans. (DCA, RPCs, local
governments)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/A/a & 8/37/B/b.

(d) Ensure that groundwater necessary for the protection and
procreation of wildlife, functioning of natural ecosystems,


_11










recreation and navigation is reserved, and that use of
groundwater is limited to reasonable-beneficial uses.
(WMDs, RPCs, local governments)
Costs: Costs covered in 8/37/B/a-i & 8/38/B/a-l

(e) Protect groundwater resources needed for water supply.
(WMDs, regional water supply authorities, local
governments)
Costs: Costs covered under Policy Clusters 37 and 43.

(f) Require local governments to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control surface water pollution. (RPCs,
DCA, local governments)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/b.

(g) Develop and implement comprehensive basin plans for major
hydrologic systems to assess and abate the impact of
pollution on the systems. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/c.

(h) Require local governments to develop and implement plans to
prevent, abate, and control groundwater pollution. (RPCs,
DCA, local governments)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/b.

(i) Establish a groundwater quality monitoring network designed
to detect or predict contamination of groundwater resources.
Provide groundwater quality information to regional, state,
and federal agencies, and local governments. (DER, WMDs,
DCA, RPCs, local government)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/B/c.

(j) Prohibit or severely limit discharges of pollutants which
may impact on public and community water supply wellfields,
high recharge areas, and areas designated in local
government comprehensive plans as future water supply
sources. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/B/g.

(k) Protect the type, nature and functions of floodplains,
wetlands, waterways, estuaries, and lakes. When
appropriate, incorporate wetlands and natural storage areas
into surface water management plans. (DER, WMDs, DNR,
GFWFC, DCA, RPCs, local governments)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/A/c, 8/39/A/a and Policy
Cluster 43.

(1) Assist local governments in developing their watershed plans
which coordinate land use and infrastructure development.
(DER, DOT, WMDs, DCA, RPCs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/39/A/b.









(m) Establish consumptive use and other regulatory programs
which provide for minimum flows and levels and provide
protection to natural ecosystems. (DER, WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/A/c.

(n) Develop guidelines for land use and planning in sensitive
river ecosystems. (DCA, RPCs, local governments)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/39/A/e.

(B) By 1995 complete a research program that focuses on unique,
Florida specific issues relating to the protection and
restoration of important land and water resources. (State Plan
Policy 6)
Measures: (1) Number of research projects investigating the
impact of land use patterns on natural
resources.
(2) Number of research projects investigating new
technologies for wastewater and storm water
treatment.

OPERATING POLICIES

(a) Improve existing monitoring programs, develop an inventory
of surface water use, and develop forecasts of the demand
for and potential supply of surface water available for
reasonable-beneficial uses. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered un 8/37/A/a.

(b) Develop and maintain a statewide groundwater basin
inventory which identifies: groundwater basins and
associated recharge areas; areas in the basin that are prone
to contamination or overdraft from development; criteria to
establish minimum and maximum seasonal surface and
groundwater levels; areas suitable for future water resource
development within the groundwater basins; sources of
wastewater discharge suitable for reclamation and reuse, and
existing groundwater uses and potential quantities of
groundwater available for consumptive use. (WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/B/a.

(c) Improve the quality and increase the quantity of water
available through desalinization and other innovative
techniques. (DER, DHRS, WMDs and RPCs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/D/a & b.

(d) Conduct long-term monitoring of surface waters, determine
water quality trends, and maintain a water quality data base
to provide all levels of government with sound scientific
data for environmental decisions. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/a & b.

(e) Sponsor retrofitting programs to reduce surface water
pollution from discharge of domestic wastewater. (DER and
WMDs)


~










Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/g & i.

(f) Develop predictive water quality models based on land use to
determine the relationship between pollution and its effects
on surface waters, including the effectiveness of non-point
source best management practices. (DER, WMDs, DCA, RPCs,
and local government)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/h.

(g) Develop new pollution control technology for the treatment,
disposal, and reclamation and reuse of wastewater and
stormwater discharges into surface waters. (DER)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/i & 8/37/E/c.

(h) Determine the relationship between pollution and its effect
on groundwater, including an evaluation of the potential
uses of treated wastewater; the effectiveness of disposal by
land application; the feasibility of water reclamation and
reuse; and the effectiveness of groundwater clean-up
techniques and strategies. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/B/h.

(i) Develop new pollution control technology for the treatment,
disposal, and reclamation and reuse of wastewater and
stormwater discharges into groundwater. (DER)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/B/i.

(j) Sponsor research into the dynamics of natural water systems,
their primary productive benefits, instream flow needs of
fish and wildlife, the protection of habitats of endangered
and threatened species and overall water management needs.
(DER, WMDs, DNR, and GFWFC)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/39/A/h.

(k) Assess and abate water pollution in designated estuarine
areas. (DER and WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/38/A/a, 8/39/A/g and
9/40/A/b & c.

(1) Identify all environmentally sensitive land and water
resources which are inappropriate for resource extraction
and regulate these areas to prohibit their mining. (DER,
DNR, GFWFC, and WMDs)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/39/A/j, 10/43/A/a and
10/44/A/a.

(m) Promote efficiency in agricultural water use, by employing
water conservation practices, reclaimed water and best
management practices. (DER, WMDs, and DACS)
Costs: Costs covered under 8/37/E/c.













GOAL (17): PUBLIC FACILITIES


Florida shall protect the substantial investments in public
facilities that already exist, and shall plan for and finance new
facilities to serve residents in a timely manner.

POLICY CLUSTER (59): MAXIMIZING THE USE OF EXISTING PUBLIC FACILITIES

10. Encourage development of gray water systems to extend existing
sewerage capacity.

BACKGROUND STATEMENT
MAXIMIZING THE USE OF PUBLIC FACILITIES

Florida's present high rate of population growth appears likely to
continue through the next decade. This growth means a higher demand
for public facilities to provide a variety of public services to meet
their daily needs for water, wastewater disposal, and other essential
requirements. In most cases local governments have attempted to solve
this problem by expanding their old facilities or constructing new
ones. Due to the prohibitive costs and lack of revenues, most local
governments are seeking ways to reduce costs. The major focus is on the
reassessment and efficiency of current development practices and the
optimal use of existing facilities.

The state ranks seventh in the daily volume of fresh water withdrawn
for use in the home in the 1980's and it is projected to rank fourth by
the year 2000.1 Between 1982 and 2000, Florida's overall public
facilities needs are estimated to reach $60 billion.2 Part of this
amount is expected to be met by existing revenues. A significant
portion of these estimates includes costs associated with the
construction of roads, sewer extensions, water supply facilities, and
other capital facilities. Considering the substantial cost of
constructing new water and wastewater facilities, it is important to
optimize the unused capacities of the existing facilities. Renovation
of some facilities to bring back their rated capacities and proper
maintenance of currently used ones must be made. Reuse of these
existing facilities instead of focusing on new ones can also aid in
preserving the natural environment.

Another way to minimize construction of new facilities and cut down
costs is through the use of gray water systems, especially in areas
where it is viable and feasible. Increased usage of gray water systems
could increase the volume of reusable water and, at the same time,
minimize the need for constructing new water treatment plants. With
gray water separated from the main sewage system there will be more
available capacity for treatment plants to treat other types of sewage.
One way to encourage the use of gray water systems is by providing
incentives to local governments and water management districts to
participate.

Planning for future expansion of public facilities should be given
priority considering Florida's population growth and development.




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