Evaluation and Appraisal
Regional Plan for South Florida
South Florida Regional Planning Council
Evaluation and Appraisal
Regional Plan for South Florida
South Florida Regional Planning Council
3440 Hollywood Boulevard, Suite 140 Hollywood, Florida 33021
(305)961-2999 Broward, (305)620-4266 Dade and Monroe
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION ....................................
2. Background .............................................
3. Orientation of the Evaluation Efforts.
II. G EN ERA L EV A LUA TIO N .................................................................................................................. 3
1. Pivotal Perspectives .................................................................................................................. 3
2. Em erging Issues ......................................................................................................................... 4
3. Persistent Issues ...................................................................................................................... ........ 4
4. Functional Linkages...... ..................................... ..................................... .............. .... ........ 5
5. Overall Structure of the Regional Plan ............ ............. .............................. 5
6. Plan Development Process and Implementation.................... ...... ...............5
III. SPECIFIC EVALUATION BY GOAL AREAS ................................. ..... ..........................7
1. Education ................................. ................ .............. ........ .............................. ............... .. 7
2. Children.................................... ...................................................................... .8
3. Fam ily ............................................................................................................................................. 10
4. The Elderly.............................. ........ .............................................. ... ......... ..................... 12
5. H housing ................................................. ................................................................................... 13
6. H health .............................................................................................................................................. 15
7. Public Safety ......................................................................................................................... 17
8. W after Resources .......................................................................................................... 19
9. Coastal and M arine Resources ................ ............................................... .................... 21
10. Natural Systems and Recreational Lands ............................................ .. ........... .. 22
11. Air Q quality .... ............................................. .............................................................. .... 23
12. Energy ........................ ....................... ..................................................................................... 26
13. Hazardous and Non-hazardous Materials and Waste...........................................28
14. M inning .................. ........................................................................................... .................... 31
15. Property Rights ........................................................... ........ .................................................... 32
16. Land U se ......................................................................................................................................... 34
17. D ow ntow n Redevelopm ent ....................... ........................ .................................. ............ 35
18. Public Facilities ............................................................................................................. 36
19. Cultural and H historical Resources ............ ........................................................................ ... 38
20. Transportation .............................................................................................. .. ......... 39
21. G overnm mental Efficiency ....................................................................................................... 42
22. The Econom y .................................................................................... ..... .... 45
24. Tourism ........................................................................................... .... ........................... .... 49
25. Em ploym ent...................................................................................................................................51
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................ ..............................
APPENDIX Concept Paper on Regional Concerns
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The evaluation of the Regional Plan for South Florida aims at assessing the weaknesses as well as
strengths of the Plan and recommending general directions for improvements. Regional Plan
evaluation is a component of the South Florida Regional Planning Council's overall regional L
policy development and implementation processes. The Council has regional planning
responsibilities for the South Florida Region, including Dade, Broward and Monroe counties.
The evaluation will provide a basis for future amendment activities which will culminate in the
transformation of the current Regional Plan into the Strategic Regional Policy Plan, as required
by the recently passed legislation referred to as the ELMS bill (CS/CS/HB 2315).
The Regional Plan for South Florida was initially adopted by the Council in July 1987. Section
186.511, F.S. originally required the Council to prepare an evaluation report of the Regional
Plan once every three years after its initial adoption. The ELMS bill extends this timeframe
requirement from three years to five years. The first evaluation report was completed in June
1990. Additional amendment activities followed that evaluation and led to amendments to the
Regional Plan adopted in August 1991.
This evaluation was conducted between February and June, 1993, exclusively by the Regional
Planning Council staff. Therefore, comments and suggestions contained in this report only
represent Council staffs assessment at this time. Input from agencies and the general public
will be gathered and considered through future amendment activities. Public workshops will
be held to ensure that final amendments incorporate concerns of the general public.
3. Orientation of the Evaluation Efforts
The main features of the evaluation efforts include the following:
a. Observations and the corresponding evaluation have been made with respect to various
levels/aspects of the Regional Plan. For example, at the level of the Plan as a whole, we
evaluated whether the Plan should have both short-term and long-term components. At
the level of Our Community Section (Goals 15 to 21), we evaluated whether the Section
should address basic community issues such as the function and role of community
organizations and their relationships to regional planning. At the level of the Energy Goal
area, we evaluated whether the policy scope to address energy demand management is
b. The evaluation is primarily qualitative in nature. At this stage, we are more concerned
with general themes and conceptual directions instead of specific amendment language.
We would like to focus on "regional" issues and concerns, those issues which are multi-
jurisdictional and cross-programmatic in nature, will cause significant impact in the future,
and are linked to a "vision" into the Region's future. A brief concept paper entitled
"Regional Concerns" is included in the Appendix. The kinds of things we are concerned
with during evaluation include, for example, some of the following:
Has the Regional Plan captured adequately the forward-looking perspectives such as
global communities, creating choices and options, public/private partnerships, etc? If
not, what are the kinds of improvements which should be made? What are the
general directions to incorporate these forward-looking perspectives into the Plan?
Has the Regional Plan addressed emerging issues to the extent meaningful? How can
the Plan provide a general context for these emerging issues? It goes without saying
that identification of emerging issues is a critical component of the whole evaluation
process. It is important to identify emerging issues and suggest general ways to
Has the Regional Plan addressed persistent issues adequately? For example, do the
regional land use and infrastructure goals/policies sufficiently incorporate
considerations for emergency preparedness? Are the regional physical development
policies supportive of the goal to reduce economic and social disparities in the Region?
Has the Regional Plan addressed functional planning in an integrated and coherent
way? For example, is there a clear linkage between water resource planning and land
use planning? Is there a clear linkage between economic development planning and
planning for affordable housing? How should those linkages be strengthened?
Is the Regional Plan implementation friendly? Does it provide guidance to
implementation? Most of the Regional Goals and Policies need to be implemented
through other agencies, particularly the local governments in our Region. Whether
the Regional Plan is sensitive to the existing and likely future fiscal and institutional
realities is another test regarding implementation of the Regional Plan.
II. GENERAL EVALUATION
1. Pivotal Perspectives
Traditionally, regional planning has focused on a set of regional issues, for example,
transportation, environmental protection and economic development. However, it is
important to recognize that issues are identified only in light of certain perspectives. More
often than not, these subject perspectives are implicit and in the background. It would be very
helpful for us to be conscious of the perspectives through which issues are identified.
The current Regional Plan has a clear and strong perspective regarding infrastructure
efficiency. This perspective is manifested through many Regional Goals and Policies which
promote the maximum utilization of existing infrastructure capacities. However,
infrastructure efficiency perspective alone is inadequate for a meaningful regional policy
framework. The current Plan lacks a coherent set of pivotal perspectives from which regional
issues are identified and regional goals and policies formulated. A coherent set of pivotal
perspectives should include, in addition to infrastructure efficiency, at least the following:
global communities, sustainable development, expanding choice and options, and
collaborative planning and decision-making. Though a few fragments of the above four
perspectives do appear in the current Regional Plan, their presence is almost invisible. These
pivotal perspectives should be spelled out explicitly in the new Strategic Regional Policy Plan.
It is important to recognize at the beginning that not only are these pivotal perspectives
interrelated among each other, more importantly, they are mutually supportive of each other.
Further articulation of these pivotal perspectives through the Regional Goals and Policies
throughout the Plan could enhance significantly the coherence of the Regional Plan.
"Global community" perspective puts the relationship between the Region and the rest of the
world into direct focus. This perspective acknowledges that it is increasingly those external
relationships that govern regional planning actions taken within the Region, such as
educational planning and economic development planning. The global community
perspective is applicable to almost every metropolitan region in the world and particularly
relevant to South Florida, being strategically located at the center between North America,
Latin America and the Caribbean. The Region forms the axis for the global distribution of
goods between North America, South America, and Europe. This perspective will enable us to
identify many new regional issues within the areas of education, infrastructure planning and
"Sustainable development" is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This perspective
recognizes the fact that future prosperity will depend on preserving our natural capital
Hence, sustainable communities seek to reduce air and water pollution and the consumption
of nonrenewable resources. It requires a balancing of human activities with nature's ability to
renew itself. Regional policies should aim to foster efficient economic activities and life styles
which will lower the burden on the environment.
"Expanding choices and options" is at the heart of any planning initiative. We need to
constantly ask if planning will expand or limit individual's/societal choices and options. For
example, tele-commuting has received attention mostly from its impact on mitigating traffic
congestion. However, what is at least equally important is that tele-commuting expands the
choices and options for individuals and organizations regarding how economic activities could
"Collaborative planning and decision-making" is essential to regional planning. Regional
planning consists of systematic efforts to manage and resolve regional problems, such as to
increase affordable housing, and to alleviate economic disparities. These regional problems are
generally complex. They are created by the actions of many entities (individuals or
organizations) in and out of the Region. These problems exceed the capabilities of any single
organization to control and cannot be solved by individual organizations alone. In addition,
the way that a regional problem is being managed will affect many individuals and entities in
the Region. In short, there is tremendous interdependence among many different entities
regarding the management and resolution of regional problems. The existence of this
interdependence has generated a need for collaborative planning and decision-making
processes among various entities in the Region.
The Regional Plan should incorporate explicit considerations of collaborative planning and
decision-making processes in the policy formulation as well as implementation. Collaboration
needs should be identified throughout the Plan with respect to, for example, regional
emergency preparedness, hazardous material planning and regional health planning. Further
elaboration of this perspective is included in the specific evaluation for the Goal areas.
2. Emerging Issues
Emerging issues are those which have gained increased attention but about which there is
little shared understanding in the regional community. There are numerous emerging issues
which should be addressed in the revisions to the Regional Plan and include at least the
how the Region could prepare a flexible, global competitive workforce
how to integrate community organizations into regional planning in an effective way
long-term strategies for solid waste management
the deterioration of Florida Bay
long-term impacts of Hurricane Andrew
the need for regional urban design policies
impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the Region's
planning and siting of educational facilities
Elaboration of these emerging issues are contained in the specific evaluation for the applicable
3. Persistent Issues
Persistent issues are those which have been recognized for many years, however, there has
been little progress in addressing the issues. There are numerous persistent issues which,
although discussed in the current Plan, should be revisited in the Plan revision and include at
least the following:
how to deal with the barriers to economic development
how to reduce economic and social disparities
renewal of aging infrastructure
regional coordination on disaster preparedness, response, post-disaster recovery and
significant shortages of affordable housing
Elaboration of these persistent issues are contained in the specific evaluation for the applicable
4. Functional Linkages
The current Regional Plan lacks linkages and integration among different functional planning
areas, such as water resource planning, land use, transportation and emergency preparedness.
For example, water resource planning is impacted significantly by land use planning.
However, the current Regional Plan does not clearly establish linkages between water resource
policies and land use policies. Linkages and integration are needed.
Another example is that the Transportation goals and policies reflect the traditional
"peacetime" focus. However, it is important to recognize that transportation is critical during
emergency conditions such as hurricane evacuation. Better integration between regional
policies for transportation and disaster planning is needed.
In addition to the above two examples, the need for better linkages among functional planning
areas are identified in the specific evaluation by Goal areas.
5. Overall Structure of the Regional Plan
Most regional issues are complex. Their resolutions require long-term sustaining efforts and
do not have a short-term fix. Hence, it is natural to think that the Regional Plan should have
long-term goals to guide its policy implementation. Currently, most goals in the Regional Plan
have the year of 1995 as the target timeframe and with specific measures for achievement.
Those goals are really short-term objectives and not long-term goals. An additional long-term
goal component is needed.
Differentiating long-term goals from short-term objectives will also be helpful in policy
formulations. Policies to achieve long-term goals could have greater emphasis on strategies
which require broader social change, for example, structural changes in institutions, or
changes in consumers' behavior. However, policies to achieve short-term objectives would
focus on strategies inducing non-structural changes.
Another observation deals with the organization of policies under a goal area. There are many
instances in the current Plan that a Goal is followed by ten or more policies. These policies are
generally not organized by a specific criterion or logic. A systematic organization of policies
under each goal area is needed.
Finally, the Regional Plan should continue to address strategic, broad regional issues, whether
physical development, economic development, environment, or social/human development
related. The Regional Plan should not be limited to address only physical development issues
as most of the local comprehensive plans have concentrated on. This view seems to be partly
supported by the ELMS bill (CS/CS/HB 2315) recently adopted by the State Legislature. The
bill specifies that the new Strategic Regional Policy Plan shall include at a minimum the
following five goal areas: affordable housing, economic development, transportation, natural
resources and emergency preparedness.
6. Plan Development Process and Implementation
Successful implementation that moves toward shared regional goals is the ultimate test of a
good Regional Plan. However, most of the regional policies in the Regional Plan need to be,
and can only be, implemented by other agencies. Consequently, implementation of the
Regional Plan presents tremendous challenges. This is even more so for most of the goals
areas in the Our People Section (Goals 1 to 7) and Our Economy Section (Goals 22 to 25), since
many of the Council's review activities deal with physical development oriented issues, and
are generally more directly related to Goal areas in the other two Sections of the Plan, Our
Environment (Goals 8 to 14) and Our Community (Goals 15 to 21).
Currently, many of the regional policies are unclear in terms of their implementation
dimensions. The Regional Plan should provide clear directions as to how the policies could be
implemented. In many of the goal areas, several entities should be responsible for
implementation. Therefore, coordinated policy implementation is essentiaL
Coordinated policy implementation can only be achieved along with the coordinated policy
development approach. The plan development process governs the manner that problems are
defined (including the scope of the problem), goals formulated and policies to implement the
goals identified. Agencies responsible for regional policy implementation must have the
agency's goals and policies consistent with the regional goals and policies both in terms of
contents as well as priorities. In the Regional Plan development process, it is imperative that
the basis for the subject consistency as well as mutual commitments for coordinated policy
development and implementation be established.
III. SPECIFIC EVALUATION BY GOAL AREAS
Concerns in the Current Plan
Regional Goals 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 are generally concerned with students. Respectively, they
address student performance, drop-out rates and access for minority students. Regional
Goals 1.4 and 1.5 are generally concerned with educational programs, specifically the issues
of adult illiteracy and the success of vocational and post-secondary program completers.
One primary regional concern regarding education in South Florida is to improve student
performance. While scores are generally improving in South Florida, the Region still lags
behind the rest of the state in the percentage of pupils passing the State Student Assessment
Test. In all categories of the examination, at both the state and regional level, black students
consistently have the lowest passing grade. The educational gap between minority students
and non-minority students is widening. Dropouts rates are disproportionately higher for
blacks than for other groups.
South Florida is going to be asked to serve the demands of a knowledge-based economy.
The school system will need to make available information that will help students and
workers select appropriate career fields and adapt to a changing job market. There will also
need to be more emphasis on the multilingual needs of South Florida students. Educational
programs must be provided and aimed at solving community needs and addressing
The Education Goal area of the Regional Plan should be completely recreated using the
Region's local school district plans as primary points of reference. The school facility siting
policies should be developed and included within the format and policies of the Public
Facility Goal area.
The Education Goal area contains linkage with the Employment Goal area within the
context of educational programs that respond to the needs of society. Within that section
issues such as adult illiteracy, bilingual education and drop-out prevention are addressed
under Regional Goal 1.4. The Education Goal also makes reference to educational facility
siting, which is again mentioned in Public Facilities Goal. However, the Education Goal area
needs to be linked extensively to every other element in the regional policy plan. Regardless
of the element or issue, education is critical as the foundation from which to address all
other planning and policy issues of regional significance. Consequently, education and
public awareness goals and policies should be included in every other goal area. In order for
the Regional Plan to be meaningful and effective as an instrument by which to promote
coordination, collaboration and strategic planning, it must first of all be understood and
widely recognized by planners, policymakers and the public.
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Regional Plan addresses the issues of child abuse, teenage births, drug and
alcohol abuse, juvenile delinquency and employment of developmentally disabled students.
These goals need to be revised to incorporate the consideration of the emerging issues as
The issue of runaways should be addressed by a regional policy. It should identify the
role of non-profit organizations in providing shelter and counseling for runaways and
their families. As indicated by the programs represented by several recent federal
funding requests that Council staff has reviewed, it appears that the problem is
significant in the Region. It should be recognized that runaways include those who flee
local homes, as well as those who travel to the Region.
Gang Activities I
The emergence of gangs is an increasing problem in every part of the Region. Local
governments should team up with law enforcement and non-profits to work to
dissuade young people from joining gangs and to assist those who want to leave a gang I
organization. Counseling and training should be available to parents to help them
recognize potential gang involvement by their children and to help those whose
children are gang members.
Opportunities for Economically Disadvantaged Children
Programs for economically disadvantaged youth, such as the Boys and Girls Clubs,
should be promoted and encouraged in communities. Public/private youth
employment and business education programs should be developed to teach young |
people the importance of getting and maintaining a job. These programs can be I
conducted through the school system or recreation programs.
Safety Programs I
Because of our demographic shift to a preponderance of two wage-earner households
and single-parent households, the issue of the safety of latchkey children should be a
major concern to the Region. Schools should have at least a quarterly or twice-yearly
program for latchkey children to educate them to safety precautions and what to do in
case of an emergency. Police and fire units should participate in the program. Younger
children should be taught basic personal safety in the schools, with regard to strangers, I
traveling to school, etc. We can no longer depend on parents to teach these basic skills.
Foster Care/Juvenile Justice
The importance of Guardian Ad Litem and other child advocacy programs should be
included in this goal. The Children's Services Board and Guardian Ad Litem program
should be consulted for pertinent data.
The Council should work with local governments, and organizations concerned with
children's issues, such as the Children's Services Board, Regional Health Planning Council,
and Guardian Ad Litem, to ensure that a coordinated effort exists to provide the children of
the Region with services and programs of benefit.
Children are an important element of most families, so the goals of Children and Families are
closed linked. While the Education goal addresses a broad spectrum of needs, the main
focus will probably continue to focus on children. Health concerns regarding children is a
strong emerging issue and should be detailed in the Health goal On a narrower focus, the
Public Safety goal should recommend that gang suppression units be a part of every major
police force in the Region.
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current concerns are limited to the issues of decreasing domestic violence, employing
persons living in poverty, and increasing child care alternatives. They should be revised to
provide a broader overview of the issues affecting families.
* Poverty/Social Services
Government alone cannot respond to the social and welfare needs of families. In large
part this must be accomplished through non-profit organizations and public/private
partnerships. Attention should be brought to the issue of poverty, particularly homeless
families, and the importance of providing housing and training to these families to get
them off the streets and ensure that the children are receiving proper nutrition and
The need for parental counseling and training is also an issue best provided by non-
profits or a public/private partnership. But it is important that we recognize the need
for this service and encourage local governments to provide opportunities and promote
local programs such as the Parent Resource Center.
Family-Oriented Community Activities
Local governments and organizations must be aware of the need to include low-cost or
no-cost family activities in local recreation programs and facilities.
Child Care/Child Support
South Florida demographics reflect the need for an emphasis and encouragement for
providing child care facilities in the work place and in larger housing developments.
These facilities need to be available for families of all incomes.
Because of the transient nature of the Region and the number of single-parent families,
information on child support enforcement programs should be prominently circulated
in the Region, either through the school system, health care system, or other means.
The Council should work with the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services,
the United Way, Parent Resource Centers, and other not-for-profit organizations to ensure
that a coordinated effort exists to provide and support family-oriented programs and
services in the Region.
The goal of Families is obviously closely linked to the goal of Children, as they cross on
many issues. However, families can also exist without children. Childless couples, elderly
couples and homosexual couples can also be considered families, and their needs should be
considered in the revision of this section. The resolution of family issues in many cases
requires education and training, linking it to the goal of Education. With regard to the issue
of domestic violence, the goal of Health, particularly health care and counseling for victims,
is an important issue.
4. The Elderly
Concerns in the Current Plan
The Elderly Goal area provides policies for the promotion of goals to reduce the occurrence
of crime against the elderly, increase educational and employment opportunities for the
elderly, decrease the need for long-term institutional care, and reduce the cost of health care.
Demographic change are making many institutions rethink their policies towards the
elderly. The average age of the labor force will be increasing as the population overall is
becoming older. The reduced pool of young and skilled labor has prompted a reassessment
of retirement policies that effectively discourage the participation of the elderly. These
policies were developed under the assumption that the aged are less efficient than their
younger counterparts, whose numbers were increasing explosively between 1965 and 1985,
thus providing the rationale for the former's replacement. On the contrary, studies have
shown that older employees are cost-effective workers whose potential is under-utilized.
Retirement policies have successfully contributed to the reduced participation of workers
over 55, a situation that must be reversed given recent demographic trends. Tapping the
over 55 segment of the work force may entail career counseling, re-training and additional
Research has concluded that the aging population will increase the elderly dependency rate.
Meeting the care needs of this segment of the population has many concerns. Hospital and
insurance company policies of shortened institutional care has placed a greater amount of
the care for the elderly on the society. This trend is increasing the need for local service
agencies to address the issue.
Past experience indicates that Regional Plan goals and policies related to elderly
employment, training and education are adequate. Yet goals and policies concerning
"eldercare" need to be developed. Many of the impacts that eldercare has on individuals and
society are similar to child care issues. Meeting the cost of care and the need for flexibility in
the work place for those providing care are areas where policies might be appropriate.
Issues of the elderly are important, yet they are among those issues in which the Council has
not been directly involved. Rather, the goals and policies of the Elderly Goal area are
incorporated in the work of the Council as "special needs" subsets of goal areas such as
education, employment, crime, housing, transportation and health care. Given this
approach it may be appropriate to consider this goal area more explicitly in each of the other
goal areas and less as a goal area by itself.
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current concern, "the availability of adequate low and moderate income housing"
should be expanded to "The availability of safe, adequate housing for all individuals and
families regardless of income level or special need." The current goals and measures only
address the issues of providing low and moderate income housing, reducing substandard
housing, and meeting the demand of special needs groups. These goals need to be greatly
enhanced, with the number of policies under each goal reduced. Many of the existing
policies are duplicative and need to be consolidated.
Analysis of Background Statement
The primary focus of the background statement should be the delivery of affordable
housing. It should address the goal of providing adequate and safe housing to individuals
of all income brackets and the linkage of this need to a viable regional economy.
The background statement needs to be updated with the most recent national and regional
economic information regarding homeownership rates, employment/income data, and
demographic data such as population and household size. It should also reflect the current
economic climate relative to financing and the homebuilding industry in generaL Current,
pertinent housing studies should be cited. The narrative should also include the latest
information available from the Florida Department of Community Affairs, University of
Florida BEBR, and the local Comprehensive Housing Affordable Strategy (CHAS) and SHIP
In February 1993, Council staff, at the direction of the Council, convened a Regional
Affordable Housing Task Force to examine ways to meet the challenge of providing
adequate affordable housing on a regional basis. The final report of the Regional Affordable
Housing Task Force will provide important information and recommendations that should
be included in the update. In addition, it may be necessary to obtain "special needs"
information from specific non-profit organizations.
The background statement should provide an overview of the various federal and state
affordable housing programs and discuss the importance of public/private partnerships in
the housing delivery system. It should also recognize the Region's cultural diversity and the
role it plays in housing needs.
New Priorities for Issues/Policies
Affordable housing is addressed in Goal 5.1, and followed by 20 policies. The policies for
providing new affordable housing should be rewritten and include a recognition of very
low, as well as low and moderate income housing needs. The role of government, the
private sector and non-profits in the housing delivery should be acknowledged and
encouraged. The issue of NIMBYism could be addressed in this section. The challenge
appears to be more one of educating local government representatives and the need for
them to take a leadership role in the issue of affordable housing, rather than attempting
to educate the general public.
With regard to the jobs/housing balance, the issue of requiring developers to build
affordable housing relative to their commercial developments should be further
explored and better understood. The goal should be to create a regulatory environment
that is conducive to providing housing for all income levels. If the demand is there, and
the endeavor can be profitable, the private sector will take care of delivering the
housing. There should be a separate goal addressing the issue of substandard housing
In general, the update should reflect the work of the Regional Affordable Housing Task
Force and the opportunities offered by the new state and federal housing programs.
Land development regulations and other public facility requirements add to the cost of
housing of all types, requiring families and individuals to spend a larger percentage of
their incomes on housing than is necessary. These discretionary dollars spent on
housing would otherwise be spent on additional goods and services, thus stimulating
the Region's economy. In our effort to promote the development of adequate affordable
housing units, the role of regulatory requirements and development fees for public
infrastructure should be further examined. The current Plan contains only one
reference to "regulatory and permitting requirements" (Policy 5.1.19). This policy should
become a goal, with the policies reflecting the recommendations of the Regional
Affordable Housing Task Force.
* Special Needs Populations
Government alone cannot provide for the housing requirements of special needs
populations, including the homeless, developmentally and physically disabled, and
migrant agricultural workers. In many cases, this responsibility is best carried out by
non-profit organizations created especially to respond to the myriad needs of a
particular group. The role of these non-profits should be enhanced and their status
elevated to that of a major player in the housing delivery system for special needs
populations. Goal 5.3 addresses this issue but fails to identify the qualifications or define
the term "special needs."
From a planning perspective, the issue of housing is inextricably linked to the goals of Land
Use, Downtown Redevelopment, and Transportation. However, the goal of Economy is just
as important to housing. It is economic development and economic vitality in the Region
that will create the jobs and salaries that are available for residents, thus determining the
type of housing that residents can afford. Economic development will in many ways
determine where housing in the Region is built, either by driving the cost of land up or
down or by the development of economic activity centers that will require housing
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current goals address the issues of behavioral health risks, providing social services to
AIDS patients, reducing the number of families and individuals living in poverty, reducing
the number of inappropriately placed disabled persons, provision of prenatal care,
increasing health services to elderly and disabled adults, reducing exposure to
environmental contaminants, and decreasing health care costs.
Analysis of Background Statement
The background statement should be revised to include emerging issues, while still
recognizing the importance of several persistent issues. The background statement should
discuss the Florida Health Care and Insurance Reform Act of 1993 and the forthcoming
federal health care program. Recognition should also be given to the provision in the ELMS
bill relative to the RPC/Health Council relationship.
Emerging and Persistent Issues
Primary Care/Managed Care
Managed care, particularly primary care, is an emerging issue that will increase in
importance over the next decade. Health care experts are advocating managed care, ie.,
the on-going monitoring and maintenance of personal health, as a way to reduce health
care costs. Illness that are prevented or discovered in early stages through managed
health care result is lower health care costs than acute illness.
Children's Health Services/Infant Mortality/Healthy Start
Children's Health Care Services is another emerging health care issue. Florida
consistently ranks among the highest states in infant mortality rates. The Region's
transient and immigrant populations compound the seriousness of the problem in
South Florida. Healthy Start, a nutrition and education program for pre-school aged
children, is one approach to ensuring the health of our children. The program is in its
second year of state funding. A regional Healthy Start report is expected to be released
in Summer 1993 and will be reviewed for incorporation into this document.
Alcohol/Drug Abuse/Mental Health (ADM)
While not an emerging issues, this area of health care will receive a significant amount of
attention in the foreseeable future. The ADM area covers all aspects of substance abuse
and psychological illness inpatient as well as outpatient. Managed care is an emerging
issue within this sector of health care and should be addressed in the plan. Regional
Health Planning Council reports on this area are currently being reviewed for inclusion
in the Plan.
Emergency Care/Trauma Units
The issue of adequate trauma units is a national concern because of the cost of
equipment, the lack of trained physicians, and the financial losses incurred by the units
because a significant percentage of trauma patients carry no insurance.
The AIDS crisis has a broad effect on a myriad of health resources. The issues of
containment and prevention of the disease are of equal importance to providing health
care for those infected with the HIV virus. This section should address the issues of
primary care, hospice care, counseling for AIDS patients and their families, and
education programs for at-risk populations.
* Special Needs Populations
The Plan should acknowledge the health requirements of special needs populations
such as the homeless, the elderly, the developmentally disabled, and the physically
challenged. The policies in this section should reflect the goal of competent and
available health care for all residents of the Region regardless of income or disability.
The Council should work closely with the Regional Health Planning Councils and the
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services to ensure appropriate
coordination exists to provide South Florida residents with the best health care possible.
The most obvious linkages occur among the Health goal and the goals of Elderly, Children,
and Families. Because of the resident facilities required by many types of health problems,
the Housing goal also has an important link to the Health goal Education is an important
linkage from a preventive and wellness perspective.
7. Public Safety
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Crime Prevention and Offender Rehabilitation-Recidivism sections of the Public
Safety Goal area provide policies for the promotion of goals to reduce the crime rate, lower
recidivism, expand proven alternative corrections programs and increase ex-offenders'
The current Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery section of the Public Safety
Goal area provides policies for the promotion of the following goals: ensuring maintenance
or reduction of the evacuation time for the Region, establishing programs to acquire lands
which are in a coastal high hazard areas, providing for adequate shelter capacity for the
Region, promoting the developing post disaster plans to insure the safety of the population
and reduce the public loss that could be incurred from structures and infrastructure
destroyed by storms.
Emerging Issues Regarding Crime Prevention
Crimes against tourist is an issue of concern which has gained international media attention.
Emphasis needs to given to ways to reduce the incidence of these kinds of crimes. Programs
designed to create a safer environment for tourists and to educate tourists to be cautious
should be supported by a policy.
Stronger emphasis needs to be placed on dealing with the existence and formation of gangs.
Gangs are mentioned in the background statement but there needs to be follow through in
the goals and policies.
Greater emphasis should be given to community based groups against crime (ie. crime
watch) as a supplement to the prevention and curtailment of crime.
Emerging Issues Regarding Emergency Preparedness
The lesson learned in August 1992 as Hurricane Andrew passed destructively over south
Dade County identified the need for coordination within South Florida for hurricane
preparedness, response, recovery, and redevelopment. The damage to property and other
economic losses, as well as many other effects were felt throughout the Region; these effects
will need to be discussed in the Regional Plan update. The legislative actions and planning
initiatives that were enacted as a result of Andrew should be incorporated into the goals and
policies of the Regional Plan.
Additional goals should be added to the Regional Plan addressing coordination on
preparedness, response, recovery and redevelopment, public awareness, and governmental
efficiency in emergency management. These issues cross jurisdictional boundaries and it is
necessary to coordinate not only within the local government but also with the other local
governments within the Region. Policies addressing mandatory mutual aid agreements
within counties and throughout the state should be incorporated into the Regional Plan.
The existing policies of the Regional Plan need to be evaluated in light of Hurricane
Andrew's effect on South Florida. With the devastation of Hurricane Andrew, the
Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee as well as House Bill 911
recommends improvements in the coordination of resources dealing with disaster planning.
The recommendations of the planning initiatives should be reflected in the updated
Regional Plan. For example, since the current Plan requires the local governments to ensure
the safety of citizens within the Region in a disaster, a mechanism for coordination of the
local governments within the Region is needed to enhance this requirement. Tools for
coordination could be included in the policies which require coordination of relief agencies
as well as law enforcement agencies. Populations with special needs assistance is an aspect
of the disaster which is in need of great effort. The Regional Plan should stress the support
necessary for this population. The policy requiring local governments to assist in registering
people with special needs prior to June each year should be a continuous effort year round.
Mutual aid agreements should be evaluated each year to ensure the continued cooperation
of the assisting local governments.
Crime prevention has strong linkages with both Education and Employment. One way to
combat crime is to provide people at risk with education and skills training and give them
the opportunity for gainful employment.
The emergency management topics are linked throughout the Regional Plan. For example,
there is the linkage with Coastal and Marine Resources Goal area through density and
development policies. The Plan could either incorporate emergency management goals and
polices within each Goal area of the Plan or the emergency management section could
include goals and policies that would link to other section of the Plan. Another example is
Our Community section (Goals 15 to 21) contains goals and policies addressing Property
Rights, Culture and Historical Resources, Transportation, as well as Governmental
Efficiency. To comprehensively address the emergency management there should be goals
and policies which effectively address the linkages of these issue areas.
8. Water Resources
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Regional Plan addresses water resource issues regarding water demand, supply,
and use; ground water quality and quantity; public water supply improvement; flood
protection; and wetlands. Existing goals and policies have addressed most water resource
issues; however, emerging water resource issues could best be addressed with new goal and
Water resource issues in the State of Florida, and more specifically South Florida, are of
paramount importance to the Region's existing and future quality of life. Significant impacts
to the water supply of the Region include hurricanes, seasonal wet and dry periods, and
severe drought periods. Water demand is not only a function of population growth and
decline but also proper and efficient use of water. To manage these concerns, comprised of
many specific issues, it is necessary to establish a regional intergovernmental forum.
Historically there has been a persistent failure to link major water interests such as urban,
agriculture, and environment. Urban water interests are concerned with the cost of water.
Monroe County residents pay significantly higher fees for their water as compared to other
urban users and in comparison to the other major water users (agriculture and the
environment). Urban users are also concerned with the potential for increasing future water
costs. Agricultural water interests are concerned with the potential implementation of a fair
share water user costs system and water supply limitations during drought periods. The
Everglades National Park, Florida Bay, and Biscayne Bay are also major water users within
the Region with increased flow levels needs/mandates of fresh water. The South Florida
Water Management District (SFWMD) will be allocating a larger portion of the existing and
future water supply for natural and environmental lands. The Regional Plan should include
a goal with supporting policies that encourage and establish an intergovernmental dialogue
which promotes a fair share of cost to all competing water supply users, the most efficient
use, and the equitable distribution of regional water resources.
South Florida encompasses a vast, diverse, and extremely sensitive ecosystem. Water
resources have historically been considered in surface and ground water terms, but this
thought process is limited in scope. If the Region will remain a viable place to live, future
management of regional water resources will require a comprehensive and coordinative
approach. It is now necessary to implement and act on the degradation of the Everglades, a
direct result of the construction of the extensive canal system, Interstate-75 and the Tamiami
Trail, which impede the natural flow of water from Lake Okeechobee, to the Everglades, and
into Florida Bay. Goal and policy provisions should be included in the Regional Plan that
define the interdependency of natural areas and urban land use activities and focus on the
intergovernmental needs to address this interdependency.
The existing Plan also addresses flood protection. However, recent discussions and activities
have ensued on new flood control and surface water resource issues. To address the
proposed Limestone mining coalition's Western Dade Lake Belt Plan, the Regional Plan
needs to establish a regional policy on surface water storage areas and use. In addition, it is
necessary for the Plan to establish a regional protection and implementation strategies for
both Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay.
The current Regional Plan Goal 8.4 addresses three separate goal issues: maintaining surface
water quality, protecting natural ecosystems, and providing for adequate aquifer recharge.
In its present state, this individual goal attempts to encompass too many issues. Most of the
policies in Goal 8.4 focus on water quality issues. It is suggested that this goal be separated
into three goals with supporting policies for the three existing issue areas. Regional Goal 8.5
addresses no net loss of regional wetlands. It is its present state, the supporting policies
address three separate issues: wetland conservation or no net loss, wetland
enhancement/alteration, and wetland mitigation including banking.
To address the regional water resource issues discussed above, the Council should
implement or assist with the implementation of a regional intergovernmental coordination
and cooperation process with the SFWMD, local governments, and other water user interest
groups. Through collaboration, revisions to the Regional Plan may reflect and link the most
appropriate and current water resource issues, goals, policies, and implementation
Regional water resource issues are linked to goals and policies related to health in terms of
water quality. Coastal and marine resources are linked to water resources through the
amount of coastal development (impervious surface coverage), salt water intrusion, and
impacts to Florida and Biscayne bays, and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.
Natural systems and recreational lands are linked to water resources through wetland
impacts in the Region; and hazardous and non-hazardous materials and waste and
agriculture are linked to water resources through potential groundwater contamination.
9. Coastal and Marine Resources
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Regional Plan provides protection of coastal as well as marine resources. The
goals provide protection of coastal resources through programs designed to enhance public
acquisition, improve erosion control, eliminate dune destruction, and improve beach
renourishment. The Plan also provides for the improvement of water quality including
reducing discharge as well as protecting against oil and hazardous pollutants. The Regional
Plan goals provide protection of the marine resources through policies addressing the
protection of fisheries, coral reefs, native coastal vegetation and development or
redevelopment of marinas.
The planning efforts for Florida's coastal resources which have been undertaken through the
comprehensive planning process have historically been developed independently within
each local government's coastal management element. Each local government has adopted
policies on density and land use, protection of natural systems, beach access, as well as
policies addressing the coastal high-hazard areas. Cross jurisdictional impacts are
experienced in the preservation of beaches, dunes and shorelines systems, acquisition of
areas for preservation, preservation of marine habitat and wildlife, emergency management
planning, as well as density and redevelopment policies. The Regional Plan through the
Coastal/Marine Resource Goal area, utilizes the inter-governmental coordination to address
these fragmented planning efforts.
The Regional Plan identifies the Everglades System as a significant regional resource. The
Everglades ecosystem, including Florida Bay, will certainly qualify as one of many significant
regional resources in which the ELMS bill provides for enhanced protection through the
preparation of the Strategic Regional Policy Plan. The planning efforts undertaken by the
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary need to be coordinated throughout the Region with
goals, objectives and policies within the Regional Plan to ensure the enhancement and
protection of this valuable regional resource. Additionally, the ELMS bill provides directives
within the coastal management element relating to port master plans, marina siting, disposal
sites for dredged materials and acquisition of coastal property. These initiatives should be
incorporate into the Regional Plan.
The preservation of regional natural resources links the Natural Systems/Recreational Lands
planning function with the Coastal/Marine Resources as there are natural resources in the
coastal areas. The protection of these resources can fulfill the polices of both functional
areas. Additionally, the recreation policies can be enhanced with the preservation of the
coastal resources as well as the marine resources. The linkage and coordination of the
Energy policies and the Coastal/Marine Resources must ensure the protection of the
resources as well as the development of the Region's energy plans. Property rights, land
use, as well as emergency management all interlink with the protection of the population
during a major hurricane. The Tourism Goal area and the Economy Goal area can be
enhanced with the preservation of the vital Coastal/Marine Resources, these linkages should
be reflected in the Regional Plan.
10. Natural Systems and Recreational Lands
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Regional Plan provides for the protection of natural systems within the Region
through land acquisition programs as well as policies directing local governments towards
preservation and enhancement. It provides for the improvement of threatened and
endangered species through reduction of species becoming extinct in the Region.
Additionally, the Plan provides for the development of land acquisition and management
practices to allow for a sufficient water supply and protection of wildlife and natural
resources. The current policies also offer protection of the accessibility and equal
distribution of recreational facilities throughout the Region.
The existing land acquisition programs have been enhanced with the ELMS bill directives of
public ownership of natural areas for purposes of maintaining Florida's unique natural
resources. High priority has been given to the counties with the greatest concentration of
population and to lands within an area designated as an area of critical state concern under
Chapter 380.05, F.S. Additionally, the Florida Communities Trust Program shall provide
initiatives to help bring the local comprehensive plans into compliance and implement the
goals, objectives and policies of the conservation, recreation and open space, and coastal
elements, which will otherwise serve to conserve natural resources and resolve land use
conflicts. The Trust program shall include provisions of technical and financial assistance to
carry out projects, activities and the development of programs to achieve the purpose. The
Regional Plan shall identify regional natural resources and provide protection of these
resources through its goals and policies.
The preservation of regional natural resources, such as Florida Bay and the Everglades
ecosystem link Natural Systems/Recreational Lands Goal area with the Coasta/Marine
Resources, Water Resources, and Agriculture Goal areas. With the vast amount of coastline
in Florida many natural systems are located in a coastal area. The development of policies
integrating these goal areas will enhance the protection of the resources. Other systems are
water related or have the potential of being influenced by agricultural runoff, linkages
between these goal areas are imperative for the protection of the resources. Additionally,
Florida's acquisition program can be enhanced by integrating Goal areas such as Natural
Systems/Recreational Lands, Property Rights, Land Use, and Energy. This integration of the
policies towards these issues will provide a comprehensive management plan for the natural
systems during the development or redevelopment of the surrounding areas. The
preservation of the natural systems and recreational lands has a direct impact on enrichment
of tourism and the economy and therefore the Regional Plan should provide the linkages
between these Goal areas.
11. Air Ouality
Concerns in the Current Plan
The over-riding regional goal for the air quality goal area is to improve air quality in the
Region, and to meet all attainment standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) by 1995. In attaining this goal, there are four major issue areas to be addressed.
According to National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), Dade and Broward
counties are designated as a non-attainment area for ozone levels that exceed the acceptable
level established by the U.S. EPA. Ozone is a major component of smog; an irritant to the
eyes, nose, throat, lungs; and damages crops, landscaping, and architectural materials.
Two major issues, linked in their cause and effect relationship, are the growth rate of new
vehicles on the highways, with the corresponding impact of these new vehicles on air
quality, and the difficulty in providing any other means of mobility through transit because
of sprawling, low density land use patterns. A shift toward higher density, mixed use land
development would facilitate transit provision, while reducing vehicle trip growth, and the
corresponding volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions associated with vehicular trips.
The fourth major issue area cited by the Regional Plan is the current failure to use
environmentally safe alternatives to chloroflourocarbons in air conditioning and
refrigeration systems. Chloroflourocarbons (CFC) are linked to the breakdown of
atmospheric ozone which protects the surface from the sun's ultraviolet radiation. The
breakdown of the stratospheric ozone layer is thought to be partially responsible for the
increased occurrence of skin cancer.
Most of the air quality policies focus on transportation-induced emissions. This focus is
justifiable because of the Region's non attainment for ozone levels, for which the primary
source of reactants are auto emissions. While some metropolitan areas in the country may
face redesignation as non-attainment areas for 1996, there is the potential for this Region to
become redesignated as an attainment area. Ongoing discussions to help determine
whether to seek redesignation will significantly impact the air quality policies and goals for
the Regional Plan update.
Generally, two classes of strategies can be considered: those which use cleaner energy, in
which a lower amount of emissions are produced per unit of energy; and strategies which
lower energy use altogether, thereby lowering the source of the emissions. Regional
concerns with the growth rate of new vehicles, the lowering of vehicle miles traveled (VMT),
the lowering of vehicle hours traveled (VHT), and creating incentives and land use patterns
which foster mass transit usage, are concerns which relate to the latter set. While these tend
to require broad social and political changes, the strategies of the former set generally call for
technological and economic changes.
Goal and Policy Specific Analysis
Regional Goal 11.1 asserts that by 1995, air quality in the Region will meet all attainment
standards set by the EPA. Without enumerating what these standards are, it is impossible to
relate policies specifically to the goal. In the interest of establishing a more useful plan and
more user friendly document, the standards referred to in Goal 11.1 should be stated
Of the policies listed to further the attainment of Regional Goal 11.1, Policies 11.1.1, 11.1.3,
11.1.4, 11.1.5, 11.1.15, 11.1.16, and 11.1.18 are duplicative of federal and state laws. While
these policies state the Region's support for these rules, they also limit the potential of the
Regional Plan to provide long term policy guidance which goes beyond the minimum
standards set by federal and state laws. A regional policy plan should seize opportunities to
be as forward looking as possible. Rather than reiterate the required standards of law, the
policy document should promote the attainment of standards higher than current law.
Policies 11.1.6, 11.1.7, and 11.1.13 are of the category of strategies which encourage the use of
cleaner energy sources. Such policies hold more promise for implementation since they do
not require major social and behavioral changes. Policies 11.1.8, 11.1.9, 11.1.10, 11.1.11 and
11.1.19 are policies which fall under the category of strategies which foster clean air through
an overall reduction of emissions-producing energy use. These strategies are problematic to
implement in the short term because they require major structural changes in institutions,
land use, and consumer behavior patterns. This juxtaposition illustrates the need to define
the time frame of the Regional Plan, or define the goals of the Plan as short or long term, as
discussed in Part II General Evaluation. If the time frame is relatively short, policies should
emphasize strategies that can achieve results within that time frame. If the time frame is
longer, greater emphasis can be placed on strategies which require broad social change.
Policy 11.1.14 is a mitigation strategy which is easily implemented because of its simple
reliance on a well tested technology, trees. Furthermore, this strategy promotes many other
goals related to natural systems and recreation, downtown redevelopment, tourism
promotion, and goals which implicitly encourage a higher quality of life. The only negative
impact of landscaping is the cost associated with planting and maintenance.
This goal area should cross reference specific policies in the energy goal area for additional
strategies and policies to reduce the use of emissions-producing energy.
The following policies are suggested as additions to the Goal 11.1 set as policies, which focus
on the strategy of reducing emissions per unit of energy used. As such, these suggestions
do not necessarily reduce energy which is consumed, but encourage a switch to alternative
energies which are converted more cleanly.
* Increase the share of low emissions and zero emissions vehicles which are registered,
and increase the share of VMT and VHT for low and zero emissions vehicles. California
is the model for legislation to enact this strategy. Although the RPC has no such
authority, it can at this early stage, state its support for such technologies, such that in
subsequent activities it may incorporate policies and requirements supporting low and
zero emissions vehicles in land development, transportation development, and transit
Discourage continued use of older, "dirtier" vehicles, and provide more incentives for
their replacement. Impact fees should be tied to emissions contributions as well as
congestion contributions. Along with "dirty" vehicles, utility and recreational machines
that produce high emissions levels per unit of energy should be discouraged.
There are additional policies which address both strategies simultaneously. These policies
address the reduction of emissions, as well as the reduction of non-renewable energy. These
are policies which promote the zero emissions modes of transportation. Changes to the
urban environment to support bicycle mobility, such as road safety, work place amenities,
and multimodal transfer facilities should be encouraged. Similarly, changes to urban
environments that support pedestrian mobility should also be promoted. These strategies
should include: changes in urban design, the completion of a comprehensive pedestrian
network, the establishment of a network of quality, multimodal transfers, and complete
As with all of the goal areas of the Regional Plan, there are numerous functional cross
linkages between air quality and other goal areas and issues. Linkages are presently
established between air quality and goals and policies relating to transportation, land use,
and health. For example, lowering levels of VOCs are linked to land use patterns through
the intermediary linkage of transportation. The primary emitter of VOCs in the Region is
the transportation sector. Since vehicular use is strongly correlated to vehicle occupancy
rate, trip frequency, and mode choice are strongly linked to land use patterns, a linkage of
cause and effect between land use patterns and air quality can be made. Additional linkages
exist and are not cited in the Plan. These include the linkage between Air Quality and
Energy, Downtown Redevelopment, Tourism, Public Safety, Children, and Education.
Environmental noise and the quality of life are two linkages which should be addressed and
for which there is no goal area in the current Plan.
Concerns in the Current Plan
There are six regional concerns that motivate the present goals and policies of this section.
1. The primary resources that supply the Region's energy needs are coal, natural gas,
petroleum, and nuclear fuels. The Region is highly dependent on fuels that come
from sources outside of the State. Additionally, approximately 12% of the Region's
electricity is purchased from out-of-state sources.
2. Annual per capital electricity consumption is increasing at a rate of about 2% per year.
3. Only 5% of the Region's energy comes from renewable sources of energy. Renewable
energy resources include direct and indirect solar, wind, hydroelectric, biomass energy
from wood, crop residues, alcohol fuels, and natural gas from municipal solid and
4. The transportation sector is the largest consumer of energy in the Region.
Automobiles and transportation-related uses consume 54% of the petroleum annually
used in the State. The number of vehicles registered in the Region has grown faster
than the rate of population growth. (4.1% per year versus 1.8% per year) Although
fuel efficiency has climbed, fuel consumption per vehicle is also rising because of
increasing vehicle miles travelled. The growth rate of new vehicles, and the fuel
consumption per vehicle are major regional energy concerns.
5. Correlating strongly to increasing fuel consumption per vehicle, is a concern with H
sprawling land use that promotes inefficient energy use.
6. Where low income families spend a higher percentage of their income on basic
necessities, the high cost of energy relative to the ability to pay of low income families
is a regional concern.
Energy policies can be broadly categorized into four general strategic areas: 1. resource
availability and renewability; 2. resource recovery; 3. energy related transportation
management; and 4. energy demand management of other consumption sectors. Most of
South Florida's non-transportation energy consumption is of electric energy. The electric
power is supplied from two primary sources within the Region: the FPL Turkey Point
nuclear facility and the FPL Port Everglades diesel-powered facility. Energy consumed for
transportation purposes is almost entirely dependent on petroleum consumption. It has
been previously noted that the primary sources of energy for the Region are non-renewable
resources which must be imported. One of the important facets of the regional policy is to
reduce dependence on exogenous sources of energy. The non-renewability of these sources
should be preeminent as a rational planning issue related to sustainable development.
Strategies and policies to encourage energy demand management should be directed at the
sector of use. Therefore, in the interest of producing a plan which is systematic and user-
friendly, the goals and policies could be divided among the four sectors of energy
consumption: transportation, commercial, industrial, and residential. Presently, the policies
can be grouped by: those that encourage energy renewability (Goal 12.1), those that
encourage transit ridership (Goal 12.2), and those that promote the reduction of per capital
energy use (Goal 12.3).
Strategies and goals could be broadened, and reorganized to include the following concepts.
A general approach to encouraging renewable energy should be strengthened within the
goals and policies to support the positions of the background statement. This would include
policies that encourage the use of renewable resources by electricity producers, as well as
policies that promote the use of renewable resources by homeowners, businesses, and
The Regional concern for the management of energy consumption by the transportation
sector could be strengthened by the inclusion of new policies. These would include goals
that promote electric (zero emissions) vehicle usage, which transfers the production of
transportation energy where efficiency gains are technologically and institutionally more
implementable. Provide disincentives to the continued use of less efficient vehicles through
impact fees and gas taxes. Telecommuting should be promoted as a means of reducing
energy demand through reductions in vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) and through a possible
decrease in office space induced energy demand. Changes to the urban environment to
support bicycle mobility such as road safety, work place amenities, and multimodal transfer
facilities should be specifically encouraged by cross reference to applicable policy in the
transportation section. Changes to urban environments to support pedestrian mobility and
increase the proportion of pedestrian trips/total trips should also be promoted. Additional
transportation strategies which reduce VMT, VHT, and SOV use should be cross-referenced
to the appropriate location in the transportation goal area.
Greater detail in specifying goals and policies to support the regional concern for the
management of commercial, industrial, and home energy demand should be included.
These could include a number of consumer oriented energy saving concepts. Standards
based on forecast activity, human factors, and architectural factors, could be promoted to
limit the illumination energy per square foot of space. Passive interior lighting, from
daytime solar light, or from night time street light may also be specifically promoted by
policies. To assure that illumination energy is spent only when demanded, automatic
occupancy sensing technology for both interior and exterior use can be supported. Along
with other efficient luminescence technologies, refined electronic controls, and better
building design standards which allow for more efficient or passive climate control, could be
promoted through goals and policies to support the background positions.
Many cross-functional linkages between regional energy policy and other goal area policies
are suggested in the analysis above. For example, there is a large body of explicit functional
linkages cited between energy demand management and transportation demand
management. These exhibit further second tier linkages between Energy, Transportation,
and Air Quality and Land Use. In the areas of electrical demand management, there are
cross-functional linkages to Land Use, Downtown Redevelopment, and Public Safety. A
more complete enumeration of linkages to the Energy Goal area could include: Education,
Health, Public Safety, Air Quality, Land Use, Downtown Redevelopment, Transportation,
Economy, and Tourism.
13. Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste
Concerns of the Current Plan
The current Regional Plan addresses the reduction of hazardous materials (hazmat)
exposure to the general public. The existing Plan focuses on increasing public awareness of
hazardous materials. Goals and policies provide a sound basis for review of both proposed
large scale development and Hazardous Materials Response Plans. Emerging issues
regarding hazardous materials will require both the strengthening of existing policies and
the provision of new policies.
Current regional concerns also focus on the large amount of solid waste produced in the
Region, the need to develop a market for recycled products, public acceptance of using
recycled products, and the regional siting of solid waste facilities so as to maximize efficiency
and minimize the negative impacts to adjacent land uses and the environment.
Regional goals pursue a 30 percent reduction in the amount of solid waste placed in landfills, I
elimination of the landfilling of unprocessed waste, and a 25 percent increase in the volume
of recycled glass, aluminum, paper, polystyrene foam and plastics. I
Emerging Issues Regarding Hazardous Materials and Waste
Emerging issues regarding hazardous materials and waste include foreign-language barriers,
links to transportation infrastructure, and links to local health councils. The Emergency
Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) is based solely on public
awareness, and in South Florida a critical issue is the language barrier to hazmat awareness.
The Dade County Commission recently repealed a twenty year English-only law which I
limited governmental entities from communicating in foreign languages. The new law
should assist with the implementation of hazmat awareness and the EPCRA Act. The
Regional Plan should include a goal with supporting policies that provide improved I
coordination and utilization of numerous tools to offer training and awareness information
in foreign languages. Goals and policies should also include provisions that direct and assist
hospitals and emergency management services to properly train and inform all staff in
managing hazardous materials incidents.
The South Florida Region is comprised of a complex transportation infrastructure system.
Interstate highways (1-95 and 1-75), two seaports, and numerous airports make the Region
accessible to the world. The Regional Plan should include a goal with supporting policies
that encourage safe multi-modal transportation of hazardous materials to prevent spills,
ground water contamination, and potential loss of life. Goals and policies should also
include provisions that direct and assist hospitals and emergency management services to
properly train and inform all staff in managing transportation related hazardous materials
incidents. It is important that the SFRPC coordinate with the Florida Department of
Community Affairs Division of Emergency Management and the Florida Department of
Transportation concerning EPCRA and the Florida Hazardous Materials Transportation
Safety Act of 1992.
There is a constant need for the Region to be able to respond to emergency catastrophes that
relate to hazardous materials and waste. The Regional Plan should include a goal with
supporting policies that encourage the replacement of recognized hazardous materials
substances stored, manufactured, and used in the Region with alternative substances. One
way to limit or decrease the need for hazmat response is to encourage the use of alternative
chemicals and materials in place of recognized hazardous materials stored, manufactured,
and used within the Region.
There is an increased need to link hazardous materials planning efforts with local health
council's activities. The 1993 ELMS legislation provides an optional incentive for Regional
Planning Councils to integrate regional health planning efforts through partnerships with
local health councils. The Regional Plan should include a goal with supporting policies that
establish policy and activity linkages between hazardous materials planning and local health
council activities. The South Florida Regional Planning Council should also strengthen and
implement the memoranda of agreement with local Regional Health Councils to
aggressively address numerous regional health care and hazardous materials issues.
Emerging Issues / New Emphasis Regarding Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste
Florida's municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in 1991 reached 19.5 million tons, or 8.2
pounds per person per day over twice the national average. Part of the difference is
attributed to waste generated by the state's 40 million tourists. Approximately 30 percent of
the total MSW was composed of paper, while another 20 percent was made up of metals,
plastics and glass. An additional third was construction and demolition debris (16.6 percent)
and yard waste (15.5 percent). The MSW was disposed of primarily in landfills (62 percent),
although 18.5 percent was recycled and 17 percent was combusted in waste-to-energy plants
in 1991. The remaining 2 percent was composted or mulched. Since January 1992,
placement of unprocessed yard trash in landfills has been banned. Three recently opened
waste-to-energy facilities give the state the capacity to incinerate approximately one third of
its MSW. If, as expected, the goal of 30 percent for recycling is achieved in 1994, the state will
reduce the volume landfilled to approximately one third of the overall MSW.
Some waste management highlights within the Region in recent years:
* Recycling programs are well underway in each of the three South Florida counties,
although coordination between the counties and their respective local governments
continues to be a challenge. Most local governments expect to meet or surpass regional
and state recycling goals by 1994.
SBroward County and all but four of its municipalities brought two waste-to-energy
facilities on-line in 1992, with a total capacity to process 4,500 tons per day of solid waste.
Partially as a result of the success of recycling, the volume of solid waste delivered to
these facilities has been lower than expected. As a result, the County has offered to
accept additional solid waste from surrounding communities, at competitive tipping
fees. Dade County has proposed to expand its own waste-to-energy facility in North
Dade, from 3,000 to 4,500 tons per day. In response to competitive rates in Broward
County, Dade has proposed an "export surcharge" to encourage local service providers
to continue to dispose of solid waste in the County, in order to avoid undermining the
financial feasibility of the County's waste management program. The waste-to-energy
facility in the City of Key West is operated to serve only the population of the City,
although it could potentially absorb solid waste from the unincorporated portion of the
Lower Keys in Monroe County, which ships garbage to Broward County.
SMonroe County currently ships its non-recyclable waste to a private landfill in Pompano
Beach, at tipping fees considerably lower than those paid for solid waste taken to
Broward County's waste-to-energy facilities. Similarly, debris from Dade County,
generated by Hurricane Andrew, is also being placed in the same landfill. These
contracts raise issues of inter-jurisdictional coordination. The capacity at this private
facility is being used up through contracts with neighboring jurisdictions, even while
Broward County and its municipalities must pay the same firm, which operates its
incinerators, for failing to meet the minimum volume deliveries.
The Region hosted two facilities which attempted to implement large-scale composting I
as an alternative waste management technology, one in Broward County and one in
Dade County. Both experienced difficulty in meeting the requirements for odor
containment and are currently closed.
The issues faced by the three counties outlined above suggest that there is a need for
regional coordination of the long-term solid waste management strategies (source reduction,
source separation, recycling, reuse, disposal, waste-to-energy). This will be essential to avoid
the competitive approaches currently being pursued and the potential financial dangers
which ensue. Extending the planning horizon is one way to enable more successful joint
strategies to be developed.
Increasing emphasis in any strategy will be on more and better source reduction and source
separation. The counties and cities have an important role in further promoting the use of
recyclable materials and the growth of markets for recycled materials, through public and
private purchase policies and educational campaigns.
Another issue which has been made more apparent as a result of the impacts of Hurricane
Andrew is the need to plan for the response to natural disasters. This includes the
designation of temporary sites for debris removal and the potential for significant portions
of the Region's overall landfill capacity to be consumed suddenly. I
The Regional Plan should establish linkages and fill existing policy gaps between hazardous L
materials and waste in the following Goal areas: Water Resources through ground water
contamination, Health through water quality, and Agriculture through the storage,
manufacturing, and usage of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.
The need for intergovernmental coordination to ensure efficiency in the planning and
management of public facilities is convincingly demonstrated in the area of solid waste
planning. Most would agree that the environmental sensitivity of the Florida Keys argues
against siting of additional landfills in Monroe County. Finding an enduring solution to
Monroe County's solid waste disposal needs will require a regional approach.
The environmental and health impacts of incineration are still the subject of considerable
controversy, relating not only to air pollutants such as mercury, but also to the ability to
properly dispose of the toxic ash produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Further studies and
systematic monitoring are required to ascertain the extent to which long-term impacts can
be reduced through the new technologies being implemented. Monitoring existing landfills
for leaching is another important component of the overall strategy to protect the Region
against environmental and health hazards.
Concerns in the Current Plan
Mining is a regional concern for several reasons. Most mining activity in the Region occurs
in wetlands and mining activity may degrade surface and groundwater quality, change
drainage patterns, and reduce habitat available for threatened and endangered species. It is
difficult, expensive, and often infeasible to return mined areas to their natural state.
Given the substantial negative, and irreversible impacts that mining (primarily limestone
rock mining) has on the natural environment, mining activity is given special consideration
with regard to allowing on-going regulated activity. Mining, like agriculture, and tourism, is
an important sector to the economy and vitality of the Region. Each of these industries
necessitates some environmental degradation as a by-product of its production. However,
with appropriate planning and regulation, these industries can continue their activities as
long as the damage, or the risk of damage, to the environment does not outweigh the
economic benefits enjoyed by the Region. For example, since oil exploration off the coast of
Florida involves a potential for environmental damage which is now viewed to outweigh
the benefits, off-shore oil drilling has ceased off the Florida coast.
Agriculture, mining, and tourism are industries which are regionally significant to the
economy of the South Florida Region. Each of these industries have been included in the
Regional Plan, however agriculture, and tourism have been included as economic issues,
while mining has been included as an environmental issue. The aspects of agriculture and
tourism that affect the environment have been included in the applicable sections, and in the
next Plan will likely be cross-referenced.
Mining has been treated differently, inferring that it is an environmental issue, and not an
important industry to the regional economy. To improve the Plan to be more consistent and
systematic in its treatment of major regional industries and their commensurate
environmental impacts, the Mining section should be relocated to the Our Economy section.
Many cross-functional linkages between regional mining policy and other goal area policies
are described in the background statement of the Regional Plan. There are obvious impacts
of mining on the Region's natural systems, and the health of nearby communities. Mining
activity also produces unique waste concerns, and affects the water supply by changing the
size and nature of the recharge area. A more complete listing of linkages to the Mining Goal
area could include: Health, Public Safety, Water Resources, Coastal and Marine Resources,
Natural Systems and Recreational Lands, Air Quality, Hazardous and Non-hazardous
Materials and Waste, Land Use, Transportation, the Economy, and Tourism.
15. Property Rights
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Property Rights Goal area provides policies for the promotion of the following
goals: to consider both the property rights of private owner and the public interest when
developing and implementing land use regulations; and to reassess property values in a
timely manner to ensure an equitable distribution of the cost and benefits of land
ownership. These goals and policies respond to this complex and somewhat elusive goal
area by providing a general framework as the basis from which to respond to growth
Over the past year several events have occurred in the area of property rights at the federal
and state levels. The first event was the Supreme Court ruling in the "Lucas" case. The
second was a property rights bill proposed in the Florida Legislature. These actions
represent ongoing attempts to continue to define land use regulation through the process of
balancing private rights and public interests.
In June 1992, a Supreme Court ruling restricted governments ability to regulate private land
use without compensation. In Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, the Court ruled land
owners must be compensated when state or local laws deprive them of the economic
benefits of their property.
In 1993, a proposed private property rights act (Senate Bill 1000) was introduced in the
Florida Legislature but was vetoed by Governor Chiles. The Act was designed to secure the
rights of private property owners against government regulations that diminish the
property's market value. The Act would have set guidelines for governmental agencies and
the courts by defining a private landowner's rights for recourse if a governmental unit
implements a regulatory program severely limiting the practical use of real property. The
bill proposed a 40% or more reduction in fair market value as the threshold.
In place of Senate Bill 1000 the Governor established by Executive Order the Governor's
Property Rights Study Commission II. The purpose of the Commission is to make
recommendations to the Governor and leadership of the Legislature concerning resolution
of problems generated by the competing interests of property owners and appropriate
governmental regulation. The Commission is charged with presenting its report by January
The existing Property Rights goals and policies of the Regional Plan provide a general
framework to address the complex balance between public and private interest as it pertains
to real property. Staff should continue to monitor the judicial and legislative arenas as this
issue is refined over time.
The Property Rights Goal area is linked to all the goals and policies in the Regional Plan
having an impact on land use. The linkage with the Land Use Goal area is of course
obvious. Perhaps less obvious is the Water Resources Goal area where policies related to the
protection of the aquifers might limit use of private property. The Public Facilities and
Transportation Goal areas have what might be seen as indirect linkages with property rights
in that decisions to provide infrastructure affects the ability to develop property and
influence the value of land. Other linkages with the Property Rights Goal occur in Coastal
and Marine Resources, Natural Systems and Recreational Lands, Mining, and Downtown
Redevelopment goal areas.
16. Land Use
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Regional Plan includes policy provisions that establish a land use planning
framework and planning horizon, guide development activity near existing public facilities, 1
and reduce incompatible land uses. Regional concerns include the need of redevelopment
in existing urban areas, the need to balance economic potential with environmental
sensitivity of natural resources, and the need to balance urban and beach redevelopment
with disaster preparedness principles.
Population in South Florida has significantly increased over the last three decades
generating a significant change in regional land use patterns from rural/agricultural to urban
development. The quick changes in land development have created in some cases and
contributed to in other cases incompatible and inefficient regional land use development N
An improved effort is needed for regional land use intergovernmental coordination to
address these issues. Goal and policy provisions are needed to establish and link
concurrency management of infrastructure needs, cumulative land use amendment impacts
and financial feasibility of regional development projects. In addition, the Regional Plan
should provide guidance to local governments to implement review methodologies that
consider the cumulative impacts of proposed development projects on public facilities and
significant regional resources.
Hurricane preparedness remains a major regional issue. Studies have shown that during a
major hurricane it is impossible for all populations at risk to evacuate by car during the final
24 hours before landfall. Goal and policy provisions are needed that designate a significant
amount of permanent land use structures as hurricane shelters.
Tourism resources are valuable contributors to the Region's economic base. Goal and policy
provisions are needed to link and maximize the efficiency of seaports, airports, agricultural
tourist attractions, ecosystem tourist attractions, major shopping centers, major sports
facilities and other area events. The Regional Plan must build a stronger foundation linking
tourism land use activity.
To assist in achieving all of the above-referenced issues, the Regional Plan should encourage
coordination between local governments and the development community of South Florida.
The revised Regional Plan should strengthen the regional policy approach regarding the
local government comprehensive plan review process.
Land Use goals are linked to the goals of Education and Public Facilities through the issue of
educational and other public facility siting. Other strong linkages exist between Land Use
and the goals of Housing, and Transportation through the establishment of higher density
corridors to serve public transit and to provide affordable housing. Land use is also closely
linked with Water Resources, Agriculture, Tourism, and Downtown Redevelopment goal
areas. The upcoming Regional Plan revision process should further define all of these
17. Downtown Redevelopment
Concerns in the Current Plan
Downtown redevelopment is very important for the future of South Florida. It could
generate additional jobs needed to strengthen the Region's economic base. Serving as a
growth center and providing expanded centralized facilities and services, downtown
redevelopment could also strengthen a process toward a compact development pattern, and
minimize sprawl The prospect for the wide use of mass transit could only be enhanced
through a strong and active downtown.
Realistic levels of service, housing linkages, solutions to homelessness, and poverty are
issues that must be addressed successfully in order to create and sustain quality and vital
downtown environments. In addition, conflicts between downtown areas and adjacent
neighborhoods need agreed-upon conflict mediation processes.
Reasons to integrate downtown planning with local comprehensive planning processes are
quite straightforward. Downtown is a special place and a focal point for the city or larger
area. The unique condition associated with downtown areas require special planning
efforts. However, downtown provides urban functions to the much larger surrounding
metropolitan areas. Downtown development or redevelopment will have significant
impacts on the surrounding larger areas. Hence, downtown planning must also be
integrated with the planning for the city and the larger metropolitan areas.
Regional Goal 17.1 addresses public and private investment in downtown areas. Regional
Goal 17.2 focuses on achieving compatible development patterns for the downtown and its
neighborhoods. The Downtown Redevelopment Goal area for the Regional Policy Plan
should be recreated and expanded to be integrated with the policies and format contexts of
the Economic Development Element. The Downtown Redevelopment Goal area should be
fundamentally a comprehensive and strategic policy blueprint.
Linkages exist in the Downtown Redevelopment Goal area with regard to Land Use,
Transportation, Housing and Cultural and Historical Resources by way of reference in a
limited number of goals and policies. However, goals and policies need to be further
expanded upon to strengthen current linkages and add others, such as: Health, Public
Safety, Water Resources, Air Quality, Energy, Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Materials and
Waste, Public Facilities, and Employment. In order for the Region's downtown to be vital
and quality living environments, urban systems must be healthy and compatible. Regional
goals and policies that promote strategic and sustainable downtown development and
redevelopment should be developed as the foundation of this element.
18. Public Facilities
Concerns in the Current Plan
Current regional concerns focus on optimizing the use of public infrastructure; proper
maintenance of existing infrastructure, including the replacement of aging capital facilities;
adaptive re-use of functionally obsolete facilities; and equitably distributing the costs of
providing and operating public services to those benefitting from such services.
Regional goals pursue the maintenance or increase of the overall rate of capacity utilization
for regional public facilities and an increase in the proportion of the total cost of new public
facilities in the Region which is provided by financing mechanisms that equitably distribute
the cost among those to be benefitted.
Emerging Issues / New Emphasis
The Region has made uneven progress in the first years of the 1990s toward effective system
planning for public facility capacity. Monroe County has implemented a permit allocation
system for residential development in order to improve its capacity for hurricane
evacuation. The inadequacy of sanitary wastewater and stormwater management
infrastructure in the Florida Keys is a primary focus of both the comprehensive plan and the
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary water quality protection program. Both Dade and
Broward counties have been required to implement temporary sewer moratoria in response j
to breakdowns in the coordination between facility planning and on-going development
activity. Similarly, the challenges of providing adequate schools and other infrastructure in
growth areas for residential development in western Dade and Broward counties have not
been met. Focus on the implementation of concurrency management systems in growth |
management must be integrated with the identification of long-term needs for the
maintenance and expansion of facilities, as well as the mechanisms to fund them.
The renewal of aging infrastructure and the upgrading of facilities necessary to
accommodate redevelopment and infill development will be the principal focus of public
investment over the next decade. This represents an opportunity to improve efficiency and
performance, but will require careful, system-wide planning and coordination among
adjacent jurisdictions. Intergovernmental collaboration can be very productive at this level,
where larger-than-local facilities can frequently meet needs more efficiently and at a lower
We must strive to carry out an economic analysis of public resource allocation which better
weighs the full set of costs and benefits over an extended time horizon. This is especially
true for such infrastructure investments as waste disposal facilities (landfills, incinerators)
and transportation facilities (high speed rail, light rail, port facilities, airports). Coordinated
region-wide planning for such facilities will make it more realistic to focus on such long-term
benefits. At the same time, equity considerations in the provision of public services will
become increasingly important, as a means to ensure both access to those services and
funding sources to bring them about.
Potable water and wastewater facilities should be planned not only to ensure adequate
capacity to process, deliver, collect and dispose of water, but also to optimize the utilization
of increasingly scarce water resources in the Region. The availability of raw water is not
unlimited, and the disposal of wastewater in ocean outfalls and injection wells has
environmental impacts that are not fully identified and measured. The long-term analysis of
alternatives should result in an increasing role for water reuse as an important component of
meeting our water and wastewater needs.
Most of the goal areas of the Regional Plan are linked to public facility goals and policies.
The timely and cost-efficient provision of public facilities is essential to the Region's
economic competitiveness, as the Region becomes increasingly integrated into the world
economy. Health and education facilities and labor training services, as well as such
traditional infrastructure as transportation, water, wastewater and drainage, are essential to
economic development. Equally, well-designed recreational facilities will be required to
enable the Region to sustain the quality of life and preserve unique natural resources.
School facilities development needs to be better integrated into the growth management
context, either through formal inclusion among level-of-service evaluation criteria or
through coordinated school board/county government planning. State university facility
planning also needs to be properly integrated. In a similar fashion, federal facility
development decisions (especially military) should also be incorporated into the
comprehensive planning process.
Hurricane Andrew has helped to demonstrate the insufficiency of shelter space in the
Region as well as the need for more focus on the functional integration of public facilities
such as schools and hospitals, and the need for making them hurricane-proof (including
retrofitting) in order to use them as shelters.
19. Cultural and Historical Resources
Concerns in the Current Plan
Florida has an adequate framework of laws to protect its historical and archaeological
resources, but much remains to be accomplished to fully implement the provisions of
existing laws, as well as to acquire the abilities and funds to ensure these laws are upheld. In
addition, Florida's unprecedented growth for at least the past three decades generated
numerous environmental-altering activities by the government and the private sector each
year. Many of these have the potential of diminishing the state's archaeological and
Many archaeological and historical sites in South Florida have not yet been identified,
surveyed and evaluated. Consequently, it is important, with regard to the protection and
preservation of these resources, that the Regional Planning Council and county and local
governments in the Region work closely with the Florida Division of Historical Resources
and adhere to local, state and federal guidelines and laws that have been established for the i
protection of archaeological and historical resources.
It is particularly important that local governments in the Region address the issue of historic
preservation in their comprehensive plans in accordance with the 1985 amendments to
chapter 163, F.S., and its implementing criteria F.A.C rule 9J-5.
A need exists for coordination and collaboration amongst the Region's arts facilities and
councils in order to maximize benefits of arts resources to residents of the Region. In
addition, education and public awareness is critical in fostering an appreciation of arts
throughout the Region and maximizing public benefit of the Region's arts facilities and
programs. More regional goals and policies are needed to address these issues, especially as
they relate to the programs and policies that are promulgated by the Florida Division of
The Cultural and Historical Resources Element has been divided into two parts. The
Historical Resources Element has been completed in the form of the South Florida Regional
Policy Plan for Historical and Archaeological Resources. The Cultural Resources Element
has not yet been revised. However, the Element needs to be recreated with goals and
policies that are compatible with those promoted by the Florida Division of Cultural
Resources as outlined in the Florida Arts Leadership Congress (FALCON) Strategic Cultural
Plan. In redeveloping the element, staff will use this plan as a primary point of reference,
particularly with regard to facility siting.
The recreated Historical and Archaeological Resources Element for the Regional Policy Plan
is a comprehensive element that is consistent with all state and federal laws pertaining to the
preservation of historic and archaeological resources. The element has strong potential as a
regional preservation planning tool and as a key point of reference from which to develop
preservation elements for local comprehensive plans. The element's policies, goals and
measurable objectives will provide important linkage between levels of government and
their respective plans, as well as most other elements in the Regional Policy Plan.
Concerns in the Current Plan
While the primary function of the Region's multimodal transportation system is to move
people and goods efficiently, it is also recognized that the regional transportation system is
also a significant development variable in the Region. Furthermore, the transportation
system should function to enhance other desirable social goals which improve the quality of
life. These include clean air, energy conservation, the efficient use of land and infrastructure
resources, and creating greater social equity through equity in access.
The major issues which underlie the goals and policies of this section of the Regional Plan
attempt to address the primary functions and impacts of the Region's transportation system
in a manner which enhances the quality of life for the Region's residents, visitors, and
commerce. A major thrust of regional planning is growth management, and as there are
many social, environmental, and public costs associated with sprawling land use, compact,
efficient development is a desirable goal of growth management. Coordination between
transportation, land use, and environmental planning to achieve more compact, efficient
development is a primary issue which goals and policies attempt to address.
In order to achieve compact efficient growth patterns, cooperation and coordination
between state, regional, and local agencies must be improved, especially among some of the
organizationally disparate transportation providers within the Region.
Other issues which are addressed by the transportation goal area include the following:
reducing congestion on the Region's roadways; the need for stronger intermodal linkages
among ground system and air and seaports; availability and accessibility to alternative
modes: public/private transit, bicycle, pedestrian. Each of these issues contains important
facets and possibilities for improving the quality of life, improving economic and consumer
efficiency, and maximizing the utilization of public infrastructure. Additional issues which
address the efficient use of public infrastructure are the lack of funding for adequate, timely
improvements, and containing the costs of providing funds for right-of-way acquisition.
Transportation in the Region is considered to be a multimodal system of integrated sub-
systems, including the highway system, the transit system, railroad, seaports, and airports.
Also mentioned are components such as bikeways and pedestrian ways. The incidentally
mentioned modes, bicycle and pedestrian travel, are not explicitly addressed in any of the six
goals and fifty-three policies contained in this section. This treatment of non-motorized
forms of travel as purely incidental implies a narrow approach toward transportation
planning. It is important not to use the narrative which refers to bicycle, pedestrian, and
sometimes transit, as alternative modes. Although this may be viewed as a mere exercise in
semantics, it is an important first step in recognizing pedestrian travel as a primary mode of
travel which should receive at least the same level of attention as any other mode.
Pedestrian travel, the pedestrian network, and the pedestrian level of service should be
defined and addressed as a separate set of goals and policies.
Similarly, bicycle transit is not addressed at all within the transportation goal area. It is a
mode of travel which needs to be planned if it is to be encouraged as an energy reduction
and air quality strategy. The Regional Plan is remiss in its omission to plan for safe bicycle
travel, as it is a recreational activity which shares land use with the roadway system.
A major growth management issue concerns the mechanism by which transportation L
functions can induce compact and efficient urban development patterns. Characterized by
higher intensity development, compact development helps to reduce vehicle generation
rates, and fosters a more evenly distributed modal split. The primary mechanism for this is L
the reduction of average trip lengths. Obviously, changing land use patterns in a
comprehensive manner, even within a single community, is a long-term strategy that
requires many years to accomplish comprehensively. Equally important to encouraging a
more evenly distributed modal split which encourages more pedestrian and transit activity
is the urban design of communities and commercial areas. Pedestrian amenities are critical
to reduced vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and greater transit use. Furthermore, it is important
to consider the physical necessities of transit systems when reviewing site designs. Since u
changes in urban design can have some effect even in the absence of the comprehensiveness
of those changes, attention to urban design would be a strategy that could produce results
in a shorter time frame than land use changes.
Cost-effective transportation services are encouraged, especially when referring to transit
projects. Goals and policies in the public facilities section reinforce this further. While cost- |
effectiveness and governmental efficiency (as measured by cost) are appealing concepts, 1t
they are incomplete if social effectiveness, or the maximization of social benefit is not
considered. The benefits produced by different projects should be measured, and projects
should be compared on par for their respective array of social benefits produced, and their A
respective incurred costs, when projects are evaluated for implementation. This requires
measures that equally evaluate projects of different modes.
Transportation demand management (TDM) strategies are important to reducing
congestion, reducing energy consumption, and improving air quality, however, TDM is
mentioned only once in Policy 20.1.7. As a critical set of strategies to promote the attainment
of numerous goals, TDM should be treated in greater depth, and with greater specificity in
the Plan. A set of goals and policies relating to TDM should also include policies regarding
telecommuting as a TDM measure. Telecommuting has broad cross-programmatic impacts
on the Employment, Land Use, Families, and Energy goal areas as well as Transportation.
The level of service (LOS) standard is used as a key policy instrument in affecting
development patterns. LOS performance criteria, even when differentially applied to
downtown development areas, do not adequately encompass all of the measurable impacts
of the Region's transportation system. Because of this, LOS standards have been
dysfunctionally implemented with respect to growth management. New approaches to
interpreting and expanding LOS and concurrency criteria can be derived to better satisfy the
intent of the growth management legislation.
An important motivation for transportation planning is to provide equity, as well as
efficiency in regional mobility. The needs of the transportation disadvantaged have been
identified and addressed in the current Regional Plan by establishing policies which
promote special services to provide mobility for this population segment. The emphasis on
special services, while providing immediate solutions, also suggests deficiencies in the
transportation system. The Plan would be strengthened by placing more emphasis on
normative transportation for the transportation disadvantaged.
Goal 20.6 states that at least 80% of the operating capacity of the existing air and sea port
facilities must be utilized before they are expanded. The maximization of existing capacity,
instead of simply constructing more capacity is an important and appropriate goal, however, l
the policies which follow do not suggest any gauge by which to measure the capacity of
these facilities. The concept of airport and seaport capacities, their costs, and their benefits
should be adequately identified to support this goal.
There are many cross-functional linkages between regional transportation policy and other
goal area policies of the Regional Plan. Some of the most clearly discernable linkages are
between Transportation and Land Use, Energy, and Air Quality. As described in the Air
Quality goal area, the growth rate of new vehicles, along with rising rate of vehicle miles
traveled, has a major impact on the air quality of the Region. In turn the rising number of
vehicles and rising VMT is affected by the difficulty in providing any other means of
mobility through transit because of sprawling, low density land use patterns. In turn, the
low density land use patterns encourage still greater demand for auto use. There exists a
complex circular chain of cause and effect between regional transportation issues and other
regional issues. It is therefore necessary to implement strategies which attempt to
synchronize the attainment of numerous cross-functionally related goals in order to
effectively address even one issue completely. A more complete listing of linkages to the
Transportation goal area could include: the Elderly, Health, Public Safety, Water Resources,
Coastal and Marine Resources, Natural Systems, Air Quality, Energy, Hazardous and Non-
hazardous Wastes, Property Rights, Land Use, Downtown Redevelopment, Public Facilities,
the Economy, and Employment.
21. Governmental Efficiency
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Government Efficiency Goal area provides policies for the promotion of goals to
improve the quality and range of public services in a manner which is cost effective over the j
It has become generally recognized that players in growth management, including those in
both the public and private sector, are intricately joined through the environment in which
they function. That is to say, purposeful actions by some organizations or agencies affect the
ability of others to achieve their goals. Furthermore, the problems which all groups in the
growth management arena encounter are becoming more numerous, more complex and
defy simple solutions. These "tough problems" typically encompass multifaceted,
interdependent technical, scientific and socio-economic factors which can impact the quality
of life for many parties. These problems exceed the capabilities of any single organization to
control and cannot be solved by individual organizations alone. Instead, solutions depend
on organizations working together. This increased interdependence has generated a need
for new methods of collaboration among organizations to bring about greater effectiveness
and efficiency when dealing with issues.
It has become increasingly evident that the old "pro forma" approach to involving outside tL
parties in an agency's planning and policy development efforts has proven inadequate to the
task. That approach, in which agency staff typically strive to "limit the opposition" rather
than "accommodate the opposition's concerns", will be inadequate to the task ahead.
Instead, a well-structured, pro-active, and inclusive process is needed to allow agencies to
effectively integrate the concerns of a wide variety of affected parties into workable plans
and programs. The basic fact is that difficult public policy situations are hard to define and
resolve precisely because they demand the work and responsibility of the constituents.
Thus many complex problems are not amenable to solutions provided from the top by
leaders. Rather their solution require that constituents address the problematic situations
that face them. The challenge is to create "cooperationist" attitudes, processes, and
In light of the need for new methods of collaboration among organizations and the
challenge to create "cooperationist" attitudes, processes, and institutions, it has long been
acknowledged that intergovernmental coordination is one of the areas of Florida's growth
management system which is most in need of attention. While growth management has
helped local, regional, and state entities address the issues raised by rapid growth, it has not L
given them adequate tools to address the differences in their approaches to these issues.
Essentially, collaborative decision-making and problem solving processes for balancing
needs and viewpoints, avoiding impasses, and avoiding litigation are underdeveloped.
Effective coordination during planning can result in consistent goals, objectives, and policies
or can simply assure that actions of the various entities are compatible before they are
implemented. The need for coordination also arises when an incompatibility surfaces as
goals, objectives, policies or actions are implemented. In Florida, coordination at either the
planning stage or the implementation stage has traditionally faced a major difficulty: a
jurisdiction affected by the actions of other jurisdictions has no means by which to bring
those others to the table to discuss the issue. This difficulty has meant that
coordination as now designed is essentially a one-way street. A local government can
"coordinate" with another entity by sending letters, requests for participation on committees,
or notices of action. Yet there is no requirement for resolution of an issue.
Growth management disputes can be resolved in three ways: 1) reconciling interests; 2)
determining who is right; and 3) determining who is more powerful For example, a dispute
over the development of environmentally sensitive lands can be seen as a decision by local
government or DCA between property rights and public welfare concerns. Or the parties
may choose to play this as a power game who can influence the staff or get the votes they
need on the commission or from the Governor and Cabinet? A focus on interests would
seek a solution that optimizes the owner's utility of their property, while protecting public
interests in ground water, endangered species, etc. While interests are usually considered in
existing dispute resolution procedures, emphasis is usually on the determination of rights,
too often with an undue influence by the powerful. The result is too often a winner and a
loser, without long-term resolution of the underlying conflicts.
The ELMS bill addressed the need for enhanced intergovernmental coordination with
recommendations which recognize the need for collaborative approaches to coordination,
planning, implementation and dispute resolution. These recommendations are reflected in
House Bill 2315. The Regional Plan for South Florida should take advantage of the momentum
created by this legislation and reflect these initiatives in the goals and policies of certain issue
areas including Governmental Efficiency. The points of reference for potential goals and
policies to be developed in the Regional Plan are highlighted below.
* Neighboring communities, especially those sharing natural resources or physical or
economic infrastructure, should be encouraged to create joint visions for greater than
local areas. Joint visioning may be a powerful tool in that a well-crafted and
implemented vision can influence all aspects of planning. By engaging in joint visioning
jurisdictions can improve the likelihood that goals, objectives and policies will be
compatible rather than clash.
Each county, the municipalities within that county, the district school board, and service
providers in that county should establish joint processes for collaborative planning and
decision-making on public school siting and services subject to concurrency and siting
facilities with countywide significance, including locally unwanted land uses (LULUs).
Intergovernmental coordination elements of local plans should provide for early
coordination between local governments and education boards.
The intergovernmental coordination element should be strengthened to specify how a
local government will address the extra-jurisdictional impacts of development projects
and other greater-than-local planning issues. It should also require the use of the
dispute resolution process of the regional planning council to resolve policy conflicts
between local comprehensive plans or extra-jurisdictional impacts of development
The need for governmental efficiency through enhanced collaboration is apparent
throughout the Regional Plan and forms an important point of reference of how goals and
policies in the plan should be implemented. Collaborative models of organization and
agency interaction need to be developed and implemented when dealing with issues related
to Emergency Preparedness, Housing, Water Resources, Coastal and Marine Resources,
Natural Systems and Recreational Lands, Land Use, Public Facilities and Downtown
Redevelopment. Specifically, for example, collaborative processes are needed in dealing
with the provision of affordable housing, siting of educational facilities, protecting water
supply and water quality, and ensuring safe and adequate hurricane evacuation and
sheltering. To effectively implement coordinative and collaborative mechanisms to bring
about greater governmental efficiency, goals and policies need to be included in the
Regional Plan which effectively address the linkages of the areas discussed above.
22. The Economy
Concerns in the Current Plan
Current regional concerns focus on the heavy reliance on tourism and population growth;
increased concentration of jobs in low-paying service and trade sectors; the impacts of
economic growth on the environment in the Region; the visibility and accessibility of small
business and entrepreneurial support services which encourage new business
establishments; the deficiencies in public assistance such as child care and mass transit; and
the skill level of the labor force and its ability to attract new business.
Regional goals pursue an increase in net new business starts; reduced reliance on low paying
and variable economic sectors in the Region; a reduced unemployment rate throughout the
Region so that it is no higher than the state average; and an increase in the number of
individuals employed through training and direct placement programs.
Emerging Issues /New Emphasis
South Florida's role in the world economy has increased at an accelerated pace in recent
years. Between 1985 and 1991, the value of international trade through the Miami Customs
District (airports and seaports in Miami, Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, Fort Pierce and
Key West) more than doubled, from $10.3 billion to $21.6 billion. The 1991 surplus of exports
over imports was more than $5 billion. Roughly 70 percent of the Region's trade today is
with South America, Central America and the Caribbean. The Region should continue to
expand its "special" relationship with Latin America, search for potential benefits in the
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Mexico and Canada, and promote
increased trade with Asian nations.
Despite the significant strengthening and diversification of international trade as a
component of the regional economy, employment growth has been unable to keep pace
with the growth of population in the Region. The most recent national recession showed
that Florida's economy is not recession-proof, and the regional economy not only was hit
hard but recovered more slowly than the rest of the state. Economic diversification efforts
should pursue higher value-added activities and those which guarantee year-round
The increasing level of poverty is another indicator of the regional economy's major
challenges. Almost 476,000 individuals (15 percent) were found to be below the poverty
level in 1990. Alternatively, 94,000 families (11 percent) were found to have incomes below
the poverty level. Both rates were higher in 1990 than a decade earlier. The concentration of
growth in low-wage service sectors, rather than in sectors with higher value-added, is one of
the causes of this lagging performance. The inadequate preparation of the Region's
workforce is an important factor. Approximately 668,000 and residents 25 years of age and
over (30 percent of the total) had not completed a high school education in 1990.
Better regionwide coordination of long-term economic development strategies among the
local governments and private sector would better prepare the Region to take on its growing
role in the world economy. Increasingly, we must strive to market the regional economy as
a whole to the global community. Greater governmental efficiency will provide a solid base
for competing in international markets, but the effort requires substantial improvements in
intergovernmental coordination, as well.
We must enhance the economic vitality of the Region by identifying the strengths to be built [
upon, including the Region's culturally diverse population, which has 1.25 million speakers
of foreign languages. Labor force preparation in the coming decade will need to provide
increasing attention to language skills and cultural sensitivity in a workplace increasingly t
integrated into the global market. Also, as the population continues to age, people will be
working more years and retiring at an older age. The job structure will change more rapidly
and more frequently, requiring people to adjust their labor force skills more often, and at
increasingly older ages. Training to facilitate these transitions will have to be adjusted to the
age and specific needs of this segment of the labor force.
The impacts of Hurricane Andrew will be felt for many years to come. Although the L
enormous cash flows into the Region have produced some short-term benefits, the renewal
of the areas and the businesses hit by the storm is still moving slowly. Efforts to find
strategic alternatives to reconstitute the former Homestead Air Force Base should consider
the regional role which a facility there could play and the necessary infrastructure to make
The Region's economy is directly linked to most of the other goal areas of the Plan. Public
facilities must be built and maintained in order to provide a basis for economic development, U
at the same time the dynamism of the economy must provide an ensured source of funds for
these on-going needs. The increasing globalization of the regional economy will require a
labor force which is better trained and more culturally sensitive to be able to compete. The I
significant long-term investments in education which are necessary to achieve this are yet to
be mapped out.
The vision of the Region's economic future must protect the Region's natural system |
resources in order to guarantee our economic vitality and ensure the ability to sustain
development over time. We must strive to carry out an economic analysis of public resource
allocation which better weighs the full set of costs and benefits over an extended time
horizon. This is increasingly important with regard to capturing the real costs of
infrastructure development and environmental impacts. For example, the potential costs of
cleaning up after hazardous material spills or wellfield/aquifer contamination need to be
factored into our development decisions on the front end.
The growing challenge of guaranteeing affordable housing to the Region's workforce will be
essential to maintaining the Region's competitiveness in the global economy. The 1990 I
Census indicates that 298,000 South Florida households spent 35 percent or more of
household income on housing costs, and 225,000 of those had household incomes under
Concerns in the Current Plan
The current Regional Plan addresses three regional agriculture issues: the loss of agricultural
lands; the increased use of best management practices in regards to fertilizers, herbicides,
and pesticides; and the stabilization of the Region's agricultural economy. Council staff
recommends a comprehensive approach that involves an intergovernmental coordination
process in addressing these existing goal areas and emerging issues and concerns specified
in the following text.
Since the installation of the world's largest drainage project the South Florida flood control
project continuous transition of agricultural, wetlands, and other natural land uses has
ensued. One persistent regional concern of the present and future existence of agribusiness
industries is the continuous conversion of these lands into urban land uses. Council staff
recognizes agribusiness as a necessary and integral part of the Region's economic base.
Therefore, goals and policies that, at a minimum, maintain the existing agricultural land use
acreage must be established and implemented over an established planning horizon. One
approach is to expand existing policies under Regional Goal 23.1 which encourage the
establishment, acquisition, and enforcement of conservation easements for natural, scenic,
open space, wooded, and "agricultural" regional lands to address the reduction rate of
Agricultural areas of South Florida are comprised of numerous agribusiness industries such
as vegetables, limes, and nurseries. An additional regional goal is needed to implement the
preservation of these industries. One way to achieve regional agribusiness preservation,
improvement, and stability is to establish a regional forum or assembly to focus on South
Florida agricultural industries. Justification for such activity includes the $280.8 million in
revenue generated by the nursery industry and a significantly large national production rate
of limes. The Regional Plan should establish a stronger rationale for agriculture protection.
A stronger regional policy is also needed on agriculture and hazardous materials. This
policy should encourage improved storage, handling, and training measures for fertilizers,
pesticides, and herbicides by farm owners and employees.
International competition for South Florida agribusiness will increase in the near future in
light of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Brazil is a major world
agricultural producer and Mexico will represent a significant agribusiness threat to the South
Florida Region and to the State of Florida. Existing agribusiness industries that have grown
over the years from small family farms into major international agriculture production
companies will remain strong in the more competitive future market. Plant foliage
industries/nurseries in South Florida are both national and international competitors and are
increasing their market strength each day. Without subsidies, the small family farms of
South Florida's past and present will not be able to compete with the future international
agribusiness market and urban development pressures.
Goal and policy provisions for crops grown in abundance within the Region include limes,
vegetables, and nursery plant vegetation would help focus and direct the Region into the
future international agribusiness market. Additional policies to help facilitate industry
needs, which include support for affordable housing for both permanent and temporary
migrant farm agribusiness workers, are needed to protect and enhance indigenous crops
grown in significant abundance in the Region. The Regional Plan should also express
concern for potential negative impacts of subsidized crops in Florida in conjunction with
policies established in the NAFTA. The rational justification of implementing efficient land
use policies to improve public services should also govern farm subsidies when agricultural [
goods and services can be provided at the same or less costs.
A new and less researched phenomenon in the South Florida agribusiness community is
agricultural tourism. To maximize the development and implementation of this economic
factor, the Regional Plan should establish a goal with supporting policies that recognizes the
significance of regional agri-tourism and links it to other regional tourist attractions. Utilize
agricultural and tourism research to develop a better understanding of the significance of
agricultural tourism in the Region. The establishment of an open and functional dialogue
with major agricultural producers, affiliated organizations, and regulatory bodies is
necessary to implement this activity.
The Agriculture Goal area of the Regional Plan is linked to Water Resources as a competing L[
user of the Region's water supply the environment and urban development are other
major water supply users. Hazardous and non-hazardous materials and waste is linked to
Agriculture by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and their cumulative effects (ie,
groundwater contamination). The link to Property Rights speaks to continued speculative
conversion of rural lands to urban suburban lands over time. Additional linkages exist
between the Agriculture Goal and the Economy, Land Use, Tourism, and Employment [|
Concerns in the Current Plan
Current regional concerns focus on maintaining a healthy tourism industry while protecting
the efficiency of natural and urban systems. The Regional goal pursues an increase in total
earnings generated by tourism.
Emerging Issues / New Emphasis
International tourism to the Region has increased significantly in recent years. Estimates for
1991 indicate that South Florida welcomed more than 5 million international visitors, two
and a half times as many as in 1985. This growth was spurred by a three-fold increase in
European tourists and a near doubling of Latin American visitors in the same period. The
number of domestic tourists fluctuated between 6.8 and 8.8 million during this period. As a
result, international visitors now make up more than a third of the tourists coming to the
Region. Dade County's tourism growth has been especially notable, with nearly half of its
8.4 million visitors in 1991 coming from abroad.
This growth is a response to the efforts undertaken to diversify the markets for tourist
recruitment as an explicit part of the growing penetration of South Florida in the global
market. Such efforts should continue, and should focus on Asian countries as well.
Strategies must be developed to reduce the impact of seasonality in tourism by searching for
complementary market opportunities (targeting audiences and activities that increase
visitors in the off-season). Building linkages between the cruise industry and other tourist
attractions in the Region would be one potential approach for consideration. Significant
growth in the cruise industry has contributed substantially to the Region's tourism. The
Port of Miami and Port Everglades, the two largest cruise ports in the world, embarked and
disembarked over 5 million passengers in 1991. Current linkages between the ports and
other regional transportation networks are inadequate. This makes it more difficult for
those attracted by cruises to enjoy other tourist destinations in the Region.
Another objective should be to identify and develop potential attractions which are unique
to the Region or for which the Region has a competitive advantage. South Florida's climate
and beaches will continue to attract large numbers of visitors. The international business
person constitutes a growing component of tourism. This places an increased importance
on expanding cultural activities in the Region (theaters, restaurants, art galleries, museums)
to serve this audience. The preservation of the Region's cultural and historical resources is
another aspect of this effort.
As one of the prime components of the regional economy, tourism policy will continue to
maintain links to infrastructure expansion and renewal, economic development and labor
Tourism geared toward the Region's exceptional variety of unique environmental resources
could grow, consistent with the protection of those resources. While local use of the
national and state park network in South Florida is significant (Everglades National Park,
John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park and John U. Lloyd Beach State Park each had more
than half a million visitors in 1991), with few exceptions, the parks are less well-known
outside the Region.
Integrated tourism marketing should be developed for the Region as a whole and across
different types of targets. Tourists from abroad and even from the rest of the United States
could be attracted to greater South Florida rather than to one of the counties or cities.
Intermodal and cross-county transportation links are a critical component of regional
infrastructure to facilitate this effort. At the same time, public safety issues related to
tourism will have to be addressed straightforwardly. Crime directed against easily identified
tourists is on the rise.
Concerns in the Current Plan
Regional Goals 25.1 and 25.2 are generally concerned with providing employment
opportunities for the Region's economically disadvantaged. Specifically, job opportunities
must be increased in the South Florida Region and training programs made accessible to
raise the income levels for the economically distressed areas and groups. The state
legislature and governor have identified eight groups of special interest for targeted
attention in developing strategies for reduction of unemployment. These include: minority
youth (ages 16-21), handicapped workers, older workers, public assistance recipients,
offenders, migrants seasonal farm workers, discouraged workers, and unemployment
In the current Regional Policy Plan for South Florida, economic development is addressed as
a subset of the Employment element. Legislation (H.B. 2315, ELMS) mandates that economic
development be included as an element in each strategic regional policy plan. Employment
issues will need to be expanded upon and dealt with as new goals and policies within this
larger context of strategic economic development.
The Employment Goal of the Regional Policy Plan should be completely rethought and
reformulated within the policy and format context of the new Economic Development
Element. It should be comprehensive and strategic in addressing the Region's social and
economic opportunities, as well as poverty and social and economic disparity.
Linkages currently exist between the Employment, the Economy, and Children goal areas.
However, these linkages will need to be expanded and strengthened both within the context
of economic development and within the larger context of the Regional Policy Plan. Other
goal areas that currently exist that will need to be linked to employment are: Education,
Families, the Elderly, Housing, Health, Water Resources, Air Quality, Energy, Hazardous
and Non-hazardous Materials and Waste, Downtown Redevelopment, and Transportation.
It is important to note that these linkages must occur throughout the larger context of the
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Bryson, John M. and Barbara C. Crosby. 1992. Leadership for the Common Good. San Francisco:
DuPraw, Marcelle E. and William R. Potapchuk. 1992. Guidelines for Collaboration: Implementing the
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
Program for Community Problem Solving, Washington, D.C.
Elliott, Michael and Gregory Bourne. 1990. "Resolving Development Disputes Through Conflict
Resolution and Collaborative Problem Solving", In Susan Robinson, Ed., Financing Growth.
Government Finance Officers Association.
Environmental Land Management Study Committee. 1992. Building Successful Communities.
Florida Department of Natural Resources. 1993. Beachfront Redevelopment. Tallahassee, Florida.
Florida Department of Natural Resources. 1993. Guide to Local Government Planning. Tallahassee,
Florida Department of State, Division of Cultural Affairs. 1992. FALCON (Florida Arts Leadership
Congress). Tallahassee, Florida.
Florida Department of Transportation. 1992. Florida Pedestrian Safety Plan. Tallahassee, Florida.
Fyock, Catherine D. April 1991. Teaching Older Workers New Tricks. Training and Development
Journal. v45, pp. 21-24.
Gricar, Barbara Gray. 1981. "Fostering Collaboration Among Organizations" in Making
Organizations Humane and Productive: A Manual for Practitioners, H. Maltzer and W. R. Nord (eds.),
New York: John Wiley, Inc.
Heifetz, Ronald A. and Riley M. Sinder, 1988. "Political Leadership: Managing the Public's
Problem Solving" in The Power of Public Ideas, Robert B. Reich (ed.), Cambridge: Ballinger
Publishing Company, 1988.
Hepworth, Mark, and Ken Ducatel. 1992. Transport in the Information Age Wheels and Wires.
Kelman, Steven. "Adversary and Cooperationist Institutions for Conflict Resolution in Public
Policymaking" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, 178-206.
Miracle, Barbara. 1993. "Family Comes First". Florida Trend, February.
Potapchuk, William R. 1991, "New Approaches to Citizen Participation: Building Consent"
National Civic Review, Vol. 80, No. 2, Spring.
South Florida Regional Planning Council. August 1991. Regional Plan for South Florida. Hollywood,
South Florida Water Management District. 1993. Draft Water Management Plan. West Palm Beach,
South Florida Water Management District. 1992. Draft Lower East Coast Water Supply Plan. West
Palm Beach, Florida.
South Florida Water Management District. 1992. Draft Dade County Florida Keys Water Supply Plan.
West Palm Beach, Florida.
South Florida Water Management District. 1991. Water Policy Document. West Palm Beach,
Small, Kenneth A., and Clifford Winston. 1989. Road Work: A New Highway Pricing and Investment
State of Florida. 1993. ELMS Legislation (CS/CS/HB 2315).
State of Florida. 1993. Legislation (CS/CS/HB 911).
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Planning and Response Review Committee.
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The purpose of this brief paper is to describe the concept of "regional concerns" from the
understanding as well as experiences of the South Florida Regional Planning Council. The Council
has been engaged in a wide array of different planning and policy development activities.
However, all of these activities are aimed to address certain "regional concerns". This paper will
discuss some of the major characteristics of the concept of "regional concerns" and illustrate them
with Council activities as appropriate.
Characteristics of Regional Concerns
Regional concerns generally have several of the following characteristics. These characteristics are
generally interrelated and are not mutually exclusive.
1. Address current and emerging issues with pervasive, long-term impacts on the Region's
Regional concerns deal with issues which will shape the futures of the Region. It is important
to note that many of these issues are still emerging and not necessarily widely perceived by
the regional community. "Looking to the future" to anticipate tomorrow's major issues has
always been an important part of the Council's work program.
2. Address cross-jurisdictional and cross-programmatic issues.
Regional concerns deal with issues which are larger than local concerns. For example, the
siting of an international airport will clearly generate economic impacts beyond the local
jurisdictional boundaries. Its impacts will not be limited to the economic dimension, but cross
various dimensions encompassing environmental, transportation, land use and social issues.
3. Address strategies shaping the Region's physical development patterns.
Regional concerns deal with the fundamental strategies which affect the broader development
patterns and not the details of the zoning processes. These include concerns to promote more
compact and efficient development patterns and to revitalize our existing urban centers. In
addressing these concerns, for example, the Council has placed a high priority on the review of
proposed changes to the Dade County Urban Development Boundary through the
comprehensive plan amendment process. In addition, the Council has also played important
pro-active and coordinative roles in facilitating redevelopment opportunities in the
downtown of both Miami and Fort Lauderdale.
4. Address issues with significant impact on the Region's economic futures.
These include issues regarding how to best develop our human resources, our natural
resources, and put both into their best uses. Specific challenges include, for example, how to
strengthen linkages between higher education and economic development, how to provide
affordable child care, and how to plan and operate an efficient system of airports and seaports.
To address these concerns, the Council is currently initiating activities to develop an Overall
Economic Development Plan.
5. Address the protection of the Region's environmental system.
A healthy environmental system will be necessary to ensure the proper function of the
regional system. These include concerns for water and air pollution, wetlands, hazardous
waste disposal, and endangered species. In addition, important regional industries, such as
tourism, depend directly on continued environmental quality.
6. Ensure long term adequacy and efficiency in the deployment of regional public facility
Regional public facilities serve the demand from multiple jurisdictions in the Region. These
facilities include, for example, solid waste treatment facilities, sewer and water systems,
regional parks, expressways and airports. A regional community can be supported with
different arrangements of pubic facility systems, and with significant differences in long term
efficiency. Coordination between land use and regional facility siting is critical. Promoting in-
fill and redevelopment instead of expanding urban development can also enhance the long- |
term efficiency of the use of public facilities.
In addressing this concern, the Council is currently investigating a form of efficient regional
solid waste management. The Council has also been active in promoting the coordination
among Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in Dade, Broward and Palm Beach
Counties for planning regional transportation systems.
7. Address issues of equity.
Equity issues address the differences in economic and other opportunities and outcomes based
on race, sex, age, or ethnicity. An important regional concern is to promote equal access to
housing, health care, education and employment opportunities for all South Floridians. The
Council has completed a study to examine social and economic disparities in the Region.
These concerns have been continued in the current efforts to address the issues of the Region's
homelessness and affordable housing.
Another aspect of the equity issue deals with the equitable share of benefits and costs among
jurisdictions and/or social groups from the growth process. The Council's assessment of large-
scale developments has placed particular emphasis on the multi-jurisdictional impacts
generated by the developments.
8. Ensure preparedness for emergency conditions.
Every human system planning should address this fundamental concern, i.e., to ensure
survival under emergency conditions. In South Florida, every year, the Region faces the
potential landfall of a major hurricane. In addressing this concern, over the past five years, the
Council has completed three major studies on hurricane loss, hurricane contingency planning
and post-disaster redevelopment planning. The Council also places a high priority on the
hurricane evacuation issues in reviewing the Monroe County Comprehensive Plan and
9. Improve basic mechanisms to resolve conflicts.
Conflicts within a regional community are almost unavoidable. What is important is to equip
the community with effective mechanisms and tools to resolve conflicts. It is even more
significant that conflicts are used as opportunities to build partnerships and a shared vision
for the Region's future. The Council has taken a lead role in promoting the use of conflict
mediation and alternative dispute resolutions. Each Council staff member has received
significant training in this area.
Regional concerns are dynamic and reflect the current and future issues. Regional concerns are
inherently linked to the vision of the Region's future which orients the focus of attention and
sustains committed efforts.