Title: Section 4 - Review of Water Resource Studies
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004351/00001
 Material Information
Title: Section 4 - Review of Water Resource Studies
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Section 4 - Review of Water Resource Studies (JDV Box 95)
General Note: Box 20, Folder 3 ( Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority - 1996 Master Plan for Water Supply - 1996 ), Item 6
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004351
Volume ID: VID00001
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Full Text









Section 4 REVIEW OF WATER RESOURCE STUDIES


Withlachoochee Regional Water Supply Authority (WRWSA)
and Member Counties
WRWSA Master Plan ................. .......................... 4-1
Marion County Master Plan ................ ...................... 4-3
Sumter County Master Plan ................ ...................... 4-3
Citrus County Engineering Report, Water & Wastewater Mater Plan ....... 4-4
Hernando County Master Plan for Water Supply ....................... 4-4
Groundwater Availability Inventory: Citrus County, Florida; Hernando County
Florida; Marion County, Florida; and Sumter County, Florida ....... 4-5

West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority (WCRWSA)
WCRWSA Draft Water Resource Development Plan (1995) .............. 4-5

Southwest Florida Water Management District
District Water Management Plan .................................. 4-6
Northern Tampa Bay WRAP ....................................... 4-8
Needs and Sources-Study, ........................................ 4-8
Citrus County ............................................ 4-8
Hernando County ......................................... 4-12
Sumter County ........................................... 4-15-
O overall ................... ........... .... ....... .. 4-15
An Evaluation of Factors Contributing to the Growth of Lyngbya
Species and Kings Bay/Crystal River, Florida ....................... 4-20-
Coastal Groundwater Quality Monitoring Program Report ............... 4-20
Development of Wellhead Protection Areas for the Major Public Supply Wells in
Hernando County .............................................. 4-20
Groundwater Quality Sampling Results from Wells in the
Southwest Florida Water Management District; Northern Regions,
Section One................................................. 4-21
Withlacoochee Basin Literature Assessment Study ..................... 4-22

St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) ................... 4-22
Water Supply Needs and Sources Assessment (1994) ................... 4-22

United States Geological Survey ................ ...................... 4-24
Hydrology of the Crossbar Ranch Wellfield Area and Projected Impact of
Pumping, Pasco County, Florida ................................. 4-24
Hydrology of Green Swamp Area in Central Florida ................... 4-24
Northern Withlacoochee Hydrologic Investigation in Levy, Lake, Alachua
and M arion Counties, Florida .................................... 4-24


4-i











Potential for Downward Leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp
Area, Central Florida ................ ......................... 4-25
Potential for Salt Water Intrusion into the Upper Floridan Aquifer,
Hernando and Manatee Counties, Florida ............................ 4-25
Reconnaissance of Geohydrologic Areas and 1981 Low Flow Conditions,
Withlacoochee Basin, Southwest Florida Water Management District ..... 4-25
Simulation of Steady-State Groundwater and Spring Flow in the Upper
Floridan Aquifer of Coastal Citrus and Hemando Counties .............. 4-26
Water Table in the Surficial and Potentiometric Surface of the Floridan
Aquifer in Selected Wellfields, West Central Florida-May 1977 ......... 4-26

Florida Geological Survey (FGS) & Bureau of Geology
Florida's Groundwater Quality Monitoring Program -
Hydrogeologic Frame W ork ...................................... 4-26
Geology of Sumter County ....................................... 4-27
Geohydrologic Reconnaissance of Pasco and Southern
Hernando Counties ............................................ 4-27
Mineral Resources of Citrus County Hernando
,County and Sumter County ...................................... 4-27
Suwannee Limestone in Hernando and Pasco Counties-Part II ............ 4-27


4- ii













LIST OF TABLES


Table
No.

4-1 Projected Public Supply Needs in Citrus County, Florida ........... 4-9
4-2 Projected Public Supply Needs in Hernando County, Florida ......... 4-13
4-3 Projected Public Supply Needs in Sumter County, Florida ........... 4-16
4-4 Total Projected Average Daily Water Use Through 2020
in the Southwest Florida Water Manager District ............ 4-17
4-5 Industrial Water Use Projections through 2020 in the Southwest Florida
Water Management District .......................... 4-18
4-6 Mining Water Use Projections through 2020 in the Southwest Florida
Water Management District .......................... 4-19
4-7 Water Use (Groundwater and Surface Water) in Marion County*
by Water Use Category, 1990 and 2010 ..................... 4-23
4-8 Public Supply Water Use by Public
Water Supply Utilities in Marion County 1990 and 20210 .......... 4-23


4 iii








REVIEW OF WATER RESOURCE STUDIES


As part of the research effort required for the hydrogeologic and engineering analyses in this Master Plan,
a number of water resource studies were reviewed. In some cases, the data and information were utilized
in the preparation of the Master Plan. In most instances, it provided a set of background materials that
assisted in a further understanding of the water resources of the region. Publications were obtained from
the following entities:


Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority (WRWSA)
& Member Governments

West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority (WCRWSA)
Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD)

St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD)
United States Geological Survey (USGS)
m Florida Geological Survey (FGS)


For the purpose of this summary review, a statement is made concerning each document with respect to
information contained and how it was used in the water resource analysis.


Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority (WRWSA)

and Member Counties


WRWSA Master Plan (1987)
The WRWSA Master Plan for Water Supply (MPWS) was authorized in 1986 and completed in 1987.
The MPWS does not provide a map showing water supply well locations or drawdowns in the surficial or
Floridan aquifer system. The Master Plan's hydrogeology section was summarized from individual water
resource plans prepared for each county. While somewhat general, the Master Plan gives overview
descriptions of the water quality and yield of the Floridan aquifer. A more detailed hydrogeologic
analysis can be found in the individual county plans, however, even those plans generally did not address








groundwater and surface water impacts through the use of a groundwater flow model. No description of
S surface water bodies, flows or stage elevations are given.


The Master Plan called for the WRWSA to become much more active in developing, owning and
operating regional wellfields. It advocated the gradual development of sub-regional systems within
county master plans, followed by intracounty interconnection of the systems and finally by a unified
regional transmission network. The WRWSA was to be responsible for the development and operation of
the sub-regional water supply facilities, with the counties and cities responsible for all distribution
systems. Consideration was to be given to the assessment of a "water impact fee" on new construction to
develop the WRWSA water supply system. The proposed system was not unlike that developed by the
West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority. However, while this proposed plan was accepted for
information purposes, it was not adopted for implementation by the WRWSA.


The implementation of the "water supply" components of the WRWSA Master Plan has been restricted to
one wellfield in Citrus County, funded by the Withlacoochee and Coastal Rivers Basin Boards of
SWFWMD, developed by the WRWSA and now operated by the County. Hernando County has
developed additional wellfields and provided some interconnection, but this effort has not involved the
WRWSA. Sumter County has not yet chosen to enter into the water supply business. Marion County
dropped out of the WRWSA, although the City of Ocala has rejoined on its own. A few other
recominendations of the WRWSA Master Plan have been enacted by the member governments, however,
particularly through the local government comprehensive planning process and its implementing
regulations. Among the recommendations finding fertile ground were the establishment of standards for
the construction of new water supplies and a requirement that new private developments dedicate their
water supply systems to the respective local government.


While its member counties and cities have taken different approaches in the provision of potable water,
they have sought to utilize the WRWSA to address research and the protection of the potable water
resource. The WRWSA has evolved into a role of coordination between the local governments,
providing a common front for interaction with SWFWMD and outside entities.


4-2








S Marion County Master Plan for Water Supply
The Marion County Master Plan for Water Supply (MPWS) was completed in April, 1985. The
hydrogeology section was summarized in this master plan from previous reports, and an overview of
water quality and yield of the Floridan aquifer are provided. General descriptions of wellfield designs are
given for each area, but no groundwater or surface water impacts are presented. No description of surface
water bodies, flow or stage elevations is given.


The hydrogeology section states that transmissivities are commonly greater than 1 x 105 gpd/ft, large
diameter wells may yield up to 1,500 gpm and water quality in the Floridan aquifer is generally very good
to depths of 750-1,000 feet. No concentrations are given for water quality, but a description of water
quality concerns is provided and concentrates on the presence of organic compounds. Descriptions of
wellfield designs for the individual areas include the number of wells needed, the pump rates, the
arrangement of wells in the wellfields, and drawdowns in the center of the wellfield.


Sumter County Master Plan for Water Supply
The Sumter County Master Plan for Water Supply (MPWS) was completed in November, 1986. The
hydrogeology section was summarized from previous reports, and an overview of water quality is
provided. The DRASTIC system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential was done for Sumter
County and presented in the Plan.


The hydrogeology section provides maps of formations, elevations, potentiometric surface elevations, and
flow directions. An aquifer simulation by P.D. Ryder estimated the tranmissivities in west Sumter to
range from 3.3 x 104 gpd/ft to 6.7 x 104 gpd/ft and in east Sumter to range from 6.7 x 103 gpd/ft to 1.3 x
104 gpd/ft. A brief description of the water quality exceedances (iron and TDS) along with a list of wells
and their water quality concentrations are provided. Information for DRASTIC was obtained from
USGS, the SWFWMD, the Florida Bureau of Geology, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil
Conservation Service.








Citrus County Engineering Report, Water and Wastewater Master Plan
The Citrus County Engineering Report, Water and Wastewater Master Plan was completed in October,
1986. General descriptions of existing and proposed mains and wells are provided, but no specific pump
rates or wellfield designs are given for proposed wells, only cost estimates. No hydrogeology, water
quality, modeling, or surface water features are discussed.


The report focused on population growth areas and future demands that led to an analysis of the capability
of existing water and wastewater facilities to meet projected future demands. The analysis covered a 20-
year planning horizon for those areas that could receive or be integrated into a County-wide water and/or
wastewater system. The cities of Inverness and Crystal River, the Floral City Water Association and the
Homosassa Special Water District were among those not analyzed.


Hernando County Master Plan for Water Supply
The Hernando County Master Plan for Water Supply (MPWS) was completed in September, 1985. The
hydrogeology section was summarized from previous reports, and an overview of water quality is
provided. General descriptions ofwellfield designs are given for three areas, and groundwater modeling
was done to assess impacts due to new wells.


The hydrogeology description is general, but potentiometric surface maps of the Floridan aquifer are
provided, as well as a transmissivity value between 2.9 x 105 gpd/ft and 1.5 x 10' gpd/ft for the Floridan
aquifer. A brief description of water quality exceedance (chloride and TDS) along with a list of
representative wells and their water quality characteristics are included. The information provided from
the modeling results includes the drawdowns at some distance due to pumpage of the new wells. The
wellfield design section describes the general set up, pump rate and size of the wells and recommends the
wellfields be linear in design. A brief description is given of the surface water features in the county.








Groundwater Resource Availability Inventory; Citrus County, Florida; Hernando County, Florida;
Marion County, Florida; And Sumter County, Florida
These reports were prepared as a compilation of hydrogeologic and geologic data for each of the counties.
The first section of each report includes an introduction and description of the purpose and scope of the
report and a discussion of previous investigations. Section 2 contains a discussion of the hydrology and

related inventory issues of the groundwater basins within which the county is located. Section 3 contains
some discussion of hydrology and related inventory issues for each individual county. The purpose and
scope of these groundwater resource availability inventory reports is to provide local governments with
available groundwater information and to enhance the water management district's technical capability to
quantify and predict groundwater availability.


These reports will provide the basis of the groundwater flow modeling efforts to be conducted, in that
they compile much of the data that is being currently reviewed separately to provide an overview of the
hydrogeologic and geologic conditions in the study area.


West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority (WCRWSA)



WCRWSA Draft Water Resource Development Plan (1995)
The WCRWSA has projected that by year 2002, the water demand of its members will exceed the
capacity of the wellfields. The problems of the WCRWSA are of significance to the Withlacoochee
region for two reasons. First, WCRWSA pumping from the Crossbar wellfield has negatively impacted
private wells in the Masaryktown area of Hernando County. Of more import to the future, however, are

the plans considered by WCRWSA which include securing water supplies from Hernando, Citrus and
Marion counties. A number of the water supply alternatives reported in their draft Water Resource
Development Plan included "inter-regional" transfers of water. In alternatives that included inter regional
transfers, Lake Rousseau, Weeki Wachee Springs and a future east Hernando wellfield were identified.
The least expensive source of new groundwater supplies identified was a 30 MGD wellfield in central
Hernando County, a relatively easy extension of WCRWSA's existing interconnected system. After some
extensive discussion with SWFWMD, however, the WCRWSA governing board gave conceptual

approval to a Water Resource Development Plan that emphasizes surface water withdrawals, reuse and
conservation within the WCRWSA jurisdiction.


~










In the revised plan, the dependence on water supply from outside the WRWSA region was de-emphasized.
S Desalination was relegated to a long range solution, although recent actions on the State level may accelerate
that option. The highlights of the recommended alternative include :


Provide recycled water to agriculture
Pump from the Cypress Bridge wellfield
Take water from the Hillsborough River
Take water from the Tampa Bypass Canal
Replenish Tampa Bypass Canal with highly treated wastewater
Desalination (for needs beyond 2030)


Until the WCRWSA plan goes into effect, however, any alternatives that include a "northern" source of
water supply are considered to be a serious issue to the WRWSA, which was formed in part as a response
to previous WCRWSA interest in a northern solution. The WCRWSA has never consulted the WRWSA
or its member governments concerning the research, development or implementation of their Water
Resource Development Plan, nor has the WCRWSA initiated any dialogue during the preceding 17 years.


Southwest Florida Water Management District

District Water Management Plan
In its District Water Management Plan (1995), SWFWMD has projected its vision of a "sustainable
resource use" in the year 2045. The District Board enumerated 24 policies concerning water supply,
while cautioning that the policies do not create any regulatory authority and some of the policies may
require rulemaking. The policies most pertinent to the WRWSA's concerns include:


4-6







2. Ensure that withdrawals from ground and surface water sources do not cause unacceptable
impacts on existing legal users, including but not limited to the lowering of lake levels,
decreased stream flows, adverse impacts to wetlands, the lowering of groundwater levels,
attendant salt water intrusion, upcoming or contaminant plume movement.


4. Regularly evaluate available water supplies and existing future water needs, and promote
sound water supply planning that recognizes physical and environmental constraints on
development of the resource.


5. Require that local sources, demand management measures and alternative sources be
developed to the greatest extent practicable, considering the environmental, economic and
technical feasibility of such alternatives before development of sources outside a utility's
local service area.


6. Consider the extent to which an area receiving water from another hydrologic basin has
utilized local sources, demand management measures and alternative supplies.


7. Support the planning for, and development of, water supply sources on a regional basis.
When the development of sources outside a local jurisdiction are determined to be
necessary due to inadequate supply, encourage such development to occur through
appropriate regional water supply authorities.


8. Encourage regional planning to develop solutions to water supply problems, including the
development of integrated regional water supply systems that draw from multiple sources
of water, and the interconnection of systems to ensure reliability during emergency
conditions.


11. Encourage, assist in, and where appropriate, require the development and efficient use of
alternative sources of water, including the reuse of reclaimed water, grey water use,
desalination, stormwater reuse, cisterns and other appropriate alternative sources to ensure
water availability and reduce the demand for conventional sources to maximize and
maintain existing sources.









Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority/Citrus County Wellfield
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Meadow Crest/Hampton Hills Service Area are projected
to increase from 1.2 MGD and 2.5 MGD in 1990, to 10.8 MGD and 22.6 MGD in 2020, respectively.
Currently, this demand is served by wells operated by WRWSA/Citrus County. The existing average and
maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 4.3 MGD and 8.8 MGD, respectively. Based on
current projection, there will be an additional maximum daily need of 0.3 MGD by 1995. The average and
maximum daily need will increase to 6.5 and 13.8 MGD by 2020. These projected needs in the Needs and
Sources Study, are based on the current per capital water use rate of 265 gpd.


Sugarmill/Southern States Utilities
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Service Area are projected to increase from 0.5 MGD and
0.9 MGD in 1990, to 1.1 MGD and 2.0 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is served by
wells operated by the Sugar Mill/Southern States Utilities. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 2.1 MGD and 3.1 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections of
demand and existing facilities, there will be no additional need through 2020.


Beverly Hills
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Beverly Hills Service Area are projected to increase from
S2.8 MGD and 5.3 MGD in 1990, to 3.7 MGD and 7.1 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
served by wells operated by the Rolling Oaks Utilities. The existing average and maximum daily permitted
quantities for this permit are 4.3 MGD and 6.8 MGD, respectively. Based on current projection, there will be
no additional average daily need through 2020. These projected needs are based on a per capital water use
Rate of 235 gpd.


Homosassa
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Homosassa Service Area are projected to increase from
0.8 MGD and 1.3 MGD in 1990, to 1.4 MGD and 2.3 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
served by wells operated by the Homosassa Special Water District. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 1.0 MGD and 1.5 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections,
there will be an additional average and maximum daily need of 0.2 MGD and 0.4 MGD, respectively, in


4-8





~~~~ I 1 1 1 1 I II


Table 4-1
PROJECTED PUBLIC SUPPLY NEEDS IN CITRUS COUNTY, FLORIDA
From SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992
SPermitted 1995 2000 2010 2020
Water Demand Planning Areas Quantity'1
Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max
Crystal River Demand (Based on 170 GPCD'2)(3)) 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.4 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.6 1.1 1.7
Need = Demand Capacity 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5
Regional Supply Need__ -- 0.1 0.1 -- 0.2 0.1 0.2
Inverness Demand (Based on 135 GPCD2)3')) 1.1 2.0 1.1 1.6 1.2 1.7 1.5 2.2 1.9 2.9
Need (3) = Demand Capacity -- 0.1 -- 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.9
Regional Supply Need NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Deltona Demand (Based on 160 GPCD(2)(3)) 1.1 2.3 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.7
Need (3) = Demand Capacity -- -- -- 0.1 --
Regional Supply Need NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Sugarmill/S. States Demand (Based on 160 GPCD2)(3)) 2.1 3.1 0.7 1.2 0.8 1.4 0.9 1.7 1.1 2.0
Need (3) = Demand Capacity
Regional Supply Need __NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Rolling Oaks Demand (Based on 235 GPCD'2)3)) 4.3 6.8 3.3 6.2 3.7 7.1 3.7 7.1 3.7 7.1
Need (3) = Demand Capacity -- -- 0.3 -- 0.3 -- 0.3
Regional Supply Need NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
Homosassa Demand Based on 190 GPCD'2)(3)) 1.0 1.5 0.8 1.8 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.9 1.4 2.3
Need (3) = Demand Capacity -- -- 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.8
Regional Supply Need NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
WRWSA Demand (Based on 265 GPCD(2)3)) 4.3 8.8 4.3 9.1 7.4 15.4 9.6 20.2 10.8 22.6
Need (3) = Demand Capacity -- 0.3 3.1 6.6 5.3 11.4 6.5 13.8
Regional Supply Need' NR NR 2.1 4.5 3.8 8.3 4.6 9.8
Total County Capacity 14.7 25.7
Total County Demand 11.8 22.3 15.9 29.7 18.9 36.2 21.2 40.3
Total County Need 0.1 0.5 3.4 7.1 6.1 12.7 8.1 16.3
Regional Source Need -- 0.1 2.2 4.5 3.8 8.5 4.7 10.0


Source:
Notes: (1)
(2)
(3)


SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992
Permitted Quantity = Withdrawal/Treatment Capacity
Existing per capital use, GPCD = Gallons per capital per day
Demand based on current GPCD as SWFWMD requires reduction in GPCD,
NR none required


then need will be reduced.


I I 1 1 I 1 1 I









SCrystal River
SAverage and maximum daily water demands in the Crystal River Service Area are projected to increase from
0.7 MGD and 1.1 MGD in 1990, and from 1.1 MGD and 1.7 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this
Demand is served by wells operated by the City of Crystal River. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 0.8 MGD and 1.2 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections,
there will be an additional average and maximum daily need of 0.1 MGD an 0.2 MGD, respectively, in 1995.
The average and maximum day additional need in 2020 is projected to be 0.3 MGD and 0.5 MGD,
respectively. These projected needs are based on a per capital water use rate of 170 gpd. Details of meeting
this need with a regional source are given elsewhere in the needs and sources report.


Inverness
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Inverness Service Area are projected to increase from 1.0
SMGD and 1.5 MGD in 1990, to 1.9 MGD and 2.9 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
served by wells operated by the City of Inverness. The existing average and maximum daily permitted
quantities for this permit are 1.1 MGD and 2.0 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections, there will
be an additional average daily need of 0.1 MGD in 2000. The average and maximum day additional need in
2020 is projected to be 0.8 MGD and 0.9 MGD, respectively. These projected needs are based on a per
capital water use rate of 135 GPD.


Deltona/Southern States Utilities
SAverage and maximum daily water demands in the Citrus Springs Service Area are projected to increase
from 0.5 MGD and 0.8 MGD in 1990, to 1.2 MGD and 1.7 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this
demand is served by wells operated by the Citrus Springs Utilities. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 1.1 MGD and 2.3 MGD, respectively, Based on current projections,
there will be an additional average daily need of 0.1 MGD in 2020 to provide for population growth.


4-10









SWithlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority/Citrus County Wellfield
- Average and maximum daily water demands in the Meadow Crest/Hampton Hills Service Area are projected
to increase from 1.2 MGD and 2.5 MGD in 1990, to 10.8 MGD and 22.6 MGD in 2020, respectively.
SCurrently, this demand is served by wells operated by WRWSA/Citrus County. The existing average and
maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 4.3 MGD and 8.8 MGD, respectively. Based on
current projection, there will be an additional maximum daily need of 0.3 MGD by 1995. The average and
maximum daily need will increase to 6.5 and 13.8 MGD by 2020. These projected needs in the Needs and
Sources Study, are based on the current per capital water use rate of 265 gpd.


Sugarmill/Southern States Utilities
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Service Area are projected to increase from 0.5 MGD and
0.9 MGD in 1990, to 1.1 MGD and 2.0 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is served by
wells operated by the Sugar Mill/Southern States Utilities. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 2.1 MGD and 3.1 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections of
demand and existing facilities, there will be no additional need through 2020.


Beverly Hills
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Beverly Hills Service Area are projected to increase from
S2.8 MGD-and 5.3 MGD in 1990, to 3.7 MGD and 7.1 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
served by wells operated by the Rolling Oaks Utilities. The existing average and maximum daily permitted
quantities for this permit are 4.3 MGD and 6.8 MGD, respectively. Based on current projection, there will be
no additional average daily need through 2020. These projected needs are based on a per capital water use
rate of 235 gpd.


Homosassa
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Homosassa Service Area are projected to increase from
0.8 MGD and 1.3 MGD in 1990, to 1.4 MGD and 2.3 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
served by wells operated by the Homosassa Special Water District. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 1.0 MGD and 1.5 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections,
there will be an additional average and maximum daily need of 0.2 MGD and 0.4 MGD, respectively, in


4-11










-2010. The average and maximum day additional need in 2020 is projected to be 0.4 MGD and 0.8 MGD,
respectively. These projected needs are based on a per capital water use rate of 190 gpd.


SHernando County
There are four public supply service areas with an average permitted capacity larger than 0.5 MGD in
Hemando County (See Table 4-2). The major supplies are the Hernando County Utilities Department, the
City of Brooksville and Southern States Utilities. Currently, about 87 percent of the population reside in
these service areas. The total average daily demand in these four areas is projected to increase from 14.7
MGD in 1990 to 33.2 MGD in 2020. Approximately 15.0 MGD average and 24.7 MGD maximum of new
supply capacity will be required to meet these demands. Conservation can be expected to reduce county-
wide supply requirements by 4.8 MGD average and 8.8 MGD maximum by 2020 for those utilities that have
per capital rates in excess of 130 gpd. All of the remaining 10.2 MGD average and 15.9 MGD maximum
daily needs will be supplied from conventional treatment of fresh groundwater. The projected needs of each
of these four service areas are described in Table 4-2.


Brooksville
SAverage and maximum daily water demands in the Brooksville Service Area are projected to increase from
1.6 MGD and 2.4 MGD in 1990, to 4.1 MGD and 6.1 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
Served by wells operated by the City of Brooksville. The existing average and maximum daily permitted
quantities for this permit are 2.2 MGD and 3.2 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections, there will
be an additional average and maximum daily need of 0.3 MGD and 0.5 MGD in 1995, respectively. The
average and maximum day additional need in 2020 is projected to be 1.9 MGD and 2.9 MGD, respectively.
The projected needs are based on a per capital water use rate of 150 gpd.


4-12











Table 4-2
PROJECTED PUBLIC SUPPLY NEEDS IN HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA
SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992


SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992
(1) Permitted Quantity = Withdrawal/Treatment Capacity.
(2) Existing per capital use as calculated in Chapter 2.
(3) Demand based on current GPCD as SWFWMD requires reduction in GPCD, the need will be reduced.


Permitted 1995 2000 2010 2020
Water Demand Planning Areas Quantity"
Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max

Brooksville Demand (Based on 150 GPCD'(2)(3) 2.2 3.2 2.5 3.7 2.9 4.4 3.4 5.0 4.1 6.1
Need = Demand Capacity 10.3 0.5 0.7 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.9 2.9

E. Hernando Demand (Based on 135 GPCD(2)(3)) 0.8 1.2 0.8 1.7 1.2 2.3 1.8 3.5 2.4 4.8
Need (3) = Demand Capacity -- 0.5 0.4 1.1 1.0 2.3 1.6 3.6

Spring Hill Demand (Based on 165 GPCD(2)(3)) 10.3 22.6 9.8 18.5 11.0 20.9 13.5 25.7 16.0 30.4
Need (3) = Demand Capacity -- -- 0.7 -- 3.2 3.1 5.7 7.8

W. Hernando Demand (Based on 150 GPCD(2)(3)) 4.9 7.8 6.5 11.1 7.7 13.0 9.2 15.6 10.7 18.2
Need (3) = Demand Capacity 1.6 3.3 2.8 5.2 4.3 7.8 5.8 10.4

Total County Capacity 18.2 34.8
Total County Demand' 19.6 35.0 22.8 40.6 27.9 49.8 33.2 59.5
Total County Need _1.9 4.3 4.6 7.5 9.7 15.0 15.0 24.7


Source:
Notes:


) I I 1 I I


I f I I I








- East Hemando
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Ridge Manor Service Area are projected to
increase from 0.5 MGD and 0.9 MGD in 1990, to 2.4 MGD and 4.8 MGD in 2020, respectively.

Currently, this demand is served by wells operated by Hemando County Utilities Department. The
existing average and maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 0.8 MGD and 1.2

MGD, respectively. Based on current projections, there will be an additional maximum daily need

of 0.5 MGD in 1995. The average and maximum day additional need in 2020 is projected to be 1.6
MGD and 3.6 MGD, respectively. The projected needs are based on a per capital water use rate of
135 gpd.


Spring Hill/Southern States Utilities
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Spring Hill Service Area are projected to
increase from 8.8 MGD and 16.7 MGD in 1990, to 16.0 MGD and 30.4 MGD in 2020,

respectively. Currently, this demand is served by wells operated by Southern States Utilities. The
existing average and maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 10.3 MGD and 22.6
MGD, respectively. Based on current projections, there will be an average daily need of 0.7 MGD

in 2000. The average and maximum day additional need in 2020 is projected to be 5.7 MGD and
7.8 MGD, respectively. The projected needs are based on a per capital water use rate of 165 gpd.


West Hemrando

Average and maximum daily water demands in the West Hemando County Service Area are
projected to increase from 3.8 MGD and 6.5 MGD in 1990, to 10.7 MGD and 18.2 MGD in 2020,

respectively. Currently, this demand is served by wells operated by the Hernando County Utilities
Department. The existing average and maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 4.9
MGD and 7.8 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections, there will be an average and

maximum daily need of 1.6 MGD and 3.3 MGD by 1995. The average and maximum day need in

2020 is projected to be 5.8 MGD and 10.4 MGD, respectively. These projected needs are based on
a per capital water use rate of 150 gpd.


4-14


~








Sumter County
There are two public supply service areas, with an average permitted capacity larger than 0.5 MGD,
- in Sumter County. They include the City of Wildwood and the Continental Country Club
Development. Currently, about 18 percent of the population reside in these service areas. The total
average day demand in these two areas are projected to increase from 1.2 MGD in 1990 to 1.9

MGD in 2020. Approximately 0.4 MGD average and 0.1 MGD maximum new supply capacity
will be required to meet these demands by 2020. Table 4-3 summarizes these needs.


Wildwood
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Wildwood Service Area are projected to
increase from 0.7 MGD and 1.1 MGD in 1990, to 1.4 MGD and 2.2 MGD in 2020, respectively.
Currently, this demand is served by wells operated by the City of Wildwood. The existing average
and maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 1.0 MGD and 2.1 MGD, respectively.
Based on current projections, there will be no additional need until 2010, at which time there will
be an average daily need of 0.2 MGD. These demands are based on 175 gallons per capital per day.
No conservation was anticipated prior to the year 2010.


Continental Country Club Development
Average and maximum daily water demand in the Continental Country Club Service Area are
projected to remain constant at 0.5 MGD and 0.8 MGD through 2020. This is due to development

build-out. Currently, this demand is served by wells operated by Continental Country Club, Inc.
The existing average and maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 1.3 MGD and 3.1

MGD, respectively. Based on current projections, there are no additional average or maximum
daily needs through the year 2020. These demands are based on 200 gallons per capital per day. No
conservation was anticipated prior to the year 2010


Overall
In its Needs and Sources Study, SWFWMD summarizes the average daily water use in each county
for public supply, rural, agricultural industrial, mining and recreation (Table 4-4). It also provides
projections for each use through the year 2020. Further breakout of industrial, mining use is
depicted in Tables 4-5 and 4-6.


4-15


~





I I I I I I 1 1 1


I I 1 ) I 1 j


Table 4-3
PROJECTED PUBLIC SUPPLY NEEDS IN SUMTER COUNTY, FLORIDA
SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992

Permitted 1995 2000 2010 2020
Water Demand Planning Areas Quantity"'
Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max Avg Max

Wildwood Demand (Based on 175 GPCD(2)(3)) 1.0 2.1 0.8 1.3 0.9 1.5 1.2 1.9 1.4 2.2
Need = Demand Capacity ...-- -- -- -- 0.2 -- 0.4 0.1

Continental C. C. Demand (Based on 200 GPCD(2)(3)) 1.3 3.1 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.8
Need (3) = Demand Capacity .... -.. ....

Total County Capacity 2.3 5.1
Total County Demand 1.3 2.1 1.4 2.3 1.7 2.7 1.9 3.0
Total County Need .. .. -- -- -- -- 0.2 -- 0.4 0.1


Source:
Notes: (1)
(2)
(3)


SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992
Permitted Quantity = Withdrawal/Treatment Capacity.
Existirig per capital use as calculated in Chapter 2.
Demand based on current GPCD as SWFWMD requires


reduction in GPCD, the need will be reduced.







Table 4-4

TOTAL PROJECTED AVERAGE DAILY WATER USE THROUGH 2020
IN THE SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT


1990
County Public Supply Rural Agriculture Industrial Mining Recreation Total
Citrus 7.5 5.8 2.6 1.6 0.9 3.0 21.4
Hernando 14.7 1.3 4.1 0.7 7.8 3.0 31.6
Marion 2.7 3.9 6.0 0.1 0.0 1.4 14.1
Sumter 1.2 2.9 13.0 0.0 53.7 0.6 71.4
Totals 26.1 13.9 25.7 2.4 62.4 8.0 138.5

1995
County Public Supply Rural Agriculture Industrial Mining Recreation Total
Citrus 11.8 7.2 2.7 2.6 2.0 3.8 30.1
Hernando 19.6 2.0 3.9 0.7 8.7 3.6 38.5
Marion 4.5 3.9 6.7 0.1 0.0 1.7 16.9
Sumter 1.3 4.2 15.8 0.0 42.1 0.8 64.2
Totals 37.2 17.3 29.1 3.4 52.8 9.9 149.7

2000
County Public Supply Rural Agriculture Industrial Mining Recreation Total
Citrus 15.9 7.2 3.0 2.6 2.0 4.3 35.0
Hernando 22.8 2.3 5.3 0.7 8.7 4.1 43.9
Marion 7.6 3.9 6.7 0.1 0.0 1.8 20.1
Sumter 1.4 4.7 16.5 0.0 42.1 0.8 65.5
Totals 47.7 18.1 31.5 3.4 52.8 11.0 164.5

2010
County Public Supply Rural Agriculture Industrial Mining Recreation Total
Citrus 18.9 9.2 3.4 2.6 2.0 5.3 41.4
Hernando 27.9 2.8 7.7 0.7 8.7 5.1 52.9
Marion 15.5 3.9 6.3 0.1 0.0 2.3 28.1
Sumter 1.7 5.4 17.7 0.0 42.1 0.9 67.8
Totals 64.0 21.3 35.1 3.4 52.8 13.6 190.2

2020
County Public Supply Rural Agriculture Industrial Mining Recreation Total
Citrus 21.2 11.4 4.2 2.6 2.0 6.1 47.5
Hernando 33.2 3.4 9.6 0.7 8.7 6.1 61.7
Marion 22.7 3.9 5.7 0.1 0.0 6.4 38.8
Sumter 1.9 6.2 18.4 0.0 42.1 1.1 69.7
Totals 79.0 24.9 37.9 3.4 52.8 19.7 217.7


Source:


SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992


4-17







Table 4-5


INDUSTRIAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS THROUGH 2020
IN THE SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

1990
County Chemical Mfg. Food Proc. Power Gener. Other Misc. Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 1.6
Hernando 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.7
Marion 0.0 0.0. 0.0 0.1 0.1
Sumter 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Totals 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.8 2.4

1995
County Chemical Mfg. Food Proc. Power Gener. Other Misc. Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.0 2.6
Hernando 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Sumter 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Totals 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.8 3.4

2000
County Chemical Mfg. Food Proc. Power Gener. Other Misc. Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.0 2.6
Hernando 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Sumter 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Totals 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.8 3.4

2010
County Chemical Mfg. Food Proc. Power Gener. Other Misc. Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.0 2.6
Hernando 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Sumter 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Totals 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.8 3.4

2020
County Chemical Mfg. Food Proc. Power Gener. Other Misc. Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.0 2.6
Hernando 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Sumter 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Totals 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.8 3.4


Source:


SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992


4-18


------







Table 4-6

MINING WATER USE PROJECTIONS THROUGH 2020
IN THE SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
1990
County Cement Mfg. Phosphate Mining Limestone Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.9
Hernando 2.7 0.0 5.1 7.8
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sumter 0.0 0.0 53.7 53.7
Totals 2.7 0.0 59.7 62.4

1995
County Cement Mfg. Phosphate Mining Limestone Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0
Hernando 2.7 0.0 6.0 8.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sumter 0.0 0.0 42.1 42.1
Totals 2.7 0.0 50.1 52.8

2000
County Cement Mfg. Phosphate Mining Limestone Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0
Hernando 2.7 0.0 6.0 8.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sumter 0.0 0.0 42.1 42.1
Totals 2.7 0.0 50.1 52.8

2010
County Cement Mfg. Phosphate Mining Limestone Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0
Hernando 2.7 0.0 6.0 8.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sumter 0.0 0.0 42.1 42.1
Totals 2.7 0.0 50.1 52.8

2020
County Cement Mfg. Phosphate Mining Limestone Total
Citrus 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.0
Hernando 2.7 0.0 6.0 8.7
Marion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sumter 0.0 0.0 42.1 42.1
Totals 2.7 0.0 50.1 52.8


Source:


SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study, January 1992


4-19








An Evaluation of Factors Contributing to the Growth of Lvngbya Species and Kings Bay/Crystal
River, Florida
This report was prepared by SWFWMD and submitted to the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP) in 1990. The report primarily deals with the growth of the Lyngbya blue green
algae as it appears in Kings Bay. The purpose of the report was to find the causes of the Lyngbya
infestation and to identify possible management action to control the growth and expansion of this
algae in Kings Bay. The report discusses in some detail the springs located in the vicinity of Kings
Bay, and describes the water quality associated with Kings Bay. For purposes of the groundwater
flow modeling analysis, it will be helpful to use the water quality data obtained from many water
supply wells in the area. Also important will be the general water quality of the Floridan aquifer
and potential groundwater flow paths, as presented in the report.


Coastal Groundwater Quality Monitoring Program Report
This report was prepared by the Ambient Groundwater Quality Monitoring Program at SWFWMD
in 1991. This report describes the program developed to monitor groundwater quality in coastal
areas. It is designed to determine the quality of groundwater in the Floridan and the intermediate
aquifers from the standpoint of both potability and usefulness for reverse osmosis treatment. The
report identifies the saltwater/freshwater interface along coastal western Florida and also identifies
additional groundwater quality parameters such as total dissolved solids, sulfates and specific
conductivity. It also provides the monitor well network design, chemical parameters and sampling

frequency. Specific discussions of the Floridan and the intermediate aquifers in Citrus and
Hemando Counties are presented. The report identifies locations of water quality monitoring wells
which should include water level information.


Development Of Wellhead Protection Areas For The Major Public Supply Wells In Hernando
County
This report was prepared in 1993 by HydroGeoLogic for SWFWMD and Hemando County. Its purpose
was to identify wellhead protection areas around public water supply wells in Hemando County. The
report obtained the location of existing and planned major public supply wells in the County and


4-20









SWithlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority/Citrus County Wellfield
SAverage and maximum daily water demands in the Meadow Crest/Hampton Hills Service Area are projected
to increase from 1.2 MGD and 2.5 MGD in 1990, to 10.8 MGD and 22.6 MGD in 2020, respectively.
SCurrently, this demand is served by wells operated by WRWSA/Citrus County. The existing average and
maximum daily permitted quantities for this permit are 4.3 MGD and 8.8 MGD, respectively. Based on
current projection, there will be an additional maximum daily need of 0.3 MGD by 1995. The average and
maximum daily need will increase to 6.5 and 13.8 MGD by 2020. These projected needs in the Needs and
Sources Study, are based on the current per capital water use rate of 265 gpd.


Sugarmill/Southern States Utilities
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Service Area are projected to increase from 0.5 MGD and
0.9 MGD in 1990, to 1.1 MGD and 2.0 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is served by
Swells operated by the Sugar Mill/Southern States Utilities. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 2.1 MGD and 3.1 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections of
demand and existing facilities, there will be no additional need through 2020.


Beverly Hills
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Beverly Hills Service Area are projected to increase from
S2.8 MGD and 5.3 MGD in 1990, to 3.7 MGD and 7.1 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
served by wells operated by the Rolling Oaks Utilities. The existing average and maximum daily permitted
quantities for this permit are 4.3 MGD and 6.8 MGD, respectively. Based on current projection, there will be
no additional average daily need through 2020. These projected needs are based on a per capital water use
rate of 235 gpd.


Homosassa
Average and maximum daily water demands in the Homosassa Service Area are projected to increase from
0.8 MGD and 1.3 MGD in 1990, to 1.4 MGD and 2.3 MGD in 2020, respectively. Currently, this demand is
served by wells operated by the Homosassa Special Water District. The existing average and maximum daily
permitted quantities for this permit are 1.0 MGD and 1.5 MGD, respectively. Based on current projections,
there will be an additional average and maximum daily need of 0.2 MGD and 0.4 MGD, respectively, in


4-21










Withlacoochee Basin Literature Assessment Study
This study was prepared by SWFWMD in 1981, summarizing the hydrogeological reports that
pertain to the Withlacoochee River Basin. This study will also be utilized to determine whether
additional reports need to be obtained to better describe the WRWSA area.


St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD)


Water Supply Needs and Sources Assessment (1994)
Table 4-7 shows water use in terms of groundwater and surface water in Marion County by water
use category in million gallons per day (mgd) for the years 1990 and 2010. The SJRWMD divides
water use among the following seven categories:


Public supply
Agricultural irrigation self-supply
Recreation self-supply
Domestic self-supply
Industrial/commercial self-supply
Thermoelectric power generation self-supply
Miscellaneous self-supply (abandoned artesian wells)


The first three categories listed above "have consistently accounted for approximately three-fourths
of the total fresh groundwater use in SJRWMD and are expected to increase more than other
categories" (Technical Publication SJ 94-7). The last four categories listed above "accounted for 26
percent of the total fresh groundwater use in 1990" ibidd). However, "water use rates are not
expected to change significantly through the year 2010" ibidd). SJRWMD does not provide
estimates of current capacity; therefore, an estimate of additional supply requirements (need) can
not be made.


4-22









TABLE 4-7


WATER USE (GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER)
IN MARION COUNTY* BY WATER USE CATEGORY
IN MILLION GALLONS PER DAY (MGD), 1990 AND 2010


Year


Total Water Use
Public Supply Water Use
Domestic Self-supply Water Use
Commercial/Industrial Self-supply Water Use
Agricultural Irrigation Water Use
Thermoelectric Power Generation Water Use
Miscellaneous Water Use (abandoned artesian well inventory)
Recreation Self-supply Water Use

* Only that portion of Marion County within the SJRWMD


Notes:
(1)


Source:


(2) Source:


Technical Publication SJ 92-4, Annual Water Use Survey: 1990, by Bruce
L. Florence, St. Johns River Water Management District, 1992.

Technical Publication SJ 94-7, Water Supply Needs and Sources
Assessment, St. Johns River Water Management District, 1994.


TABLE 4-8

PUBLIC SUPPLY WATER USE BY
PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY UTILITIES IN MARION COUNTY*
IN MILLION GALLONS PER DAY (MGD), 1990 AND 2010


Ocala, City of
Source 1990 2010
Groundwater 8.24 16.00
Surface Water 0.00 0.00
Total 8.24 16.00


All Others
1990 2010
3.32 3.94
0.00 0.00
3.32 3.94


Total
1990 2010
11.56 19.94
0.00 0.00
.11.56 19.94


* Only that portion of Marion County within the SJRWMD

Source: Technical Publication SJ 94-7, Water Supply Needs and Sources Assessment,
SJRWMD, 1994.


4-23


19900)
38.99
11.56
11.69
1.05
11.05
0.00
1.75
1.89


2010(2)
50.07
19.94
13.58
1.05
10.69
0.00
1.75
3.06









Table 4-8 shows public supply water use by public water supply utilities in Marion County in
million gallons per day for the years 1990 and 2010. This table shows a constituent of the Total
Water Use as do rows two through eight of Table 4-7. Table 4-8 differs from Table 4-7 in that it
divides the water use in Marion County between the City of Ocala and all of the other public water
supply facilities in Marion County.


United States Geological Survey (USGS)


Hydrogeology Of The Crossbar Ranch Wellfield Area And Projected Impact Of Pumping, Pasco
County, Florida
This report was prepared and published in 1985 by the United States Geological Survey in
cooperation with SWFWMD. It presented the results of a groundwater flow modeling analysis of
the impacts of the Crossbar Ranch Wellfield on the surficial and Floridan aquifer water levels. The
report describes the geology and hydrogeology of that area in some detail and will be helpful in
identifying historic groundwater levels.


Hydrology Of Green Swamp Area In Central Florida
This report presents hydrogeologic and geologic information on the Green Swamp area, part of
which part is in Sumter County. It provides information on the Withlacoochee River Basin,
describing the basin, the stream flow and the chemical characteristics of the surface water. This
information will be important in characterizing the hydrology of Withlacoochee River Basin and
providing historic data.


Northern Withlacoochee Hydrologic Investigation in Levy, Lake, Alachua And Marion Counties,
Florida
This study evaluates the impact of various proposed wellfields on the flow of Rainbow Springs, and
uses a groundwater flow model that covers the entire groundwater basin that contributes to the flow
of Rainbow and Silver Springs, two of the largest freshwater springs in Florida. It will be used to
evaluate the modeling analysis conducted by SWFWMD and whether those modeling assumptions
and approaches will be valid in modeling the groundwater flow within the WRWSA area. The
study identifies geology and hydrogeology, as well as climatological data.


4-24









Potential For Downward Leakage To The Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp Area, Central Florida
This report was prepared in 1978 by the U.S. Geological Survey. It identifies as a map series the
recharge to the Floridan aquifer within the Green Swamp area. This data will be useful in
identifying the amount of recharge to the upper Floridan aquifer in portions of Sumter County.


Potential For Salt Water Intrusion Into The Upper Floridan Aquifer, Hernando and Manatee
Counties, Florida.
This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with SWFWMD and was
published in 1989. The study areas include the hydrogeologic framework and the hydraulic
characteristics of the upper Floridan aquifer. It also described the groundwater flow system in the
upper Floridan aquifer and the redevelopment potentiometric surfaces and recharge and discharge
rates. Water quality in Hernando County is also described. Results of the simulation of the
groundwater system within Hernando County, with respect to a groundwater flow and a solute
transport model, are presented. The potential for salt water intrusion is identified.


This data, including the groundwater flow modeling analysis, will be very beneficial when the
groundwater flow model for the Withlacoochee area is prepared. Results of modeling efforts can be
compared to the U.S. Geological Survey report results. The report concluded that at ROMP well
TR18-2 in Hernando County showed a saltwater/freshwater interface at a depth of 500-560 feet,
with chloride concentrations of 18,000 mg/1. The freshwater/saltwater zone is only a few hundred
feet thick. A model was constructed where inflow of groundwater was reduced 25 and 44%. This
resulted in a slight increase in chloride concentration occurring over several hundreds of years.


Reconnaissance Of Geohydrologic Areas And 1981 Low Flow Conditions, Withlacoochee Basin,
Southwest Florida Water Management District
This report was prepared in 1989 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with SWFWMD
and describes the environmental setting of the Withlacoochee Basin and results of tests conducted
in the Withlacoochee State Forest, Citrus Springs Golf Course, and Clay Hill. It identifies areas of
high and moderate recharge and then describes in detail the low-flow conditions of the basin in
comparison with conditions during other periods of records. The report also describes the exchange
of water between the Withlacoochee River and the upper Floridan aquifer. This report will be


4-25








instrumental in describing and defining whether or not the Withlacoochee River recharges the upper
Floridan aquifer during certain times of the year, and whether the Floridan aquifer maintains water
levels in the Withlacoochee River during other times of the year. Historic flow and duration
records are provided, which will establish baseline data.


Simulation Of Steady-State Groundwater And Spring Flow In The Upper Floridan Aquifer Of
Coastal Citrus And Hernando Counties
This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with SWFWMD. The
computer model simulated groundwater and spring flow in the coastal area and identified recharged
and discharged areas. It then identified the location and position of the 250 mg/1 isochlor at 100
feet below mean sea level. General geologic and hydrogeologic conditions in the area are
presented. This report will be beneficial in identifying the hydrologic budget of the Coastal
Springs area and the impact of pumpage on water quality.


Water Table In The Surficial And Potentiometric Surface Of The Floridan Aquifer In Selected
Wellfields, West Central Florida May 1977
This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with SWFWMD in 1977. It
identifies water levels in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer
as a series of maps. It also identifies wellfields in the study area and water level measurements
taken, as well as flow rates. It will be useful to review this report in detail with respect to obtaining
historic water level and pumpage data.


Florida Geological Survey (FGS) & Bureau of Geology


Florida's Groundwater Quality Monitoring Program Hydrogeologic Frame Work
This report was prepared by the Florida Geological Survey and presents results of the groundwater
quality network program established by the 1983 Water Quality Assurance Act, Florida Statute
403.063 It consists primarily of a series of maps which provide the basic hydrogeologic conditions
present within the principal aquifers of Florida. While the WRWSA area is not specifically
mentioned, these are generalized hydrogeologic maps which will be useful in defining the
hydrogeology and the geology of the area.


4-26










Geology OfSumter County
This report was prepared by the Florida Geological Survey and published in 1989. It presents
information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sumter County which is fundamental to
groundwater resource investigations and land use planning. The report provides data on climate,
population, transportation and water supply wells. The geology is described in some detail and
description is provided for Fenney Springs and several other springs, including the Gum Springs
Group. Particular emphasis is placed on the geology with some discussion of the Floridan aquifer
system and surficial aquifer system.


Geohydrologic Reconnaissance OfPasco And Southern Hernando Counties
This report was prepared by the Florida Geological Survey in 1964. The area of study in this report
centers above a high point in the groundwater pressure system of the upper Floridan aquifer, which
could be considered to be a principle recharge area for much of the groundwater of the western Gulf
Coast of mid-peninsular Florida. For the purposes of the groundwater flow model, this report will
be very important in providing historic discharge of springs, rainfall and water levels in the surficial
and upper Floridan aquifers.


Mineral Resources Of Citrus County, Mineral Resources Of Hernando County And Mineral
Resources OfSumter County
This consists of a map series prepared by the Florida Geologic Survey to identify the
geomorphology, geology and mineral resources of each county. It outlines the areas of clay and/or
limerock mineral resources. These maps identify areas where the Floridan aquifer is confined
and/or unconfined and where the limerock resource is at or near land surface.


Suwannee Limestone In Hernando And Pasco Counties, Florida
Part II Petrography Of The Suwannee Limestone
This report was prepared by the Bureau of Geology in 1972, and identifies the geology of the
Suwannee limestone in Hernando and Pasco counties. It also provides detailed information of the
geology of both counties and will be helpful in compiling and obtaining the background
information necessary to construct the groundwater flow model.


4-27




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