Title: Section 2 - Groundwater Resource Evaluation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004349/00001
 Material Information
Title: Section 2 - Groundwater Resource Evaluation
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Section 2 - Groundwater Resource Evaluation (JDV Box 95)
General Note: Box 20, Folder 3 ( Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority - 1996 Master Plan for Water Supply - 1996 ), Item 4
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00004349
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text





Section 2 GROUNDWATER RESOURCE EVALUATION

O verview ........................................... ......................... .. 2-1
G eology ......................................... ........... ...... ....... .... ... 2-2
Geologic Cross Sections ........................................... 2-8
Hydrogeology ................................................................. 2-10
Surficial Aquifer System .......................................... 2-10
Floridan Aquifer System .......................................... 2-12
Hydrology ..................................................................... 2-23
Rainfall ............................................................ 2-23
Evaporation/Evapotranspiration ................................ 2-23
Surface Water ....................................................... 2-23
Hydrologic Budget ............................................... 2-34
Groundwater Quality ........................................................ 2-40
Surficial Aquifer System ....................................... 2-45
Floridan Aquifer System .......................................... 2-47
Contamination Potential ........................................... 2-49
Groundwater Model ........................................................ 2-51
General ..................................................... 2-51
Model Construction ................................................ 2-51
Conceptual Model ......................................... 2-54
Model Area ................................................. 2-55
Hydrogeologic Configuration ........................... 2-57
Recharge ................................................... 2-61
Evapotranspiration ........................................ 2-61
Rivers ......................................................... 2-64
General Head Boundaries ................................ 2-64
Wells ................................................... ... 2-68
Base Model Simulation ........................................... 2-68
Wellfield Siting ............................................................... 2-72
Potential Wellfield Areas ......................................... 2-72
Proposed Wellfields .............................................. 2-74
Wellfield Protection Areas ..................................... 2-80






LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page
No. No.

2-1 Lithostratigraphic/Hydrostratigraphic Section 2-4
2-2 WRWSA Cross Section A-A' Location Map 2-82
2-3 WRWSA Cross Section A-A' 2-83
2-4 WRWSA Cross Section B-B' Location Map 2-84
2-5 WRWSA Cross Section B-B' 2-85
2-6 WRWSA Cross Section C-C' Location Map 2-86
2-7 WRWSA Cross Section C-C' 2-87
2-8 WRWSA Cross Section D-D' Location Map 2-88
2-9 WRWSA Cross Section D-D' 2-89
2-10 WRWSA Cross Section E-E' Location Map 2-90
2-11 WRWSA Cross Section E-E' 2-91
2-12 WRWSA Cross Section F-F' Location Map 2-92
2-13 WRWSA Cross Section F-F' 2-93
2-14 WRWSA Cross Section G-G' Location Map 2-94
2-15 WRWSA Cross Section G-G' 2-95
2-16 WRWSA Cross Section H-H' Location Map 2-96
2-17 WRWSA Cross Section H-H' 2-97
2-18 Generalized Recharge Areas in the Northern West-Central Florida 2-11
Groundwater Basin
2-19 Thickness of Surficial Deposits 2-13
2-20 Thickness of Confining Bed Overlying the Floridan Aquifer 2-14
2-21 Top of Floridan Aquifer 2-15
2-22 General Thickness of-the Upper Floridan Aquifer 2-17
2-23 Location of Aquifer Performance Tests in Upper Floridan Aquifer 2-19
2-24 Potentiometric Surface Elevation of the Upper Floridan Aquifer 2-22
2-25 Springs in the Study Area 2-26
2-26 Location of Major Surface Water Features in Hernando County, Florida 2-28
2-27 Location of Major Surface Water Features in Citrus County, Florida 2-30
2-28 Location of Major Surface Water Features in Sumter County, Florida 2-32
2-29 Location of Major Surface Water Features in Southwest
Marion County, Florida 2-35
2-30 Specific Conductance of the Surficial Aquifer 2- 98


2 ii








Figure Page
No. Title No.

2-31 Total Hardness of the Surficial Aquifer 2-99
2-32 Chloride Concentration of the Surficial Aquifer 2-100
2-33 Total Dissolved Solids of the Surficial Aquifer 2-101
2-34 Sulfate Concentration of the Surficial Aquifer 2-102
2-35 Iron Concentration of the Surficial Aquifer 2-103
2-36 Specific Conductance of the Floridan Aquifer 2-104
2-37 Total Hardness of the Floridan Aquifer 2-105
2-38 Chloride Concentration of the Floridan Aquifer 2-106
2-39 Total Dissolved Solids of the Floridan Aquifer 2-107
2-40 Sulfate Concentration of the Floridan Aquifer 2-108
.2-41 Iron Concentration of the Floridan Aquifer 2-109
2-42 Solid Waste Facilities 2-52
2-43 CERCLIS, RCRIS, and Treatment, Storage and Disposal Sites 2-53
2-44 Leaky Underground Storage Tank and Stationary Tank Inventory Sites 2-54
_ 2-45 -Model Area and Grid 2-58
2-46 Transmissivity of the Floridan Aquifer 2-59
2-47 Leakance of the Floridan Aquifer 2-60
2-48 Land Surface Elevation (FT NGVD) 2-63
2-49 Withlacoochee River Gauging Station 2-66
2-50 Permitted Wells Greater than 10,000 GPD 2-68
2-51 Potentiometric Surface Elevation in the
Floridan Aquifer-ADF Withdrawal 2-69
2-52 Water Table Elevation in the Surficial Aquifer ADF Withdrawal 2-70
2-53 Wellfield Suitability Areas/Water Resource Protection Areas 2-73
2-54 Drawdown in the Surficial Aquifer Proposed Wells 2-75
2-55 Drawdown in the Florida Aquifer Proposed Wells 2-76
2-56 Drawdown in the Surficial Aquifer Proposed Wells at 150% pumpage 2-77
2-57 Drawdown in the Florida Aquifer Proposed Wells at 150% pumpage 2-78
2-58 Wellfield Protection Areas Based Upon Time of Travel 2-81


2 iii










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page
No. Title No.

2-1 Floridan Aquifer Hydraulic Parameters 2-20
2-2 Rainfall In and Around the WRWSA Area 2-24
2-3 Major Springs and Flow in the Northern West-Central
Florida Groundwater Basin 2-25
2-4 Major Surface Water Features in Hernando County 2-29
2-5 Major Surface Water Features in Citrus County 2-31
2-6 Major Surface Water Features in Sumter County 2-33
2-7 Functions of MODFLOW Modules Used in Model 2-56
2-8 Thornthwaite Potential ET Calculation 2-65
2-9 River and Spring Flow Comparison Actual vs. Base Model Simulation 2-71































2-iv









GROUNDWATER RESOURCE EVALUATION


Overview

As part of this master plan the groundwater resources of the WRWSA were evaluated. This evaluation
was conducted in order to provide an updated information base for the WRWSA and ultimately to
recommend areas that are most suitable for wellfield development. To this end, extensive data
collection, analysis and evaluation of geologic, hydrogeologic, water quality and land use characteristics
was conducted. These data were analyzed as follows.


The geologic characteristics were evaluated first because the limestone formations generally yield more
water to wells than do sand or clay units. Highly fractured limestone will yield significantly more water
than limestone that is not fractured. Delineation of these fractured limestone strata leads to the
identification of areas that will produce the highest volume of water.


The hydrogeologic analysis describes the occurrence and movement of groundwater and is one of the
most critical elements of this groundwater resource evaluation. Understanding the hydrologic
conditions allows the placement of a wellfield in an area that has the most suitable hydraulic
characteristics. Limestone strata with a high transmissivity and low leakance value generally are better
suited to wellfield development, with respect to well yield, low impact to existing users and
environmental features and required spacing of wells.


Water quality is an equally important factor in that poor water quality will require more treatment,
resulting in higher treatment and capital costs. Six water quality parameters were identified as criteria
for evaluation. Within the water quality analysis section of the evaluation is a discussion of known and
potential contamination sources. Land uses such as solid waste landfills and hazardous waste facilities
were considered in the contamination potential section.









Population growth areas delineated in the planning section were also used in the evaluation, as it is more
cost-effective to construct wellfields close to the demand areas, as long as the water quality is within
acceptable parameters.


Maps that illustrate the distribution and variation in geology, hydrogeology and water quality were
created in this analysis. When overlain on each other, these maps formed a "wellfield suitability map"
identifying areas conducive to the development of potable water supplies.


A numerical groundwater flow model was constructed for the WRWSA area in order to simulate the
hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions of the region. Existing groundwater pumpage was simulated
in order to determine whether the model was correctly simulating groundwater conditions. Upon
completion of that task, the recommended wellfield areas were simulated and evaluated against existing
water use permit requirements.


As a result of the groundwater resource evaluation, this Master Plan indicates the location of areas most
suited to wellfield development and provides recommendations as to well construction depth and
permittable well yield. It also makes recommendations on further investigations of water quality in the
surficial and Floridan aquifers.


Geology

Literature from SWFWMD, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Geological Survey
(FGS), and the Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council (WRPC) were collected and reviewed to
obtain geologic data on the Withlacoochee region. An additional source of geologic data used to
construct geologic cross sections came from GeoSys, Inc. This company has prepared geologic logs
from over 3,500 well completion reports throughout Florida and from the aforementioned agencies.









Knowledge of the geology of the region is critical when designing a well or wellfield, particularly in
Citrus and Hernando Counties, where geologic information is used to determine casing depth and total
depth of a supply well. These geologic data are also important when estimating well yield and water
level drawdown impacts, since geologic formations control the rate and movement of water.


The geologic units of the WRWSA are primarily sedimentary carbonate bedrock (limestone) overlain by
plastic sedimentary material (sand, silt, shell). Structural movement and compaction of these carbonate
deposits at different rates have caused sloping and erosion of the otherwise nearly horizontally deposited
sediments. These forces of compaction and movement along with movement of mildly acidic water
have created a highly permeable and fractured sequence of limestones. It is from these limestones that
the majority of groundwater is pumped for potable water supply. The limestone units, as discussed
later, form the Floridan aquifer system that extends throughout Florida and into the southern portions of
Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina. The geologic data presented herein is a compilation of data
obtained from all data sources. Except where noted, it is not possible to reference the source of each
statement.


The stratigraphy of the WRWSA area is generally as shown on Figure 2-1. Igneous rocks,
metasediments and sediments comprise the basement rock and occur at depths of 2,000 feet to 3,000
feet, depending upon location. Basement rock refers to the rock strata upon which the limestone units
were deposited. The thickness of the basement rock is unknown and has little to no influence on the

groundwater movement at or near the land surface. A brief description of the geologic formations found
in the WRWSA area, from the deepest to land surface is presented here. The formations described
below are also arranged from oldest to youngest.


- The Cedar Keys Formation of Paleocene age is comprised of dolomite (a calcium/magnesium carbonate)
and evaporites (gypsum and anhydrite). This formation dips from north to south. The top of the formation
occurs at about 1,500 feet below sea level in the north and at about 2,500 feet below




J- .-~


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______________________ I ________________________ _______________________________________________ _________________________________________


QUATERNARY


TERTIARY


CRETACEOUS
AND OLDER


HOLOCENE

PLEISTOCENE


1- .


PLIOCENE


MIOCENE


UNDIFFERENTIATED
PLEISTOCENE-HOLOCENE
SEDIMENTS


ALACHUA FORMATION


.4 -


HAWTHORN GROUP


TAMPA LIMESTONE

OLIGOCENE SUWANNEE LIMESTONE

UPPER OCALA LIMESTONE
LJ
z
i MIDDLE AVON PARK FORMATION

LOWER OLDSMAR FORMATION
LOWER OLDSMAR FORMATION


PALEOCENE


CEDAR KEYS'FORMATION


.4 4


UNDIFFERENTIATED


SURFICIAL
AQUIFER
SYSTEM


INTERMEDIATE
CONFINING UNIT


FLORIDAN

AQUIFER

SYSTEM


UPPER
FLORIDAN
AQUIFER
SYSTEM

MIDDLE CONFINING
UNIT

LOWER
FLORIDAN
AQUIFER
SYSTEM


SUB-FLORIDAN
CONFINING
UNI T


8/25/95


SOU91C~ OU)NCAU JG !VANS. WIL.. AI4O tAYLOR. K L. 1994


LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC/HYDROSTRATIGRAPHIC SECTION


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sea level in the south. The Cedar Keys Formation contains some water, but primarily acts as a lower
confining unit and is not used as a source of potable water due to poor water quality.


The Oldsmar Limestone overlies the Cedar Keys Formation. The upper portion is comprised mainly of
limestone while the lower part is comprised primarily of dolomite. Also contained in the Oldsmar
Limestone are some evaporites and chert (crypto crystalline quartz). The Oldsmar Limestone is of
lower Eocene age and is conformably overlain by the Avon Park Formation of middle Eocene age. It,
too, is not used as a source of water because of its highly mineralized quality.


The Avon Park Formation is a porous limestone or dolomite, marked at its base by a fine to medium
grained dolomite. In the northern WRWSA area it is exposed in some areas at land surface. The Avon
Park Formation includes the Lake City Limestone and the Avon Park Limestone of prior usage. This
formation thickens to the south-southwest to 1,400 feet in the WRWSA area. The upper portions of this
formation may yield water of good quality, but information gathered was not sufficient to determine
exactly where. The Avon Park Formation is part of the Floridan aquifer system and contains, at depths
of about 700 1,000 feet, a middle confining unit that separates the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers.


The Ocala Limestone unconformably overlies the Avon Park Formation and is of Upper Eocene age.
The Ocala Limestone is a soft, coquinic, foraminiferal, creamy to white limestone about 200 feet thick
throughout the study area, except where the Avon Park is exposed at land surface. The Ocala Limestone
and other younger sediments have been eroded in these areas. This formation is tapped for potable
supply, but, as will be discussed in later sections, the quality is variable.


The Oligocene Age Suwannee Limestone is a fossiliferous, hard, yellow or creamy limestone which is
present at or near the surface in Citrus, Hernando and southern Sumter counties. The Suwannee
Limestone is a part of the Floridan aquifer system, as are the Ocala Limestone and the Avon Park
Formation. The Suwannee Limestone is used as a source of raw water for potable use.


The Tampa Limestone is a sandy, clayey limestone 0 feet to 100 feet thick (north to south) and is also
part of the Floridan aquifer system. It is consistently present in only the southernmost portion of the
study area. It is also used for potable supply.










The Hawthorn Group is a phosphatic limestone, with dolomite in its lower part and a phosphatic clayey
sand in its upper part. It varies in thickness from 0 feet to 140 feet in the WRWSA area. Where
present, the Hawthorn Group forms a semi-confining unit between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the
overlying surficial aquifer system. The Hawthorn Group is not used as a source of water.


Materials that overlie the Hawthorn Group from the surficial aquifer system are generally
undifferentiated sand and clay deposits of Plio-Pleistocene to Holocene age. The Pliocene age Alachua
Formation is present above the Hawthorn Group in some areas and consists of a sandy clay. Where the
Hawthorn Group is not present, the Upper Floridan aquifer and the surficial aquifer system are more
directly connected. The Plio-Pleistocene deposits contain some water and are generally tapped for
domestic irrigation wells. Water quality is highly variable with iron usually in the highest concentration.


Two structural features exist in the WRWSA area which have altered the geologic structure of the
region. The Peninsular Arch affects rocks of Cretaceous age (rocks below the basement rock complex).
The basement rocks were folded and this folding resulted in differential subsidence of the coastal plain
floor. This action exposed certain formations at land surface and caused them to be eroded.


The Ocala Uplift or Platform is the second structural feature in the region. While the Peninsular Arch is
a result of compressed tectonics, it is thought that the Ocala Uplift is a result of differential compaction
which means that areas received different pressures that caused compaction at different rates. Because
no sediments older than the Ocala Limestone appear to be affected in the area of this feature, it cannot
be considered a true uplift. Scott, 1988, suggested the use of the term platform instead of uplift for this
feature, as deposition and erosion may have had a major role in its development. The geologic units are
shown in Figure 2-1. These structural features are mentioned only because they have had a major
impact on the creation of the landforms seen today.









Hernando County
The sands and clays of Plio-Pleistocene age are of variable thickness and are absent along the coast and
in the north central and east central parts of the County. The Suwannee Limestone is also of variable
thickness and is the uppermost limestone unit. This unit is exposed in parts of the county (Campbell and
Scott, 1993). The underlying Ocala Limestone, on the other hand, is of fairly consistent thickness east
to west but dips and thickens to the north. Below this, the Avon Park Formation lies about 100 feet
below sea level in the north and dips to the south. Most water supply wells in Hemando County appear
to be sunk into the Avon Park Formation.


Citrus County
The Eocene and Oligocene age limestones are at or just below land surface in about half of Citrus
County, and generally occur along the eastern and western edges. In the central region, the Hawthorn
Group is exposed at or near land surface (Campbell and Scott, 1992).


The limestones and dolomites of the Suwannee Limestone, the Ocala Limestone, and the Avon Park
Formation are present in Citrus County and contain fragments of marine origin. The Avon Park
Formation is very permeable and, at a depth of up to 500 feet below sea level, is the deepest formation
to contain potable water.


Vertical fracturing in the area of the Ocala Uplift has caused the development of karst terrain which, in
turn, has given rise to relatively high recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The fractures that allow high
recharge to occur to the Upper Floridan aquifer also enhance the process of cavern development. Since
the limestone is closer to land surface it allows for easy mining. Water supply wells generally tap the
upper potions of the Avon Park Formation.









Sumter County
The Ocala Limestone is at or near land surface throughout almost all of the county, allowing significant
recharge to the Floridan aquifer system to occur (Campbell, 1993). The elevations of the top of the
Ocala Limestone are highest along the Marion-Sumter County line ranging from sea level to 95 feet
above sea level. The Ocala Limestone in Sumter County ranges from less than 20 feet thick along the
Withlacoochee River to more than 120 feet thick. The elevation and thickness of the Ocala Limestone is
very irregular due to extensive karst development in the county. The Ocala Limestone is overlain by the
Hawthorn Group in the eastern part of the county.


As seen in Citrus County, the Avon Park Formation is up to 500 feet thick and is the deepest formation
to contain potable water. Water quality directly below the Avon Park Formation is degraded by the
dissolution of evaporites within the formation.


Marion County
The Peninsular Arch and Ocala Uplift also affected Marion County, allowing for physical and chemical
weathering of the exposed limestone units. The Ocala Limestone is exposed in the central portion of the
county. On the eastern side, the lower member of the Ocala Limestone and the Alachua Formation are
exposed (Scott, 1992). The proximity of limestone units to land surface results in solution cavities,
fractures and sinkholes which are common geologic features in Marion County.


Geologic Cross Sections

Geologic cross-sections illustrate the sequence of stratigraphic units throughout the WRWSA area and,
therefore, make interpretation of borehole data easier. Figures 2-2 through 2-17, placed at the end of the
groundwater resource section, show geologic cross-section location maps and geologic cross sections.
Data for these cross sections came from logs published by the FGS in many of their publications and
from GeoSys, Inc.


Figures 2-2 and 2-3 show a north-south cross section through Citrus and Hernando Counties. In this
cross section, the siliciclastic, surficial sediments are thin (less than 20 feet) to absent, and the
Ocala Limestone is exposed in central Citrus County. The depth to limestone, corresponding to the top
of the Floridan aquifer system, is approximately 0 feet to 20 feet below land surface.










Figures 2-4 and 2-5 show a north-south cross section through the middle of Citrus, Hernando, and Pasco
Counties. The cross section shows the varying topography in the area and a thickening of the units to
the south. The thickness of potable water in these units thins as the unit itself dips to the south. The
limestone is approximately 10 feet to 80 feet below land surface.


Figures 2-6 through 2-9 show north-south cross sections through the middle of the City of Ocala.
Figure 2-7 shows that the thicknesses of the units in this area vary greatly from one well to the next with
the Hawthorn Group becoming thinner (pinching out) toward the south. The depth to limestone in this
cross section is approximately 20 feet to 100 feet below land surface. Figure 2-9 again shows that the
thicknesses and presence of units varies from well to well. However, in this cross section the units
generally thicken toward the south and the depth to limestone is approximately 30 feet to 100 feet below
land surface.


Figures 2-10 and 2-11 show an east-west cross section through Hernando County. Generally, the units
in the western well thin toward the east as new units begin to appear. The limestone is approximately 60
feet to 90 feet below land surface.


Figures 2-12 through 2-15 show cross sections through eastern Citrus County. In Figure 2-13, surficial
sediments appear to thin toward the east and the depth to limestone is approximately 30 feet to 95 feet
below land surface. In Figure 2-15, the limestone is approximately 50 feet to 240 feet below land
surface.


Figures 2-16 and 2-17 show a cross section through northern Sumter County. The units thin toward the
southeast with the exception of the undifferentiated sand and clay. The limestone is approximately 10
feet to 60 feet below land surface.









These geologic cross-sections can be used in conjunction with water quality data to estimate freshwater
thicknesses in each unit and, therefore, to determine where to set well casings when installing a well.


Hydrogeology

The hydrogeology in the WRWSA area consists of the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate
confining unit and the Floridan aquifer system. The general relationship between the geologic and
hydrogeologic units is shown in Figure 2-1. A map showing the general Floridan aquifer recharge areas
in the northern west-central Florida groundwater basin is included as Figure 2-18. Recharge is defined
as the amount of water that percolates from the overlying surficial aquifer system to the Floridan aquifer
system.


The Withlacoochee River is a significant hydrogeologic feature in the sense that groundwater from the
Floridan aquifer system may be contributing to the flow of the river. Although it is beyond the scope of
this report to determine the amount of discharge, it is apparent from the water balance analysis that there
-is a significant source of groundwater discharge to the Withlacoochee River as is evidenced by the
relatively small number of tributaries that it has.


The source of increasing flow must be from groundwater discharge; in this case, that means from the
Floridan aquifer system. The majority of Citrus, Hernando, afid Marion Counties have relatively high
recharge rates. Recharge rates in Sumter County range from very low to high.


Surficial Aquifer System

The surficial aquifer system consists of the water-bearing plastic deposits that generally overlie the
Hawthorn Group. The surficial aquifer system generally yields volumes of water suitable to meet
domestic needs and residential irrigation, and is not often used for large-scale purposes. The surficial
aquifer system is under atmospheric pressure and the water table elevation which defines the top of the
saturated portion of the surficial aquifer system is affected by the barometric pressure. Hydraulic
parameter information on the surficial aquifer system is highly variable and limited.


2-10













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GENERALIZED RECHARGE AREAS IN THE NORTHERN WEST-CENTRAL
FLORIDA GROUNDWATER BASIN

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Figure 2-19 shows the thickness of surficial deposits in the WRWSA area. This thickness is essentially
equivalent to the thickness of the surficial aquifer system in the WRWSA area. The thickness of the
surficial aquifer system in Citrus County ranges from 0 feet to >50 feet. The surficial aquifer system is
thickest in a roughly north-south trending band in east-central Citrus County. The surficial aquifer
system is <25 feet thick in central Citrus County and the thickness decreases westward toward the coast.


The thickness of the surficial aquifer system in Hemando County ranges from 0 feet to >25 feet. The
surficial aquifer system is thickest in southern west-central Hernando County. The surficial aquifer
system is <25 feet thick in the majority of Hernando County and, in many areas, is non-existent.


The surficial aquifer system in Sumter County ranges from 0 feet to >150 feet thick, is thickest in east
Sumter County, and decreases rapidly in terms of thickness in all directions from this area. The majority
of Sumter County has a surficial aquifer system thickness of <25 feet, as was the case for Hernando
County.


Either the intermediate confining unit or the Floridan aquifer system is exposed at land surface in those
places where the thickness of the surficial aquifer system ranges from 0 feet to 10 feet.


Floridan Aquifer System _

In portions of the WRWSA area, the Floridan aquifer system is separated from the surficial aquifer
system by the intermediate confining unit which consists of the Alachua Formation and/or the Hawthorn
Group and ranges in thickness from <25 feet to >50 feet in the study area. Figure 2-20 shows the
thickness of confining units overlying the Floridan aquifer system.


The top of the Floridan aquifer system ranges from >80 feet below the national geodetic vertical datum
(NGVD) to >140 feet above NGVD in the WRWSA area. Figure 2-21 shows the top of the Floridan
aquifer system. According to the USGS Professional Paper 1403-B, the Floridan aquifer system in the
WRWSA area consists of an Upper and Lower Floridan aquifer separated by a middle confining unit.


2-12















































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AI






























































(FEET)
(FEET)


LEGEND
f20-,, ELEVATION IN FEET
ABOVE (+) OR BELOW (-)
NGVD


JRCE: SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT. 1987. o. b. c. d; 1988 b

vI


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TOP OF FLORIDAN AQUIFER


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engineers, hydrogeologists. surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO. FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


I-Mi AM









"The aquifer system is everywhere underlain by low-permeability materials that may be plastic,
carbonate, or evaporite rocks. Except where the aquifer system is unconfmed, it is overlain by plastic or
impure carbonate rocks of low-permeability." The Professional Paper goes on to report that, "The
confining units may consist of micritic limestone, fme-grained dolomite, or limestone and dolomite that
once were permeable but whose pores are now filled with evaporite minerals; in places, the confining
units may represent zones of recrystallization." The FGS Special Publication No. 32 echoes this
description: ".. .the confining beds are carbonate sediments belonging to the Ocala Limestone, Avon
Park Formation, or the Oldsmar Formation" (Copeland, 1991). It is apparent from these publications
that the Lower Floridan aquifer occurs at depths from 700 to 1,000 feet below land surface.


The Upper Floridan aquifer in the WRWSA area includes the lower Miocene Tampa Limestone, the
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone, the upper Eocene Ocala Limestone, and the upper portion of the
middle Eocene Avon Park Formation. The Upper Floridan aquifer supplies water for large-scale
purposes such as domestic needs, agricultural irrigation, and industrial use. The generalized thickness of
the Upper Floridan aquifer ranges from 600 feet to 1,800 feet (Figure 2-22) in the WRWSA area.
Although the Upper Floridan aquifer is up to 1,800 feet thick, the freshwater thickness is probably
around 300 feet. As will be discussed in the water quality section, the freshwater thickness is defined by
water quality parameters that meet drinking water standards. Reports from the USGS utilized maximum
chloride concentrations as the limiting factor, whereas SWFWMD has collected data that indicates total
dissolved solids (TDS) and sulfate exceed drinking water standards, resulting in a thinner freshwater
thickness because the high concentrations occur at shallow depths. Older reports used chlorides as the
limiting factor which resulted in a greater freshwater thickness. Therefore, wells should be cased just
into the limestone units and with only enough open hole interval to supply the volume of water required.
Fortunately, the Upper Floridan aquifer can supply large volumes of water from shallow depths due to
the high transmissivity.


If wells are cased too deeply, the high quality water is shut off and the poor quality water is pumped.
This problem may not manifest itself if low volume supplies are required. Additional data should be
collected to determine the depth to poor quality water.




2-16

































L


L_


L


CITRUS


L


LEGEND
S THICKNESS
CONTOUR INTERVAL 100


GENERAL THICKNESS OF THE UPPER FLORIDAN AQUIFER


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Standard well construction practice is to set the casing into the limestone, drill to total depth and sample
water quality by pumping the well. Because water does not flow from all parts of a well at the same
rate, a higher, better quality flow zone may produce much more water that tends to dilute the lower flow
zone. This leads to a "composite" water sample that has a mixture of good and poor water quality.


To determine the depth to the low-quality water and, hence, the thickness of the freshwater in the Upper
Floridan aquifer, a vertical sampling of water quality should be undertaken and can be achieved in two
ways. In existing wells, a bailer can be lowered to take a water sample at a discreet depth. In new wells,
a water sample can be taken as the well is drilled, provided the well is drilled using the reverse air
method of well drilling. In both of these scenarios, a vertical distribution of water quality can be
compiled. SWFWMD has very few of these "vertically sampled" data points, but they do indicate,
along with the water quality data presented later, that the high-quality freshwater thickness is generally
about 300 feet in the region. Water quality below that level is still good, but requires some treatment.
Not enough data exists to create a more detailed mapping.


Hydraulic characteristics were gathered from three publications, the groundwater resource availability
series, aquifer characteristics of SWFWMD and SJRWMD and the WCRWSA needs and sources update.
Figure 2-23 shows where aquifer tests were performed. The aquifer characteristics of the WRWSA are
tabulated in Table 2-1.


Transmissivity, the parameter used to describe how easily water can flow through an aquifer, ranges
from about 100,000 gallons per day per foot (gpd/ft) to over ten million gpd/ft. All other things equal,
an aquifer with a transmissivity of 10 million gpd/ft would yield 100 times more water than one with a
transmissivity of 100,000 gpd/ft. The areas around springs generally have the highest transmissivities.
Springs that have the highest discharge usually are in areas that have the highest aquifer transmissivities.


The Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers are both generally confined except in the areas described as
discharge areas in Figure 2-18. Because of the confinement by the intermediate confining unit and


2-18































































































8/25/95


L' )URCE: SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT. 1994 o; SELL. 1993; AND OTHERS


LOCATION OF AQUIFER PERFORMANCE TESTS IN UPPER FLORIDAN AQUIFER


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants
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@1


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FIGURE

2-23


--











TABLE 2-1


FLORIDAN AQUIFER HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS


State Plane Coordinates T () S(2) L (3)
ID. No. X Y (Ft2/day) dimensionlesss) (per day)
1 458410 1774590 2,085,000 ....__
2 320800 1747000 20,050 0.0005 0.0002
3 409500 1726631 62,165 0.0062 0.0022
4 436057 1690216 66,845 0.0005 ...
5 303000 1680000 227,270 0.05
6 312000 1656000 20,535 .....
7 356000 1660000 2,673,800 ....
8 325000 1606000 38,100 0.008
9 317000 1522000 1,203,210 ......
10 350000 1492000 70,855 0.0004 0.0015
11 420000 1469000 294,120 ......
12 415000 1459000 21,390 0.0001 ...
13 356000 1452000 50,800 0.001 0.0002
14 373000 1549000 28,475 0.006 0.0001
15 378000 1589000 1,200,000 ......
16 338000 1579000 940,000 ......
17 355000 1483000 110,000 ......
18- 489000 1642000 100,000 ......
19 484000 1609000 9,000 0.00064 0.0015
20 489279 1459896 2,941 0.003 0.00294
21 532129 1502324 39,171 0.013 0.00481
22 467811 1429611 20,053 ......
23 617920 1466133 3,476
24 558960 1465998 4,278 _____
25 441077 1490236 40,107 ......
26 510711 1496253 7,620 ......
27 532109 1526562 3,743 ......
28 286092 1495528 56,551 ....
29 291814 1490616 8,824 ... ___
30 523274 1466972 12,968 0.00025 0.02
31 526687 1629573 20,053 0.0119 0.00221
32 500000 1732583 3-3,422 ....._
33 500000 1726523 66,845 ....__

Average 294,596 0.00725 0.00357


Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.


T = Transmissivity, feet squared per day
S = Storage, dimensionless
L = Leakance, per day; I/day
... = Data Not Available









the source of water being at a higher elevation, the aquifers are pressurized, just as water distribution
system pipe is pressurized. The pressure in the aquifer is called the potentiometric surface and can be
described as the elevation that the water would reach if the aquifer were penetrated by a well open to the
aquifer. If that pressure surface or water elevation is above the top of the aquifer, then artesian
conditions exist; if it is above land surface, then artesian conditions exist and the well is a flowing well.


Potentiometric surface maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer are produced twice per year (May and
September) by SWFWMD to illustrate how water levels respond at the end of seasons that are normally
dry and wet, respectively. The potentiometric surface can vary several feet throughout the year, and
several more feet from a series of droughts or wet years. Man-induced influences lower the
potentiometric surface, but the seasonal and yearly fluctuations still exist.


Figure 2-24 illustrates the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in September, 1993. The
potentiometric surface of the Lower Floridan aquifer may be different than that of the Upper Floridan
aquifer because it is confined by the middle confining unit.


Figure 2-24 shows that the highest potentiometric elevations occur outside of the WRWSA area,
meaning that most groundwater is derived from sources outside of the WRWSA area. Knowing that
groundwater flow is down gradient and perpendicular to lines of equal elevation it can be seen that most
groundwater in the WRWSA area originates to the southeast in an area called the Polk City High.


Significant amounts of water also originate in Pasco County at the 50 and 80 foot elevation lines.
Reductions in potentiometric surface elevations result in less water flowing to Hernando County. The
potentiometric surface maps are also used to design water supply wells and the pumps and motors, as
the total distance required to pump water must be known.


The Lower Floridan aquifer is separated from the Upper Floridan aquifer by a middle confining unit
consisting of less permeable carbonates. Below this confining unit, the Lower Floridan aquifer contains
the lower portion of the middle Eocene Avon Park Formation, the lower Eocene Oldsmar


2-21






















































J-







J LEGEND
S-'10N POMOm,,c su
SCL 10 (ft. mC


-uRCE:


1994


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers hydroqeoloqists. suveyors & management consultants
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IiM~pf









Formation, and the upper portion of the Paleocene Cedar Keys Formation. Water from the Lower
Floridan aquifer generally is not potable and, therefore, is not pumped.



Hydrology

Because the hydrogeology section discussed groundwater occurrence and movement, the hydrology
section will concentrate on rainfall and surface water features. These are described below.


Rainfall

While rainfall can vary significantly from year to year, average rainfalls are usually used to evaluate
water sources. Rainfall data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
weather stations in the area is presented in Table 2-2. The average annual rainfall in the WRWSA
regional is about 52 inches. In the groundwater flow model developed for this study, rainfall from 1993
was used to estimate groundwater and surface water conditions.


Evapotranspiration (ET)
Evapotranspiration occurs to a depth of about 15 feet below land surface and is the process by which
water is returned to the atmosphere from surface water bodies, lakes, plants and from the water table.
This occurs through the growth of biologic matter and evaporation from lakes or other surface water
bodies. Average annual ET throughout the region is about 35 inches. Lake evaporation is about 48
inches per year. Net recharge available to the surficial aquifer system is rainfall minus ET minus runoff.
This 10-15 inches per year is all that maintains the water level in the surficial aquifer system, lakes, and
- rivers. It also provides the water that recharges the Floridan aquifer system.


Surface Water

Springs are abundant in the WRWSA area indicating a highly productive aquifer and karst activity.
Springs are named and described in Table 2-3, and spring locations are shown in Figure 2-25. Major
springs (class 1) in the area include the Silver, Rainbow, Homosassa, Chassahowitzka, Weeki Wachee
and the Crystal River Group. The flows of these springs range from 138 cubic feet per second


2-23









TABLE 2-2


RAINFALL IN AND AROUND
THE WRWSA AREA


Annual, 30-Year (1961-1990)
Precipitation Normals
(inches)(')


Station Name


1993 Annual
Precipitation (inches)(2)


Brooksville Chin Hill
Bushnell 2E
Clermont 7S
Inverness 3 SE
Lake Alfred Exp Stn
Lisbon
Ocala
Saint Leo
Tarpon Springs
Usher Tower


Average


Source:


53.83
49.81
50.62
53.41
48.19
46.07
51.59
54.09
51.03
60.24

51.89


(1) Owenby, James R., and Ezell, D.S., 1992
(2) NOAA, 1993


2-24


41.19
42.51
34.32
49.96
48.18
44.31
40.78
47.56
48.87
55.79

45.35









TABLE 2-3


MAJOR SPRINGS AND FLOW IN THE NORTHERN WEST-CENTRAL
FLORIDA GROUNDWATER BASIN


Index No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
-18
19
20
21
22
23


Springs
Silver
Rainbow
Wilson Head
Gum
Blue
Crystal River Group
Homosassa
Fenny
Miscellaneous
Potter and Ruth
Chassahowitzka
Nos. 10, 11, 12
No. 9
Blind
No. 7
Salt
Mud
Weeki Wachee
Boat
Bobhill
Magnolia
Horseshoe
Salt


Southwest Florida Water Management District, 1987b


2-25


Flow
(Cubic Feet Per Season)
820
763
3
50
15
916
175
15
29
29
138
9
20
40
25
29
50
176
5
3
9
6
5


Source:











$'i .4u~
-,J~r'


0 2 4 6
MR.


400000.0


OS URCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY, 1995
SPRINGS IN THE STUDY AREA
I


S A HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
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3/5/96


FIGURE

2-25


"'^-'^ ~' "' '^~ """"^"""'" '^^'


1 ...









(cfs) to 916 cfs (89 to 591 million gallons per day (MGD)). Twenty-three (23) of twenty-five (25) listed
springs are located in the project area. The sum of the flows for these twenty-three springs is 3,259 cfs
(2.10 billion gallons per day).


Hernando County
The Withlacoochee and Little Withlacoochee are the only inland perennial streams in Hernando County.
Other perennial streams are fed by springs along the coast such as the Weeki Wachee River. Several
lakes occur in Hernando County, the largest being Bystre Lake at 307 acres. A location map of major
surface water features is provided as Figure 2-26 and a list of those features is given in Table 2-4.


Citrus County
Citrus County contains about 35 lakes, 14 of which are part of the Tsala Apopka chain. Lake Tsala
Apopka is hydraulically connected with the Floridan aquifer system and recharges the Floridan aquifer
system through much of the year. Lake Rousseau is formed by the impoundment of the Withlacoochee
River. Citrus County's major surface water features are shown in Figure 2-27 and listed in Table 2-5.


Sumter County
The Withlacoochee River forms the border between Hernando and Sumter Counties and Citrus and
Sumter Counties. The Withlacoochee River drains about 82% of the Green Swamp and has an annual
average discharge of 1,470 cfs (950 MGD). A location map of major surface water features in Sumter
County is provided as Figure 2-28 and a list of those features is given in Table 2-6. Sumter County
contains over 200 lakes, most of which are less than 25 acres in size. Water levels in these lakes are
controlled by fluctuations in the water table. The largest lakes are Panasoffkee, Deaton, Okahumpka,
and Cherry.


2-27






) I


F ) ~ ~.J-r~,~.J'~


0 12500 25000
(I F I
(FEET)


8/25/95


SOURCE: SOUTHWEST FLORIDA WATER


LOCATION OF MAJOR SURFACE WATER FEATURES IN HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA


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LEGEND
I SPRING









TABLE 2-4


MAJOR SURFACE WATER FEATURES
IN HERNANDO COUNTY


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
S11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29


Turkey Prairie
Skinner Lake
Horse Lake
Stafford Lake
Johnson Pond
Tank Lake
Willow Prairie
Simmons Prairie Lake
Rock Pond
Lake Lindsey
Spring Prairie Lake
Buck Lake
McKethan Lake
Bagwell Lake
May Prairie
Blue Sink
Burs Prairie
Wade Prairie
Grassy Pond
Coogler Pond
Unnamed
Dry Prairie
Townsend Lake
Smith Prairie
Twin Pond
Bystre Lake
Smith Lake
Irvin Lake
Horse Lake


Garrison Lake
Gold Lake
Sparkman Lake
Squirrel Prairie Lake
Spring Lake
Mountain Lake
Neff Lake
Simmon Pond
Patsy Pond
Zuke Pond
Long Pond
Sea Pond
Robison Lake
Charlotte Pond
Nicks Lake
St. Clair Lake
McClendon Lake
Flag Pond
Oriole Lake
Rock Pond
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Long Lake
Sand Pond
Unnamed
Boat Pond
Blanket Grass Pond
Island Prairie Lake


59 Unnamed
60 Griswold Pond
61 Red Den Prairie Lake
62 Unnamed
63 Unnamed
64 Lake Geneva
65 Lake Elizabeth
66 Lake Francis
67 Hunters Lake
68 Blue Sink Pond
69 Lane Pond
70 Hog Pond
71 Weeki Wachee Prairie Lake
72 Century Lake
73 Willow Sink
74 Dick Holder Lake
75 Weeki Wachee Springs
76 Grear Hope Pond
77 Voss Lake
78 Highlands Lake
79 Unnamed
80 Double Cypress Pond
81 Tooke Lake
82 Whitehurst Pond
83 Bob Hill Springs
84 Salt Springs
85 Blind Springs
86 Mud Springs
87- Unnamed Springs
100 Weeki Wachee Springs
101 Lake Hancock


Source: Southwest Florida Water Management District, 1987b





*W a_-


4r-


Eril



LEGEND
f SPRING

0 GROUP OF SPRINGS


LOCATION OF MAJOR SURFACE WATER FEATURES IN CITRUS COUNTY, FLORIDA


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
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I-,
12
10
10


-AM


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TABLE 2-5


MAJOR SURFACE WATER
FEATURES IN CITRUS COUNTY


Lake Rousseau
Unnamed
Unnamed
Rush Lake
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
The Pocket
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Hog Pond
Connell Lake
Unnamed
Henderson Lake


Unnamed
Fort Cooper Lake
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Holden Lake
Magnolia Lake
Unnamed
Unnamed
Unnamed
Little Lake
Bradley Lake
Moon Lake
Unnamed
Stage Pond
Five Mile Pond
Blue Spring


Source: Southwest Florida Water Management District, 1987a





















I1'

Ij







V-J

1.



7,g


ran


f SPRING


WEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT. 1987 d
LOCATION OF MAJOR SURFACE WATER FEATURES IN SUMTER COUNTY, FLORIDA


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
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I


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TICL (Ce0.) *O-*- Z3 r.X (.0.) ee .-es


8/25/95









TABLE 2-6

MAJOR SURFACE WATER FEATURES
IN SUMTER COUNTY


Lake Panasoffkee
Unnamed
Unnamed
Gator Pond
Lake Miona
Bonnet Pond
Cherry Lake
Lake Okahumpka
Lake Deaton
Little Pond
Big Pond
North Bear Lake
South Bear Lake
Unnamed
Unnamed
Charley Pond
Unnamed
Rock Lake
Orange Lake
Mud Lake
Matchett Lake


22. Unnamed
23. Wild Cow
24. Sancher Pond
25. Shaky Lake
26. Lake Bowling
27. Unnamed
28. Little Gant Lake
29. Big Gant Lake
30. Lake Panasoffkee
31. Gum Spring
32. Unnamed
33. Unnamed
34. Unnamed
35. Fenny Spring
36. Unnamed
37. Unnamed
38. Unnamed
39. Unnamed
40. Unnamed
41. Shady Brook


Source: Southwest Florida Water Management District, 1987d









Marion County
A location map of major surface water features in southwest Marion County is shown as Figure 2-29.
Lakes Weir and Rousseau are the largest lakes in the area. Rainbow Springs discharges to Blue Run and
then to the Withlacoochee River. Silver Springs forms Silver River that discharges to the Oklawaha
River.


Hydrologic Budget

The hydrologic budget of an area is written as


water in = water out + change in storage


The purpose of the water budget is to provide a broad idea of whether the volume of water entering the
system is equal to the volume of water exiting the system. If the water budget shows that more water is
coming in than is leaving (as is the case on Page 2-39), then water is being stored and could be used or
could provide a buffer during a drought. If more water leaves than comes in, then storage is being
depleted meaning that no water is available for potable use. The water budget equation for the WRWSA
region is nearly balanced. This indicates that some water is available for use, however, without specific
criteria such as acceptable drawdown at surface water features, this number cannot be qualified.


Applying quantities of water to each of these components illustrates the significance of each and,
therefore, which are more important to correct. The following sections quantify, as much as possible,
the volume of water flowing into and out of the WRWSA area.


Surface Water
The Withlacoochee River and the Oklawaha River are the only major sources of surface water in the
WRWSA area. The rate at which surface water is entering the WRWSA area (SWin) was approximated
by the annual mean flows of the Withlacoochee River at Trilby, Florida, and the


2-34





- LiL H L1.~ ~ L


-TE


LOCATION OF MAJOR SURFACE WATER FEATURES IN SOUTHWEST MARION COUNTY, FLORIDA


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An


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\


1_


I-









Oklawaha River at Moss Bluff, Florida, for the period of record (U.S.G.S. Water Data Report FL-94-
1A). Surface water inflows were 303 and 255 cubic feet per second (cfs), respectively, for a total of 558
cfs, or approximately 378.1 million gallons per day (mgd).


The rate at which surface water is exiting the WRWSA area via the Withlacoochee River was
approximated by the annual mean flow of the Withlacoochee River Bypass Channel near Inglis, Florida
and the Withlacoochee River at Inglis Dam, near Dunellon, Florida for the water years 1970-1994.
These values are 1,059 cfs and 375 cfs, respectively, totaling 1,434 cfs (-927 mgd). The rate at which
surface water exits the WRWSA area via the Oklawaha River was approximated by the flow recorded at
the Eureka station equal to 1,229 cfs. Silver Springs captures groundwater from Central Marion County
and discharges to the Oklawaha River in the St. Johns River Water Management District. The total
outflow for surface water is equal to 2,663 cfs with few tributaries to the Withlacoochee River, the
primary source of recharge to the river is groundwater flow and discharge from the Upper Floridan
aquifer.


Groundwater
The rate at which groundwater is entering the WRWSA area was approximated by using D'Arcy's Law
and the average transmissivity and hydraulic gradient values. D'Arcy's Law is:


Q = T i L Where:


Q = flow ( ft3/day)
T = transmissivity (ft/day)
i = hydraulic gradient dimensionlesss)
L = length over which the groundwater is flowing (feet)


Transmissivity (T) was approximated by taking the average of 33 values of transmissivity from wells in
the WRWSA area. This value is 2.95 x 105 square feet per day (ft2/day) or -2.21 x 106 gallons per day
per foot (gpdf) (Ground-Water Resource Availability Inventories for Citrus, Hemando and Sumter
counties; FGS RI No. 42).


2-36


IIL









Hydraulic gradient (i) is defined as the change in total head with a change in distance in a given
direction. The direction is that which yields a maximum rate of decrease in head. The hydraulic
gradient was approximated by using USGS Open-File Report 94-81, "Potentiometric Surface of the
Upper Floridan Aquifer System, West-Central Florida, September 1993." The hydraulic gradient was
approximated by dividing the change in elevation of the equipotential lines by the map distance
separating the outermost equipotential lines. The average gradient is 6.09 x 10"4 dimensionlesss).


The length over which the groundwater is flowing (L) was estimated from USGS Open-File Report 94-
81. This value is 2.37 x 10' feet.


The rate at which groundwater is entering the WRWSA area is 494 cfs and was obtained by using
D'Arcy's Law:
Q = T.i.L


2.21106gal 6.09 x 10-4 2.37 x105 ft
S day -ft


3.19 x 108 gal 1 ft 3 1 day
day 7.48 gal 86,400 sec

494 cfs (318 mgd)


The rate at which groundwater is exiting the WRWSA area was approximated by summing two separate
values. These values include groundwater flow from springs and groundwater discharge along the
coast.


The rate at which groundwater is flowing from springs was approximated by summing the flow rates of
23 springs in the WRWSA area. This value is 3,330 cfs. The flow rates of these 23 springs are shown
in Table 2-3. This spring flow rate should be adjusted to account for flows already counted by discharge
to the Withlacoochee River and the Oklawaha River. Springs which discharge into these rivers have a
total discharge of 1,695 cfs. The net discharge of the remaining springs is 1,635 cfs.


2-37









The hydraulic gradient representing discharge was calculated for western Hemando County. This value
is 4.57 x 104 dimensionlesss).


The length over which the groundwater is flowing (L) was estimated from USGS Open-File Report 94-
81. This value is 2.21 x 105 feet.


The rate at which groundwater is exiting the WRWSA area along the coast is 345 cfs (223 mgd). This
value was calculated in the following way:


Less groundwater flows out than flows in because many springs discharge to the Withlacoochee
River, where the groundwater is counted as surface water flow. This flow amounts to about
1,564 cfs (1.0 billion gpd).


Rainfall and ET
The rate at which rain is falling on the WRWSA area was approximated by multiplying an average
rainfall by the total area. The average rainfall was obtained by averaging ten values of thirty-year,
annual, precipitation normals that are either within, or in the vicinity of, the WRWSA area. These
values are reproduced in Table 2-2. The values were drawn from a publication produced by the
National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, N.C. The title of this publication is Monthly Station
Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days 1961-1990. The value of
average annual rainfall is ~ 51.89 in/yr. The total area of the WRWSA study area is 9.39 x 1010 square
feet. This yields a total of about 12,875 cfs (8.3 billion gpd).


Total yearly evapotranspiration, assuming 35 inches per year, is about 8,666 cfs (5.6 billion gpd) leaving
about 2.7 billion gallons to recharge the aquifer systems and lakes.


2-38









Hydrologic Budget
The resulting hydrologic budget is as follows:


Surface Water In + Ground Water In + rainfall = Surface Water out + Ground Water out + Evaporation
Storage
(585 cfs) + (494 cfs) + (12,875 cfs) = (2,663 cfs) + (1,980 cfs) + (8,666 cfs) storage
13,954 cfs = 13,309 cfs Storage


If accurate records of actual pumpage were available, it would be more accurate to include pumpage in
the water budget calculations. Water allocated for use by legal users is about 673 cfs, as reported by
SWFWMD. Assuming only 75% of the permit allocation is used, 505 cfs should be added to the
outflow side of the equation. The total outflow would be 13,814 cfs and the total inflow would remain
at 13,954 cfs.


The significance of this hydrologic budget analysis is that, under normal conditions, the amount of water
flowing in and out of the WRWSA are nearly equal.


Knowing that the volumes of water are reasonably balanced, a volume of water can be calculated that
would be the maximum that could be withdrawn without impacting spring flow, surface water or
groundwater discharges.


Allocation and Actual Pumpage of Groundwater
The amount of water allocated for use by existing legal users within the WRWSA area was
approximated by summing the individual average daily flow (ADF) amounts from water use permit
(WUP) information from SWFWMD and consumptive use permit (CUP) information from SJRWMD.
This value is about 673 cfs.


The rate at which groundwater is actually being pumped by users was approximated by summing the
individual amounts of actual pumpage for some permits and ADF amounts for the remaining permits
received from SWFMWD and SJRWMD. The actual groundwater out is about 306 cfs for permitted
users. Considering non-permitted users, this value may increase by 20 percent. Less than 5% of the water


2-39









budget is allocated to existing users. Currently, the water budget is balanced, assuming average rainfall
conditions. Because rainfall is the source of surface water and groundwater, variations in the amount
received can have a tremendous impact on the volume of water received. One inch of rain in one year
over the study area is equal to 160 mgd for that year. As most of this flows to surface water and
groundwater (some is lost to evaporation) water levels can be impacted significantly. With groundwater
withdrawals added, water levels during drought can drop significantly around areas with highest
consumptive use.


Groundwater Quality

Several factors were reviewed to evaluate the water supply potential of the surficial aquifer system and
Floridan aquifer system and to establish possible wellfield locations within the WRWSA area. Water
quality, aquifer yield, and predicted groundwater withdrawal impacts were all taken into consideration.
This section describes the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Floridan aquifer system as
compiled from several databases from a total of almost 700 wells within the WRWSA area.


Water quality of the Floridan aquifer system influences future wellfield site selection, and existing well
productivity and acceptability. High values of dissolved minerals (e.g., iron, chloride, total dissolved
solids or other parameters) in the raw water source can result in higher treatment costs and capital costs.
Trace elements and organic contaminants are neither widely present nor useful in discriminating
between sites.


A primary tenet of water supply treatment as defined by the American Water Works Association
(AWWA) is that the source of water should be of the highest quality, dependability, and reliability. If
water quality is poor, additional capital costs and operation and maintenance costs will result in order to
provide good water quality. For the sake of health and cost, a series of water quality maps were
constructed showing areas of the best, most reliable and dependable water. The six parameters selected
for map construction were used because they are most often tested and they are basic parameters of
treatment. By defining these areas, not only is water quality the best, but treatment and operation and
maintenance costs will be the lowest.


2-40










The primary criterion for evaluation and/or elimination of a site for water supply is exceedence of the
maximum contaminant level (MCL) as specified in the regulations of the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection (FDEP), Chapter 62-550, FAC. Areas where concentrations of a dissolved
ion were greater than the MCL were considered to be unacceptable.


Several ions, as well as specific conductance which is an indicator of total dissolved solids (TDS), were
used to evaluate potential and existing well sites. The dissolved constituents used in the analysis
include: chloride (Cl), TDS, sulfate (SO,), iron (Fe), and total hardness. These constituents were used
as minimum criteria because they provide information about the local source and history of the
groundwater. They are also potential indicators of pumpage influences on groundwater quality.
Groundwater quality can be degraded by any of several phenomena. Among them, depressurization of
the production zone can result in upcoming of saline water. The present concentration distribution of
those dissolved compounds can indicate whether or not that phenomenon is occurring and, from that, an
evaluation of the consequences can be made.


The water resource and wellfield site evaluations depend largely on the distribution of water quality
parameters predicted from the contoured data and historical trends. The reliability of contoured
information depends on the uniformity and distribution of the data and on the sensitivity of the results.


Specific Conductance and Total Dissolved Solids
Specific conductance is used as an indirect measure of the concentration of total dissolved solids. Where
only specific conductance was reported, the TDS concentration, which is regulated by FDEP, was
estimated. The relationship between the specific electrical conductivity and TDS is not a simple one,
and no one conversion factor may be applied to all situations. The electrolytic capacity of natural water
is a function of the number of moles of each ion and the electrical charge of the ion (Fetter, 1980). A
mole of Ca++ could transport twice as many electrons in an electrical current as could a mole of Na+. If
the ratio of all the ions present in solution remained constant over a given area, and total hardness was
compared over a given time to specific conductance, a direct relationship could be made.


2-41









The MCL for TDS in drinking water is 500 mg/L (Ch. 62-550 FAC), but the MCL can be exceeded if
no other water quality parameter exceeds its MCL. TDS is the sum of the dissolved constituents in the
groundwater. In areas of elevated chlorides it may be largely a measure of sodium and chloride
concentrations. Elsewhere, the concentration of dissolved aquifer constituents make up the bulk of the
dissolved solids. TDS, then, is a measure of the total mineralization of the groundwater.


Total Hardness
Total hardness is a measure of the concentration of multivalent cation (Ca++, Mg++, etc.) concentration
in water. Hardness in groundwater increases with the length of time the groundwater is in contact with
carbonate constituents of the surficial aquifer system (shell beds) or the carbonate matrix of the Floridan
aquifer system. It is not regulated by Ch. 62-550 FAC, but excessive hardness is generally regarded as
undesirable in drinking water. Treatment, or softening, of water generally is not provided unless
hardness is greater than 180-200 mg/L.


Chlorides
Chloride ion concentration in groundwater of the surficial aquifer system and Floridan aquifer system is,
in part, a remnant of previous high sea level stands and incomplete flushing of the aquifer by fresh
recharge water. In general, areas of higher potentiometric head in the Upper Floridan aquifer that
formed in areas of high recharge or at higher land surface elevations have resulted in comparatively
greater depths to the salt water interface. The downward movement and the buoyancy of the fresh water
has forced the saline water interface downward. When the potentiometric head is reduced by pumpage
from a wellfield, the salt water interface moves upward and/or laterally in response. The resulting
upcoming or lateral intrusion may not become a problem if the movement distance is small. Conversely,
where the depth to unacceptable chloride concentrations is small, even slight decreases in the depth to
the salt water interface may cause problems. The MCL for chlorides is 250 mg/L. If that amount is
exceeded, then additional treatment and equipment are required.


2-42









Sulfate
The oxidized form of sulfur in natural waters is sulfate (SO4-2). Although it is not a noxious substance,
sulfate may have a laxative effect in high enough concentrations. The source of this inorganic sulfate
salt in solution may be the oxidation of sulfide minerals or hydrogen sulfide, or the dissolution of sulfate
minerals such as gypsum, a calcium sulfate evaporite sediment. The MCL for sulfate concentration is
250 mg/L.


Iron
The MCL for iron is 0.3 mg/L, and iron in water can cause staining at concentrations above
approximately 0.1 mg/L. Elevated iron concentrations in the surficial aquifer system and/or Floridan
aquifer system groundwater are often associated with organic material, surface water connection, and/or
in the case of the Floridan aquifer system, a surficial aquifer system connection. Unlike chloride
concentration, iron concentration is not directly influenced by potentiometric head, and therefore, does
not usually increase with increasing withdrawals.


Iron concentration is not as critical a factor as chloride concentration because iron concentrations can be
reduced during water treatment, albeit at higher treatment cost. Some apparently erroneous iron
concentrations may have resulted from the practice of allowing wells to rest, or recover, for a period of
time prior to sampling, and from not running the pumps for a sufficient time to clear stagnant, iron-
enriched water from the wells prior to sampling. Capital costs can double for water treatment plant
construction (at 5 mgd) due to high iron concentrations. Chemical supplies can average $100,000 per
year for iron treatment at a 5 mgd water treatment plant.


Water Quality Maps
The water quality maps in this report were created using analytical data from eight publications. The
first three publications were produced by SWFWMD. The five publications that follow were produced
by the USGS.


2-43









Ambient Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Program in cooperation with the Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation, Ground-Water Quality Sampling Results from Wells in the Southwest Florida Water
Management District: Northern Region, Section 1, Southwest Florida Water Management District. This
publication contains analytical data for wells in Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Levy, Marion, Pasco, and Sumter
Counties


Jones, W. Gregg, Upchurch, Sam B., 1994, Origin of Nutrients in Ground Water Discharging from the King's
Bay Springs, Ambient Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Program, Southwest Florida Water Management
District. This publication contains analytical datafor wells in Citrus County.


Ambient Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Program (AGWQMP), 1991, Coastal Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program Report, Southwest Florida Water Management District. This publication contains analytical
datafor wells in Levy, Citrus, Hernando, and Pasco Counties.


Fretwell, J.D., 1983, Ground-Water Resources of Coastal Citrus, Hernando, and Southwestern Levy Counties,
Florida, Water-Resources Investigations Report 83-4079, U.S. Geological Survey. This publication contains
analytical datafor wells in Citrus, Hernando, and Levy Counties.


Fretwell, J.D., 1985, Water Resources and Effects of Development in Hernando County, Florida, Water
Resources Investigations Report 84-4320, U.S. Geological Survey. This publication contains analytical datafor
wells in Hernando County.


Phelps, G.G., 1994, Hydrogeology, Water Quality, and Potential for Contamination of the Upper Floridan
Aquifer in the Silver Springs Ground-Water Basin, Central Marion County, Florida, Water-Resources
Investigations Report 92-4159, U.S. Geological. This publication contains analytical datafor wells in Marion
County.


Miller, Robert A. Anderson, Warren, Navoy, Anthony S., Smoot, James L., and Belles, Roger G., 1981, Water-
Resources Information for the Withlacoochee River Region, West-Central Florida, Water-Resources
Investigations 81-11, U.S. Geological Survey. This publication contains analytical data for springs in Citrus,
Hernando, Levy, Marion and Sumter Counties.


2-44









Anderson, Warren, 1980, Hydrology of Jumper Creek Canal Basin, Sumter County, Florida, Water-Resources
Investigations 80-208, U.S. Geological Survey. This publication contains analytical data for water quality sites
in Sumter County.


These data were incorporated into water quality maps that show the horizontal distribution of the various
parameters across the WRWSA area.


In addition to the publications cited above, analytical data were also collected from water quality databases
kept by FDEP. These databases contain information from wells in Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Levy, Marion,
Pasco and Sumter Counties, which were sampled in 1981, 1982, 1984, and 1994.


Lastly, the raw water quality records of the major utilities in each county were collected and used to
create the following maps. The water quality maps were created using SURFER, a computer program
that allows the creation of contour maps using data supplied by the user. Water quality maps were
created for the following parameters:


conductivity
hardness
chloride
total dissolved solids (TDS)
sulfate
iron


Separate maps were created for the surficial aquifer system and Floridan aquifer system. The
resulting twelve maps are presented at the end of the Groundwater Resource Evaluation as Figures
2-30 through 2-41.


Surficial Aquifer System

Chapter 62-550, Part III, F.A.C. establishes the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for the water
within public water systems. Four of the six parameters mapped chloridess, TDS, sulfate, and iron) have
MCL's established.


2-45









Values of specific conductance for groundwater sampled from wells in the surficial aquifer system in
the WRWSA area ranged from 30 to almost 600 mmhos/cm with an average value of approximately
289 mmhos/cm. These values are shown on Figure 2-30. The Florida Department of Environmental
Protection has not established a standard for conductivity in groundwater, but it is used to estimate
TDS. Values of specific conductance less than 725 mmhos/cm meets MCL standards. For the data
collected, TDS appears to meet the MCL for drinking water.


Values of hardness for groundwater sampled from wells in the surficial aquifer system in the WRWSA
area ranged from 6 to 150 mg/L with an average value of approximately 136 mg/L. These values are
shown on Figure 2-31. FDEP has not established a standard for hardness of groundwater. However, in
evaluating desirable areas for development, a hardness concentration of 180 mg/L was used. The
highest hardness occurs in southern Sumter County and northern Pasco County. All other areas meet
the standard.


Values of chloride content for groundwater sampled from wells in the surficial aquifer system in the
WRWSA area ranged from 3 to 32 mg/L with an average value of approximately 9 mg/L. The MCL for
chloride is 250 mg/L. The chloride MCL is met in the WRWSA area, as shown on Figure 2-32.


Values of TDS for groundwater sampled from wells in the surficial aquifer system in the WRWSA area
ranged from 6 to 512 mg/L. The average value was approximately 219 mg/L. The MCL for TDS is 500
mg/L, however, this level "may be greater if no other MCL is exceeded" (Chapter 62-550, Part III,
F.A.C., p. 22). In only one area, in East Hernando County, was TDS over 500 mg/L, as illustrated on
Figure 2-33.


Values of sulfate for groundwater sampled from wells in the surficial aquifer system in the WRWSA
area, shown on Figure 2-34, ranged from 0.54 to 384 mg/L with an average value of approximately 36
mg/L. The MCL for sulfate is 250 mg/L. Sulfate exists is highest concentrations in Pasco and Sumter
Counties and may be a source of high sulfate concentrations in the Floridan aquifer system.


Figure 2-35 shows values of iron for groundwater sampled from wells in the surficial aquifer system in
the WRWSA area ranging from 0.02 to 16.7 mg/L with an average value of approximately 3.0 mg/L.


2-46









The MCL for iron is 0.3 mg/L. High iron concentrations in the surficial aquifer system are common and
are the cause of rust-colored staining from shallow irrigation wells. In areas where the Floridan aquifer
system is unconfmed and high recharge exists, the iron in the surficial aquifer system could be the
source of high iron in the Floridan aquifer system.


Floridan Aquifer System

Water quality of the Floridan aquifer system is most important, as the water supply wells penetrate this
aquifer. There are a large number of sources for water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer because of
the good water quality and productivity. These water quality maps, Figures 2-36 through 2-41,
generally illustrate the quality of water in the upper 100-200 feet of the Floridan aquifer system and
consist of a composite sample over that open hole interval. Very little water quality data of lower
portions of the Upper Floridan aquifer exist and, where it does, may represent composite sampling of
water quality from the high- and low-quality sections.


Well construction data was not collected when water quality data was collected because of time
constraints and, more importantly, the fact that the well construction data is unavailable. Availability
was the problem when searching SWFWMD databases. Their water quality and well construction
records are in different databases, so to get those data would mean doubling data collection time. From
this explanation of data sources, i.e., wells about 300-400 feet deep and the resulting wellfield suitability
maps, Figures 2-36 through 2-41, the freshwater (no treatment required) thickness of the Upper Floridan
aquifer is, in some areas, less than 400 feet. Because of composite sampling, this could be shallower.
To better determine freshwater thickness, a discreet vertical sampling program would be required.


Previous USGS reports (Fretwell, 1983, 1985) and SWFWMD (1994d, 1994e) indicate a freshwater
thickness of hundreds of feet if not more than 1,000 feet. One explanation for this large variation is that
the USGS and SWFWMD, which utilized USGS data, considered only chlorides as the limiting factor.
As can be seen from these water quality maps, TDS, sulfate and iron also play a critical role in defining
freshwater.


Specific conductance varies widely throughout the WRWSA and indicates a high degree of
mineralization and high TDS. The areas of highest specific conductance are along the Withlacoochee


2-47








River and the Gulf of Mexico, as shown of Figure 2-36. These areas would not be suitable for wellfield
development, as they indicate high TDS. Southwest Hernando and central Citrus Counties have the
lowest values in the area.


Groundwater with hardness values greater than 180 mg/L requires treatment. Hardness values are
greatest along the Withlacoochee River and the Gulf Coast. A thin band of high hardness values exists
in the middle of Hernando County. Figure 2-37 illustrates hardness values.


As shown in Figure 2-38, chloride does not impact water quality except along the coast line, a small area
in west-central Hernando County and in the extreme southwest Citrus County. Figure 2-38 shows
chloride concentration of the Floridan aquifer system. It is especially interesting to note that the
isochlors (lines of equal chloride concentration) intrude eastward into Hernando County from the coast.
This trend exists as is evidenced by our data points. However, it does not appear in similar figures
prepared by SWFWMD that are presented in their Ground-Water Resource Availability Inventory
series. They used fewer data points and, therefore, the true trend did not appear. Generally, water
quality in southwest Hernando County is good because of the high spring discharge rate that has flushed
out the relic sea water.


Total dissolved solids are less than 500 mg/L except along the coast and in west-central Sumter County
near the Withlacoochee River, and do not appear to limit wellfield development in the Upper Floridan
aquifer. Figure 2-39 illustrates TDS concentrations.


Figure 2-40 illustrates sulfate concentrations and shows that in the west-central Sumter County area, the
Upper Floridan aquifer exhibits the highest sulfate concentrations. As discussed previously,
SWFWMD (Jones, 1994) has data that indicates sulfate and TDS may exceed MCL's at depths of 200
feet and greater. Therefore, Figures 2-39 and 2-40 may only represent good quality water in the first
100-200 feet of the Floridan aquifer system.


Iron concentration is the primary parameter that limits wellfield development throughout the WRWSA
area. Figure 2-41 shows that iron concentrations from 0.1 mg/L (acceptable) to over 5 mg/L


2-48










are common. Values of 1.0 mg/L appear to be common. Iron removal can add significant costs to water
treatment plant construction and operation and maintenance costs. Based upon recent cost figures, a
treatment plant with a capacity of 5 mgd and an iron concentration of 1.5 mg/L, would have initial cost
of about 2 million dollars. Iron removal/treatment equipment would add about 1.9 million dollars.
Yearly chemical costs would be about $100,000 for iron removal.


- Based upon this, it may not be cost-effective to build a treatment plant in areas where iron
concentrations are high, unless the most desirable water is so far removed that pipeline and energy costs
- equal or exceed the capital and operation and maintenance costs.


Contamination Potential

To be selected for use as a wellfield site, the subject area must first meet a list of criteria. The site must
possess acceptable levels of the six water quality parameters previously mentioned and must show little
to no potential for existing contamination. Determination of water quality is done through direct testing,
while assessment of the site's potential for contamination is investigated by searching the files and
databases of Federal and State regulatory agencies for the existence of regulated sites. Hazardous
substance and petroleum product regulated sites are listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

(EPA) and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP); generators, managers and
transporters of hazardous waste are regulated by the EPA. Data from both of these sources were
reviewed to identify potential sources of contamination and, thus, select possible wellfield areas which
possess the least likelihood of being spoiled by migration of hazardous substances or petroleum
- products.


2-49








US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Lists of pertinent sites from several EPA databases were searched by Radius Data Corporation of North
Palm Beach, Florida. Explanations and descriptions of each database searched are listed in the
following sections.


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Index System (CERCLIS)
The CERCLIS is an identification of those facilities and/or locations currently being investigated by the
EPA or associated State environmental agency. A listing in CERCLIS does not necessarily indicate the
presence of contamination, only that the site is being investigated. The CERCLIS database was updated
on June 20, 1994.


Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Index System List (RCRIS)
The RCRIS lists facilities and/or locations that are handling, storing or transporting hazardous
substances or hazardous waste. The facilities listed in RCRIS are potential sources of contamination,
but no release has necessarily been reported at those sites. The RCRIS database was updated on June
20, 1994.


Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD)
The TSD is an indicator that the facility is engaged in the treatment, storage or disposal of hazardous
waste. A listing in TSD does not necessarily indicate the presence of contamination but does mark the
site as a potential source.


Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP)
Several databases were searched by Radius Data Corporation. An explanation of each active database
searched is listed in the following sections.


Solid Waste Facilities (SWF)
The SWF list includes facilities and/or locations identified with the handling or landfilling of solid
waste. Inclusion of the site on the SWF list does not indicate that contamination has been reported, but
rather that there is the potential. The SWF database was updated on April 28, 1994.


2-50








Stationary Tank Inventory System (STI)
The STI list includes all facilities and/or locations that are required by Florida Administrative Code to
register above-ground or underground petroleum storage tanks. Inclusion on this list does not indicate
that a release of petroleum products has occurred but that there is a potential for release. The STI
database was updated on May 31, 1994.


Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST)
The LUST list includes specifically those sites which have reported possible releases of petroleum
product which may have led to soil and/or groundwater contamination. The LUST database was
updated on May 31, 1994.


Figures 2-42, 2-43, and 2-44 show locations and contamination potential for solid waste facilities;
CERCLIS, RCRIS and treatment, storage and disposal sites.


Groundwater Flow Model

General

In order to determine the potential use of the Floridan aquifer system for the future water needs of the
WRWSA area, a numerical groundwater flow model was constructed. This model was designed to
determine the impacts of proposed withdrawals to the surficial aquifer system (if present), the Floridan
aquifer system, flow to the Withlacoochee River, local springs, and existing legal water users. The
model simulates groundwater flow in the entire WRWSA area as well as portions of Levy, Marion,
Pasco, and Lake Counties. Fluctuations in groundwater levels and river flow can be simulated
throughout the WRWSA area by varying rainfall and/or increasing pumpage.


Model Construction

The United States Geological Survey flow code, MODFLOW was used to produce the numerical
groundwater flow model. The model was constructed using permitted average daily withdrawal data,
1993 climatic data, and surface and groundwater level data for 1993 and 1994. This model was
constructed to approximately match the Floridan aquifer system potentiometric surface elevation and


2-51



















Uf


a 2 4 6
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(feet)


CAII0('r AC CITC* I nrAT~fN~t D~nflhI lTA CfR)P 1Q05C


SOLID WASTE FACILITIES


Al HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TEL (904) 796-9423 FAX (o04) 799-8359


8/25/95


FIGURE

2-42


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SSOURCE OF SITE LOCATIONS: RADIUS DATA CORP.,1995


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CERCLIS, RCRIS, AND TREATMENT, STORAGE AND DISPOSAL SITES

- -- I


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants

201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


S


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TEL (004) 78-94-23 FAX (904) 799--B35


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LEAKY UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK AND STATIONARY TANK INVENTORY SITES
I


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Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TEL (904) 790-9423 FAX (904) 799-0350


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TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790








river and spring flow data. Average daily withdrawal values were obtained from SWFWMD for existing
legal users. Users of less than 10,000 gallons of groundwater per day were not considered.


Conceptual Model

The model was developed using the numerical groundwater flow code, MODFLOW, which is available
in the public domain. This model simulates recharge, evapotranspiration, well withdrawals, and surface
water/groundwater interactions using hydraulic parameters obtained from hydrogeologic analyses
conducted throughout the area.


Pumpage records gathered from SWFWMD and SJRWMD for the WRWSA area were used in the
model, as were rainfall records from NOAA weather stations surrounding the study area. The hydraulic
parameters of the Floridan aquifer system were adjusted until the computed water levels were
reasonably well matched to the observed water levels. This model was not intended to be fully
calibrated due to time and budget constraints, therefore, aquifer parameters were adjusted to reasonably
note observed heads. Flow out of the model area by springs and rivers was also examined and was
compared to observed data.


The model includes, a two-layered system, recharge, evapotranspiration (ET), surface water features,
and well withdrawals. The functions of the various MODFLOW modules used in this model are listed
in Table 2-7. The model was run until steady conditions were reached.


Model Area

The model boundaries extend from latitude 28016'02"N to 29016'00"N and longitude 81054'53"W to
82054'12"W. This area includes all of Citrus, Hernando, and Sumter counties, along with the
southwestern portion of Marion County, the southern portion of Levy County, and the northern portion
of Pasco County.


2-55









TABLE 2-7


FUNCTIONS OF MODFLOW MODULES USED IN MODEL


MODFLOW MODULE FUNCTION

Basic Model Administration

Block Centered Flow Computation of Aquifer Parameter Input Sets

Well Simulates a source/sink to the model that is not affected by
aquifer head. This module was used to simulate well
pumpage.

River Simulates effects of river leakage, recharge or drainage,
depending on head differences. This module was used to
simulate surface water interactions.

General Head Boundary Simulates effects of conductance across boundary with a
defined general head. Can act as a source or sink and is
affected by the surrounding aquifer head. This module was
used to simulate springs.
Evapotranspiration Simulates discharge from the model through
evapotranspiration.

Recharge Simulates recharge to model from infiltration of rainfall.

SIP Solves finite difference equation using the Strongly Implicit
Procedure.

Output Control Specifies output format for the model simulations.








The physical area of the model was divided into a uniformly-spaced grid of 138 rows and 119 columns
as shown on Figure 2-45. The row and column grid spacings were set at a constant of one half mile
(2640 feet). The spacing was used to more accurately describe water table elevations and stream
configuration. The model limits and boundary conditions are shown on the Figure titled "Boundary
Conditions in Layer 1 and 2 found in Appendix A, model documentation.


Hydrogeologic Configuration

The two layered aquifer system was simulated as follows:


Layer One surficial aquifer system Unconfined
Layer Two Floridan aquifer system Confined/Unconfined


Values of hydraulic parameters for the Floridan aquifer system within the model area were reviewed
from published information, reports, and data collected by SWFWMD, SJRWMD and private
consultants. These values were used as initial values in the model. Table 2-1 contains the initial
transmissivity and leakance values used in the model. These values were triangulated over the area
covered by the data; average values were used outside of that coverage area. Triangulation is a more
accurate method of estimating. Figure 2-46 shows the initial transmissivity of the Floridan aquifer
system used in the model setup.


Vertical movement of water through the confining unit of the surficial aquifer system was simulated by
vertical conductance as described on page 5-17 of USGS Open File Report 83-875. Vertical
permeability of the confining zone was obtained from reports published by SWFWMD, SJRWMD, and
from test data collected by private consultants. Initial leakance values used in the model are shown in
Figure 2-47.


The final transmissivity and vertical conductance terms of the final simulation are provided in
Appendix A.


2-57










(Column)
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 101 105 109 113 117
I .I ,, I. ..I I ,. .I I I I I I, _._I _I, ,I _,, -I__ I,_I, .1 I-_,l ,1 I L I I ,. , I I ,II,, I,. I ,


:a;La f.


N


300000.0
300000.0


(feet)


400000.0


N




















04
Cr
"'o










* 0

h0
So?
















N


Cl

0












-c
00


500000.0


MODEL AREA AND GRID


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:1g1=ig-au










(Colurmn)
1 5 9 13 1 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 101 105 109 113 117
S I-Ii 1 1 1 I I
1000
10000
50000
lot000
300000
1000000
5000000


(feet)


WATER SUPPLY, 1995


TRANSMISSIVITY OF THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER


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'N^


m 1-m
pm I q- A R





























































0 2 A _
MsI.


SOURCE: WRWSA ASTER PLAN
SOURCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN


(feet)


FOR WATER SUPPLY.1995


LEAKANCE OF THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER


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0.0022
*


11









Recharge

To simulate recharge to the surficial aquifer system or to the Floridan aquifer system, if the surficial
aquifer system is not present in a particular area, a recharge module was utilized. The model is designed
to simulate really distributed recharge to the groundwater system. Recharge is applied to the model in
a single cell within the vertical column of cells.


For this model, recharge or rainfall is assigned to whichever aquifer system is present at land surface.
During the calibration of the model, rainfall amount and duration were taken from records provided by
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Weather stations were chosen due to
their proximity to the model area. All stations inside the study area and a few stations just outside the
area were used to distribute rainfall. The 1993 rainfall data were used as collected by the NOAA weather
stations. The last publication of normals by NOAA was 1990. NOAA normals were used because they
meet international standards for consistency in location, instruments and observation practices.


Eighty percent (80%) of this precipitation was actually applied to the model, allowing twenty percent
(20%) for runoff and initial evaporation prior to aquifer recharge. Table 2-2 shows the 1993 rainfall
data in the base model simulation. The 80%/20% ratio was used as this is approximately how much
rainfall enters the groundwater system.


The final simulated recharge and discharge areas are shown in Appendix A.


Evapotranspiration

ET was simulated using the evapotranspiration module which simulates the effects of plant transpiration
and direct evaporation in removing water from saturated soil. The ET module assumes that:


When the water table is at or above a specified elevation, termed "ET surface", ET loss from the
water table is a user-specified maximum.


When the depth of the water table falls below a specified elevation termed the "extinction depth",
ET from the water table ceases.


2-61










Between these limits, the ET surface and the extinction depth, ET varies linearly with water table
elevation.


The ET surface used in the model corresponds with land surface and is shown in Figure 2-48. The
extinction depth used was 10 feet.


For calibration and withdrawal impact simulations where ET was applied, the Thomthwaite method was
used to estimate maximum ET rate. Average 1993 temperatures from the same weather stations were
used for the maximum ET rate using the Thorthwaite method.


The Thomthwaite equation is as follows:


<10Tm a
ETmn = 1.6 2(Om


Where:


ETmonth = monthly potential ET, cm

Tm = mean monthly temperature, C
I = annual heat index

12 (Tm 1.514

m=1 5
m=l10 (I)][49210

a = [675 x 10"9(1)] [(771 x 107(2)] + [179 x 10-4I] + [492 x 10'3]


2-62








. .. .. a 89 93 97 101 105 109 113 117


300000.0


VARIABLE CONTOURS
VARIABLE CONTOURS


-- -.c rfl AtnIlAI LIIRVFY


8/25/95


SOURCE OF ELEVATION DATA: THREE ARC SECOND DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL DATA RKUM UNILT.U la. O uS.-...- -- -.

LAND SURFACE ELEVATION (FT NGVD)


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@1


U


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0
U
~ 0


ANi


_ _


a








The estimated annual total for evapotransportation in the WRWSA area is 46.31 inches. Table 2-8
shows the calculated values for ET using average 1993 data. Individual ET rates for each weather
station used for precipitation data were calculated and triangulated to distribute ET proportional to
various temperatures encountered throughout the area.


Rivers

The river module simulates the effects of flow between surface water features and groundwater systems.
To do this, the river module adds terms representing seepage to or from the surface water features to the
groundwater flow equations. The river is divided into reaches so that each reach is completely
contained in a single cell.


Data from SWFWMD were used to set average stage elevations for the Withlacoochee and Little
Withlacoochee Rivers simulated in the model. Average 1993 stage elevations for the stations shown in
Figure 2-49 were used in the model setup.


Stages between stations were interpolated for an even distribution. Data from the USGS were used to
set stage elevations for the Oklawaha River. Flow data for all rivers simulated were obtained from the
USGS Water Resources Data Publications. Streamflow, as simulated, matched observed averages
reasonably well.


General Head Boundaries

The general head boundary module of MODFLOW was used to simulate springs within the model area.
This function is mathematically similar to the river module, in that flow into or out of the cell from an
external source is proportional to the difference between the head in the defined cell and the head
assigned to the external source. Flow to these cells which represent the springs is proportional to head
difference of the other variable head cells which surround them. Therefore, as the head in the aquifer
decreases due to the upgradient withdrawal of water, the flow to the general head boundaries decreases
proportionally.


2-64










TABLE 2-8


THORNTHWAITE POTENTIAL ET CALCULATION
CLIMATE DATA FROM VARIOUS NOAA STATIONS (1993)


DAILY
AVG.
MONTH TEMP.(F)

January 64.70

February 58.24

March 63.36

April 67.06

May 74.45

June 80.57

July 82.74

August 82.47

September 80.47

October 74.08

November 66.67

December 56.95


DAILY
AVG.
TEMP.(C)

18.17

14.58

17.42

19.48

23.58

26.98

28.19

28.04

26.93

23.38

19.26

13.86

1=


Unadj. 30 degree Adjusted
HEAT Potential Latitude Potential


INDEX
Im

7.05

5.05

6.62

7.84

10.47

12.84

13.71

13.60

12.80

10.33

7.70

4.68

112.70


ETmonth
(in)

2.10

1.21

1.89

2.50

4.03

5.64

6.29

6.21

5.61

3.94

2.43

1.07


Daylight
Factor

0.90

0.87

1.03

.1.08

1.18

1.17

1.20

1.14

1.03

0.98

0.89

0.88

TOTAL ET


2.50 Daily ET (ft)


ETmonth
(in)

1.89

1.05

1.95

2.70

4.75

6.60

7.55

7.07

5.78

3.86

2.16

0.94

46.31
0.01057


Adjusted
Potential
ET Day
(ft)

0.00508

0.00314

0.00524

0.00750

0.01278

0.01833

0.02029

0.01902

0.01605

0.01038

0.00601

0.00253










,_


p.11


6.


0 2 4 6


-46


GAUGING STATIONS
I Flowing Water
52-124 = Station ID


rlnn IA)ATCO tAIIkI\crurI.JT nin7oir?


SOURCE OF 51TE LOCAIIONS: UTnUWIElI r I.OuRIUA tvA-.-I mArm Lm l.r. RlE.,ISv

WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER GAUGING STATION
0 I


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FIGURE

2-49


Al


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I








Data from USGS and SWFWMD on the observed average flows (Table 2-3) from the springs shown in
Figure 2-25 were compared to simulated flows. Conductance and boundary heads which define the
general head boundary cells were modified until desired flows were obtained.


Wells

The withdrawals from permitted wells within the active model area were simulated with the well
package. Actual 1993 pumpage data collected by SWFWMD and SJRWMD on each production well or
active permit greater than 10,000 gpd were used for the simulations. (Figure 2-50). Where actual
pumpage data were not available, average daily flows (ADF) were used. Simulations used to predict
impacts due to proposed future demands, had proposed ADF added to the existing actual flow data set.


Base Model Simulation

The model was considered a base model by adjusting the hydraulic parameters of the Floridan aquifer
system until the computed water levels were reasonably well matched to the observed water levels.
Flows out of the model area by springs and rivers were also adjusted until they were reasonably well
matched to observed data.


Hydraulic conductivity and leakance values of the Floridan aquifer were changed in order to simulate
the potentiometric surface as shown in Figure 2-24. The resulting potentiometric surface for the
Floridan aquifer system, layer 2 of the model, is shown in Figure 2-51. The average difference between
observed and simulated Floridan aquifer system potentiometric surface elevations is 2.2 feet for the base
simulation. The surficial aquifer system water table elevation from the same simulation is shown in
Figure 2-52. Flows from the river cells, which represent the Withlacoochee River, and general head
boundary cells, which represent the springs, were tabulated between simulations in order to track their
relationship to actual observed data. Table 2-9 shows a comparison between the observed and simulated
values.


2-67







































































PERMITTED WELLS
* Agriculturol
* Indust.,Comm.
A Livestock
v Mining


* *


(feet)


PERMITTED WELLS GREATER THAN 10,000 GPD


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012
0 2 4 a
ia-


MAR


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TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790































































POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE
- 10.0 Elevation (ft NGVD) 'o 'o
Contour Interval = 10 feet.
300000.0


(feet)


WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY,1995

POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE ELEVATION IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER ADF WITHDRAWAL


S


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1 2 1 6
1 1 1 1
Mllf*


AM


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201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790










































X!/


0 2 S 6
enM.


WATER TABLE ELEVATION
- 10.0 Elevation (ft NGVD)
Contour Interval = 10 feet


i
1
7-- -7


300000.0 4uuuuu.u
L (feet)
SOURCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY,1995

WATER TABLE ELEVATION IN THE SURFICIAL AQUIFER ADF WITHDRAWAL


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
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LAf










TABLE 2-9


RIVER AND SPRING FLOW COMPARISON
ACTUAL VS. BASE MODEL SIMULATION


River
Withlacoochee

Springs
Silver
Rainbow
Wilson Head
Gum
Blue
Crystal River Group
Homosassa
Fenny
Miscellaneous
Potter/Ruth
Chassahowitzka
Nos. 10, 11, 12
No. 9
Blind, No. 7
Salt
Mud
Weeki Wachee
Boat
Bobhill
Magnolia
Salt
TOTAL


Actual Flowv)
(ft/day)
85,536,000


57,024,000
54,259,200
259,200
4,320,000
1,296,000
79,142,000
15,120,000
1,296,000
2,505,600
2,505,600
11,923,200
777,600
1,728,000
5,616,000
2,505,600
4,302,000
14,947,200
432,000
259,200
777,600
432,000
261,446,400


Base Model Simulation
(ft/day)
88,522,532


56,741,890
55,032,760
238,457
4,091,918
1,319,191
76,849,950
15,030,080
1,291,849
2,523,646
2,434,335
11,687,020
773,993
1,790,020
5,711,700
2,474,539
4,334,912
14,727,110
412,206
254,734
764,771
418,267
258,903,347


Percent
Difference(3)
-3.5


0.5
-1.4
8.0
5.3
-1.8
2.9
0.6
0.3
-0.7
2.8
2.0
0.5
-3.6
-1.7
1.2
-0.4
1.5
4.6
1.7
1.7
3.2
1.0


Source: Actual flow from USGS Water Year Databook. Base model simulation by HAI.


(1) Actual flow is equal to 1993 data where available and average flow where it is


(2) Total flow is equal to the sum of spring flows. Some spring flows were used to
complete the river flow since they discharge into the Withlacoochee River.


(3) Percent difference is equal to the following:


Notes:
not.








Wellfield Siting


Potential Wellfield Areas

The areas selected as having the greatest potential for wellfield development, shown on Figure 2-53,
resulted from an analysis of water quality data, aquifer characteristics, proximity to existing legal users,
service area environmental features, and drawdown impacts. Areas possessing water quality values of
less than 50 mg/L Cl, <250 mg/L TDS, <250 mg/L hardness, <0.3 mg/L iron and <50 mg/L SO4 were
considered to be the most likely candidates for wellfield location. However, this was contingent upon
the area's potential for, or presence of, contamination. Marginal areas include those possessing 50-200
mg/L Cl, 250-500 mg/L TDS, 250-500 mg/L hardness, 0.3 1.0 mg/L iron and 50-250 mg/L SO4, with
the non-viable areas having values greater than the listed MCL's. The areas best suited for wellfield
development are shown in green and are in the central portions of Citrus and Hernando Counties,
generally between U.S. 19 and U.S. 41.


The area most suitable for a wellfield in Sumter County is along the Sumter/Lake County boundary.
Most of Sumter County is excluded because of high iron and, in one area, sulfate. Some areas in
Hernando County are also excluded due to iron.


The area immediately around Ocala is excluded primarily because of hardness. If minor treatment is
anticipated, this area would also be suitable for development. The primary focus was on water quality
and service area criteria, because of the economic impact of additional treatment facilities and additional
operation and maintenance (O&M) cost as well as the cost of infrastructure to supply water to the
projected high growth areas. The wellfield areas have been selected to balance the cost of transmission
lines and O&M costs.


Additionally, general water use permitting criteria, impacts to existing legal users and environmental
features, and water quality were used to determine whether the potential wellfields were likely to receive
a water use permit.


2-72











13 117


..
S.


0 Z 4
OIl.,


/o


A CERCLIS
S- RCRIS
-.TSD
* LUST
* STI
o SWF
WATER QUALITY (mg/L)


(fool)


SOURCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY, 1995 9/12/96

I WELLFIELD SUITABILITY AREAS


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*7
1 '








The areas identified on Figure 2-53 should be delineated as water resource protection areas because they
contain the highest quality groundwater. The water resource protection areas should also be restricted in
the total volume of groundwater that can be withdrawn in order to prevent the movement of poor quality
groundwater that surrounds the highest quality areas.


Proposed Wellfields

An analysis of population growth, provided in Section 3 of this report, determined a need for additional
wellfields in Hernando and Citrus Counties and the City of Ocala. Future wellfield locations were
proposed, using the wellfield suitability map (Figure 2-53) and discussions with local utility directors.
Each wellfield was then placed in the groundwater flow model to determine approximate drawdowns in
the surficial and Floridan aquifers.


Hernando County
Four areas in Hernando County were selected as having the highest potential for wellfield development.
The first groundwater withdrawal simulation consisted of withdrawing 5 MGD from each of the eastern
wellfields and 3 MGD from each of the western wellfields. The Floridan aquifer system drawdown
impact map, Figure 2-54, shows that the greatest drawdown occurred around the southeast wellfield and
amounted to 0.3 feet. The wells were spaced one-half mile apart in all wellfields and had pumpage
evenly divided between the wells within each wellfield. Since drawdowns are less than one foot, the
wells could be spaced 1,000 feet to one quarter of a mile apart and still have minimal drawdowns.


Figure 2-54 shows that virtually no surficial aquifer system drawdown is anticipated at any of the
wellfields. Figure 2-55 shows that no existing user in the Florida aquifer would be impacted by more
than one foot; therefore no adverse impact to existing users is anticipated. As shown on Figures 2-56
and 2-57, increasing the pumping rate by 50% results in drawdowns that are still less than one foot.


Wells in these potential wellfields should be 12 inches to 16 inches in diameter, about 300 feet deep, and
cased to a depth of 100 feet to 150 feet. The casing depth and total depth depend on local conditions,
but the wells should only be completed into the first competent limestone unit.


2-74

















O .CALA




0-





? ,; Ir




o "CITRUS -
g .. SOUTH CENTRAL

,,, ., i ,:,_ l f CENTfRAL'

:- HERN DO ,,f ,
SO* NORTHH yEST.
OHTIEST H NAND




V4E
(FEET) SOUTHEA
o / HERNA
0-0/ SOUTH EST




PROPOSED WELLS
S- Proposed Supply
WATER TABLE
10.0 Drawdown (ft) /
Contour Interval Variable
300000.0 400000.0 500000.0
(feet)
CITRUS 12 MGD, HERNANDO 16 MGD, MARION 6.5 MGD, AND SUMTER 3 MGD
SOURCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY, 1995
DRAWDOWN IN THE SURFICIAL AQUIFER PROPOSED WELLS

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(FEET)


* Proposed Supply
POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE
- 10.0 Drawdown (ft)
Contour Interval Variable


300000.0 400000.0
(feet)
CITRUS 12 MGD, HERNANDO 16 MGD, MARION 6.5 MGD, AND SUMTER 3 MGD
kN FOR WATER SUPPLY. 1995

DRAWDOWN IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER PROPOSED WELLS


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Mal


500000.0


^~













































CITRUS


(FEET)


PROPOSED WELLS &,
Proposed Supply*
WATER TABLE
I 10.0 Drawdown (ft)
Contour Interval Variable

300000.0 400000.0
S(feet)
CITRUS 18 MGD, HERNANDO 24 MGD, MARION 10 MGD, AND SUMTER 4.5 MGD
SOURCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY, 1995


DRAWDOWN IN THE SURFICIAL AQUIFER PROPOSED WELLS
I


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE, FLORIDA 34601
TEL (904) 796-9425 FAX (904) 799--S59


A M HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


1/9/96


FIGURE

2-56
















SI 0\
0 LA



000


0













-O T ST T"
I E D

000









I 19 T "-- .2 0o
1o








S' 3000000 400 500000.


















H (feet)
CITRUS 18 MD, HERNANDO 24 MGD, MARION 10 MGD, AND SUMMER 4.5 MGD
0
4"





















DRAWDOWN IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER PROPOSED WELLS
o,






















SHARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC. Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc. FIGURE
1 ^^ ^ 20S EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORlANDO, FL 32801 .'5 C DLELIGHLORIOU-1X 5 2-57
S( 89-95 F ( 89- 90 .
E Pro- Sp













I (feet)
CITRUS 18 MGD, HERNANDO 24 MGD, MARION 10 MOD, AND SUMMER 4.5 MGD
DRAWDOWN IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER PROPOSED WELLS '

POTENTIOMRICENVIRONENTAL PLANNINSURFACE

201 AST PINE STRUSEET SUI 1000 ORLANDO 24 MGDMARION 10 MGD, 96 CAND SUMTER 4.5 MGDOULEVARD 25



BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790 TeL (904) 79,-9423 F"X (C 04) 799-83(D









Sumter County
Available data shows that Sumter County is much more restricted by water quality than any other
county, primarily due to iron. The eastern portion of the county is lowest in iron and has fewest existing
users. Figure 2-54 shows that drawdowns from 5 wells pumping 0.6 MGD each creates drawdowns in
the Floridan aquifer system of slightly greater than 1 foot. Several existing users are within the one foot
drawdown contour but will not be impacted by more than 10%.


Surficial aquifer system drawdowns are similar because of essentially unconfined conditions. Wetlands
located nearby may be influenced by these drawdowns. SWFWMD regards drawdowns in excess of
one foot as having a "significant" impact on environmental features. It does not mean, however, that
these withdrawals are not permittable.


Wells in Sumter County should be 200 feet to 300 feet deep and 12 inches to 16 inches in diameter.


Citrus County
The wellfield area selected in Citrus County was based upon water quality and projected growth. The
transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer in this area is so large that six wells pumping a total of
12 MGD creates drawdown of less than 0.5 feet. At 16 MGD (Figure 2-56), drawdown is less than one
foot. Therefore, no adverse impact to existing users or environmental features is predicted.


Wells in Citrus County should be around 300 feet deep with 100-150 feet of casing to try to preclude
water quality impacts from Lake Rousseau or the Tsala Apopka chain of lakes.


Marion County
As with Citrus County, transmissivity in the western portion of Marion County is so high that at a 6.5 or
10 MGD withdrawal rate, very little drawdown is predicted in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Therefore, no
adverse impacts are predicted to existing users or environmental features.


Generally, the areas more suitable for wellfield development are west of Interstate 75 in the area of good
water quality and projected growth.


2-79








A second simulation was made where the initial pumpage rates were increased by fifty percent. Figures
2-56 and 2-57 show that even at the high pump rates, drawdowns at all of the wellfields except Sumter
Central are still less than one foot. Drawdowns at the Sumter County wellfield are up to 5 feet around
the wells, and are about at the limit for water use permit approval.


Wellfield Protection Areas


Wellfield Protection Areas for the proposed wells can be approximated by using the numerical
groundwater flow model and estimating travel time of groundwater. The model was run at projected
average daily demands in order to determine the distance that the groundwater would flow under time
durations of 5 years, 10 years and 20 years. This time of travel method establishes areas upgradient
from wellfields where land use restrictions should be imposed. It is a method similar to that used by the
EPA. The resulting mapping is depicted in Figure 2-58.


2-80














































(FEET)

LEGEND
-+- 0-5 YEARS
- 5-10 YEARS
-++++- 10-20 YEARS
(Each tick mark 1 year
travel distance)


400000.0


WELLFIELD PROTECTION AREAS BASED UPON TIME OF TRAVEL


rAM


S


Coastal Engineering Assoc., fno.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 3A601
TEL o904) 796-9423 FAX (904) 799-3S59


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


.-A-










I






LEVY

MARION












CITRUS


A
W-12362



W-15685

SUMTER




HERNANDO




W-30012

A'



PASCO




0 10 20 30


SMiles



SOURCE: WRSWA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY.1995 8/25/95

WRWSA CROSS SECTION A-A' LOCATION MAP

A IM HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC. Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc. FIGURE
engineers, hydrogeologts, surveys & monogement consultants ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ninm u gem ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
201 EAST PINE STREE SuITE 1000 ORADOO. F. 32801 966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD 2-2
S TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790 g 7ROOKLVILLE. F LORI(DA 54601
(4O4) WS*--423 'AX *OO4) ,tS-.SS*





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0
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-to-




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c -300

c _

J -400
t

w
-500



-600




-700


w-15685


N-30012 H-15802


i I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25
Miles Scale

Clay Oolostone CalcArenite Shell Limestone CalciLutlte No Sample Sand Silt

& a B 0 5 || 0


- 1/236557


SOURCE: FLORIDA GEOLOiAL SUmLK WrL. tu u1WELL r-
WRWSA CROSS SECTION A-A'

HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC. Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITCCTURE
F 01 engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & monogement consultants ENVIRONMENTAL -* PLANNINO
I C se CANDLELIGHT IOULIVARD
U ) 201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANOO. FL 32801 BROOKSVILLEC. FLORIDA 34601
rl/ TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790 T.. (i04) Te--*.a rFAX (0o0) 76e--03s


m





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s
B
s

I


8/25/95


E i 3 Ing Oki a7 "s l-j 'Y



















































































0 10 20 3


Miles


WRSWA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY.1995


WRWSA CROSS SECTION B-fB LOCATION MAP


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers. hydrogeologists, surveyors & monogement consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SULTE 1000 1LANIO. FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
9a6 CAN DLELIoHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 3.401
TCl (.04) 7..-..2S rAX (*04) 700-050-


mm


8/25/95





"9j "7 r; r


W-1767 W-7759


M-7757 W-7755


5 10
5 10


15 20


I I II I I I I I I I I I I


25


Cla Dolostone CalcArenlte Peat

I-171TT u n n


40 45 50
Scale 1/435727


WRWSA CROSS SECTION B-B'

A I HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologiss, surveyors & monogement consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TEMEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
96a CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34801
TCL (<04) 7--423I rVAX (004) 71T-sa1.


S' r


B W-6903


W-13518


S-100
4-J
Ga
**-
c
.Z -200
C
0
"- 3

> -300
Ca
-t
t


-400




-500



-600


Chert
oI
Oft~I


Miles
Limestone No Sample

M I


""I "~, ""i" "~ "~ '':~il "~~ ~~;p ;i-'




























































0 10 20 30

Miles
Miles


SOURCE: WRWSA M


MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY,1995


WRWSA CROSS SECTION C-C' LOCATION MAP


S


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 3*401
TrL (90.) 7*.-9*23 r.x (<0o) 7*-a35ss


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists. surveyors & monogement consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO. FL 32801
T1.PHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


8/25/95


1`4




-IT -"5C
r u


C W-12184
100


W-5679


-~-"'"BP


W-11192 W-11943


-11703 L'
----100


-100


-150


-200


0 2 4 6 B 10 12 14
Miles Scale 1/125339


Oolostone CalcArenlte Limestone

8 M M


WRWSA CROSS SECTION C-C'

HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrcgeologists, surveyors & management consultants I


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENOINEERINO ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
9a6 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TIKL (004) 70--423 rFAX (004) 730-00B


-100


-150


-200


201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO. FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


W-11392


I;:


pAM












































































0 10 20 30


Miles


SOURCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY.1995


WRWSA CROSS SECTION D-D


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists. suveyors & monogement consultonts
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANO., FL 32801
TfLEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


8/25/95


)' LOCATION MAP


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TCL (S90) 7-*-A23 rax (*O0) 799-3s59




.......... if ...... .i


W-8075 b


-100


-200


-300


-400


S I I I I I I I I I
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Miles
M


Oolostone Limestone

R g


16
Scale


18
- 1/155571


No Sample

I


WRWSA CROSS SECTION D-D'

HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & monogement consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32M01
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34801
TCL- (go.) 790--423 FAX (004) 700-.1.- 9


D w-10908


W-3688


W-8423


W-8883


4-t
0)
, -100
c

C
0
*.-
ro -200

LLJ


-300


-400


NAM


-"
I I I I I I i l l I I I t


i i i e I I


': o vl-. m i_-a M_ '* B lv- C t I .

























































0 10 20 30

Miles


WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY.1995

WRWSA CROSS SECTION E-E' LOCATION MAP


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeoogists, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO. FL 32801
TILEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


@


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
S96 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TCL (s0C) 796--9423 raX (<0) 79-B359








W-4205 E


-100


-200


-300


-400


-500


I I I f f I I I I I I I I I I I
0 2 4 6 8 10
Miles

Cla Oolostone CalcArenite Limestone No Sample Sand
1i [ g I 1


WRWSA CROSS SECTION E-E'


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC. .
engineers, hydrogeologisls, surveyors & monogement consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


I I I' I I
12 14
Scale


I '
16
= 1/129328


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENOINEERINO ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
s96 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE, FLORIDA 34601
TCL (<04) 7*0-*423 FAX (*04) 7T0-0380


- W-14873


Cj -100
CU

C,
t4-



C -200
o

0
-300
1" -300
11


-400


-500


AMU


I.


I


I I :1 '' *: -1
I I 1 ~2 i I 1 '"~-~'"P-


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L.


L



L


L
r

L
9,


jpI


'C


0 10 20 30
I Miles
Niles


S SOURCE: WRWSA
.:


ii


8/25/95


MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY.1995


WRWSA CROSS SECTION F-F' LOCATION MAP


SHARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC. Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc. FIGURE
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & monogerent consultants ENINEERING ARCHITECTURE
E i ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANOO. FL 32801 966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD 2-12
T[ LEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790 BROOKS VILLE. F'LORIA 34(601
(SO.) T.S-S4Z5 7*X (@04) 799-855,


6~








F X-12194 -14917 F


* 150






S100


-100
-


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I I
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B


Miles


Scale 1/65650


Cla olostone Limestone




'SOURCE: FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY WELL LOG DATABASE


~ SOURCE. FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY WELL LOG DATABASE 8/25/95


WRWSA CROSS SECTION F-F


MIA HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
S engineers, hydrogeologiss, surveyors & management consultants
201 EASi PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLAND0O FL 32801
TM IELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
S ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
SBROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TCL (0o.) 7*-.42J rFAX (90o) 705*--IB


-50






-100


8/25/95



































































i.










i-;OURCE: WRWSA





A


0 10 20 30


Miles




MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY.1995


WRWSA CROSS SECTION G-G' LOCATION MAP


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists. surveyors & monogement consultants
201 EASI PINE STRECI SUITE 1000 ORLADOO, FL 32801 ((
S TOLPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 3,4601
TEL (0o)> 79e--9423 rfX (o0.) "Te--3S5s


8/25/95


FIGURE

2-14





r


4~l~j~~~EO ~ ~ a~~~ r~ a-. .j ~ J..... __
p~~~~"~~i~ ;t.i-r_~*i~IIP F-.. ^I ~-_ 8


W-10829


8


W-1109e G'


T----------~-(---~-,---
10
Scale 1/87676


Oolostone Limestone No Sample

B A ll- -


WRWSA CROSS SECTION G-G'

HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE SIREOE SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TEL (R904) 79.--142. FAX (<04) 709--32*


G w-7759


- -100
0j
OJ

c
- -200

c
0
j -300


S-400


-500


-600


-700


-100


-200


-300


-400


-500


-600


-700


2
2


4


6
Miles


-1 I 1 1 I I I I 1 I I I I 1


7ZA71AM



























































0 10 20 30

Miles


WRWSA CROSS SECTION H-H' LOCATION MAP


HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers hydrogeoloists. surveyors & monogement consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLADO FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790


S


Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TCL (0o) T7S-9.23 rAX <(O) 7oo--s63




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