A more detailed table of contents is provided at the beginning of each
section (2-4) of this Master Plan
WITHLACOOCHEE REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY
MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY
Section 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The WRWSA ......... ... ................... .. .......... ..... 1-1
W ater Supply Issues ....................................... 1-4
Hydrogeology of the Region ................................. 1-9
-Groundwater Resource Evaluation ............................ 1-12
Water Supply Infrastructure ................................ 1-15
Analysis of Growth and Development Patterns .................... 1-17
Water Supply Needs and Recommended Facility Plans ............... 1-21
-Regulatory Framework ..... ............................... 1-31
Strengths and Weaknesses of the
Existing Comprehensive Plans ............................... 1-32
Recommendations ........................................ 1-35
LIST OF FIGURES
Location M aps ................................
WCRWSA Draft Water Resource Plan Alt. #1 ............
Geologic Crossections ..........................
Wellfield Suitability Areas .................... .
Projected Growth Areas .........................
Citrus County Proposed Future Water Supply Facilities .....
Hernando County Proposed Future Water Supply Facilities ...
Sumter County Proposed Future Water Supply Facilities ....
City of Ocala Proposed Major Distribution Lines and Wellfields
Drawdown in the Surficial Aquifer-Proposed Wells ........
Drawdown in the Floridan Aquifer-Proposed Wells ........
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY & RECOMMENDATIONS
The Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority (WRWSA) was created in 1977 by its
member governments to address issues related to water supply. At the time of this report, the
member governments consist of Citrus, Hernando and Sumter Counties and the City of Ocala,
which are visually depicted on Figure 1-1. In addition to its primary mandate of identifying and
developing sources of potable water, the WRWSA has been charged with balancing the resource
needs of development with the protection of the environment. While existing demand has already
placed stress on the resource in coastal areas (saltwater intrusion) and along the WRWSA's
southern boundary (lowering of the water table), future demand from inside and outside the region
has put a sense of urgency in identifying how water supplies can be safely developed.
Initially created to address the saltwater intrusion problem and the competition for available water,
the WRWSA set out to establish a base of information concerning water supply and resources in
the region. Two WRWSA-sponsored studies, the Water Sources and Demand Study, US Army
Corps of Engineers (1982) and the WRWSA Master Plan for Water Supply (1987), were the first
region-wide water supply analyses prepared. These and other studies and research are reviewed
in Section 4 of this Master Plan.
The initial Master Plan for Water Supply (1987), which was not adopted by any member of the
Authority, called for the WRWSA to become much more active in developing, owning and
operating regional wellfields. It advocated the gradual development of sub-regional systems
within county master plans, followed by intracounty interconnection of water systems, increased
storage capability and a unified regional transmission network. The implementation of the '"water
supply" components of the WRWSA Master Plan has been limited to one wellfield in Citrus
County, funded by the Withlacoochee and Coastal Rivers Basin Boards of the Southwest
I 1 1 1 1 1 1
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WITHLACOOCHEE REGIONAL WATER
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AND SWFWMD BASM BOARD BOUNDARIES
NORTHERN TAMPA BAY
WfTHLACOOCHEE REGIONAL WATER
MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY
Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE, FLORIDA 34601
TCL (<32) 700-042S rx (s..) 7-S...-3O
Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), developed by the WRWSA and now operated
- by Citrus County. While its member counties and cities have taken different approaches in the
provision of potable water, they have sought to utilize the WRWSA to address research and the
protection of the potable water resource. The WRWSA has evolved into a role of coordination
between the local governments, providing a common front for interaction with SWFWMD, the
St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) and other outside parties.
Purpose of the WRWSA Master Plan for Water Supply
The purpose of this Master Plan for Water Supply is to provide a framework under which the
WRWSA can move forward in accomplishing its goals. Equal emphasis has been placed on the
WRWSA's two priorities of identifying and developing water supplies and protecting the natural
resources from which those supplies are withdrawn. The Master Plan includes:
A perspective on water issues;
A description of the hydrology and hydrogeology of the region;
A description of the utilities supplying potable water in each county;
N A summary of the water resource studies prepared during the past 15 years;
A review of how the local government comprehensive plans address water supply and
A projection of growth and potable water use in the region;
A description of the legal issues related to the protection, development and permitting of
water supplies; and
The development of a basic groundwater flow model to assist in the evaluation of wellfield
From the above analyses, a set of recommendations and water supply scenarios have been
developed, addressing the following:
* Identification of areas where groundwater quality and quantity are conducive to wellfield
* The possible location of future wellfields and major distribution lines to serve the regions'
* A simulation of the drawdown on the water table that might result from the projected
* Identification of wellhead protection areas for the projected wellfields;
* A description of the role of the WRWSA in assisting its member governments in the
development of water supplies; and
* A set of recommendations that would further the goals of the WRWSA in the areas of
potable water development and natural resource protection.
This Executive Summary contains a brief synopsis of the water supply issues and the findings and
recommendations of the Master Plan effort. While the Executive Summary includes several of the
more significant figures and tables, a reading of the entire Master Plan will provide the
background necessary to more fully understand each issue.
Water Supply Issues
The foremost issue facing the State of Florida appears to be the management of its potable water
resource. While Florida may be in the forefront of national water-protection laws, it has not
coordinated its land and water management efforts. Developed areas in the state have depleted
inexpensive local groundwater resources and have often brought on the problem of saltwater
intrusion. While conservation efforts and reuse have had some effect, many water providers view
the "shortage" as a distribution issue, not a supply issue, and have started looking for supplies in
nearby "water-rich" counties. Environmental studies and hydrogeologic modeling analyses have
lagged behind the development of new wellfields and surface water withdrawals. State efforts to
address the issue include two state-wide task forces, a Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP) rule-making endeavor and water management plans being prepared by the five
water management districts.
West-central Florida has become heavily embroiled in the water resource debate. The major
players in this conflict are the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), the
West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority (WCRWSA), the WRWSA and the local
governments. Created by a special act of the Florida Legislature in 1961, SWFWMD is charged
to manage, conserve, develop and provide for the proper use of the state's surface and ground
waters. SWFWMD's approach includes planning, research and regulatory permitting elements.
Created by an interlocal agreement of local governments, the WCRWSA's purpose is to develop
sources of potable water and distribute the water to the utilities in its member jurisdictions
(Hillsborough, Pinellas and Pasco Counties and their municipalities). While the two entities share
similar mandates in the development of water supplies, SWFWMD must also ensure the protection
of the environment. SWFWMD's ability to maintain a balance between its two mandates (develop
supplies and protect the resource) has been tested of late, most recently in Pasco County where
permitted levels of WCRWSA pumping at several wellfields resulted in aquifer drawdowns that
contributed to the -drying up of nearby-lakes and private wells, including some in southern
SWFWMD has a variety of research, planning/management and regulatory programs in the area
of water supply. On the regulatory side is the water use permit (WUP), which is required prior
to any significant withdrawal of ground or surface water. This permitting process is the major
focal point for the issues related to water supply. To provide more local involvement in its
planning and management endeavors, SWFWMD has established eight water basin boards, three
of which cover portions of the WRWSA region (Figure 1-1). Planning/management endeavors
include the District Water Management Plan (1995), the Needs and Sources Plan (1992), the
Ground Water Basin Resource Availability Inventories (1988) and Water Use Caution Area
(WUCA) management plans for areas with stressed resources. Research includes hydrologic
conditions monitoring (monthly reports), Water Resource Assessment Projects (WRAP) for
geographic areas of the District and individual studies for specific purposes, often in concert with
the local governments or water supply authorities. Of most interest to the WRWSA is the
Northern Tampa Bay WRAP, which includes southern Hernando County (Figure 1-1). This
WRAP determined that permitted wellfield withdrawals in Pasco County have resulted in a
significant drawdown on the surrounding water tables and concludes that there should be a
reduction in the withdrawal rates. The Northern Tampa Bay WRAP further indicated that future
water supply analysis should be conduced in the- Brooksville Ridge, because it appears to provide
slightly more confinement between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Most
of the Brooksville Ridge lies in Hernando and Citrus counties. The Northern Tampa Bay WRAP
and the Needs and Sources Plan are among the water resource studies reviewed in Section 4 of this
Master Plan. Also reviewed in Section 4 is the Needs and Sources Plan of the St. Johns River
Water Management District (SJRWMD), which covers the majority of Marion County, including
the City of Ocala.
The West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority (WCRWSA) is the main supplier of water to
Pinellas, Pasco, and Hillsborough Counties and many of their municipalities. Their supplies are-
derived from wellfields in Pasco, Pinellas, and Hillsborough Counties. In their Draft Water
Resource Development Plan (July, 1995), the WCRWSA projected a need for an additional 33
million gallons per day (MGD) during the period from 1995-2000, with 46 MGD more between
2000-2015 and 43 MGD additional between 2015-2030. The needs of the WCRWSA are of
significance to the Withlacoochee region for two reasons. First, the Northern Tampa Bay WRAP
found that WCRWSA wellfield pumping from the Floridan aquifer in Pasco, Pinellas and
Hillsborough counties has negatively impacted wetlands, lakes and private wells. Pumping at one
WCRWSA wellfield in north central Pasco County (Cross Bar Ranch Wellfield), has resulted in
an aquifer drawdown that has affected numerous private wells in southern Hernando County.
Since this water is transported to other groundwater basins, there is no recharge to the system,
effectively reducing the groundwater flow into Hernando County. SWFWMD attempts to reduce
the excessive pumping in WCRWSA wellfields has resulted in a number of lawsuits from the
WCRWSA and its members. Of more import to the future, however, are that two of the four
alternative plans in the WCRWSA Draft Water Resource Development Plan included the transfer
of water from WRWSA region (Lake Rousseau, Weeki Wachee Springs and a future wellfield in
east Hernando County were mentioned). SWFWMD's pressure to utilize local sources first,
including alternative sources, resulted in WCRWSA Board approval (December 1995) of an
alternative that did not include a transfer of water from the WRWSA region. Figure 1-2, taken
from the Draft Water Resource Development Plan, visually depicts the existing and committed
WCRWSA facilities and one of the alternative water supply plans that incorporated an inter-
regional water transfer. It should be noted that during their resource planning process, there was
no attempt on the part of the WCRWSA to coordinate or communicate with the WRWSA, or its
local governments, concerning the development of water supply alternatives in the Withlacoochee
There has also been some concern raised about the possible transfer of water from Marion County
for use in the more water-stressed areas along the east coast of Florida, particularly Volusia
County. After a review of their recent County plans and discussions with SJRWMD and Volusia
County environmental attorneys directly involved with water supply issues, there does not appear
to be any interest in inter-regional transfer of water at this time.
S J N.
NOT TO SCALE New
EXISTING & COMMITTED FACILITIES
M Regional System
B Other WCRWSA Facilities
IM Member Facilities
POTENTIAL FUTURE SOURCES
Wlli Wellfields & Dispersed Wells
/ v Pipelines
D Tampa Water Resource
nWater Supply Element Number
This Map Depicts ALTERNATIVE #1 In
The WEST COAST REGIONAL WATER
SUPPLY AUTHORITY's (WCRWSA) Draft
- "WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN"
This Was Not The Alternative Chosen By
#42 Facilities Improvement Element Number
Hydrogeology of the Region
Hydrogeology describes the occurrence and movement of groundwater, which is the source of all
potable water withdrawals in the WRWSA region. While a short discussion of major points is
provided below, Section 2 of this Master Plan, Groundwater Resource Evaluation, includes the
information needed to more adequately understand the region's hydrogeology.
The WRWSA region is comprised of a unique set of hydrogeologic features setting it apart from
other areas in west-central Florida. As shown in a schematic section in Figure 1-3, the geologic
units of the region are primarily limestone overlain by sedimentary material (sand, silt, shell).
The limestone units form the Floridan aquifer system, which underlies virtually the entire state.
It is from these limestone units that the majority of groundwater is pumped for potable water
supply. The portions of the Floridan aquifer that have the highest quality of water are generally
overlain by a layer of sandy clay and clay named the Hawthorn Formation. Because of geologic
processes, the Hawthorn Formation has been eroded in almost all of the WRWSA area. The top
of the Floridan aquifer lies from 0-60 feet below the surface. Where only sedimentary material
overlies the Floridan aquifer, there is greater potential for contamination from surface activities.
There is also greater potential for wellfield pumping to impact surface water bodies.
The Withlacoochee River and the Tsala Apopka chain of lakes are the major surface water features
in the region. The Withlacoochee River originates in the Green Swamp and is one of the largest
rivers in Florida. Because the river cuts into the Floridan aquifer and the Floridan aquifer
pressure is, in many places, higher than the river, the aquifer discharges water into most of the
river. This is especially true along the Hernando/Sumter County boundary. Some researchers at
SWFWMD and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) believe that a significant amount of water
is also discharged into the Tsala Apopka chain of lakes because of the hydrogeologic conditions.
Ki 1-: ^ Ur! i- 1 --, --..
MIOCENE HAWTHORN GROUP
OLIGOCENE SUWANNEE LIMESTONE
UPPER OCALA LIMESTONE
S' MIDDLE AVON PARK FORMATION
LOWER OLDSMAR FORMATION
CEDAR KEYS FORMATION
SOURCE: OUNCAN. J.G.. EVANS. W.L.. ANDO IAYOR, K.L. 1994
A HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC. Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
1 ""-A _ENOI E-CRINO ARCHITECTURE
Sengineers. hydrogeologiss, suiveyoos & manaoementA conlultnots ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNINO
q c 966 CANOLCLIOHT BOULEVARD
33 201 EAST PINE STREET SUlrT 1000 ORLAN00, FL 32801 9R, OBROOKSVILLE. FL.ORIOA 34t01
m MN TIELEPHONE (407) 39-3955- FAX (47) 839-3790 rC. (Co.) C 7-O2 rax <(co) 7e*e-j.s
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There are numerous freshwater springs located in the region, usually in close proximity to the Gulf
of Mexico, although two of the springs with the largest discharge (Rainbow Springs and Silver
Springs) are located in Marion County. With freshwater discharge of up to 916 cubic feet per
second, these springs indicate that the underlying limestone is highly fractured, allowing water to
flow easily through the aquifer. The parameter used to describe this flow is "transmissivity", with
the highest transmissivity being found in those portions of Citrus, Marion and Hernando counties
upgradient from the springs. In Sumter County, nearly all of the land surface is the limestone of
the Upper Floridan aquifer. In a few locations, sand hills occur. Limestone mining activities in
the water table are quite commonplace due to the ease of reaching the resource.
Citrus and Hernando counties are similar hydrogeologically in that both have sand ridge areas,
significant (for Florida) topographic relief, saltwater intrusion along the coast, and large spring
discharges. Groundwater flow is generally towards the west-northwest. The ability of the
Floridan aquifer to transmit water is high in all four counties, but is by far the highest in portions
of Citrus County and Marion counties. This means that a wellfield in those areas should be able
to produce millions of gallons of water, with a minimal drawdown of the water table or impacts
on surface water bodies. Unlike the rest of the region, groundwater flow around the City of Ocala
is to the northeast, resulting in a significant discharge at Silver Springs.
Water quality problems occur at depths greater than 400 feet, along the coast, and along the
Withlacoochee River. At 400 feet and greater and along the Withlacoochee River, nutrients and/or
iron cause the problem, while along the coast, chlorides are the problem. Water quality problems
exist in significant portions of Sumter county, primarily due to iron.
Groundwater Resource Evaluation
In the most simplistic sense, the purpose of the groundwater resource evaluation portion of this
Master Plan is to locate, at a planning level, the areas best suited for water supply development
* Determining the areas within the WRWSA region that have the best quality groundwater;
* Determining the portions of the Floridan aquifer that have the greatest potential to supply
a significant amount of water; and,
* Developing a generalized model that can be used to evaluate the drawdown on the aquifer
from wells in any particular area of the region.
Within the scope of this Master Plan, the groundwater resource evaluation was limited to the use
of existing information, including water quality and hydrogeologic characteristics of the surficial
and Floridan aquifer system. This information is a good planning tool, however, the actual
location of a well should be preceded by more detailed, site specific analysis.
Water quality data was collected from SWFWMD, USGS, the Florida Geologic Survey (FGS) and
the water utility systems in the WRWSA. The five major water quality parameters used to
preliminarily assess groundwater in the area were chlorides, iron, sulfate, total dissolved solids
(TDS) and total hardness. While this is not an exhaustive description of groundwater quality,
these parameters provide a firm basis for evaluating water quality and for estimating treatment
Using this data from the WRWSA region, north Pasco County, south Levy County, and southwest
Marion County, a series of water quality distribution maps were prepared. Each map was then
overlain on the other maps in electronic format, so that the areas with the composite lowest
concentrations of the parameters reviewed could be determined.
Hydraulic characteristics were gathered from publications available from SWFWMD, SJRWMD
and the WCRWSA. The three characteristics that best define the ability of the aquifer to provide
a large, stable source of water are transmissivity, storage and leakance. As mentioned above,
transmissivity is the parameter used to describe how easily water can flow through an aquifer,
ranging from 100,000 gallons per day per foot (gpd/ft) to over 10 million gpd/ft. The area around
springs generally has the highest transmissivity and those springs having the greatest discharge
usually have the highest aquifer transmissivity. Where transmissivity is high and the storage
capacity of the aquifer is large, the aquifer is capable of easily supporting a wellfield. When this
water "quantity" information was combined with the groundwater quality analysis, the resulting
mapping (Figure 1-4) indicates which areas of the region are best suited for water supply
As the water analysis was conducted, a numerical groundwater flow model of the entire WRWSA
was constructed using existing hydrogeologic data. The purpose of the model is two-fold: to
evaluate wellfield locations and to estimate the yield of those areas; and to simulate regional
changes in water levels due to fluctuating rainfall amounts or increasing pumpage.
The model is intended for use as a planning tool to locate suitable areas for water supply
development. Actual aquifer performance testing and local groundwater flow modeling would
have to be accomplished in order to design and permit wellfields.
U A 4 6
WATER QUALITY (mg/L)
WELLFIELD SUITABILITY AREAS
HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologisls, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790
Coastal Engineering Assoc., Inc.
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE, FLORIDA 34601
TEL (904) 798-9-423 FAX (904) 799-8359
Water Supply Infrastructure
The potable water supply infrastructure in the WRWSA region has developed differently in each
of its member counties, due to the unique influences on each of them. Hernando County has a
county-wide utility system, consisting of County-developed wellfields and acquired private
systems. Its two developed communities, Brooksville (public) and Spring Hill (Southern States
Utilities) operate their own systems. Citrus County has many communities, several of which are
major private planned developments. Each community has developed its own potable water
system, with most of the private developments operating under Southern States Utilities. Citrus
County has recently entered the water supply business, developing a wellfield in partnership with
the WRWSA. Sumter County has not faced the issues of fast growth. With its scattered
development pattern, Sumter County has left the water supply field to its local communities and
private developments. An added factor in Sumter County is the large amount of groundwater
withdrawn for agricultural and mining purposes. In Marion County, the City of Ocala is the
primary provider of potable water within the city limits and the surrounding urban service area.
The utility systems mentioned above are reviewed in Section 3 of this Master Plan, which provides
an inventory and mapping of the major water supply infrastructure in the WRWSA region. The
location of these wellfields and major transmission lines can be viewed (along with proposed
facilities) in Figures 1-6 through 1-9 in the Executive Summary. Most of this information was
collected directly from the utility operators. Data collection was limited to the major suppliers of
Tables 1-1 and 1-2 provide a summary of the permitted and actual withdrawals for potable water
use in each county. These tables also give estimates of the "minor public supply" being drawn
by the small providers not inventoried in this report. Finally, the tables incorporate estimates for
non-public supply from the SWFWMD Needs and Sources Report (1992). The most significant
non-public uses in the WRWSA are mining and agriculture, particularly in Sumter County. Each
of the non-public supply categories, mining, industrial, agriculture, recreation and irrigation, is
broken out in the review of the SWFWMD Needs and Sources Report provided in Section 4
(See Table 4-4).
PERMITTED GROUNDWATER WITHDRAWAL RATES within the WRWSA (in Gallons Per Day)
Major Minor* Total Non-public Total
Public Supply Public Supply Public Supply Supply Average
GPD GPD GPD GPD GPD
Citrus County 15,683,100 1,362,800 17,045,900 21,650,540 38,696,440
Hernando County 19,043,000 241,600 19,284,600 56,019,600 75,304,200
Sumter County 2,516,000 912,700 3,428,700 84,345,100 87,773,800
City of Ocala 11,300,000 339,000 11,639,000 232,780 11,871,780
Total 48,542,100 2,856,100 51,398,200 162,248,020 213,646,220
ACTUAL AVERAGE GROUNDWATER WITHDRAWAL RATES within the WRWSA (in Gallons Per Day)
Major* Minor* Total Non-public Total
Public Supply Public Supply Public Supply Supply Average
GPD GPD GPD GPD GPD
Citrus County 9,181,343 516,657 9,698,000 10,621,946 20,319,946
Hernando County 15,301,000 836,000 16,137,000 20,661,390 36,798,390
Sumter County 1,698,992 315,008 2,014,000 37,309,733 39,323,733
City of Ocala 8,079,000 242,370 8,321,370 166,427 8,487,797
WRWSA Total 34,260,335 1,910,035 36,170,370 68,759,496 104,929,866
Notes: + Subsets of Total Public Supply
Major Public Supply withdrawal rates were collected from the individual facilities Monthly Operating Reports (January December
Minor public supply withdrawal rates were estimated from the difference between total public supply and major public supply.
Total public supply withdrawal rates were collected from the Southwest Florida Water Management District groundwater inventory
data base (January 1995). The data base search was limited to public supply.
Non-public supply includes mining, industrial, agricultural, recreation and irrigation. Non-public supply withdrawal rates were
collected from the Southwest Florida Water Management District Ground Water Inventory Data Base (January 1995). The data
base search was performed using all sources excluding public supply.
Total average withdrawal rates were collected from the Southwest Florida Water Management District Ground Water Inventory
Data Base (January 1995). The data base search was performed using all sources excluding public supply.
Analysis of Growth and Development Patterns
At the request of the WRWSA, the planning departments for Citrus, Hernando and Sumter
Counties and the City of Ocala prepared a projection of population by planning district for each
five year period through the year 2020. These projections are provided by county in Section 3 of
this Master Plan. In each case, the projections were based on the overall population estimates
provided by the University of Florida Bureau of Economic & Business Research (BEBR). To
maintain uniformity with the comprehensive planning processes, we have used the projections
based on the BEBR "medium" estimates and summarized them in Table 1-3. The areas of highest
growth are depicted on Figure 1-5.
Population Estimates within the WRWSA
YEAR 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Citrus County 106,800 123,100 138,800 154,400 170,100 185,700
Hernando County 120,600 144,500 168,000 191,300 215,100 238,700
Sumter County 36,300 39,700 42,600 45,300 48,171 50,400
City of Ocala 67,807 73,644 79,526 85,383 91,240 97,096
WRWSA TOTAL 331,507 380,964 428,926 476,383 524,611 571,896
Source: University of Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research (1994)
City of Ocala estimates include the portions of unincorporated Marion County expected to be in the City of Ocala
utility service area.
XZ- r, J-&/SEprIgSS
COUNTY PLANNING DISTRICT NUMBER
OVER 10.000 INCREASE
IN POPULATION BY 2020
] MEDIUM GROWTH AREA
BETWEEN 5,000 10.000
INCREASE IN POPULATION
] LOW GROWTH AREA
LESS THAN 5,000 POPULATION
INCREASE BY 2020
* MARION COUNTY NOT INCLUDED IN GROWTH ANALYSIS
MAPPING BASED ON POPULATION PROJECTIONS
PROVIDED BY THE PLANNING DEPARTMENTS OF
EACH COUNTY AND THE CITY OF OCALA. SEE
MASTER PLAN SECTION 3
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BROOKISVILLE. rLORI OA S.601
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As seen in Figure 1-5, the US 19 corridor is still a strong focal point of residential growth in
Citrus and Hernando Counties. With the purchase of significant upland parcels through the
SWFWMD and CARL land acquisition programs, however, much of the land west of US 19 has
now been removed from development pressure. Growth projected for those areas is expected to
locate slightly more inland. The highest growth areas stretch from US 19 eastward as far as US
41. Several factors account for this pattern:
SProximity to the Gulf of Mexico. A significant amount of recreational activity is associated
with the Gulf and the major springs (Crystal River, Homosassa, Chassahowitzka, Weeki
Wachee) west of US 19.
* North Suncoast Parkway. This new toll road, projected for construction within the next 4-8
years, will connect western Hernando and Citrus counties directly to the Tampa Bay area.
In southwestern Hernando County, the location of this expressway is further inland, drawing
growth to the available land along the US 41 corridor.
* Soils. The fast-draining Candler sand soils contained on this upland ridge are very conducive
* Existing Commercial Activity. The major retail stores, restaurants and a mall have located
along the US 19 corridor.
* Infrastructure. Central water and sewer are already available in most sectors of this growth
* Environmental Factors. There are few environmental -factors that would limit development
in this area as long as proper treatment of a wastewater and surface water is provided above
the unconfined aquifer.
The residential growth projected by some planners along the 1-75 corridor has not yet been
evident, except in the area around Ocala. With the improved infrastructure (sewer, water) now
available at Ridge Manor (SR 50) in Hernando County and at Bushnell, Lake Panasoffkee and
Wildwood in Sumter County, however, these areas are more attractive for development. The
relatively low population base in Sumter County is reflected in the very gradual BEBR population
projections. The introduction of a major retirement community like The Villages to this area
would significantly change the development landscape and require revised BEBR population
Development around the City of Ocala is strongest to the southwest and southeast. The expansion
of the City's urban services, including potable water, are aimed primarily to the west and
southwest. This area includes 1-75 and a portion of the SR 200, US 27 and SR 40 corridors. The
SR 200 corridor has attracted the bulk of the commercial activity (mall, restaurants, major
retailers) and is expected to be the focus of residential expansion. Due to increased demand for
potable water outside the urban service area, and the inability of any other provider to meet that
demand, the City is taking steps such as amending its comprehensive plan and negotiating with
Marion County to expand the area to which it may provide water services.
Water Supply Needs and Recommended Facility Plans
The population projections discussed above were reviewed and distributed by major utility service
districts in each county. After a consultation with SWFWMD, a planning factor of 150 gallons
per day (GPD) was chosen to approximate the increase in potable water use resulting from each
additional resident. This factor accounts for the commercial and institutional water demand that
accompanies an increase in population. The resulting cumulative water demand is depicted for
each utility district on Table 1-4. Future demand in non-potable usage are not addressed in this
analysis, but are projected in the SWFWMD Needs and Sources Study (See Table 4-4 in this
The major increases in potable water demand are expected to occur in the Hernando County Water
& Sewer District, the City of Ocala water and sewer Department, the Citrus County Utility
Division and Spring Hill Utilities (SSU). In order to accommodate this increase in demand, the
hydrogeologic mapping was reviewed for areas that would provide an excellent supply of water
and fit efficiently into the plans of the utility districts. An attempt was also made to avoid
locations near major lakes or wetlands.
Growth in Citrus County warrants the consideration of an additional wellfield during the planning
period. A site was chosen in the south-central section of the county, just east (or within) the
Withlacoochee State Forest. This area has high transmissivity rates and good water quality. The
location would geographically balance the County's existing wellfield and provide a backup water
supply for the Floral City and Inverness water systems. The location near Hernando County
would also allow for the eventual interconnection of the systems of the two counties, although that
interconnection is not warranted during this planning period. Figure 1- 6 indicates the proposed
location of the new wellfield and a possible configuration of subsequent transmission lines.
Existing and Projected Demand for Major Potable Water Supply Systems
Gallons Per Day (GPD)
Utility District Existing Water Water Demand Water Demand
Citrus County 1,865,000 4,950,000 6,980,000
Inverness 1,119,000 1,735,000 2,145,000
Crystal River 720,000 1,195,000 1,505,000
Homosassa 632,000 820,000 945,000
Ozello/County 300,000 335,000 360,000
Floral City 1,078,000 2,070,000 2,725,000
Sugarmill Woods 1,100,000 2,150,000 2,900,000
-Private/Pine Ridge/Citrus Springs 2,288,000 2,436,305 2,535,000
Beverly Hills 340,000 715.100 965.000
Total 9,441,000 16,405,00 21,060,000
Hernando County 5,025,000 10,780,000 15,500,000
City of Brooksville 1,509,000 2,205,000 2,535,000
Spring Hill 8,767,000 12,395,000 13,820,000
Total 15,301,000 25,380,000 31,855,000
Sumter County/Other Public N/A 202,000 318,000
City of Wildwood 734,000 1,269,000 1,572,000
City of Webster 338,000 425,000 1,474,000
City of Bushnell 260,000 487,000 615,000
City of Center Hill 88,000 116,000 133,000
The Villages 560,000 644,000 738,000
Total 1,980,000 3,143,000 3,850,000
City of Ocala 8.080.000 12,810.C00 14.565.)000
Projected Demand for Potable Water was based on the Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR) Population Projections (Medium)
as broken out by the planning departments of the respective counties and the City of Ocala.
All data based on a gross per capital rate of 150 gallons per day. -
All quantities are in cumulative gallons per day. Due to the limitations of BEBR, accurate medium growth projections could not be provided
for The Villages.
1 1 11 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
H IOMTAS SP L Worlny OI7UITES
CFL OF M PIUX 00SS
m Mi OMS oNu MiU N R
O WO A SPCCM WAERM DOsTIcT
**-* ERIMU M&MO CMOWr WUER UWES
WJ W.SA WlnR UNES
< EXISTN MAUOR MUNICIPAL WTER UNES
" <* EXISTING M&WO PRIME WIOER UNES
X PROPOSE WELFELD
EXmIS WELL SITE
SUNE SmES VARY
SPOINt '0 W DS
COWSIL EN B ERN ASSOC. IC.
BASED UPON INFORMATION
SECURED FROM CITRUS COUNTY
DUTIES DEPARTMENT AND OTHER
INDIVIDUAL UTY PROVIDERS
In Hernando County, there were four discrete areas indicated as excellent locations on the
wellfield suitability map, Figure 1-4. These locations happened to occur in each corner of the
county (i.e. NW, SW, SE, NE). Wellfields in the northwest and southwest sections of the county
fit the population growth patterns very well. There are major power line corridors in those areas
that could be utilized to locate linear wellfields, or in the case of the southwest site, expand an
existing wellfield. While growth in the northeast is only moderate, a wellfield located just west
of the Withlacoochee State Forest would be optimal from the viewpoint of wellhead protection.
This wellfield could also be utilized to augment the water supplies of the City of Brooksville.
While residential growth may be somewhat light in the vicinity of the southeast wellfield site, there
is significant commercial and industrial activity expected just to the north at the intersection of SR
50 and 1-75. This area is far enough distant from the remainder of the County's major wellfields
to seriously consider the development of a water supply at this location. Figure 1-7 indicates the
proposed location of the new wellfields and a possible configuration of subsequent transmission
While growth projections for Sumter County do not indicate the need for a significant increase in
water supply, there is one location on the wellfield suitability map that is very conducive to the
development of a major wellfield. In addition to positive hydrogeologic characteristics, this site
is also centrally located and easily accessible to the utility systems of the four municipalities and
Lake Panasoffkee. It would be prudent to consider some protection of the area for future water
supplies in the comprehensive planning process. Figure 1-8 indicates the proposed location of
the new wellfield and a possible configuration of subsequent transmission lines.
The cumulative figures for each county provided in Table 1-4 are consistent (within 4%) of the
average potable water needs projected for the year 2020 by-SWFWMD in their 1992 Needs and
Sources Study, with the exception of Sumter County. SWFWMD's projection for Sumter County
was only 1.9 MGD, however, that figure is expected to be adjusted much higher in their updated
Needs and Sources Study due out in the late summer of 1996. The projected potable water
demand for the City of Ocala in Table 1-4 is approximately 20% lower than the year 2010
projections by the SJRWMD in their 1994 Needs and Sources Study. It is difficult to compare the
projections, since the extent of the City of Ocala's service area at that date is not fixed.
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 111
iQB E CSTm ENGEERsIN & ASSOC. INC.
MSED ON THE FORMATION SECURED
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The City of Ocala needs a new wellfield, not only for growth, but to provide a source of potable
water where the capture area does not lie under the urban center of the City. While the
environmental factors such as groundwater quantity and quality would lean toward a wellfield in
unincorporated Marion County, southwest of Ocala, the City is interested in maintaining both of
their permits with the same water management district, in this case the SJRWMD. A suitable site
was located to the south-southwest of the city limits. It could very easily be integrated into the
City's existing transmission network. Figure 1-9 indicates the proposed location of the new
wellfield and a possible configuration of subsequent transmission lines.
Each of the proposed wellfields was placed in the groundwater flow model to determine the likely
impact to the aquifer, using pumping rates that approximated the additional demand by County
(and the City of Ocala) projected for the year 2020. The resulting drawdown in the Floridan and
surficial aquifers at each wellfield was relatively insignificant. As shown in Figure 1-10, the
drawdown on the surficial aquifer is greater than 0.2 feet only around the Sumter County
wellfield. Drawdown on the Floridan aquifer, depicted in Figure 1-11 is less than 0.5 feet, again
with the exception of the Sumter County wellfield. Increasing pumping rates by 50% in the model
does not significantly change the drawdown. Further description of this analysis is found in
Section 2 of the Master Plan.
1 1 1 1 11 1
1 1 1 1 111
0 X 00 I1 -M
CITY LIMIT LINE
FUTURE MAJOR DISTRIBUTION LINES
m m m m EXIST. MAJOR DISTRIBUTION LINES
FUTURE SERVICE AREA
SIZE PENDING FUTURE DESIGN
) PROPOSED WELL FIELD LOCATION
EXISTING WELL FIELD
iOmL EN#ERIG ASSOC WC.
-E UPON IFORMAION SEURED
FROM THE COIY OCALA UTIuES
X U fDa
* Proposed Supply
- 10.0 Drawdown (ft)
Contour Interval Variable
CITRUS 12 MGD, HERNANDO 16 MGD, MARION
SOURCE: WRWSA MASTER PLAN FOR WATER SUPPLY. 1995
6.5 MGD, AND SUMTER 3 MGD
DRAWDOWN IN THE SURFICIAL AQUIFER PROPOSED WELLS
HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790
Coastal Engineering Assoc., Onc.
966 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TEL (904) 798-9423 FAX (904) 799-Q359
* Proposed Supply
- 10.0 Drawdown (ft)
Contour Interval Variable
I CITRUS 12 MOD, HERNANDO 16 MGD, MARION 6.5 MOD, AND SUMTER 3 MOD
OS UIRCE: WRWSA MASTER PL AN rOR WATER SUPPLY. 1995
DRAWDOWN IN THE FLORIDAN AQUIFER PROPOSED WELLS
t A E
HARTMAN & ASSOCIATES, INC.
engineers, hydrogeologists, surveyors & management consultants
201 EAST PINE STREET SUITE 1000 ORLANDO, FL 32801
TELEPHONE (407) 839-3955 FAX (407) 839-3790
Coastal Engineerng Assoc., Inc.
986 CANDLELIGHT BOULEVARD
BROOKSVILLE. FLORIDA 34601
TEL (904) 796-9423 FAX (904) 799-8359
The authority and responsibility to conserve and manage Florida's water resources is granted to
state, regional and local government. On the state level, the authority and responsibility is vested
in the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (FDEP) On the regional level, it is vested
in the five water management districts, and where created, the water supply authorities. On the
local level, it is vested in cities and counties. This authority is either regulatory or proprietary in
nature, with some governments empowered with both kinds of authority.
Regulatory authority over water resources is given to the FDEP, the water management districts,
cities and counties. Stated generally, the state has authority over water pollution and the water
management districts have authority over water allocation and water supply. Local governments
also have authority over water pollution and water supply, but not over water allocation. Water
supply authorities only have authority in the area of water supply.
The WRWSA falls within the boundaries of two water management districts, SWFWMD and
SJRWMD. The water management districts regulate water use pursuant to Part II, Chapter 373,
Florida Statutes, and have various powers to restrict or include water use, decide among
competing uses and limit use to a particular time period. The districts also have authority to
supply water to local governments under certain conditions and to assist local governments by
supplying water resource information for use in growth management.
Local governments are empowered by the Local Government Comprehensive Planning and Land
Development Regulation Act, Florida Statutes, Part II, Chapter 163, to plan for and manage land
use and water supply, achieve water conservation and provide for aquifer protection.
Additionally, local governments are empowered to produce and supply water, exercise eminent
domain authority and form regional water supply authorities.
The water management districts, water supply authorities, and local governments have some
authority that is duplicative but in many ways their authority is complementary. In the critical area
of water management, authority is exclusive to the water management districts. However,
the proper exercise of growth management authority by local governments effects where, when
and how water may be allocated. There is little recognition in the state or water management
district regulations for the reservation of water to accommodate growth that is planned in local
government comprehensive plans, but not needed immediately to accommodate growth. There
is also little attention given to transfers of water within a water management district nor to the
impacts of such transfers on future growth plans of local governments. In short, the water
allocation and growth management processes are not adequately integrated with one another.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Existing Comprehensive Plans
As indicated in the regulatory discussion, above, the Local Government Comprehensive Planning
Act requires each local government to address wellhead protection, aquifer recharge and the
provision of potable water to its residents. The comprehensive planning process provides the
opportunity and challenge of coordinating land use planning, environmental protection and utility
planning. The comprehensive plans may also provide a useful vehicle in the struggle to coordinate
or manage the possible transfers of water outside county boundaries. With the above in mind, the
comprehensive plans of the three counties and the City of Ocala were reviewed for their strengths
and weaknesses in addressing the issues of water supply and resource protection.
* Each of the comprehensive plans reviewed provide the framework to enact a wellhead
protection ordinance. The scope of the enacted ordinances vary, although each ordinance
designates a small protection zone surrounding the wellhead. Hernando County's ordinance
is based on a more detailed research study, allowing them to designate and protect capture areas
for the major wellfields. The City of Ocala ordinance incorporates several layers of protection,
depending on the distance from the wellfield.
* Citrus County and Hernando County established policies that require land use approvals
(zoning, conditional use) for wellfields. The review criteria mentioned emphasize land use
compatibility and wellhead protection.
* The Hernando County plan designates "urban service areas", where public facilities including
potable water are to be provided. Development outside these urban service areas is not
encouraged. It also require the preparation of water and wastewater plans to provide a guide
for the expansion of facilities. In a similar vein, the Hernando and Citrus County
comprehensive plans call for a wellfield location plan, with Hernando County establishing a 50
* The City of Ocala was the only government to establish some specific criteria relating to the
conservation of water.
* The issues of limited aquifer capacity, cumulative drawdown impacts and transfers of water
were not well understood at the time of the comprehensive plan preparation.
* The Intergovernmental Coordination elements are very general in nature, providing few
mechanisms and criteria for dealing with their neighbors, SWFWMD or the water supply
authorities (WRWSA, WCRWSA).
* Aquifer protection within the Conservation elements is limited by the inadequate data and
analysis available at the time. It was not possible to prepare the mapping of areas with the
quality and quantity of water to support major public wellfields.
* The designation of future wellfields is not carried beyond the five year horizon of the capital
* Coordination and consistency between the projections and plans within the Utility elements and
the Future Land Use elements is inadequate.
* The justification and criteria for reviewing proposed wellfields is limited. Land use
compatibility is emphasized, while economic impacts, availability of the resource and conflicts
with County plans are not.
+ Mechanisms for managing the possible transfer of water are not addressed.
* Issues such as conservation, desalination and recharge of the aquifer are not adequately
Foremost among the weaknesses in the existing plans is the limited hydrogeologic analysis and the
lack of measures to address the utilization and protection of the potable water resources. These
measures include resource planning, aquifer protection, conservation, intergovernmental
coordination and the management of possible transfers of water. While the hydrogeologic analyses
(Water Resource Assessment Projects, Minimum Flows And Levels) have yet to be completed by
SWFWMD and SJRWMD, the possibility of water transfer requires that these measures be
As previously indicated, the WRWSA fulfills two somewhat distinct roles for its member
governments: to assist in the development of water supplies; and to help protect the natural
resource and properly plan for its utilization. The following recommendations have been
organized in that fashion.
In its role as a developer of water supplies, the WRWSA expects to take the following actions.
1. Meet with staff and elected officials of each county and municipality to exchange ideas and
determine what assistance could be provided by the WRWSA in meeting their existing and
future needs for water supply. The WRWSA could fill or assist in any or all of the
a. Preparing a water supply facility plan
b. Site selection, modeling and permitting for a wellfield
c. Design and construction
2. Encourage and/or provide technical assistance to each county and their municipalities in
the intra-county interconnection of their wellfields and water transmission lines.
3. Help develop design criteria for wellfields, storage facilities, major transmission lines and
4. Develop a plan to retain local or WRWSA control of the transport of water outside the
region if such transport appears to be imminent.
5. Meet with each member government to review the Master Plan water supply scenarios and
modify the scenarios, if requested.
6. Maintain and upgrade the groundwater flow model and assist the member governments in
analyzing prospective well sites.
Resource Protection and Planning
The following portion of the Master Plan recommendation section provides measures whereby the
WRWSA, its constituent governments and other entities could help to protect and properly plan
for the water supply resources of the Withlacoochee region. The actions recommended are meant
to accomplish the following goals, established by the WRWSA as part of this Master Plan:
* Increase the control local government has over aquifer protection and water supply as a
component of growth management through comprehensive planning.
* Establish a set of priorities in the search for new water supplies, with "local sources" being
* Ensure a much greater level of intergovernmental coordination during the water use
planning and permitting processes.
*_ Provide guidelines to indicate the steps that must be taken prior to an approval of an inter-
jurisdictiohal transfer of water.
* Ensure that local needs are identified and protected through the long-term planning
* Empower the comprehensive planning process by tying together land use and water supply
* Improve the data base and mapping of the water supply resource and its characteristics.
Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority
The following actions are proposed for the WRWSA
1. Establish and maintain ties with the legislative committees responsible for water use.
2. Secure funding for necessary studies within the counties.
3. Establish a communication/coordination link with the WCRWSA.
4. Monitor the actions of surrounding local governments and WSA's.
5. Intervene in consumptive use permit applications that would adversely affect the region's
resources or it's local governments.
6. Assist local governments with their water supply planning efforts.
7. Prepare an implementation plan to promote the accomplishment of the policies and actions
enumerated in this Master Plan.
8. Review local government comprehensive plans and evaluation appraisal reports and
provide comments related to water supply and resource protection.
Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council
The following policies are recommended for inclusion in the WRPC Strategic Regional Policy
1. Areas identified by the Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority as having high
potential for the development of future wellfields shall be considered as environmentally
significant regional resources.
2. Transfer of water outside the region shall only be considered after the following factors have
a. The receiving community has exhausted its local alternative sources, including,
but not limited to surface water, reuse, conservation and desalination.
b. A detailed study of the proposed water source has demonstrated that adverse
environmental and economic impacts will not be incurred in the area from which
water is to be withdrawn.
3. Local governments should adopt comprehensive programs for the identification of, planning
for and protection of, existing and future public water supplies.
4. The Southwest Florida Water Management District and the St. Johns Water Management
District should immediately undertake the preparation of Water Resource Assessment
projects for the their portions of the WRPC region and establish minimum flows and levels
for aquifers and surface water bodies.
5. Local governments should reduce the per capital use of groundwater by: including water-
efficient plumbing fixtures in their building codes, encouraging drought-resistant natural
vegetation in their landscape ordinances, requiring new golf courses to use available treated
wastewater and providing water conservation education to their residents.
Local Government Comprehensive Plans
The following are recommended actions to be taken by local governments as part of scheduled
modifications to their comprehensive plans. The recommendations are organized by
comprehensive plan element.
Potable Water Sub-Element
1. An assessment should be made of projected potable water needs for the 5, 10, 20 and 40 year
planning horizon, using available information and data. Facility plans beyond the 5 year
horizon should only be conceptual in nature.
2. The source of future water supplies (40 year horizon) should be identified. If the source is
expected to be groundwater, areas for future wellfields should be conceptually located.
3. A policy should be included that requires that all new water supply facilities be dedicated to
the County Utility Department for ownership and operation, including those facilities that
intend to transfer water outside the county boundaries.
1. A policy should be established requiring that all new golf courses accept treated effluent,
when available, for use in irrigation. The irrigation systems must be designed to
accommodate the treated effluent.
2. Studies should be undertaken, in concert with SWFWMD, to provide a detailed analysis of
aquifer characteristics and establish a groundwater flow model that can be utilized in land
use planning, wellfield protection and the location of new wellfields.
3. Conservation policies should be included that require water-efficient plumbing fixtures in the
building codes, drought-resistant natural vegetation in the landscape ordinances and an
education program for residents.
4. A per capital water use rate of 110 gallons per day should be identified as a goal to be
achieved through water conservation policies.
5. Wellhead protection ordinances should be revisited and strengthened as more detailed
information (mapping, models, etc.) becomes available. Areas identified for future wellfield
sites in the Potable Water Sub-element should be considered for classification as a special
protection area within the wellhead protection ordinance.
6. Areas identified by the WRWSA or SWFWMD as having high potential for future wellfield
development should be indicated on a map and designated as such.
Future Land Use
1. Population projections should be provided for the 5, 10, 20 and 40 year planning horizons.
In order to assist in the planning for potable water facilities, these projections should be
further analyzed to estimate the population increase in each of the major utility service
2. When developing the future land use map, areas identified in the Conservation Element as
having a high potential for wellfield development should be considered for a less intensive
land use, where appropriate. Areas proposed in the Potable Water Sub-element for future
wellfields should be further designated (overlay zone), with additional land use policies
established to minimize the potential for contamination of the aquifer.
3. A rezoning should be required prior to the development or expansion of a wellfield or other
water supply withdrawal. Approval should be given if the applicant can show that the
proposed use is consistent with the comprehensive plan, the water is needed, the withdrawal
will not adversely impact the environment and the withdrawal will not significantly impact
the economic viability of surrounding landowners. Where the wellfield is being developed
to supply areas outside the county, the applicant must also show that they have exhausted
local supplies including alternate supplies. Information required as part of the application
should include a groundwater modeling of the withdrawal (wellfield), an assessment of the
impacts on environmental resources and an assessment of the economic impact on the
1. A policy should establish the working relationship between the local government and the
WRWSA, identifying areas where the WRWSA is expected to provide assistance
(data/analysis, wellfield development, SWFWMD funding for projects, liaison with other
regions and the state, etc.)
2. It should be indicated that, wherever applicable, the data and analysis of SWFWMD will be
utilized in the comprehensive plan and other appropriate actions.
3. A framework should be established through which proposed or envisioned projects of outside
entities (WSAs, other counties or their municipalities, special districts, etc) would be
reviewed for consistency and impact on local plans and resources. The intent of this policy
is to initiate discussion far in advance of any land use approval request or project design
Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) and the St. Johns Water
Management District (SJRWMD)
1. Consideration should be given to strengthening the rules under which the water management
districts are applying a "local sources first" policy in reviewing water supply plans and
wellfield permit applications.
2. In reviewing applications for consumptive use (water use), the District should place stronger
consideration on the consistency of each application with the comprehensive plan of the
affected local governmentss. The most pertinent portions of the comprehensive plan would
be the future land use map, the identification of future potable water facilities and
environmental mapping. Consideration should also be given to the economic impact that the
proposed withdrawal would have on the future of the surrounding community.
3. Water Resource Assessment Projects (WRAPs) should be completed for the WRWSA region
as soon as possible.
4. The use of performance standards and rotational capacity as conditions to water use permits
should be continued and improved.
5. Extended permit durations should be considered when adequate hydrogeologic-information
and modeling is available.
6. SWFWMD's "New Water Sources Initiative" should be continued and expanded.
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation
1. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection should resolve the "issue" of brine
concentrate and streamline the permitting of desalination plants.
There are a number of issues in the area of water supply that are not adequately addressed or
clarified in the existing statutes. Improvements to the statutes in the following areas is
1. Intra-district Transport. While the Florida Water Resources Act, Ch. 373, F.S. provides
guidelines concerning inter-district transfers of water (across a water management district
line), it does not address the transport of water within a WMD. Since many of the same
issues seem to apply in either case, the extension of the guidelines to intra-district transport
would seem to be appropriate. This would elevate SWFWMD's approach to water transfer
to a statutory mandate.
2. Intergovernmental Coordination. Under the existing statutes, only local governments that
are physically adjacent to each other have to coordinate their long range plans. In some
cases, however, local governments not physically proximate or other entities (i.e.WSAs) are
preparing or adopting plans that include the use of resources, such as water, in jurisdictions
that have little, if any, knowledge of their intent. Since this situation does not seem to be
in alignment with the intent of the Local Government Comprehensive-and Land Development
Act, Ch. 163, F.S., it appears that the intergovernmental coordination mandate should be
extended to require the sharing of such information and resolution of conflicting issues.
3. Long Range Planning. Long range planning in the area of water supply is considered to be
prudent, as evidenced by the 35 and 40 year horizons being considered by the water supply
authorities and water management districts. At present, the Chapter 163 requirement in the
area of potable water supply planning calls for local governments to provide a projection of
needs and sources for only a 10 year period. In order to bring long range water supply
plans into focus in the Comprehensive Plan process, it would make sense to extend the
planning horizon for water supply to include 20 and 40 year projections.
4. Prior Right of Use. In Section 373.1962 (5), there is a statement indicating a prior right of
a county to reasonable and beneficial use of local water supplies to provide for its own
needs. Further guidelines in this area would strengthen SWFWMD's stand on its "local
sources first" policy.