Title: Summaries Of The Growth Management Conference
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Title: Summaries Of The Growth Management Conference
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Language: English
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Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Summaries Of The Growth Management Conference (JDV Box 89)
General Note: Box 19, Folder 1 ( Growth Management Conference - 1983 ), Item 14
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004252
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text









SPECIAL DISTRICTS


Summary

By Dr. Jim Tait


Special districts have been a way of life in Florida since
territorial days. Landowners, faced with an unresponsive local
government and requiring infrastructure which benefited equally a
number of people, turned to the state legislature to create
special units which could build and maintain the necessary roads,
drainage systems; then hospitals, health services, etc. With the
recent advent of new environmental controls amd zoning, coupled
with a dramatic population growth and new financing needs, large
scale (multi-purpose) "development" districts appeared on the
horizon. By 1982, 511 special districts, independently governed,
were known to be in existence (excluding sixty-seven school
districts, numerous law libraries and all "dependent" districts).

OLD AND NEW DISTRICTS RAISE THREE MAIN AREAS OF CONCERN

Control

Who is responsible for the provision of governmental
services and setting priorities? Are counties and cities (local
general purpose governments) capable, politically and
administratively, of meeting all their citizen's needs for
governmental services? Is there a need for special governmental
units, during certain services? How far do we allow
fragmentation in government? How far do we grant governmental
powers to private parties?


Information and State Involvement

Does the present method of collecting and reporting
information about special districts meet policy-maker's needs?
How far should the state be involved in regulating and reporting
special district activity?

Taxes and Finance

How should financing of infrastructure occur? Should all
ad valorem taxes be under the local government and its
constitutional millage cap?


~











PLATTED LANDS


Summary

By Mr. Frank Schnidman


MAJOR ISSUES

The massive size of many platted subdivisions in Florida
create problems because of their scale alone. They preclude
flexible land development planning and have had adverse
environmental impacts. Build-out of the subdivisions can strain
local government fiscal and environmental resources, yet can also
provide the land necessary for Florida's growing population as
opposed to developing additional areas.


BACKGROUND

Most platted subdivisions in Florida were marketed for
single family residential development, and many lots were
purchased for investment rather than personal use. Many of the
subdivisions fail to meet contemporary standards for development
and design and natural resource management.


OPTIONS

Continuing to do what is already being done is the easiest
option, but may be inadequate to protect the public interest.
Limiting or restricting use of specific areas for specific
reasons is a possibility, as is regulation controlling timing,
location and fiscal aspects of development. Reassembly for
alternative development or for restoration to pre-development
condition can also be undertaken. Finally, negotiation between
interested parties could achieve desired results.


~












INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT


Summary

By Dr. James E. Frank


The basic issues in infrastructure management fall into
two broad categories: 1) those related to the problem of
managing the existing stock of community facilities and 2) those
involving the provision of new infrastructure triggered by
growth. This paper restricts its examination of infrastructure
to roads, sewers, water supply and storm drainage.

The analysis begins with a discussion of the problems of
maintaining, repairing, and replacing existing facilities and
points out that this is largely a matter of good system
management, adequate funding, and protection of existing
capacity. It then shifts to the problems of constructing new
facilities and catalogs the major dimensions of the problem as:

1. The development stimulating effects of infrastructure
are ignored in the facilities investment decision.

2. The infrastructure needs of development are ignored
in development approvals.

3. Management responsibility is diffused.

4. The underlying factors affecting infrastructure costs
are generally ignored.

5. The need for infrastructure occurs at the time of
development, whereas the fiscal resources needed to
pay for infrastructure may not be available for some
time.

The final section of the paper discusses the options
discernible. For existing facilities, it lists the options
available related to administration, management, financing, and
protection of capacity. For new facilities, it examines options
related to good system investment planning, the coordination of
facilities investment policies with the land development process,
and the financing of infrastructure.












URBAN BOUNDARIES


Summary

By Ms. Nancy E. Stroud


The establishment of urban growth boundaries can be an
effective growth management technique in Florida and the best
defense against urban sprawl. Growth from sensitive and
important lands such as wetlands and agricultural lands, urban
growth boundaries protect resources that are supportive of urban
living. At the same time, growth boundaries provide some
predictability for the provision of urban services, and should
provide adequate land for the mix of uses necessary to the urban
environment. Urban growth boundaries may require living at
higher residential densities, but with more urban amenities.
Intergovernmental coordination will be necessary to establish and
effectively service the areas within urban growth boundaries.

Some questions and options for discussion include:

1. Which Jurisdictions should be responsible for
establishing urban growth boundaries?

2. Should urban growth boundaries be required as part of
the local government comprehensive plan under Chapter
163, Florida Statutes, (The Local Government
COmprehensive Planning Act)?

3. Should the establishment of an urban growth boundary
be tied to other planning considerations?











ANNEXATION


Summary

By Mr. Ed Montanaro


Florida law establishes three procedures for annexation 1)
special act of the Legislature; 2) petition by the owners of 100
percent of the land in the area to be annexed (voluntary
annexation); and 3) an electoral procedure requiring separate
approval of a proposed annexation in referenda held in the
existing city and another held in the area to be annexed (non-
voluntary annexation). Florida's annexation statute is most
frequently criticized because of its restrictiveness. It is more
difficult for Florida cities to annex unincorporated territory
than for cities in most other states. This restrictiveness
results in inefficient and inequitable patterns of public service
delivery and taxation, inefficient growth patterns, and possible
stagnation of the tax base of municipal governments. There are
two major components of this criticism:

1. the requirement that all of the landowners consent
before voluntary annexations can occur;

2. the required dual referenda for non-voluntary
annexations.

The first criticism could be addressed by allowing
voluntary annexations to occur with a level of landowner consent
short of unanimity. There are seven major alternatives to the
dual referenda requirement:

single referendum;

modified referendum;

dual ordinance;

unilateral annexation by ordinance subject to
state standards;

unilateral annexation by ordinance within
municipal "reserve areas" subject to state
standards;

administrative determination;


* judicial determination.











URBAN REDEVELOPMENT

Summary

By Mr. Howard M. Landers


In order to be comprehensive and to achieve efficient
programmatic balance, "growth management" activities need to look
to our existing infrastructure and the multitude of factors which
affect urban conservation, rehabilitation and redevelopment.
Policies to discourage abandonment, and encourage maintenance and
reuse, must be sought at least as vigorously as those to protect
the natural heritage on which our future depends. In fact, the
two should be inseparable. Policies directed at
redevelopment/rehabilitation/maintenance of our cities as part of
a comprehensive growth management strategy should encompass:

Maintenance of our existing infrastructure
investment

Reducing tax and service disparities between
jurisdictions

Liberalizing our annexation procedures

Encouraging local government cooperation and
reorganization

Strengthening social and community services

Extending extraterritorial land use controls

Improving land acquisition procedures and
capabilities

Eliminating urban/suburban finance cost
disparities

Encouraging reinvestment in inner-city capital
plant

Improving aesthetics and quality of life

Encouraging housing stock improvements

Reducing social disparities

Encouraging infill development

Eliminating disparities in the application of
growth management regulations











BEYOND ZONING

Summary

By Ms. Kelly Carpenter-Craft


While many local governments implement their comprehensive
plans through the traditional methods of zoning and subdivision
regulations, other Florida communities have adopted other more
innovative techniques.

One of these techniques is measuring the adequacy of
public facilities and services and requiring developers to pay
for additional needed services. Developing detailed land use
maps which eliminate the need for zoning is another innovative
technique. Through the use of innovative techniques at least two
local governments have abandoned development regulation through
zoning.











STANDARDS AND CONSISTENCY
FOR LGCPA ELEMENTS

Summary

By Dana D. Minerva


Now that a large majority of local governments have
prepared local comprehensive plans pursuant to the Local
Government Comprehensive Planning Act (LGCPA), concern for
whether local governments were planning for high growth has
shifted to concern about the quality of local plans and whether
the plans are being implemented.

While many of the plans prepared by local governments are
excellent, some are not. The paper suggests several ways of
improving local plans, including providing better funding for
local planning, preparing state and regional plans as guides to
local governments, and requiring state review and approval for
local plans.

By requiring local land use regulations and decisions to
be consistent with local plans, the framers of the LGCPA intended
that the plans be implemented. There is, nevertheless, no
clearly established method of insuring that local governments
follow this consistency requirement. One suggested method is to
grant citizens the right to bring lawsuits to challenge local
actions that are inconsistent with local plans.

Other areas of concern relating to the LGCPA include the
coordination of local plans with those of other local governments
and improving the plan amendment and five year review processes.











CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN


Summary

By Mr. Glenn W. Robertson


Planning and providing the physical support systems to
accommodate Florida's growth over the next fifteen to twenty
years will be a massive and expensive undertaking. Deterioration
and community blight will also become more common as Florida's
present capital stock ages.

This paper presents three major capital improvement
planning (CIP) issues and outlines a series of options for
consideration. The implication of the choices, however, should
be considered thoughtfully by Florida's communities and regions
and by state government.

ISSUE I: Will the Capital Improvement Planning (CIP)
process be Used more frequently and systematically by
State and local governments to help manage growth and
redevelopment challenges in Florida?

The CIP's identification of where, how much, and when to
place physical facilities and developmental support systems
results from public discussion on what type community is
desirable, considering growth trends as well as current
conditions. Assuming these front-end discussions are held and
decisions made, the CIP can be a proactive, growth and
redevelopment guiding tool.

The professional effort to develop an effective capital
improvement plan requires a level of coordination and integration
that is not easy to achieve. The recommendations regarding where
to place different types of roads, for instance, undoubtedly
influence development patterns and community, regional and state
social and economic characteristics. The issue is whether public
officials and administrators will consider these influences prior
to making decisions on road construction.


SUMMARY OF OPTIONS

1. Use the CIP as a Proactive as well as Capital
Maintenance of Effort Oriented Tool

2. Use the CIP as a Capital Maintenance of Effort and
Limited Proactive Tool

3. Use the CIP as a Maintenance of Effort and Usually
Reactive Tool











4. Use the CIP as a Reactive and very limited
Maintenance of Effort Tool


ISSUE 2. Does the CIP conflict with political realities
and the free enterprise system?

Philosophically, many people would agree that a
disciplined approach to planning and acting on an area's future
capital improvement needs is preferable to experiencing haphazard
and unmanaged growth due to lack of planning. The gap between
philosophical agreement and the reality of human nature, however,
can be enormous.

In reality, barriers to using professionally acceptable
principles for capital planning test the resolve of even the most
determined planner, manager, or public official.


SUMMARY OF OPTIONS

1. Assume the need to make firm political decisions and
limit choices

2. Avoid loss of flexibility

3. Consider a combination of 1 and 2.


ISSUE 3. Does Capital Improvement Planning and
Programming make any sense considering the magnitude of
physical needs and the scarcity of dollars?

A carefully developed CIP not only identifies the present
and future needs of a jurisdiction but also presents a strategy
to use in responding to them. The magnitude of capital
improvement needs combined with a continued shortage of funds,
however, is an easy excuse for those who do not wish to plan.
This situation becomes the rationale used to convince people that
the situation is unmanageable. This approach, however, forces
near-sighted decisions that may solve short-term problems but
will likely cause longer term crises.


SUMMARY OF OPTIONS

1. Take an Aggressive Strategy

2. Assume a More Passive Strategy











LOCAL CAPITAL PLANNING
AND BUDGETING

Summary

Mr. Richard Gehring


Capital improvement programming is a process of looking
ahead for a given period of time, usually six years, and
scheduling expenditures for important capital projects over that
span of time. All local governments are concerned with the
allocation of scarce resources in light of established community
objectives and priorities. A well-thought-out, responsible
capital improvement program provides a logical, meaningful
framework for making the necessary allocations.


ISSUE I.



Reality:






Option:








ISSUE II.


Reality:




Option:


There must be a commitment by the community
leadership to know where they are, what they
want to be, and how they intend to get it.

There is a limited ability to know what the
conditions are, limited commitment to the
decision making necessary to choose policy and
direction, and major impediments to the kind of
resource allocation necessary to achieve
implementation.

The state should create a model for capital
programming that can be applied to all service
systems, and the state should reassess all
urban legislation to understand the degree of
mandated responsibility and fiscal
inflexibility that is imposed on local
government.


There must be a framework for decision making
that recognizes the dynamic change in
continuity for elected and appointed
leadership.

There is little comprehensive linkage in
Statute, Charter, Planning, Programming, and
Budgeting to make implementation anything more
than a wish.

The state should use the LGCPA plan review
process to encourage the development of Capital
Improvement Programming and provide the funding
for local government efforts.












ISSUE III.



Reality






Option:






ISSUE IV:


Reality:






Option:




ISSUE V:


Reality:


Option:








ISSUE VI:


There must be a participating process that
provides ownerships for the choices made or not
made on needed capital commitments.

There is a circle of finger pointing when the
capital crisis occurs at all governmental
levels. We have grown used to the idea that
without a crisis (water, roads, sewer, schools,
police, solid waste, park/environmental, etc.)
nothing will get done.

The State should provide a program to encourage
a level of understanding and participation in
the capital programming area, and it should
remove impediments to programming such as
anticipated annexation laws.


There must be an investment in time and dollar
resources to establish a program and implement
it.

The general attitude is if we can't afford the
dollars to implement, how can we afford the
dollars to plan. We create a self fulfilling
prophecy of capital need ignorance and we
implement based on political not functional
priorities.

The state should provide an incentive system
for developing effective CIPs at the local
level by the allocation of State funds.


There is an insatiable desire for facilities
and service.

There is an equal unwillingness to pay for
them.

The State should take a responsible role in
defining through state planning efforts the key
types of funding available to local governments
to meet the needs of a growing state. The
encouragement of growth followed by constraints
on local fiscal resources is a disaster in most
communities.


There is an important need to keep track of
efforts over time, to monitor and evaluate











accomplishments, to assess and reevaluate
priorities over time, to coordinate integrated
intergovernmental efforts.

Reality: Since there is so little effort for Issue I-V,
the Reality would be a general disappointment
if it were pursued.

Option: The State should assess the implementation of
its own capital program and county, regional,
and city programs, and design a performance
check list to establish relationship between
capital commitment and key fiscal indicators.
Note: the author feels the growth/deferred
maintenance cycle will explode at just the time
the state is in the crest of its "Bell weather"
development state. The bill will come due!











TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENTS


Summary

By Mr. Tom Lewis

PROACTIVE vs REACTIVE

We can continue to provide transportation facilities and
services to play "catch-up" to needs generated by a growth rate
and pattern with no particular, well conceived, specific
direction. Rather, we must pro-actively fulfill and reinforce
realistic and effective growth management principles.


A NEW PLANNING LOGIC

Transportation planning is a dynamic discipline which must
continually be reexamined to ensure that the guiding logic
remains compatible with the current and emerging needs of a
dynamic state. We need a planning logic that not only guides and
manages growth, but also ensures that the public services will be
in place when and where they are needed and that these services
are the most cost efficient and effective that can be provided.


A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

The current fragmented and uncoordinated planning
structure coupled with a lack of statewide and regional policy
and goals and the fierce competition for limited resources can
only compound the problems of rapid and unconstrained growth.
Coordination among the State, RPCs, MPOs amd local governments is
necessary to blend local prerogatives with statewide policy and
goals and to articulate needs unique to the region.


To assume a responsible and active role in the State's growth
management, transportation decision makers must:

Assume a management rather than production
orientation.

Tie transportation plans and improvements more
closely to land use and growth management policies at
all levels.

Expand the application of alternative transportation
modes.

Provide for a balanced, multimodal transportation
system.












* Include the private sector as partners.


* Expand transportation investment criteria to include
growth management principles and specific economic
development goals.

* Require a statewide comprehensive transportation
planning structure and plan.

* Strengthen the statute to mandate transportation
elements and land use maps at all level.

* Restructure MPOs and strengthen RPCs to reflect a
strong regional orientation.











COASTAL BARRIERS


Summary

By Dr. Kathy Abrams


MAJOR ISSUES AND PROBLEMS


Florida's population is already concentrated in our
coastal counties. Rapid growth will further urbanize our coastal
areas, particularly our barrier islands. At this rate of
urbanization, those most valued assets of our natural environment
and quality of life will be lost.

Development on barrier islands increases the risk of loss
of life and property; compounds hurricane evacuation problems;
and requires heavy public expenditures for infrastructure and for
reconstruction after storms. The losses associated with each
future hurricane in Florida will total millions of dollars.

Barrier island development has destroyed valuable wildlife
habitat, increased pollution in adjacent estuaries, reduced the
ability to protect mainland development from the effects of
coastal storms, exacerbated shoreline erosion problems, and
reduced public access to coastal beaches. The long-term public
costs must be weighed against the short-term private benefits of
barrier island development.

The state has a responsibility to protect its coastal
resources, but does not have a comprehensive state policy for
barrier islands; state statutes and programs are inadequate to
protect the state's interest in its barrier islands.



OPTIONS

1. Existing state states could be amended in order to
address problems associated with barrier island
development:

amend Chapter 23 to require legislative recognition
of coastal policies for barrier islands in the state
comprehensive plan

amend Chapter 161 to extend state regulation of
coastal construction activities to all barrier
islands, or to high hazard flood areas of barrier
islands











amend Chapter 163 to require state approval of local
comprehensive plans

expand the review thresholds for Developments of
Regional Impact to include more coastal developments

use the Resource Planning and Management Committee
provisions of Chapter 380 to address coastal island
development problems

amend the Florida Coastal Management Act to require
adoption and implementation of state coastal
policies.

2. The state could improve existing budgetary and management
tools under several existing statutes in order to address
barrier island problems:

target land acquisition under the Conservation and
Recreation Lands (CARL)Trust Fund to purchase
undeveloped barrier islands, particularly during
post-hurricane disaster periods

strengthen DER's coastal protection technical
assistance and clearinghouse functions to aid local
governments' management of barrier islands

strengthen DCA's local planning assistance functions
to improve local comprehensive plans.

3. The Legislature could adopt new, comprehensive barrier
island legislation to address specifically the unique
problems and issues presented by coastal islands.












ESTUARINE PROTECTION

Summary

By Mr. James W. MacFarland


I. Introduction

A. Value of Estuaries

B. Threats to Florida's Estuaries

1. Everglades

2. Rookery Bay

3. Apalachicola Bay


II. Recent Actions to Protect Florida's Estuaries


A. 1983 Water Bill

B. "Save Our Everglades"


III. Examples of Various Programs to Protect Estuaries


A. San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development
Commission

B. Gray's Harbor--Washington

C. Rookery Bay

D. Apalachicola River and Bay

E. California Coastal Conservancy Program

1. Resource Enhancement

2. Coastal Restoration

3. Coastal Accessways

4. Preservation of Agricultural Land

5. Non-profit Organization Assistance












IV. Options to Assure Protection of Florida's Coastal
Resources


A. Federal

B. State

1. Planning Process Utilizing Chapter 380, F.S.,
and Cooperation of Regional Planning Councils

2. Revision of the Aquatic Reserves Act, Chapter
258, F.S.

3. Increase Level of funding of the Conservation
and Recreation Lands (CARL) Trust Fund

4. Increased Level of Funding for "Save Our
Rivers"

5. Establish Regulatory Bodies for the Most
Important Estuaries

6. Establish a Florida Coastal Conservancy












WATER RECHARGE AND
UPLAND INDUCTION
AREAS

Summary

By Ms. Ane Merriam


I. Identification of the Major Issues

A. General physical characteristics of recharge areas

B. Developmental pressures

C. Conflicts between population growth areas and water
resource areas.


II. Background

A. Ancient and modern responses to land and water
management

B. Basic tenants of watershed management

1. Water infiltration-a natural pump and storage
facility

2. Alteration of water recharge areas

a. loss of natural functions

b. loss of associated natural systems

c. effects on the hydrologic cycle


III. How Severe is the Problem Currently?

A. Description of Florida's Aquifers


1. Physical

2. Geographical

B. Development and Resource Conflicts












IV. Options for Resolving the Problems

A. Develop land use plans to be used as a policy guide
for development

1. specific, identified areas

2. generally described areas according to
prescribed functions

B. Prepare land use regulations to specifically deal
with recharge lands

1. specified and/or mapped areas

2. areas identified by function or other general
description

3. these regulations might be restrictive types
such as zoning, or

4. may be inducer types such as transfer of
development rights

C. Modify the property tax structure to accommodate
special function lands such as recharge areas

D. Other options to consider

E. Matrix for addressing decision making processes.












WATER CONSUMPTION

Summary

By Gary W. Kuhl


I. The Major Issues


A. Determination of Long-Term Water Demands and Planning
for Water Supply Needs

B. Balancing Limited Freshwater Supply Among Users

C. Interbasin Transfers


II. Background Information


A. Current Water

B. Long-Term Water Demands

C. Data Collection, Analysis, and Monitoring


III. Options for Resolving Problems


A. Water Conservation and Reuse

B. Long-Range Planning for Needs and Sources of Water
Supply

C. Converting Salt or Brackish Water to Potable Supply

D. Building Flexibility into Water Supply Systems

E. Hydrologic Monitoring and Data Collection

F. Improved Interagency Coordination

G. Improved Regulation












FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT


Summary

By Mr. Don Morgan


I. Issues

A. Use of the floodplain
B. Decision-making in floodplain management

II. Background

A. Jackson, Mississippi, example
B. Florida's dilemma

III. Answers

A. Nonregulatory approaches
B. Regulatory approaches











WETLANDS


Summary

By Mr. John Hankinson


INTRODUCTION

In Florida's early history, wetlands were regarded as
obstructions to progress, and were drained, diked and filled for
conversion to agricultural, industrial and commercial uses. Of
the approximately 20 million acres of wetlands still existing in
Florida at the turn of the century, only 8 million remained in
1973. Significant losses continue.

The values of wetlands in performing such functions as
water filtration, water storage, and the provision of fish and
wildlife habitat are widely recognized. The need to protect
wetlands and their functions has been made clear by scientific
research.

Currently, impacts on wetlands are regulated primarily
through water quality considerations. Chapters 253 and 403,
Florida Statutes, provide a bifurcated approach to dredge and
fill permitting, with application of different criteria depending
on whether the affected area is a navigable water body. Dredge
and fill regulation on the federal level by the Army Corps of
Engineers pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act also
relies primarily on the water quality approach, but geographical
jurisdiction is much broader. A number of other agencies, such
as the Environmental Protection Agency, U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, and others are directly involved in the federal process.

True protection of wetlands could be accomplished by a
comprehensive, resource-based approach that addresses concerns
beyond the water quality impacts. The elements of such an
approach might include some of the considerations listed below:

1. The establishment of a state policy on wetlands
protection, setting out the value of wetlands and the
state's approach to protecting the resource

2. The consolidation of Chapters 253 and 403 permitting
authority into one approach providing a more
comprehensive set of permit criteria for all areas
subject to jurisdiction

3. Reevaluation of the jurisdictional extent of DER's
authority to include wetlands that are functionally
important but may not be reached under the current











scheme, and, conversely lessening protection for
dysfunctional wetland areas by:

a. revising the vegetative indices for
establishing the landward extent of jurisdiction

b. utilizing soils and hydrographic information to
establish jurisdiction

c. establishing jurisdiction over isolated
wetlands such as wet prairies and the Everglades

d. developing effective approaches to mapping
wetland areas

e. establishing discretionary authority in DER to
regulate areas where significant endangered species
or other unique features are present.

4. Developing a classification system for wetlands based
on their type, size, value, or function.

5. Defining the role of local and regional governments
in the protection of wetlands, focusing particularly
on their zoning and land use authority

6. Establishing the role of other agencies, such as the
Game Commission and the Department of Natural
Resources

7. Addressing the use of incentives and tax policy to
promote preservation of wetlands

8. Funding a major research program to provide more
refined tools to identify and protect wetland areas

9. Establishing effective programs to monitor and
enforce permit requirements designed to protect
wetlands, and establishing a system to track loss of
and impacts to wetlands

10. Utilizing land acquisition to protect critical
wetland areas

11. Examining agriculture and its relationship to wetland
systems

12. Identifying the impacts of nonpoint pollution
sources, such as storm-water runoff, on wetland
systems











13. Establishing the relationship of dredge and fill
permitting to more comprehensive management plans,
such as aquatic preserves, resource planning and
management plans, coastal zone programs and areas of
critical state concern

14. Insuring that the activities of other agencies do not
cause unnecessary impacts on wetlands

15. Providing the Department of Environmental Regulation
with sufficient resources to hire and retain highly
qualified personnel

16. Providing certainty in wetland jurisdiction and
permitting both to avoid unnecessary hardship and
loss of time of property developers, and to clearly
identify those wetland areas to be protected.












SUBSTATE DISTRICTS


Summary

By Dr. Earl Starnes


Substate districts should facilitate coordination and
consistency of effort among units of government involved in
growth management activities. In Florida, however, substate
districts have been formed incrementally rather than
comprehensively, and there is a confusion and duplication of
effort among them.

In countless discussion regarding substate districts, a
few issues consistently emerge:

1. conflicts caused by disparities in regional planning
council, water management district, and metropolitan
transportation planning organization boundaries

2. problems resulting from an inadequate regional
perspective,

3. problems of coordinating planning and growth
management activities, and

4. insufficient funding for substate activities.

This paper provides a number of optional actions which could be
taken to alleviate these issues.

ISSUE I. Conflicts caused by disparities in regional
planning council, water management district, and
metropolitan planning organization boundaries.

Options:

the boundaries of regional planning councils should
be established (in Chapter 160, F.S.) by legislative
enactment.

The legislature should nest the regional planning
councils within the larger boundaries of the water
management districts. The water management districts
should follow county lines, and to the extent
politically acceptable recognize existing settlement
patterns.











ISSUE II. Problems of coordinating planning and growth
management activities at the substate level

Options:

* Water management districts must approve regional
policy plans, with water management plans and
programs providing the basis for approval. Conflicts
should be resolved by the Land and Water Adjudicatory
Commission based on recommendations from the
Governor's Office of Planning and Budget.

* Regional planning council policy plans must, in
addition to substantive policies, contain explicit
procedural policies for plan making, adoption and
amendment. The procedures should maximize public
participation and be designed to protect affected
parties and regional resources. Prescriptions for
regional review of DRIs and other regional
developments such as highways, seaports, and location
of state institutions also must be a part of the
plan.

* The Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act
(Chapter 163 Part II, F.S.) should be amended to
include approval of local plans by regional planning
councils. Conflicts between local plans must be
resolved by a regional planning council with
appellate provisions to state government.

* Regional planning council membership should remain as
it is in Chapter 160, F.S. (one-third gubernatorial,
two-thirds local membership), but the chairperson of
each regional planning council should be appointed by
the governor for a four year term. The chairperson
should be the chief executive officer of the regional
planning council and be appropriately compensated.

ISSUE III. Problems resulting from an inadequate regional
perspective.

Options:

A regional planning council should be required, as
part of its policy plan and planning process, to
describe and delineate the uniqueness of its region.
This description should include major geographical
characteristics, demographic characteristics,
regional transportation network and water systems,
and significant places and systems of environmental
importance.












ISSUE IV. Funding for regional planning and growth
management.

Options:

* Add a surtax to all building and zoning permits. The
funds would be set aside in a regional planning trust
fund administered pursuant to a new state law.











STATE ENVIRONMENTAL STREAMLINING


Summary

By Mr. Jay Landers


The Environmental Reorganization Act of 1975 helped
streamline the state environmental permitting process-but it also
created new problems. The Act combined some permitting functions
previously split; and split some previously combined. The
apparent intent of the Act was to make the Department of
Environmental Regulation the principal environmental regulatory
agency, but that was not accomplished at the time of its passage,
nor since. By shifting a number of essentially regulatory
functions from the Department of Natural Resources to the
Department of Environmental Regulation, dual permitting problems
could be eliminated, and almost all environmental regulatory
functions would be housed in one agency. The Department of
Natural Resources would become a resource management agency.

Other potential "house cleaning" actions to further
streamline the process include combining the dredge and fill
portions of Chapter 253 and 403, eliminating Chapter 253 appeals
to the Governor and Cabinet, repealing Section 253.77, Florida
Statutes, and creating a Permitting Information Office.

The above would substantially improve "horizontal"
environmental permitting on the state level. The next step
should be to start on "vertical" streamlining-eliminating
duplication and overlapping that exists among federal, state,
district and local environmental agencies.











PLANNING COORDINATION


Summary

By Mr. Jack Osterholt


As we struggle to improve the planning elements of our
public management processes, it has become apparent that one area
that needs to be an explicit element of any strategy is planning
coordination. This paper briefly outlines the following issues
as elements that must be considered during these deliberations:

planning as an essential element in management,

the potential assimilative nature of planning,

the increasing tendencies to adopt single focus
planning rather than using planning as a coordinative
activity,

the tendency to shy away from planning in a rapidly
changing environment because of the increased
possibility of being inaccurate in forecasting the
future.

The paper also discusses the background of planning
changes nationally and in Florida during the last century,
concentrating on the emergency of planning and coordination
during the last twenty years. This analysis highlights several
trends. First, there is a trend toward issue based or strategic
planning, and second, a move to decentralize planning
responsibility and authority. If these trends are accurate, the
need for improved methods to insure integration and coordination
is increased.

The paper ends by defining two types of planning programs
which form a continuum for evaluating planning coordination:

those that operate horizontally in a more traditional
comprehensive model relying less on coordination
among levels of government,

those that operate vertically based more on the issue
management/single problem resolution model.

Options for improving coordination operate along this
continuum, and the preferred choice appears to be a balance
between both.












BEYOND LAND AND WATER USE ISSUES


Summary

By Mr. Brad Robbins


Traditionally, land and water use issues have dominated
growth management discussions. Florida's growth rate, however,
dictates a broader approach to growth management than this. In
addition to land and water use, growth management issues include,
but are not limited to; infrastructure, housing, pollution,
transportation, and social concerns.

Three other growth related topics will receive further
examination in this paper. They are the elderly, the economy,
and political trends. These subjects were selected to illustrate
the breadth of Florida's growth management considerations. It is
important to note, however, that all growth management issues are
interrelated. A single quick fix is unlikely to solve the longer
term problems of a 49.7 percent population increase between 1980
and the year 2000.


POPULATION FACTS

Official Florida population estimates project that
Florida's population will increase 49.7 percent between 1980 and
the year 2000. This represents a population increase of
5,073,376. If these population growth projections prove to be
accurate, Florida can expect over 600 people to move to the state
every day through the turn of the century. As astounding as
these projections are, the rate at which the state is growing
older is even greater.


POSSIBLE SCENARIOS

It is not at all clear that the state's employment
opportunities will expand as fast as the demands for jobs. The
possibility of a growing percentage of unemployed Floridians
looms as a very real concern. This possibility is especially
important in light of current moves to reduce the state's budget.
Large budget cuts could minimize the state's ability to assist
those people without jobs.

The bottom line in Florida's growth management discussion
must be the cost of rapid population growth. Florida is simply
not prepared to painlessly absorb over 200,000 people into the
state every year. This is because the people who move to Florida
probably do not pay taxes commensurate with the cost of services
they demand from state and local government. One solution would












be to utilize the tax structure to collect revenues equivalent to
the cost of relocation. Options include impact taxes, personal
income taxes, and homestead tax exemption removal. The objective
would be to force population growth to pay its way at the same
time revitalizing Florida's attractiveness to economic
development.

In the face of Proposition 1, Florida's growth management
dilemma assumes huge proportions. Reduced revenues could combine
with growing demands from population increases to paralyze the
state's urban areas, effectively creating a no growth stance in
Florida.




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