Title: Development of Regional Impact Executive Summary - Phosphate Mining and Chemical Fertilizer Complex, Hardee County, Florida
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Title: Development of Regional Impact Executive Summary - Phosphate Mining and Chemical Fertilizer Complex, Hardee County, Florida
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Language: English
Publisher: Farmland Industries, Inc.
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Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Development of Regional Impact Executive Summary - Phosphate Mining and Chemical Fertilizer Complex, Hardee County, Florida
General Note: Box 18, Folder 5 ( Pamphlets, Books, Articles, etc - 1960s & 1970s ), Item 19
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Full Text





DEVELOPMENT
OF REGIONAL IMPACT



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY



PHOSPHATE MINING AND
CHEMICAL FERTILIZER COMPLEX
HARDEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


V)

41

Cs




- m


DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL IMPACT


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY





PHOSPHATE MINING
AND
CHEMICAL FERTILIZER COMPLEX

Hardee County, Florida















June 1979










FARMLAND INDUSTRIES, INC.












TABLE OF CONTENTS




Section Page




INTRODUCTION 1


PROJECT DESCRIPTION 11


ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS 31


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SAFEGUARDS 42


MONITORING PLAN 54











LIST OF FIGURES




Figure Page




1 Farmland Industries Major Operations in the 3
Midwest and Florida


2 Site Location Map 5


3 Mining Sequence Map 13


4 Dragline and Slurry System 15


5 Location of Plant Facilities 16


6 Post Reclamation Land Use 25


7 Land Use Classification for the Post-Reclamation Site 26


8 Master Development Plan (Chemical Plant Property) 28


9 Net Effect on Floridan Aquifer During Operating 47
Conditions












GLOSSARY


Aquifer--a subsurface zone that yields economically important amounts of
water to wells.

Beneficiation process--the process by which phosphate rock is separated
from the clays and silica sand which occur with the phosphate in
the matrix.

Clarification--the removal of impurities.

Drawdown--the magnitude of the change in water surface level in a well,
reservoir, or natural body of water resulting from the withdrawal
of water.

Effluent--waste materials discharged into the environment.

Feed--phosphate and silica sand that is supplied to the flotation
process for separation.

Flotation--a process used to separate phosphate particles from other
sand-sized materials.

Ground water--all subsurface water, especially that part that is in the
zone of saturation.

Littoral--pertaining to the shore.

Low relief--having only slight variation in elevation.

Matrix--the ore body containing phosphate, composed of phosphate
minerals, quartz sand, and phosphatic clays.

Overburden--earthen material lying between the land's surface and the
ore zone.

Reagent--a substance used in the flotation process to effect the sepa-
ration of the phosphate particles from other sand-sized materials.

Settling area--an area used to store phosphatic clays for settling and
for recovery of water for reuse.

Slurry--a mixture of a fine, insoluble materials with water.

Spillway--a passage in or about a dam or other hydraulic structure for
escape of surplus water.

Subsidence--sinking or settling to a lower level.

Tailings--the sand wastes removed from the matrix at the processing
plant.


~




m


INTRODUCTION


WHO IS FARMLAND INDUSTRIES?


*Farmer-owned cooperative with 50 years of service to agriculture.


Farmland Industries, Inc. is a regional manufacturing, distribution, and
marketing cooperative which provides a wide variety of services to the
U.S. farmers and ranchers who own the organization. Its origins date
back to 1929 when six small, farmer-owned cooperatives formed a single
cooperative to pool their petroleum product buying and transportation
efforts. Over its 50-year history of service to agriculture, Farmland
has grown and diversified to keep pace with the increasing needs of its
member-owners and to improve their economic well-being. As the
agricultural industry became more complex and technologically oriented,
Farmland began providing its members with fertilizer, feed, and other
farm supplies as well as petroleum products. More recently, it began
manufacturing its own products and processing and marketing the
agricultural products of its members' farms and ranches.


S *Controlled by 2,260 local cooperatives with a half million Midwest farm
and ranch family owners.


.* .Farmland, now owned and controlled by 2,260 local cooperatives located
throughout 15 Midwestern states, provides petroleum products, feed,
fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, and farm supplies to a half million
Midwest farm and ranch family member-owners.


*Progressive and diverse in its services and facilities to meet its
farmers' needs.


Far-Mar-Co., a subsidiary, provides grain marketing, research, and data
processing services. Beef and pork processing and marketing are












provided by Farmland Foods. Insurance protection for local cooperatives
and individuals is provided by Farmland Insurance Services.


With its corporate headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri, Farmland has
properties and major facilities stretching from oil reserves in Canada,
Montana, and Texas to a phosphate processing plant and reserves in
Florida (see Figure 1). This vast complex of manufacturing facilities
includes oil wells, refineries, fertilizer plants, feed mills, and
plants for the production of agricultural chemicals, grease, paint,
batteries, and steel buildings. Warehousing, transportation, and a
variety of research, testing, and printing services are all part of the
Farmland network of assistance to member associations and their farmer
and rancher members.


*A financially-sound and stable business.


In 1978, Farmland's sales climbed to a record high of $3.2 billion, an
increase of 7 percent over 1977, even though it was a difficult year for
agriculture due to weather, transportation difficulties, and low farm
prices. Savings from the operations to the members amounted to
$27.6 million. Due to the growing desire of farmer and rancher members
to finance their own production facilities, Farmland made capital
expenditures for additional capacity and efficiency of $116.1 million in
1978 to bring its total investment in property, plants, and equipment to
over $1.2 billion.


- -












































il Pursc lll Musmkoged

Wlchlt Falls
Sulphur Spings
-- Panwa.* Hannaaaave \ *

.1 MIdland A Quitman LOUISIANA

TEXAS od.. Q a tlle areP" r ,, O O GEORGIA
MTEXAS Gl MISSISS-IPP FLORiDA

Bauimonlt Chare
I ** porl1nifa
SHouston % 0_ \
Vlctoria l CamM Morgan City

Tynn Port Lvacfloc


W co O BATTERY FACTORY MAJOR OIL FIELDS
MEAT PACKING PLANTS 0 PRINTING PLANT
PROTEIN PLANT GREASE PLANT
*STEEL PRODUCTS PLANT REFINERIES AND GAS
Figure 1 SOYBEAN PROCESSING PLANT
FEED MILLS
FARMLAND INDUSTRIES MAJOR OPERATIONS IN MID-WEST AND FLORIDA TRANSPORTATIONTERMNALS FERTILIZERFACTORIES
PAINT FACTORY
[ WAREHOUSES, TRUCK
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TERMINALS
SOURCE: FARMLAND INDUSTRIES, INC., 1979. CENTER
*A FERTILIZER SERVICE CENTERS


cooe FARMLAND IND.STRIEss INC.











WHAT IS THE FARMLAND HARDEE COUNTY PROJECT?


*A phosphate mine and chemical fertilizer complex.


Farmland proposes to develop a phosphate mining and chemical fertilizer
complex in Hardee County. These operations will be located south of the
town of Ona in the west-central portion of the county on land currently
owned by Farmland (see Figure 2).


*Mine production of 2 million tons of phosphate rock per year for
20 years.


The mine will be developed on a 7,800-acre phosphate ore reserve located
south of State Road 64 and east of State Road 663. During the projected
20-year life of the mine, about two million tons of phosphate rock will
be produced per year. Farmland plans to mine only two-thirds of the
property with the remaining lands left undisturbed due to environmental
and economic considerations. All mined land will be reclaimed by
Farmland to productive uses by using state-of-the-art reclamation
technology.


*Phosphate rock processed at fertilizer complex to produce diammonium
phosphate (DAP).


About 60 percent of the phosphate rock produced at the Farmland mine
will be transported to the chemical fertilizer complex located adjacent
to the mine site west of State Road 663. This complex will consist of a
sulfuric acid plant, a phosphoric acid plant, and a diammonium phosphate
(DAP) plant, and shipping facilities. About 600,000 tons per year of
DAP will be shipped by rail from this facility to the Farmland coopera-
tive members in the Midwest. Farmland will use the latest processes,
technology, and equipment at this facility to control all air and water
effluents and to meet environmental quality limits established by
county, state, and federal agencies.





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PROPERTY

DE SOTO


CHARLOTTE


Figure 2
SITE LOCATION MAP


0
N J SCALE I


SOURCE: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, INC., 1979.

FARIMLAIN D INDUSTRIES, INC.


10 21
N MILES


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Bcoop











*Construction scheduled to begin in mid-1981.


Construction of the mine and fertilizer complex, which is currently
scheduled to begin in mid-1981, will take between 18 to 24 months.




WHY DOES FARMLAND NEED THE HARDEE COUNTY PROJECT?


*To achieve a basic mineral position in the production of fertilizer.


Through years of service to agriculture, Farmland has come to realize
that often the most economical and reliable way to meet its members
needs is to supply and produce products through its own resources and
facilities. Currently, Farmland has several fertilizer plants,
including a plant near Bartow in Polk County, Florida. However,
Farmland does not currently own or operate a mining facility to supply
phosphate for fertilizer production and must depend on other firms for
this mineral. The planned Hardee County mining operation will enable
Farmland to achieve a basic position in phosphate and will assure a
stable, economical, long-term supply of phosphate rock.




*To meet increasing demands for fertilizer and food.


The primary business of Farmland is supplying fertilizer and other
agricultural products to its members. As the U.S. and world-wide demand
for grain and food products has increased, the demand for fertilizer has
also increased. The Farmland project planned for Hardee County is a
very important expansion of its facilities to supply the ever-increasing
needs of the U.S. farmer for phosphate fertilizer.


I










WHAT ECONOMIC BENEFITS WILL THE PROJECT PROVIDE TO HARDEE COUNTY?


*Create new, stable job opportunities in the county.


When in operation, the Farmland project will provide stable, full-time
employment opportunities for 534 persons in Hardee County. These new
jobs will offer the residents of the county, especially young people,
the opportunity to find jobs near their homes.




*Improve income levels in the county.


The annual payroll of the operations will be over $8.7 million. Farm-
land will pay its employees at competitive wage and salary rates which
are generally higher than average income levels in Hardee County and the
region. These better paying jobs will have a positive effect on family
income levels in the county and improve the overall economic well-being
of its residents.


*Increase significantly county tax revenues.


For the development of the mine and fertilizer complex, Farmland will
invest about $165 million in the various plants, draglines, and other
equipment to be located in Hardee County. The taxes paid by Farmland to
the county on these capital investments plus on its land holdings will
initially be about $2.25 million. This amount of new taxes will
significantly increase the operating revenues of the county and have a
beneficial effect on the amount of taxes paid by all residents of the
county. The Farmland taxes will be much greater than any public
expenditures needed in the county as a result of the project.












7


_ _











*Increase economic activity and long-term economic stability in the
county.


As a result of the Farmland project and other phosphate operations in
the county, local service industries and other businesses will
experience increasing economic activity. In addition, over an extended
period, other service industries will probably start operations in
Hardee County to be nearer the new operations. This increased economic
activity will provide for greater diversity and stability in the
county's economy and enhance the long-term economic well-being of its
residents.




WHAT PLANNING HAS FARMLAND DONE TO MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN
HARDEE COUNTY?


*Extensive on-site environmental surveys, testing, and impact analyses.


In planning this project, Farmland has been keenly aware of the need to
develop a plan which integrates the recovery of phosphate resources with
the protection of the environment and public well-being. To provide the
base information needed to develop its operational plan, Farmland has
conducted extensive on-site surveys and testing programs in mining,
reclamation, ground and surface water hydrology, ecology, geology, air
quality, radiation, transportation, archaeology, and socioeconomics.
These environmental surveys identified the unique and valuable resources
on the property and other on-site and regional resources which may be
affected by the operations. Based on the results of these surveys,
Farmland carefully developed an operational plan to minimize potential
environmental impacts with sound engineering practices while allowing
for economical mining and processing of the phosphate rock.


Several of the more important features of the plan and its impact miti-
gation include:






8


19











*Maximum Reuse of Water
Water used in the mining, beneficiation, and chemical processing
operations will be recycled and reused to the maximum extent
possible to minimize use of groundwater and discharges of process
water.

*Minimal Drawdown of Groundwater Levels
Based on the results of the aquifer test pumping program and model

simulations, the operations will increase the drawdown of the
level of the Floridan Aquifer by only 1.5 feet or less at the
property boundaries. This drawdown is well within all regulatory
rules and limits for consumptive use of groundwater and will have
minimal effect on nearby wells.
*Safeguards Against Ground and Surface Water Contamination from
Gypsum Waste
Farmland has taken special precautions and designed safeguards to
prevent the possibility of both ground and surface water contami-
nation due to seepage from the gypsum waste disposal area at the
fertilizer complex.

*Preservation of More Valuable Wetlands
Through a careful integration of mine and environmental planning,
62 percent of the wetlands on the mine site and over 75 percent on
the fertilizer plant site will be preserved, including the area
known as Oak Creek Islands, the entire forested floodplain of
Troublesome Creek and the Peace River, and almost all wetlands
associated with Oak and Brushy Creeks.

*Maintenance of Surface Water Drainage System
The operational plan allows the site area to maintain its function
as a flow-through system for minor tributaries to the Peace
River.

*Minimizing Above Grade Waste Storage and Dam Heights
Farmland plans to dispose of the majority of sand and clay wastes
through the latest sand-clay mix technique and landfilling in
mined-out areas in order to minimize above-grade storage areas for
these wastes. The retention dams for the two clay impoundment


9










areas are planned to average heights of 41 feet; however, the
majority of dams on the site will be for sand-clay mix and will
have average heights of only 17 feet. Through the use of
below-grade storage and low dams, Farmland will be able to restore
the land to existing elevations.

*Innovative Reclamation to Productive Uses
Farmland will reclaim all disturbed land through innovative
techniques to hasten the return of land to productive use and to
increase the potential agricultural productivity of the
reconstructed soils. Innovative techniques will also be used for
the restoration of 400 acres of wetlands, the creation of land and
lake areas with ecologically designed shallow zones, and the
revegetation/reforestation of the reclaimed lands.
*Use of State-Of-The-Art Pollution Control Techniques
In order to minimize the release of potential pollutants from the
operations, Farmland will use state-of-the-art technology,
processes, and equipment for pollution control, particularly for
air and water effluents. Farmland will design its operations and
pollution controls so that all air and water effluents will meet
environmental quality limits and standards set by federal, state,
and county agencies.




WHAT IS FARMLAND DOING TO INSURE FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN
HARDEE COUNTY?


*Conducting a long-term environmental monitoring program.


In addition to the extensive environmental surveys already conducted on
the sites and the mitigative measures highlighted above, Farmland will
conduct a long-term environmental monitoring program on the sites
throughout the life of the operations.


---T











PROJECT DESCRIPTION


WHAT ARE THE MAJOR STEPS AND PROCESSES OF THE PLANNED PROJECT?


*Typical phosphate industry procedures with several innovative
techniques to minimize impacts.


The major steps planned by Farmland for the mining and processing of the
phosphate ore are similar to those commonly used by the phosphate
industry in the Central Florida region. However, due to the special
characteristics of the property and the ore matrix as well as recent
technological advances, Farmland will use several innovative techniques
and environmental safeguards which are not currently in widespread use
by the phosphate industry, particularly in waste disposal and
reclamation. These innovative techniques will significantly lessen the
overall environmental impacts.


The major processes of the planned operations are:
*Mining of the phosphate-bearing matrix,
*Beneficiation of the ore,

*Shipment of the phosphate product,
*Disposal of the waste sand and clay,
*Recirculation of the process water,
*Reclamation of the disturbed lands,
*Production of the fertilizer,
*Disposal and storage of the gypsum waste.



HOW MUCH LAND WILL BE MINED?


*A total of 4,951 acres mined at a rate of about 250 acres per year over
the 20-year mine life.


Farmland has conducted extensive geologic and prospecting investigations
of the 7,810-acre mine property to determine the areas containing eco-
nomically recoverable phosphate rock. Based on the investigations and










r


*A total of 39 million short tons over the life of the mine or about
2 million short tons per year.


Based on current prospecting information, Farmland expects to recover
approximately 39 million short tons of phosphate rock product over the
20-year mine life. The projected annual production rate is about
2 million short tons of product.



HOW WILL THE PHOSPHATE ROCK BE MINED?


*Conventional surface mining with draglines for maximum ore recovery.


The phosphate rock will be recovered by conventional surface mining
methods with the use of a large, electric walking dragline which will be
supplemented by a second, smaller dragline in about the ninth year of
operations. The draglines will be used to strip the overburden, deposit
it in an adjacent mined-out cut, and then excavate the phosphate ore.


the results of on-site environmental surveys, it was determined that
4,951 acres, or 63 percent of the total mine property, will be mined.
Of the remaining lands, 329 acres will be used for the facilities such
as the beneficiation plant, pipelines, roads, and waste disposal, while
the other 2,530 acres will remain undisturbed due to lack of economi-
cally mineable reserves or due to regulatory setbacks and the environ-
mental sensitivity or value of these areas. Farmland anticipates that
about 250 acres will be mined each year during the 20-year life of the
mine. Since reclamation immediately follows mining in an area, only a
small portion of the total tract will be disturbed at any one time.
Figure 3 shows the planned sequence of mining as well as the unmineable
areas due to mine engineering and environmental sensitivity
considerations.



HOW MUCH PHOSPHATE WILL BE MINED?










R 24 E I 25 E





26 2

x


~.J


18 i
9-


R5 24 E


Figure 3

MINING SEQUENCE MAP


SOURCE: ZELLARS-WILLIAMS, INC., 1979.


FARMLAND IND USTRIES, INC.


PROPERTY BOUNDARY
7'7F3 COUT PARCEL (NOT FARMLAND PROPERTY)
SUNMINEABLE AREA ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY
[ UNMINEABLE AREA MINE PLANNING
17 YEAR MINED DRAGLINE I
10 YEAR MINED DRAGLINE 2

0 2,000 4,000


SCALE IN FEET


T 34 S
T 35 S










When the ore has been exposed by the stripping, proper identification of
the ore zone will be visually made to ensure maximum mining recovery.
The mined matrix will be placed in a pit where high pressure water guns
will be used to slurry the matrix. The slurry will be pumped to the
beneficiation plant through a pipeline (see Figure 4).




HOW IS THE ORE PROCESSED TO SEPARATE THE ORE FROM THE WASTE CLAYS
AND SANDS?


*A series of washing, screening, and flotation processes.


The Farmland ore processing or beneficiation facilities will occupy
74 acres located 2 1/2 miles southeast of Ona (see Figure 5). At the
washer area of the beneficiation facilities, water will be used with a
system of screens and grinding devices to size and separate the slurried
ore matrix into phosphate pebble, feed or sand-sized particles, and
waste clays. The phosphate pebble of acceptable quality will be sent to
the product storage area. The waste clays will be further separated
from the feed and sent to clay settling areas or to mined-out cuts for
sand-clay mix waste disposal. The feed will be treated with reagents
and undergo a series of flotation steps to separate the phosphate par-
ticles from the sand wastes or tailings. The phosphatic sand (called
the concentrate product) will be transferred to storage areas along with
the screen-separated phosphate pebble.




WHERE AND HOW WILL THE PHOSPHATE PRODUCT BE SHIPPED?


*Sixty percent by rail or conveyor to the new Farmland fertilizer com-
plex and 40 percent by rail to its existing complex in Polk County.


Of the 2 million short tons of phosphate produced annually at the mine,
about 1.2 million tons will be shipped by rail or conveyor system to the















_kti


PUMP


Figure 4
DRAGLINE AND SLURRY SYSTEM

SOURCE: ZELLARS-WILLIAMS, INC., 1979.

FARMLAND INDUSTRIES, INlC.
15

















Farmland Industries, Inc.
Property Location in
Hardee County, Florida


PLANT FACILITIES


PLANT SITE LOCATION


Figure 5
LOCATION OF PLANT FACILITIES

SOURCE: ZELLARS-WILLIAMS, INC., 1979.


(U Ir FARMLAND INDUSTRIES. INC.


r"l"r -- --------------rr----c~-------- --------------,c~--------~,~




F-





new Farmland complex adjacent to the mine in Hardee County. The
remaining 800,000 tons of annual phosphate product will be shipped by
rail to the existing Farmland fertilizer complex near Bartow in Polk
County.




HOW WILL THE SAND AND CLAY WASTES BE DISPOSED?


*Primarily by the innovative sand-clay mix technique at or near original
elevations.


The beneficiation of phosphate ore results in the separation of two
solid wastes: sand tailings and clays. The disposal of these wastes is
closely related to the physical reclamation of disturbed areas. Due to
the favorable characteristics of the ore-bearing matrix, Farmland is
planning that the majority of the sand and clay wastes will be disposed
through the sand-clay mix technique in mined-out cuts.


*Most retention dams only 17 feet in height.


The dams for retaining the sand-clay mix in mined-out areas will be
designed to have an average height of 17 to 20 feet and will be filled
to an elevation of only 12 to 15 feet above grade. Due to the low
heights of these dams and the gradual slope of the outer sides, these
dams should not create an unpleasant landscape in the area. Further-
more, the final elevation of these areas after reclamation will be
either at or only a few feet above the existing elevation in the area.


Use of the sand-clay mix technique has the following advantages:
*More rapid settling to achieve a stable fill,
*More rapid recycling of a greater amount of water,
*Lower dam heights,
*Soil types better suited for agricultural production.











In addition to sand-clay mix disposal, several separate clay and sand
disposal areas will be used since sufficient mined-out areas for dis-
posal will not be available early in the operations. Furthermore, since
the sand and clay content of the matrix varies, separate disposal areas
are needed in order to achieve the proper mixing ratios of the wastes on
a continuous basis.




WHAT ARE FARMLAND'S WATER USE PLANS?


*Maximize reuse of water to minimize use of ground water.


The Farmland water use plan is based on the best state-of-the-art tech-
nology for the efficient use and conservation of water. In order to
maximize the reuse of water and minimize the use of ground water, the
water recirculation system for the mine and beneficiation plant will be
integrated with the water recirculation system for the fertilizer com-
plex. Water used in the mining, beneficiation, and chemical processing
steps will be recycled and reused many times before being lost to the
system by evaporation, seepage, or entrainment in the clay and sand
wastes. Farmland anticipates that the sand-clay mix disposal technique
will result in less loss of water due to entrainment in clays than if
the clays were all disposed separately and thus will further reduce
groundwater needs.


*Minimal discharge of water.


Little or no discharge of water will occur in the early years of the
project. As mining and reclamation activities progress, there will be a
need to discharge some water during periods of high rainfall. The dis-
charges will be primarily runoff which will be collected and clarified











prior to discharge into adjacent natural drainage systems. All dis-
charges will be monitored to insure that the quality of water meets all
county, state, and federal requirements.




HOW WILL FARMLAND RECLAIM THE DISTURBED LANDS?


*Restoration to a variety of economically productive and environmentally
functional uses.


The mining of the property represents a temporary land use. The Farm-
land reclamation plan has been developed to insure that all mined and
otherwise disturbed land will be restored to economically productive and
environmentally functional uses as soon as possible. The economic
restoration efforts will be primarily aimed at producing productive
agricultural lands compatible with the existing and planned land use
patterns on the site and in the area. The Farmland mining plan has
carefully excluded from disturbance areas of the highest environmental
value, notably Oak Creek Islands and the forested floodplains of the
Peace River and Troublesome Creek. Through use of innovative techniques
in wetland restoration, new ecological areas will be created to
compensate for the loss of less important environmental areas and to be
compatible with existing and preserved environmental uses.


*Reclamation closely follows mining and waste disposal activities.


Reclamation of all disturbed areas will begin shortly after mining and
waste disposal activities cease in an area. Since sand-clay mix is
expected to stabilize more rapidly than clays alone, reclamation activ-
ities will proceed at a more rapid rate than is possible for traditional
clay settling areas. For planning purposes, a two-year period has been
allotted for subsidence and consolidation of these landfills, and an
additional two years for final grading and revegetation. Reclamation of






19


1


*]


FF













L -










sand tailings fill and land and lake areas will proceed even more
rapidly and will be completed within two to three years after mining
ceases. Thus, according to the Farmland reclamation plan, 89 percent of
the disturbed land will be reclaimed and available for use within about
four years after the end of mining operations. Reclamation of the final
clay settling area will take about 10 years after active use ends and
will complete the reclamation of all disturbed land.


*Reclamation plan complies with county and state laws.


Reclamation of all land disturbed by mining operations is mandatory
under both county and state laws. The Hardee County Mining and Earth
Moving Ordinance requires that prior to actual mining a detailed recla-
mation plan be submitted and approved by the county. The Florida
Department of Natural Resources monitors reclamation of mined land to
ensure that it conforms to state standards. The Farmland reclamation
plan has been developed to comply with these county and state laws.




HOW WILL LAND BE RESTORED TO THE VARIOUS USES?


*Sand-clay mix areas--3,628 acres restored with agriculturally superior
soils and final elevation near original grade.


The use of sand-clay mix in backfilling mine cuts will be the predomi-
nant restoration technique used for reclamation. The waste sands and
clays mixed at ratios ranging from 1.9:1 to 3.1:1 sand to clay will be
pumped and deposited into open mine cuts interspersed with overburden
spoil piles. These landfills, which will be enclosed by dams averaging
17 to 20 feet in height, will undergo an initial period of rapid
dewatering and subsidence. Clarified water will be drawn-off and
returned to the water recirculation system. The level of backfilling
will determine the final drainage characteristics of the areas. To
provide well-drained land suitable for agricultural uses, the majority
of sand-clay landfills will be filled initially to an average of 11.5 to




'U lEE


14 feet above natural grade. When these landfills subside and are
available for use, their elevations will be only about 2 to 3 feet above
the current natural ground level. This type of reclamation will be used
to restore approximately 3,628 acres which will be used primarily as
improved pasture.


The sand-clay mix soils will be agriculturally more productive than sand
or clay alone. Because of the expected agricultural superiority of
these soils, no capping of these landfills with overburden will be
needed except for the grading of spoils to approved slopes. Forage spe-
cies, such as bermudagrass, will be planted in these areas to stabilize
soils against erosion. Strip plantings with a mixture of native pines
and hardwoods will be made in these landfill areas for both environmen-
tal and aesthetic values.


Around the outlet spillway areas of the sand-clay mix landfills, shallow
depressions are expected to develop. These depressions will result from
the relatively higher clay content of the mix which will accumulate in
these outlet areas and will subside more rapidly. Since these depres-
sions will be located at the down-slope end of the sand-clay landfills,
drainage will be naturally directed through them. These areas will have
the physical and hydrological characteristics of wetlands and, once
established and revegetated, should be self-maintaining. Approximately
5 percent, or 181 acres, of the total area in sand-clay landfills will
be reclaimed to these wetland environments.


*Special sand-clay mix areas--innovative restoration of wetland
environments.


In two of the sand-clay landfills adjoining the western portion of Oak
Creek Islands, special techniques are planned to restore wetland envi-
ronments through which to reroute the main channel of Oak Creek and one
of its northern tributaries. These areas, backfilled with sand-clay
mix, will be slightly below grade after subsidence. This gradually










sloping land around the spoil piles will create an area which resembles
a natural meandering floodplain for the restored creeks. These areas
will cover about 144 acres and will be revegetated with native wetland
species such as water and laurel oak, sweetgum, bald cypress, blackgum,
and marsh-type vegetation.


*Clay settling areas--only one conventional clay settling area requiring
reclamation.


When mining is complete, only one conventional clay settling area will
remain and require reclamation. The only other clay settling area
planned for the project will be dredged out so the land under it can be
mined. The clays from this area will be used in sand-clay landfills or
deposited in the remaining clay settling area.


By the end of mining, the remaining clay settling area will have been
filled to about 35 feet above natural grade. The crust development
technique will be used to reclaim this settling area. When the area is
deactivated, water will be drawn off through spillways and internal
drainage ditches. After a crust of sufficient stability to support
machinery has formed, the retaining dam and any protruding spoil piles
will be pushed down to fill any depressions and to create more gradual
slopes. Farmland does not plan to cover the entire clay settling area
with overburden since the clays are very fertile and, when properly
managed, are very productive agricultural soils. Reclamation of this
583-acre area will take about ten years.


*Sand tailings fill areas--covered with overburden to improve
agricultural potential.


Two small areas covering a total of 104 acres will be backfilled with
waste sand tailings. The sand will be pumped from the beneficiation
plant into the mine cuts which will be filled to approximately natural

grade. Overburden from the protruding spoils will be graded over the


-0
















I


*Disturbed natural ground areas--restored to most beneficial use.
Approximately 111 acres of natural ground on the mining property will be
disturbed by the construction of the beneficiation plant and other
operational facilities. When mining is completed, the beneficiation
plant, railroad spur, pipelines, and certain other facilities will be
dismantled. Salvageable material will be either moved to new mine sites
or sold to scrap dealers. Materials such as concrete foundations that
cannot be salvaged will be used as landfill. Only facilities or
structures, such as roadways and storage sheds that will be of some
benefit to post-reclamation use of the site, will be retained. If
necessary, the disturbed sites will be graded to acceptable slopes.


sand tailings to an average depth of about 2 feet. This overburden cap
will provide the necessary soil fertility to support vegetation and
agricultural uses.
*Land and lake areas--three lake areas with ecologically productive
design.
The reclamation plan includes the creation of three land and lake areas
which will cover about 567 acres. Farmland has carefully planned the
location and design of each of these lakes to serve operational and
reclamation goals. Grading of spoils or partial backfilling with
tailings sand will achieve an average depth of about 15 feet in all the
reclaimed lakes. Extensive littoral or shallow zones of about 3 feet in
depth will be created by grading spoils around certain portions of the
reclaimed lakes. These zones will provide sufficient shallow-water
areas so that wetland vegetation will be established and that small
fish, birds, and other wildlife will have feeding areas. The water's
edge and upland areas surrounding the lakes will be reforested with
appropriate native tree species.




--Eli,


WHAT WILL THE MINE SITE LOOK LIKE AFTER RECLAMATION?


*Long-term economic, environmental, and aesthetic characteristics
similar to existing characteristics.


The Farmland reclamation plan has been designed so that the long-term
economic, environmental, and aesthetic characteristics of the site will
not be significantly changed.


*Final elevations and drainage similar to existing conditions.


After reclamation, the drainage areas of each stream passing through the
property will be approximately the same size as they were before mining.
In addition, Farmland has carefully planned its reclamation program so
that average final elevations of the land surface will be only 2 to
3 feet above the original levels. The final reclaimed area will have
generally low relief and a gently sloping topography.


*Future land use similar to existing land use patterns.


The general land use patterns on the reclaimed site will be similar to
the existing patterns as well as compatible with the long-range plans
for the region. Figure 6 presents the post-reclamation land uses
planned for the site, and Figure 7 shows the change between existing and
planned future uses. The primary economic use of the site will be
agricultural operations, particularly in the areas with the fertile
sand-clay mix soils. The sand landfill and the land areas associated
with the lake systems will have sufficient stability to support most
types of construction and uses other than agriculture.


*Environmental value of site maintained.


The preservation of the site's most important wildlife habitat,
wetlands, and aesthetically pleasing areas will maintain the environ-
mental integrity and value of the site. Supplementing these preserved











sand tailings to an average depth of about 2 feet. This overburden cap
will provide the necessary soil fertility to support vegetation and
agricultural uses.


*Land and lake areas--three lake areas with ecologically productive
design.


The reclamation plan includes the creation of three land and lake areas
which will cover about 567 acres. Farmland has carefully planned the
location and design of each of these lakes to serve operational and
reclamation goals. Grading of spoils or partial backfilling with
tailings sand will achieve an average depth of about 15 feet in all the
reclaimed lakes. Extensive littoral or shallow zones of about 3 feet in
depth will be created by grading spoils around certain portions of the
reclaimed lakes. These zones will provide sufficient shallow-water
areas so that wetland vegetation will be established and that small
fish, birds, and other wildlife will have feeding areas. The water's
edge and upland areas surrounding the lakes will be reforested with
appropriate native tree species.


*Disturbed natural ground areas--restored to most beneficial use.


Approximately 111 acres of natural ground on the mining property will be
disturbed by the construction of the beneficiation plant and other
operational facilities. When mining is completed, the beneficiation
plant, railroad spur, pipelines, and certain other facilities will be
dismantled. Salvageable material will be either moved to new mine sites
or sold to scrap dealers. Materials such as concrete foundations that
cannot be salvaged will be used as landfill. Only facilities or
structures, such as roadways and storage sheds that will be of some
benefit to post-reclamation use of the site, will be retained. If
necessary, the disturbed sites will be graded to acceptable slopes.










WHAT WILL THE MINE SITE LOOK LIKE AFTER RECLAMATION?

*Long-term economic, environmental, and aesthetic characteristics
similar to existing characteristics.


The Farmland reclamation plan has been designed so that the long-term
economic, environmental, and aesthetic characteristics of the site will
not be significantly changed.


*Final elevations and drainage similar to existing conditions.


After reclamation, the drainage areas of each stream passing through the
property will be approximately the same size as they were before mining.
In addition, Farmland has carefully planned its reclamation program so
that average final elevations of the land surface will be only 2 to
3 feet above the original levels. The final reclaimed area will have
generally low relief and a gently sloping topography.


*Future land use similar to existing land use patterns.


The general land use patterns on the reclaimed site will be similar to
the existing patterns as well as compatible with the long-range plans
for the region. Figure 6 presents the post-reclamation land uses
planned for the site, and Figure 7 shows the change between existing and
planned future uses. The primary economic use of the site will be
agricultural operations, particularly in the areas with the fertile
sand-clay mix soils. The sand landfill and the land areas associated
with the lake systems will have sufficient stability to support most
types of construction and uses other than agriculture.


*Environmental value of site maintained.


The preservation of the site's most important wildlife habitat,
wetlands, and aesthetically pleasing areas will maintain the environ-
mental integrity and value of the site. Supplementing these preserved








A 24 1 A2 i




28 2A FO26 25 3'
27 0






pL..-.






1/3

























I I
i'





8 IMPR PASTUR



























3 CITRUS












_. P5 ^- LAKE AREAS
E'"'' ,ITRIs






















Figure 6



















POST RECLAMATION LAND USE 0 2,000 4,000
.. . . II.








OMFRESHWATER SWAMP
~ir~ FRESHWATER MARSH
SOURCE:PINE FLATWOODS/PALMETTO RANGE
SFARMLAUPLAND FORESTS, IN
--- IMPROVED PASTURE
CITRUS
OTHER AGRICULTURE
EEM REFORESTATION WITH MIXTURE
OF PINES AND HARDWOODS
Figure 6 ,LAKE AREAS

POST RECLAMATION LAND USE 0 2,000 4,000

SOURCE: ZELLARS-WILLIAMS, INC., 1979. SCALE IN FEET


OP) JFARMLLAND IND USTRIES /INC.













EXISTING LAND USE


PINE FLATWOODS/
PALMETTO RANGE-
11.9%


14.9%


*INCLUDES EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL AREA.

POST-RECLAMATION LAND USE


Figure 7

LAND USE CLASSIFICATION FOR THE POST-RECLAMATION SITE

SOURCE: ZELLARS-WILLIAMS, INC., 1979.


FARMLAND IND USTRIES, INC.

26











areas will be almost 400 acres of wetland restoration areas and
550 acres of upland reforestation plantings. The creation of these lake
systems with biologically productive littoral zones will provide a type
of aquatic habitat not currently present on the site. The lake areas
will be aesthetically appealing and provide additional environment for
fish, birds, and other wildlife. Groundwater resources will be supple-
mented by the lakes. The reforestation plantings on the site will be
aesthetically pleasing and will provide habitat and travel corridors for
wildlife.


In summary, the restoration of functional natural systems and their
integration with the preserved natural systems will enhance the physical
diversity, aesthetic appeal, economic use, and overall environmental
value of the site, as well as its adaptability to alternative uses.




WHAT WILL BE PRODUCED AT FARMLAND'S PLANNED CHEMICAL FERTILIZER
COMPLEX?


*600,000 tons per year of diammonium phosphate (DAP).


The Farmland chemical fertilizer complex will occupy about 1,485 acres
of its 6,563-acre tract west of State Road 663 (see Figure 8). The
major facilities of the complex will consist of a sulfuric acid plant, a
phosphoric acid plant, a diammonium phosphate (DAP) plant, shipping
facilities, and waste treatment and disposal facilities. Both sulfuric
and phosphoric acid will be produced at the complex in order to produce
the final product, DAP. DAP is a stable high-grade dry chemical
fertilizer containing 18 percent nitrogen and 46 percent available
phosphate. DAP is suitable for direct application to the soil or for
blending with other minerals to make a complete, balanced fertilizer.
Approximately 600,000 tons per year of DAP will be produced and shipped
by rail from the complex to the Farmland cooperative members in the
Midwest.


I

















I
I
2 1
I
I
I
I

I

I
11`\ 12


Figure 8
MASTER DEVELOPMENT PLAN
(CHEMICAL PLANT PROPERTY) I
SOURCES: ZELLARS-WILLIAMS, INC., 1979.
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, INC., 1979.


0 2,000 4,000

SCALE IN FEET


SFARMLA4AND INDUSTRIES, INC.











HOW IS DAP MADE?


*React wet phosphate rock with sulfuric acid to produce phosphoric acid
and neutralize with ammonia to produce DAP.


The fertilizer complex will use about 1.2 million tons per year of
phosphate rock. Phosphate rock must be chemically treated before its
application to the soil so that it will be soluble and readily available
as one of the three primary food elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, and
potassium) for growing plants. To produce DAP, wet phosphate rock is
finely ground and reacted with sulfuric acid. This reaction produces
phosphoric acid and the by-product gypsum. To neutralize this acid and
to add another plant nutrient, the phosphoric acid is reacted with
ammonia to produce DAP. The DAP is then granulated to uniform size and
dried for shipment.




HOW WILL THE BY-PRODUCT GYPSUM BE DISPOSED?


*Stacked in a contained pond disposal area over a relatively impervious
subsurface.


Gypsum is generated as a by-product of the process in the phosphoric
acid plant. At present, this gypsum has very little commercial value
and will be disposed on a 300-acre site adjacent to the chemical plant.
The common method of transporting the gypsum is to make a slurry and
pump it to the disposal area where the gypsum settles and the water is
recycled to the chemical plant. A water cooling pond will be built
around the gypsum disposal area to contain the water from the gypsum
stack, and a perimeter ditch around the water cooling pond will contain
and return any seepage from the pond.


The location and design of the gypsum disposal area was carefully
planned by Farmland to prevent ground and surface water contamination.
The disposal area has been located over a thick, relatively impervious











clay stratum. By connecting the relatively impervious perimeter
embankments surrounding the stack and cooling pond to this stratum, the
disposal area will be isolated from both the groundwater table aquifer
and the underlying Floridan Aquifer to minimize the potential for
contamination of these aquifers.











ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS


HOW IMPORTANT IS THE PHOSPHATE INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF FLORIDA?


*A significant component of the economic base of Florida, especially in
the Central Florida region.


The Florida phosphate industry produces about 75 percent of the phos-
phate mined in the U.S. and almost one-third of the world's phosphate
production. The phosphate industry is an important contributor to the
economy of Florida, especially in the Central Florida region where most
of the industry activities are located. In 1975, phosphate mining
activities employed over 8,500 persons in the region, with an annual
payroll of over $65 million. An additional 3,000 persons were directly
employed in phosphate chemical processing facilities. According to
estimates from the U.S. Bureau of the Mines, the Central Florida
phosphate industry also creates over 50,000 jobs, primarily in the
region, in other businesses which supply materials, equipment, and
services to the industry and its employees. Taxes paid by the phosphate
industry to local governments in the region contribute substantially to
operating revenues for use in providing public facilities and services,
such as highway improvements, schools, hospitals, libraries, etc. Thus,
the phosphate industry plays an important role in the economic well-
being of the Central Florida region and its residents.



WHAT EFFECTS WILL THE FARMLAND PROJECT HAVE ON THE ECONOMY OF HARDEE
COUNTY?


*Beneficial effects on employment, income, taxes, and economic activity.


Hardee County is a rural Central Florida county with an estimated
population of about 18,000 people in 1978. The economy of the county is
agriculturally oriented and revolves primarily around citrus, cattle,
and vegetables. The Farmland project will have a beneficial effect upon









the economy of Hardee County as well as the surrounding Central Florida
region. The construction and operation of the Farmland mine and ferti-
lizer complex will provide new, good-paying employment opportunities in
the area. The local taxes paid by Farmland on its plant facilities and
property will substantially increase the tax income to the county.
During both construction and operation, the Farmland expenditures for
materials, equipment, and services will have positive economic effects
on phosphate-supporting and service businesses in the county and the
region.




HOW MANY JOBS WILL BE CREATED BY CONSTRUCTION OF THE FARMLAND
PROJECT?


*Average of 678 employees for construction with total payroll of over
$35 million.


During the 18-month construction period, the Farmland project is
expected to create an average of 678 jobs, with peak employment reaching
about 1,050 people. It is anticipated that the vast majority of the
construction employees will be drawn from the available labor pool in
the Central Florida region. The construction payroll for the total
project is expected to be over $35 million. It is difficult to estimate
the actual number of Hardee County residents who will be employed during
construction since the county has a relatively small labor force and
since skilled workers are available in nearby counties, primarily Polk
and Hillsborough. To the extent possible, Farmland will hire and
encourage its contractors to employ Hardee County residents for
construction activities.


IMM











WHAT WILL BE THE CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES FOR THE PROJECT?


*$165.5 million construction expenditures with 70 percent spent within
the region.


Farmland's total construction expenditures for the project are estimated
at approximately $165.5 million. About 21 percent ($35.3 million) of
these expenditures will be for construction labor and about 52 percent
($86.7 million) for materials, supplies, and equipment, such as con-
crete, structural steel, petroleum products, pipe, pumps, draglines,
etc. The remaining 27 percent ($43.6 million) will be spent on
engineering, construction management, administration, and other sub-
contracted services. Farmland estimates that about 70 percent of the
total construction expenditures will be spent within the Central Florida
region.


Various industries in Polk and Hillsborough Counties specialize in the
production and sales of construction materials and of mining and pro-
cessing plant equipment for the phosphate industry. It is expected that
most of the construction materials and equipment will be purchased from
these regional firms.


*Positive economic benefits to local Hardee County businesses.


Local Hardee County contractors and material suppliers will be encou-
raged and given every opportunity to participate in the construction of
this project. Examples of general services and supplies which are not
specialized for the phosphate industry and may be provided by county
contractors and businesses include petroleum products (gasoline, diesel
fuel, and lubricants); earthmoving and clearing services; concrete and
other building supplies; autos and trucks; office supplies; and mainte-
nance and repair services. Although not specifically involved in
on-site activities, other local businesses, such as food and apparel
stores and eating establishments, will also experience positive economic
benefits during the construction period.



33


M









experience in phosphate operations. The start-up team will be drawn
largely from this pool, especially for the higher and intermediate
positions. Many of the new employees will leave positions at existing
phosphate operations in the region for advancement or higher levels of
responsibility with Farmland. These vacated positions will allow
qualified employees to advance within these other operations and will
also provide opportunities for qualified applicants among the currently
unemployed to find work.




HOW MANY HARDEE COUNTY RESIDENTS WILL BE EMPLOYED BY FARMLAND?


*Opportunity for residents, especially younger residents, to work at
well-paying, stable jobs close to home.


As with construction employment, it is difficult to estimate the exact
number of Hardee County residents who will be employed at the Farmland
operations. The new jobs at these operations will offer the residents
of Hardee County, particularly the younger residents, the opportunity to
obtain well-paying, stable jobs near their homes rather than having to
move elsewhere or commute long distances for work.


*Opportunity for on-the-job training and advancement.


Farmland anticipates hiring a large number of the entry-level operating
personnel who do not have specialized experience in phosphate
operations. These personnel will receive on-the-job training and will
be able to advance their positions as they gain experience. Such
training and advancement programs have traditionally been very success-
ful within the industry in providing inexperienced and lower skilled
workers with stable, long-term career opportunities. Since many of the
Hardee County residents who will seek employment at the Farmland oper-
ation currently do not have experience, these training programs will be
advantageous to the hiring of county residents.


MMMENIF










HOW MANY EMPLOYEES WILL RELOCATE TO HARDEE COUNTY FROM OTHER
COUNTIES?


*An estimated 130 workers will relocate to Hardee County.


Farmland expects that about 87 percent of the employees during
operations will be drawn from sources within the Central Florida region.
Since specific information is generally not available, the estimates are
highly conjectural with regard to local and regional sources of labor
and the relocation of workers. It can be assumed that initially some
employees may be hesitant to leave their present familiar surroundings
and established community ties. However, with time, employees will
discover the amenities offered by the area and will desire to reside
closer to their place of work. This desire to live closer to work may
be further reinforced as the cost of gasoline increases in the future.
Schools, libraries, and other tax-supported services will benefit from
increased revenues generated by both the Farmland project and the
phosphate operations in the county. These improved services, as well as
an expanding economic base and greater availability of housing, will
attract people to settle in the county. Therefore, after several years
of operation, it is estimated that about 25 percent, or 130 workers,
will relocate to Hardee County.




WILL OTHER BUSINESSES MOVE TO HARDEE COUNTY AS A RESULT OF THE
FARMLAND PROJECT AND OTHER PHOSPHATE OPERATIONS IN THE COUNTY?


*Service industries will open operations near new mines.


Secondary industries serving the phosphate industry contribute signifi-
cantly to the employment and overall economy of the region. Currently,
the majority of these service industries are located in Polk and
Hillsborough Counties where most of the mining activities occur.










As phosphate mining activities shift southward into Hardee as well as
DeSoto and Manatee Counties, many of the service industries may also
shift their operations to be nearer the new mines.


In order to determine how the service industries would respond to the
geographical shift in mining activities, Farmland conducted a survey of
109 firms which are suppliers to existing phosphate operations and are
currently located in Polk and Hillsborough Counties. Of the 65 firms
replying, 15 firms would shift all or a portion of their existing
facilities to areas of the new mines. The predominant location choice
of these firms is the Wauchula-Zolfo Springs area in Hardee County where
seven firms with a potential total employment of 60 people would
consider locating. Another firm with 50 employees responded that
Ft. Green was its preferred location for opening a branch operation.
Thus, the Farmland project and other phosphate operations will probably
attract some service industries into Hardee County and create additional
job opportunities. These firms may include suppliers of paper, rubber,
and petroleum products, office equipment, steel fabrication, electrical
supplies, air and hydraulic supplies, bearings, pipes, pumps, and
conveyors. The movement of service industries into the county will be
gradual and probably extend over at least a 10-to 15-year period.


*Positive effects on existing local businesses.


With the coming of mining and its associated work force, existing
service industries and other businesses in the county will experience
positive benefits from increased economic activities.


I











WHAT INDIRECT OR INDUCED ECONOMIC EFFECTS WILL THE FARMLAND PROJECT
HAVE IN THE REGION?


*Possibly 3,200 indirect jobs and $30 million in additional economic
activity in the region.


Many of the economic effects resulting from a project such as Farmland's
are of an indirect or induced nature. A Bureau of Mines study of the
economic significance of the Florida phosphate industry indicates that
about six jobs are created for each new job in the phosphate industry.
Independent investigations conducted in connection with the U.S. Envir-
onmental Protection Agency Final Environmental Impact Statement on the
Central Florida Phosphate Industry (November 1978) indicate that the
employment multiplier is 6.54 induced jobs for each direct phosphate
industry job. Therefore, over 3,200 other jobs could be anticipated in
the region as a result of the 534 people hired by Farmland. In addi-
tion, the Bureau of Mines study estimated that each dollar of income
earned in the phosphate industry generates between $3.36 to $3.81 of
other income or economic activity. Thus, the annual payroll of the
Farmland project could create about $30 million in additional income and
economic activity in the region.




HOW MUCH TAX WILL FARMLAND PAY TO HARDEE COUNTY?


*An estimated $2.25 million in tax revenues to the county.


At the present time and during the initial phases of permitting and
construction, the annual property taxes on the Farmland Hardee County
holdings will be about $450,000. Based on reasonable assumptions for
assessed values and using the 1978 county millage rate, the combined
real and personal property (once both the mine and chemical plant are in
operation in 1983) will have a valuation of about $206,700,000 and the
initial tax yield will be about $2,250,000. Of this total yield, about
$1,323,000, or 59 percent, will be generated for the county school
district operations.










*Significant positive effect on Hardee County tax revenues.


Although the exact amounts of county tax revenues from the Farmland
operations cannot be established until the County Tax Assessor sets the
specific valuations by land use, the estimated tax revenues appear
reasonable based on current information. Undoubtedly, the taxes paid by
Farmland will have a significant beneficial effect on the Hardee County
fiscal structure and taxes paid by its residents. Over the past several
years, the tax millage rates paid by all county residents, unlike in
most other counties, have been decreasing (i.e., 14.033 in 1975; 11.862
in 1976; 11.038 in 1977; and 10.886 in 1978). The primary factor
contributing to these decreases has been the sale of land in the county
to phosphate mining companies and the recent opening of a phosphate mine
in the county. Furthermore, even though millage rates in the county
have been decreasing, the county tax revenues have been steadily
increasing. For example, although between 1977 and 1978 the county
millage rate decreased from 11.038 to 10.886, the county taxes levied
increased from $3.55 million to $4.92 million. The estimated property
tax figure of $2.25 million to be paid by Farmland would represent about
46 percent of all taxes levied by the county in 1978. Thus, as
phosphate- bearing lands, such as the Farmland property, come into
active production and capital improvements are made, the county and its
residents will realize even greater taxation-related benefits.




WHAT EFFECTS WILL THE FARMLAND PROJECT HAVE ON PUBLIC FACILITIES AND
SERVICES IN HARDEE COUNTY?


*Minor or no effects on local wastewater, solid waste, water supply,
energy, fire, police, health care, or educational facilities and
services. i


Farmland will provide and maintain on-site adequate industrial waste-
water and domestic sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water
supply facilities. Electrical energy for the operations will be
provided by Florida Power Corporation which has indicated that it has
adequate capabilities to supply the power demands. Farmland will










provide first-aid and emergency treatment facilities on-site. Other
health care services for employees and their families will be provided
by private and tax-supported facilities in the region. The workers will
have company insurance and sufficient incomes to pay for health care
services required at these facilities. On-site security will also be
provided by Farmland on a 24-hour basis.


*Costs for public services compensated by tax revenues.


It is estimated that the Farmland project will result in about 130
employees and their families locating permanently in Hardee County.
These families will require off-site fire and police protection and
educational facilities for their children. Farmland anticipates that
the costs incurred by the local government to provide these services
will be more than compensated for by the tax revenues generated by the
project. For example, assuming that the 130 families will result in an
additional 260 school-age children, the additional educational service
costs per year to the county would be about $311,500 based on a per
pupil average cost of $1,198. The county school millage rate is 6.4,
which when applied to the estimated assessed value of the operation,
would generate about $1,346,000 in school operating revenues, or over
four times the costs associated with educating the children of the
workers.




WHAT EFFECTS WILL THE FARMLAND PROJECT HAVE ON THE TRANSPORTATION
FACILITIES IN THE AREA?


*Minor transportation impacts and limited improvement costs.


The highways which will be primarily used by employees traveling to and
from the Farmland project will be U.S. Highway 17 and State Roads 64 and
663. It is anticipated that most employees will reside in the northern
part of Hardee County near Wauchula and Zolfo Springs or will commute
from Polk County. At the present time, these employees will primarily











use U.S. 17 and SR 64 and 663 to travel to and from work; however, these
employees would also be potential users of the Ft. Green-Ona Road when
it is paved. The long-range plans of the county currently include the
paving of the Ft. Green-Ona Road since its use would reduce commuting
times to and from several developments planned for the area.


Based on estimates of the average number of trips generated by the
Farmland construction activities and operations, the Farmland project is
not expected to affect significantly the service or congestion levels on
the roadways in the area. At the present time, the only improvements to
the highway system which may be needed as a result of the project are at
the intersection of SR 64 and SR 663 in Ona. In order to safely
accommodate the workers commuting from the northern portions of the
county and from Polk County, this intersection will probably require the
construction of turning lanes and possibly the placement of a traffic
light.










ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SAFEGUARDS


Through careful planning and sound engineering, most environmental
impacts of proposed phosphate operations can be minimized, avoided, or
mitigated. Farmland is committed to protecting environmental resources
both on site and in the region from any undue, adverse, or long-term
impacts from the mining and processing operations. Therefore, the
Farmland operational plans include the implementation of various or
environmental safeguards to minimize impacts and ensure the long-term
integrity of the environmental resources in Hardee County and the
region. To identify and understand the environmental resources on its
project site and in the region, Farmland has conducted extensive
environmental survey and testing programs in the areas of air quality,
geology, surface and ground water hydrology, water quality, terrestrial
and aquatic biology, radiation, socioeconomics, and archaeology. The
information resulting from these programs was used to identify and, if
possible, quantify the potential impacts of its operations and to
develop environmental safeguards which will be used to avoid or mitigate
potential impacts. The following sections briefly discuss the results
of the environmental survey and testing programs, the potential impacts
of the operations, and the environmental safeguards which Farmland will
use to protect the quality of the environment in Hardee County.




AIR QUALITY


WHAT IS THE CURRENT AIR QUALITY IN HARDEE COUNTY?


*Good air quality, typical of rural areas.


To determine the existing air quality conditions in its project area,
Farmland conducted an air quality sampling program for three parameters
(particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and fluoride), which may be emitted
from its operations. The results of this program indicate that the
existing air quality in the area is good and typical of rural areas
which are some distance from major sources of pollutants.











The recorded low levels of sampled parameters were well under applicable
air quality standards.




WHAT AIR POLLUTANTS WILL POSSIBLY BE EMITTED FROM THE OPERATION?


*Possible pollutants include dust and emissions from vehicles and open
burning during construction, dust from mining, and sulfur dioxide and
particulates from the fertilizer plant.


The air pollutants resulting from construction activities will have
minimal effects on local air quality. Particulate matter or fugitive
dust will be generated by land clearing activities; particulate and
other emissions will result from open burning of the cleared debris and
from vehicles. The frequency and duration of these air emissions will
depend on the frequency and duration of construction activities. In all
cases, the emissions from construction will be short-term and confined
to relatively small geographical areas.


Air emissions from the mining and beneficiation operations will be
limited to fugitive dust from mining and reclamation activities and
vehicle emissions from plant traffic. Because of the relatively high
moisture content of the ore to be mined and the wet nature of the mining
and processing activities, fugitive dust emissions from these operations
will be minimal. Vehicular traffic emissions will be negligible because
of the small number of vehicles involved.


At the fertilizer complex, the primary air emissions will be sulfur
dioxide from the sulfuric acid plant and from fuel burning in the DAP
plant and particulate matter from the DAP plant. Other substances will
be emitted in relatively minor quantities. Again, since wet rock will
be used in chemical processing operations, particulate emissions from
rock transport, handling, and grinding will be very minimal.


_7











WHAT WILL FARMLAND DO TO CONTROL AIR EMISSIONS?


*Use latest and best available control technology to comply with ambient
air quality and emission standards.


The Farmland mining operations and fertilizer plant are required by
state and federal laws to meet two types of regulations--ambient air
quality standards and emission rate standards. The ambient air quality
standards are intended to protect human health and welfare by setting
limits on the amounts of specific pollutants in the air which is
breathed by persons. Emission standards establish limits on the amounts
of certain compounds which may be emitted from specific types of
emission sources. Through use of the latest and best control techno-
logies and design, Farmland will comply with all ambient air quality and
emission standards.




WATER USE IMPACTS


HOW MUCH WATER WILL BE REQUIRED BY THE OPERATIONS?


*Total water needs of 13.34 million gallons per day (mgd) with 11.53 mgd
from groundwater sources.


Phosphate mining, beneficiation, and chemical fertilizer processing
operations require the availability of substantial amounts of water.
The Farmland water use plan has been developed based on two primary
goals--to minimize the use of water and maximize the recirculation and
reuse of water. Even though the water recirculation system will supply
the majority of the water needs, additional water will be required to
make up for system and process losses due to adsorbed water in the clay
wastes, product shipment moisture, evaporation, retention in sand
tailings and gypsum, and seepage back into the surficial aquifer.











The total estimated average water supply requirements for the mining and
fertilizer plants is 13.34 mgd. Based on estimates using conventional
clay settling methods, the average water supply requirement from
groundwater sources is 11.53 mgd. Since according to Farmland's current
plans, the sand-clay mix technique will be used instead of conventional
clay settling, the groundwater withdrawal rate may be reduced by the
return of more water to the system. Of this total groundwater
withdrawal, the mining operations will require an average of 7.31 mgd
from the Floridan Aquifer and 0.36 mgd from the Surficial Aquifer. The
chemical plant operations will require an average of 3.82 mgd. The mine
and chemical plant will each require an additional 0.02 mgd from potable
water wells.


*Combined water use only 49 percent of allowed water crop.


Farmland has recently submitted an application for a consumptive use of
water permit from the Southwest Florida Water Management District
(SWFWMD). It is estimated that the consumptive water use of the com-
bined operations will be about 7.092 mgd of water, or 61.5 percent of
the groundwater withdrawal rate. Based on SWFWMD water use rules, the
total use of water by the Farmland operations will be only 49 percent of
the allowable water crop for the 14,387-acre property. Again, these
estimates of use are based on conventional clay settling and may be
reduced by Farmland's planned use of sand-clay mix techniques.




WHAT EFFECTS WILL THE GROUNDWATER WITHDRAWALS HAVE ON GROUNDWATER
LEVELS OR USERS OF NEARBY WELLS?


*Drawdown of less than 1.5 feet at property boundaries.


Farmland has conducted extensive aquifer testing programs on its
property to determine the effects of the operational groundwater with-
drawals on the levels of the aquifers and, in turn, on other users of




- -


these aquifers. This program involved pumping tests on the Surficial,
Secondary Artesian, and the Floridan Aquifers.


The results of the aquifer testing program indicate that use of water
from the Floridan Aquifer for the mine and chemical plant operations
will have minimal effect on other users of the aquifer in areas adjacent
to the property. In order to further minimize the effects of the
operational groundwater withdrawals, Farmland plans to shut down the
nine existing wells on their property which are primarily used for
irrigation purposes. According to the analyses of the testing program,
after the shutdown of these wells, the net effect of Farmland's opera-
tional withdrawals on the Floridan Aquifer will range from 1.5 feet of
drawdown at the northeastern property boundary to a 1-foot rise in the
aquifer water levels in the western and southeastern portions of the
property (see Figure 9). These resulting drawdowns are well within the
requirements of the SWFWMD.




WHAT EFFECTS WILL MINING HAVE ON THE SURFICIAL WATER TABLE?


*Minimal short-term effects through use of mitigating techniques.


Dewatering of active mine pits is necessary to ensure efficient recovery
of phosphate ore. This dewatering has the effect of temporarily
lowering the surficial water table in the immediate vicinity of the
active mine pits. These effects will be of short duration and limited
extent. Farmland will use good mining and engineering techniques to
minimize or eliminate any adverse effects in areas adjacent to its
property. For example, mine cuts adjacent to the property boundaries
will be backfilled soon after ore removal is completed. Also, where
necessary, rim ditches will be constructed between the open mine pits
and property boundaries, and the water level in the ditch held at an







.r








I----


r---- 1


.-- i


rr
I L -.J L-
-_J


I 0


\ (-


I, ,L





SINI



_I

l._ --- .J


Figure 9

NET EFFECT ON FLORIDAN AQUIFER DURING OPERATING CONDITIONS

SOURCE: P.E. LAMOREAUX AND ASSOCIATES, INC., 1979.


--PROPERTY BOUNDARY
.-|--CONTOUR OF EQUAL WATER LEVEL DRAWDOWN OR RISE
IN FEET ABOVE OR BELOW STATIC WATER LEVEL
EXISTING PERMITfED IRRIGATION WELL
C-I PROPOSED PRODUCTION WELL
Pot-2 PROPOSED POTABLE SUPPLY




l0 2,000 4,000

SCALE IN FEET


FARMfmLAN D INDUSTRIES, INC.


LJ
(
'I
r--l


I .


II ~~~~~~-----n~,~c~l~.,-~--~-zr~-a~;i~as


I


coo)











adequate level to maintain the existing water table level in adjacent
areas.




DRAINAGE AND SURFACE WATER QUALITY IMPACTS


WHAT EFFECTS WILL THE OPERATIONS HAVE ON SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE
SYSTEMS?


*Little change from existing drainage patterns after reclamation.


Although the Farmland operations will temporarily alter the existing
surface water drainage systems on the property, these alterations will
not cause significant adverse effects on the system and will be negli-
gible after reclamation. Since the Farmland operational plan includes
the preservation of the Oak Creek Islands area and the floodplains of
the Peace River and Troublesome Creek, the impacts to these important
systems will be minimal. Streamflows in portions of Oak and Hickory
Creeks will be diverted when mining activities reach these areas;
however, the effects of these diversions will be temporary with both the
channels and flows restored as soon as possible after mining.


During mining, the water recirculation system will capture a portion of
the rainfall that formerly ran off into the streamcourses. The maximum
collection of rainfall will occur in the fifteenth year of mining. At
this time, the total reduction in streamflow leaving the property from
natural drainage will be about 4.3 cfs; however, 2.9 cfs will also be
returned to the streamflows as clarified storm discharge so that the net
reduction will be about 1.4 cfs. A reduction of this magnitude should
not adversely affect downstream users of the surface water resources in
the area.


After reclamation, the drainage areas of each stream will be recon-
structed to their pre-mining size. The surface storage capacity on the
property will be increased by the lakes and marshes created by











reclamation. This increased surface retention capacity will be offset
by decreases in infiltration rates of the reclaimed soils. Under
average conditions, the net effect is expected to be a small increase in
average streamflow.




WHAT EFFECTS WILL THE OPERATIONS HAVE ON SURFACE WATER QUALITY?


*Only clarified water discharged which meets regulatory water quality
standards.


The Farmland water recirculation system has been designed for maximum
reuse of water; therefore, the discharge of system water will be minimal
and will occur only during periods of excessive rainfall. Farmland has
planned its water discharge points so that only clear, decanted water
will need to be discharged into adjacent natural drainage. The quality
of the discharge will be monitored to insure that it meets state and
federal standards for such discharges from phosphate mining operations.




RADIATION IMPACTS


WHAT WILL FARMLAND DO TO MINIMIZE POTENTIAL FOR RADIATION RELEASES?


*Use latest control technologies and devices to comply with EPA
standards.


The naturally-occurring radioactivity which exists in the region of the
Central Florida phosphate industry results from the presence of radio-
active materials with the phosphate rock. Uranium is also naturally
found in varying levels in the overburden and ground and surface waters
of the region. In order to determine the existing radiation levels on
their Hardee County property, Farmland has conducted a comprehensive
sampling program to measure radioactivity in surface and ground waters,










stream sediments, fish, citrus, pasture grass and core samples and to
measure direct radiation as absorbed dose. The results of this sampling
program indicate that the naturally-occurring levels of radioactivity in
the area are very similar to other areas in the Central Florida region.


The mining and processing of phosphate changes the form, location, and
concentration of naturally-occurring radioactive substances, but it does
not create new or additional radioactivity. Usually, the potential for
health impacts occurs only when radiation is ingested in water and foods
or when dust, which contains radioactive materials, is inhaled.
Therefore, Farmland will use the latest control technologies and devices
to comply with U.S. EPA standards which are designed to eliminate
potential health problems.


*All water discharges will meet EPA guidelines for Radium-226.


When such water discharges do occur, Farmland will monitor these dis-
charges to insure the radioactive concentrations in the form of
Radium-226 comply with the interim EPA guidelines of 9 pCi/l. The
release of uranium in fugitive dust from the mining operation will be
insignificant due to the wet nature of the mining process and shipment
of wet rock for processing.


At the chemical plant operations, the release of radioactivity in water
will be minimal due to the design features of the operations for zero
discharge of process waters and the relative impermeability of the clay
layers under the gypsum pond and in the retaining dikes. Airborne
particulate radioactive emissions will also be minimized through use of
the latest control devices to reduce dust emissions.










WILDLIFE AND VEGETATION IMPACTS


WILL AIR EMISSIONS DAMAGE VEGETATION OR ANIMALS?


*Through the use of the latest and best control technologies, emissions
levels will not affect nearby vegetation or wildlife.


Fluoride and sulfur dioxide are the two factors which have the potential
for damaging vegetation or animals. Surveys and sampling of vegetation
on and around the sites have shown that no problems currently exist and
that levels in vegetation are very low. Farmland will use the latest
and best control technologies to comply with all ambient air quality
standards which have been designed to eliminate potential damage to
vegetation and animals.




HOW WILL THE WILDLIFE RESOURCES OF HARDEE COUNTY BE AFFECTED?


*The county's wildlife resources should not be noticeably affected due
to the preservation of large high-quality habitat areas and reclamation
of the mine site to similar land uses.


The most immediate impacts to wildlife will be the losses in habitat due
to mining and construction of facilities. However, most of the clearing
will occur in areas currently in heavy agricultural use. The highest
quality habitats, including the Peace River floodplain, Oak Creek
Islands, and Brushy Creek, will remain. Most of the habitat alterations
will be temporary during mine life, since the reclamation plan will
result in areas of marshes and woodland approximately equal to those
currently existing. The large expanses of preserved area should allow
for "reservoirs" of species which could repopulate reclaimed areas.


The most significant impact could be a temporary loss of seasonal
feeding habitat for wading birds in some large marshes. Other potential











impacts are increased noise, traffic, and alterations of habitat
associated with hydrologic modifications. Because of the large unit
size of the preserved areas and the temporary nature of these distur-
bances, these are expected to be only short-term reversible impacts. No
noticeable decreases in wildlife resources of the county should be
noted.


WHAT IMPACTS WILL THE OPERATIONS HAVE ON THE PEACE RIVER AND OTHER
DOWNSTREAM SYSTEMS? HOW WILL FARMLAND MINIMIZE THESE IMPACTS?


*Insignificant long-term impacts on the Peace River and downstream
systems due to preservation of wetland buffer zones and the locations
of facilities.


Impacts on aquatic biota will occur primarily in those freshwater marsh
portions of Hickory Creek within Farmland's property which will be
eliminated during operations. Although it is possible that some
secondary impacts such as change in water regime or quality in the
remaining creeks could ultimately produce changes in the aquatic
communities, many precautions have been taken to insure that such
secondary impacts are minimized. Among these are the retention of
wetland buffer zones along the lower portions of all creeks leaving the
property, the location of structures such as gypsum ponds and clay
settling areas as far removed from the stream exits as possible, rapid
reclamation of areas adjacent to streams and wetlands, and incorporation
of internal dikes and wetlands in each reclamation unit. Farmland will
take particular precautions to ensure that no long-term, irreversible
impacts on the aquatic systems of the Peace River or Horse Creek will
occur.



*Replacement of stream communities with lake communities along a portion
of Hickory Creek.


Replacement of portions of Hickory Creek with lakes will lead to an
increase in certain fishes such as largemouth bass and sunfishes.











Restriction of the depth of these lakes, inclusion of shallow peripheral
zones, and planting of trees along the shoreline will enhance the water
quality and habitat value of these lakes as well as preserving water
quality in downstream systems.




WHAT MEASURES HAVE BEEN TAKEN TO MINIMIZE IMPACTS ON WETLANDS?


*Ninety-two percent of the most important wetlands and over 65 percent
of all wetlands will be preserved.


About 62 percent of the wetlands on the mine site and 75 percent on the
chemical plant property will be maintained in essentially their natural
state. The decision to preserve certain wetlands was based on such
factors as their value in maintaining water quality and flow regulation
in streams exiting the property; their value as wildlife habitats; the

age, quality, and replaceability of the vegetation; and species and
habitat diversity. This approach has resulted in preservation of
74 percent of the forested wetlands (93 percent of the mixed hardwood
swamps) and 66 percent of the marshes. Preserved areas are concentrated
along the major watercourses such as the Peace River, so that an
estimated 92 percent of the wetlands rated as of first order
environmental importance are preserved. After reclamation, the decrease
in total wetlands area will be minimal.


*Preservation of large wetland areas will restrict impacts to a narrow
band along the edges of these areas.


By preserving large wetland areas, the temporary effects of mining
operations should be restricted to the edges of the preserved areas and
impacts in the critical interior areas will be minimized. A buffer zone
of mesic forest will remain along the edge of the Peace River floodplain
forest. As necessary, Farmland will undertake measures such as
perimeter ditches to maintain hydrologic conditions within preserved
areas.


I











MONITORING PLAN


WHAT STEPS HAS FARMLAND TAKEN TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE
PLANNED ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS IN PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT?


*Development of a comprehensive monitoring program.


In order to assess the impacts of the Farmland operations and to ensure
that applicable standards are met, Farmland has designed a comprehensive
monitoring program. This program, which meets the monitoring standards
of Hardee County, will include sampling of air quality and meteorology,
water quantity and quality, and radiation.




HOW HAS THE MONITORING PROGRAM BEEN DEVELOPED?


*To concentrate on monitoring parameters most relevant to the proposed
operations.


The Farmland monitoring program is based on accumulated background
information and a thorough knowledge of the operation and of the topog-
raphy, geology, and hydrology of the site. The site-specific program
which Farmland has designed emphasizes measuring parameters which are
particularly relevant to the proposed operations. The goal of the
program is to collect high quality useful data to ensure the accuracy
and applicability of the interpretations and conclusions drawn.


HOW WILL THE RESULTS OF THESE STUDIES BE PRESENTED?


*Summary reports of the data.


Farmland will compile quarterly or semi-annual summary reports for the
monitoring programs in each of the discipline areas. Analysis of the








54












data collected will indicate both short-term changes and long-term

trends in relation to the parameters monitored. This analysis will

allow Farmland to assess the effectiveness of the environmental safe-
guards in ensuring that all applicable standards are being met.


----------- -I




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