Title: Policy Guides Workshop Draft - Abstract
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00004158/00001
 Material Information
Title: Policy Guides Workshop Draft - Abstract
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Office of Planning and Budgeting
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Jake Varn Collection - Policy Guides Workshop Draft - Abstract (JDV Box 43)
General Note: Box 18, Folder 1 ( Water Task Force - 1983 ), Item 34
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00004158
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text



-office of planning and budgeting-



1.1 Creating an Environment for Economic Growth

During the 80s and into the next decade, American
industry will be changing rapidly because of the develop-
ment of new processes and products. This shifting of the
industrial and manufacturing sector will cause a realign-
ment of where and how products are produced. As a result
of this realignment, a challenge is presented to the State
to develop an environment where new industry can grow.

To develop cooperative community college,
university instructional and research programs
with private industry.

To enhance the engineering continuing
educational program.

To upgrade equipment and to improve the
instructional salaries of computer science
and engineering instructional personnel in
community colleges and area vocational
centers, and to increase the salaries for
qualified math and science teachers in the
public schools.

Enhance the industry services training concept.

To establish a state level council with
coordination capability to coordinate
education, manpower training and the needs
of private industry.
To develop a coordinated economic
development strategy encompassing
the state's financial, labor and trans-
portation and education systems.

To establish occupational specialists in
the high schools and community colleges.

To establish the occupational data base.
that will provide timely, accurate
information to complement economic
development activities.

To remove regulatory barriers in the
financial markets which prevent the for-
mations of small public high technology

To develop a means to assist small high
technology companies to finance expansions.

ro continue the national solicitation

To advertise quality educational programs
that are of benefit to economic development.

To continue to promote the State.

1.2 Diversifying the Economy and New Company Growth
The 1974-75 recession became a catalyst for increased
efforts to diversify Florida economy. The awareness of the
economic vulnerability of our major industries to external
forces such as increasing inflation and uncertain oil sup-
plies brought the State to the realization that there is a
need to broaden Florida's economic base. The issue with
the State must deal is how to continue to diversify the
State's economy.


To develop the international trade potential
of the State.

To continue the solicitation programs with
an emphasis on the recruitment of high
technology firms.

To increase the targeting of corporate
headquarters solicitation.

1.3 Maintaining and Developing Essential Capital Facilities

Private investment alone cannot sustain economic
development. A successful and growing economy requires
sound public facilities. The transportation network--roads,
bridges, airports, ports and terminals--is essential for
efficiently moving raw materials and finished products.
Industry and households need adequate water supply systems.
Our environment must be protected by appropriate waste
treatment and waste disposal systems. And as technological
progress increases the complexity of our economy, new types
of public infrastructure are required -- facilities to
handle the burgeoning demands for electronic communication,
and to safely dispose of toxic wastes. To demonstrate the
problem consider the national picture. The cost of rehabi-
litating non-urban highways throughout the nation will
exceed $700 billion during the 1980s. The nation's cities
will have to spend $100 billion during the next 20 years to
maintain their water supplies. Agricultural expansion is
jeopardized by inadequate roads, lack of rail services and
terminal facilities for handling bulk cargos.


Maintain the level of public investments
in the State's capital facilities to ensure
continued economic growth.

Develop a means to finance water and sewer

1.4 Securing the State's Energy Future

Business is dependent upon a supply of energy at a
cost which will not inflate the price of the finished pro-
duct. Florida is not a producer of oil, and is therefore,
dependent upon the nation's energy policies. Because
energy is tied to the State's economic development, the
future planning of the State must consider this vital com-


Insure that Florida has sufficient
energy resources to fulfill the needs
of industry.

Develop the State's solar energy

1.5 Extend Economic Development Opportunities

Florida's present economic condition together with the
policies to enhance Florida's economic development capacity,
as prescribed above, form a framework to provide a growing
and lasting economic prosperity for the majority of our
State's citizens. If history is repeated though, certain
groups may not benefit from these future economic develop-
ment opportunities. Disabled persons, ex-offenders,
minority youth, public assistance recipients, migrant
workers and immigrant groups all have special needs which
must be met in extending economic opportunity. The needs
of these individuals and their communities can and should
be addressed in the same fashion as we are addressing
Florida's general economic development needs. Through
special efforts in investing in infrastructure, education
and skills training, establishing access to capital and
developing an economic climate favorable to business expan-
sion and growth in distressed communities, it will be
possible to bring the economically disadvantaged into the
mainstream of Florida's economy and collectively realize the
economic benefits of a fully utilized and productive state
labor force.


. To enhance the basic educational skills,
work skills and employability skills of
Florida's students; particularly disad-
vantaged students.

. To provide skills training to low income,
unemployed individuals and public assistance
recipients to enhance their ability to obtain
meaningful employment.
. To emphasize employment and training programs
which offer opportunities for upward economic
mobility, including development of entrepre-
neurial skills needed to successfully operate
* To develop private sector employment
opportunities for economically disad-
vantaged individuals through tax credits
and other employer incentives.
. To emphasize cooperative public/private
sector educational and skill training

. To encourage meaningful work experience
opportunities for disadvantaged youth.
* To encourage community and economic develop-
ment in distressed communities.
* To assist minority businesses to develop
and expand.





Effects of Taxation on Agriculture

How can the state protect the sale of agricultural land to pay rising ad

valorem taxes?


o States should provide strong farmland protection programs.

o Encourage the development of a growth management system.

o Support a legislative study of agricultural zoning for the state.

o Encourage a biennial report to the legislature on the status of agricultural
lands receiving the agricultural land use agreement.

o Encourage the study and implementation of more tax incentive programs.

The Expansion of Domestic and International Markets for Agricultural Products:

How can the state expand markets for its agricultural products to provide a

broader market for the state's products?


o Assist agricultural groups in finding markets for by-products.

o Influence processors to open plants in Florida to take advantage of heavy
volumes of many products.

o Serve as a catalyst to bring Florida agricultural associations together to
aggressively promote their products.

o Provide assistance to consumers and farmers in an attempt to move quality
products in heavy volume at a moderate price.

o Procure and distribute technical growing and marketing information.

o Increase participation in seminars, workshops, and conferences relating to the
products we eat.

o Provide market information to Florida's growers so that they might maintain
a keen awareness of ever changing consumer preferences in order to stay
abreast of market demands.

o Reinforce and perpetuate the state's existing reputation for providing quality
products to the marketplace.

o Improve the state's relevant market share with all chains throughout the
nation while seeking additional overseas markets.

o Assist farmers in achieving reasonable growth targets.

o Uncover hidden markets and develop a strategy to tap this market for Florida

o Provide information to individuals considering going into the farming business
that could be used to increase their chances of success.



1.0 Law Enforcement
1.1 Recruitment, Selection, Training, and Career Development
of Law Enforcement and Correctional Officers
1.2 Technical, Forensic, and Management Services to Local Law
1.3 State/Local Responsibilities for Criminal Investigations
1.4 Citizen Participation in Crime Prevention

2.0 Legal Adjudication
2.1 Diversionary Alternatives to Prosecution
2.2 Indigent Defense in Capital Cases
2.3 Prosecution of Career Criminals
2.4 Prosecution of Economic/White Collar Crime
2.5 Deposition Criteria in Criminal Proceedings
2.6 Equity in Indigent Defense and Prosecution
2.7 State Assumption of Article V Costs
2.8 Victim and Witness Services

3.0 Offender Custody and Rehabilitation
3.1 Community-Based Alternatives to Incarceration
3.2 Operation of Correctional Industries
3.3 Psychiatric Care for Mentally Disturbed Inmates
3.4 Correctional Health Care Services
3.5 Chaplaincy Services to Inmates
3.6 Inmate Legal Access to the Courts
3.7 Transitional Services to Released Inmates

4.0 Highway Safety
4.1 Compliance of Highway Users
4.2 Driver Licensing Efficiency in Urbanized Areas
4.3 Classified Driver License System
4.4 Highway User Environment

5.0 Emergency Preparedness
5.1 Hazardous Materials Response
5.2 Radiological Emergencies
5.3 Evacuation Planning
5.4 Disaster Hazard Mitigation
5.5 Critical Resource Shortages


1.1 Recruitment, Selection, Training, and Career Development of

Law Enforcement and Correctional Officers

The process of professionalizing law enforcement and corrections

starts with the recruitment, selection, training, and career

development of its personnel. These functions have traditionally

been left to local jurisdictions with uneven results. The State

has taken an active role in some of these processes (e.g., the

establishment of minimum employment standards), but no role in

others (e.g., inter-jurisdictional mobility). What can the State

do to improve the capability of local jurisdictions to address

these processes?


Ensure a capability to assist local law enforcement agencies

in the recruitment of sworn personnel.

Provide salaries and benefits for correctional officers in

parity with beginning level law enforcement officers, when

correctional officers satisfy comparable standards and

training requirements.

Revise and update the 320-hour correctional officer recruit

training curriculum based on completion of a job task analysis.

Ensure all law enforcement recruits pass a statewide validated

and job-based proficiency examination as a condition of


Ensure the limits of the law enforcement and correctional

officer salary incentive programs keep pace with inflation.

Promote law enforcement professionalization through policies

to encourage upward law enforcement mobility.

1.2 Technical, Forensic, and Management Services to Local Law


All local law enforcement agencies have numerous technical,

forensic, and management requirements which are necessary to

their ongoing operations. Many of these require very expensive

equipment, highly skilled personnel, and/or sufficient size to

achieve economies of scale. It is clear that all local agencies

cannot afford to have every possible resource, and it is equally

clear that such resources must be available to adequately and

efficiently support local law enforcement operations.


Provide for the automated exchange of intelligence with local

law enforcement agencies in crime specific areas, such as

violent crime, organized crime, terrorist activity, and

other crime specific areas.

Provide a range of law enforcement management assistance

to local law enforcement agencies.

Ensure the availability of direct investigative assistance

to all local law enforcement agencies requesting services.

Ensure the accurate and timely provision of crime-related

information in response to requests from the criminal justice

community and the private sector.

Ensure the timely availability of crime laboratory services

to all law enforcement agencies statewide.

1.3 State/Local Responsibilities for Criminal Investigations

Investigations of some criminal acts are clearly the responsibility

of specific agencies or jurisdictions. In those instances in which

a clear assignment of responsibility is lacking, however, the

multiplicity of jurisdictions and agencies dealing with criminal

investigations frequently causes duplication of effort, inefficient

use and malallocation of resources, and failure to fully investigate

offenses going beyond delineated geo-political boundaries. What

is the appropriate division of state and local responsibilities

for criminal investigations?


Support mechanisms to facilitate the coordination of

investigations of criminal activities transcending organi-

zational and jurisdictional boundaries.

Enhance multi-jurisdictional investigations of organized

criminal activity.

Develop widespread expertise for the investigation and

prosecution of complex mutli-jurisdictional cases.

Expand the utilization of civil RICO statutes for the

investigation and prosecution of organized crime and

drug trafficking offenses.

Authorize the use of private attorneys to prosecute civil

RICO actions.

1.4 Citizen Participation in Crime Prevention

Without citizen involvement, neither more manpower, nor improved

technology, nor additional funding will enable law enforcement

personnel to adequately combat crime. What is necessary is a

more balanced allocation of anti-crime efforts between professionals

and citizens. In the absence of formal programs citizen response

to criminal activities is frequently a demand for more "action"

by the criminal justice system or else an apathetic acceptance of

the status quo. On those occasions when citizen participation does

include personal involvement, actions are often undertaken in

response to specific outrageous criminal activities or crime

directly affecting family or friends.


Encourage local police agencies to establish direct citizen

involvement in crime prevention programs.

Foster widespread citizen participation in crime prevention

through appropriate media.

Ensure the availability of crime prevention programs and

materials to all interested groups throughout the State.

2.1 Diversionary Alternatives to Prosecution

Clearing court calendars of minor criminal offenses and civil disputes

allows optimum use of the system's time and resources for more serious

cases and for cases where settlement cannot be reached. In this

direction, what diversionary alternatives should the State pursue,

how should these activities be funded, and what standards are



Encourage establishment of Citizen Dispute Settlement Centers

statewide and provide certain standards and guidelines for

their operation.

Ensure the availability of pretrial intervention to eligible

first-time offenders statewide.

Ensure that pretrial diversion programs meet the standards

of the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies.

2.2 Indigent Defense in Capital Cases

Capital cases, because of their usual complexity and the nature of

the possible consequences, consume a disproportionate amount of

Public Defender resources. What actions can the State take to

maintain quality representation for indigents in capital cases?


Assure indigents convicted of capital offenses the same avenue

of appeals that nonindigents enjoy, within reasonable limits

on the number of appeals that might be established by competent


Provide sufficient resources to Public Defenders in the

appropriate appellate circuits to ensure that indigents are

not denied the opportunities for appeals due to workload.

2.3 Prosecution of Career Criminals

Like any other walk of life many individuals choose a career of

criminality. Regardless of their motives or reasons for choosing

this type of career, the fact is that career criminals (or habitual

offenders) account for a disproportionate share of crimes reported

to the police.


Encourage the establishment of career criminal prosecution

units within offices of state attorneys.

2.4 Prosecution of Economic/White Collar Crime

Economic, or "white collar" crime, although less publicized and

less traumatic to victims than "street crime", is, nonetheless,

extremely costly to society and actually affects more people than

street crime. The cost to society is also increasing, not only

in terms of money and property, but also in terms of the loss of

confidence and respect by the public at large in institutions.

Furthermore, legitimate economic activity presents opportunities

for exploitation by elements of organized crime.


Enhance investigations and prosecutions of consumer fraud

and anti-trust violations.

Support the use of mechanisms to ensure coordination and

cooperation between criminal justice and regulatory agencies.

2.5 Deposition Criteria in Criminal Proceedings

Criminal depositions are used for impeaching witnesses. In

Florida defense attorneys have broad authority to depose any

and all witnesses. Abuse of this authority increases the cost

of justice generally, and more particularly, it increases the

costs of operation of public defender offices. How can abuses

of deposition rules be controlled while still meeting the legi-

timate needs of attorneys to provide the best possible defense

for their clients?


Deposition criteria for criminal proceedings should be in

accord with the ABA Standards Relating to Discovery and

Procedure Before Trial and Federal Rules of Procedures.

2.6 Equity in Indigent Defense and Prosecution

The funding of public defenders and state attorneys across judicial

circuits is inequitably distributed based on workload data. This

malallocation of resources raises serious questions of equity in

the legal representation of indigents and the prosecution of alleged

offenders on a statewide basis.


The statewide network of public defenders and prosecutors

should be funded based on a formula which measures the actual

workload of each office, judicial circuits, and is implemented

based on a hold-harmless and phase-in concept.

The problems of inequity casued by extreme variation in county
services required by statute should be assessed and measures
developed to standardize support levels.
2.7 State Assumotion of Article V Costs
Article V of the Florida Constitution was revised in 1972 to
restructure the courts into a unified state judicial system.
Implicit in this action was a commitment to pay for the operation
of the judicial system. Over the years, the State has gradually
assumed certain judicial operating costs while leaving others to
county governments. To what extent should county jurisdictions be
provided additional relief from Article V Costs?
Provide for the incremental assumption of operating costs of
the judicial system, or alternatively authorize offsetting
revenue enhancements.
Ensure that any assumption of Article V costs provides for
equity between counties.
Ensure that any assumption of Article V costs provides that
the State receives an equitable distribution of court revenues.
2.8 Victim and Witness Services
To a large extent victims and witnesses are neglected in the criminal
justice process. Victims are provided limited compensation and
services, and have limited rights of notice and opportunity to be
heard during the process. Similarly the criminal justice system
has historically been inconsiderate in utilization and management of
witnesses. Yet without the cooperation of both victims and witnesses,
law enforcement and prosecutorial efforts are seriously impeded.



Ensure the availability of assistance through the Crimes

Compensation Trust Fund to all eligible victims of personal

injury crimes.

Coordinate development and establishment of victim programs.

Foster development of victim service programs at the local

level through seed funding.

Provide technical assistance to counties for witness manage-

ment programs and limit funding to reimbursement of counties

for witness fees.

Provide victims of serious crimes the right of notice and

opportunity to be heard at critical stages of prosecution.

3.1 Community-Based Alternatives to Incarceration

The institutional model of corrections requires prisons to hold

inmates until ordered release them. Experience with this model

has led to the realization that the benefits of this system are

transient at best. These revised expectations have led to the

awareness that the linkage between the correctional system and

the community must be maintained in every phase of operations.

Hence, the issue surfaces as to what extent the State should divert

convicted offenders from the traditional prison setting to commun-

ity-based alternatives?



Promote the increased use of alternatives to incarceration for

non-violent, low-risk offenders, safety considerations permitting.

Ensure the full funding of the non-discretionary investigative

workload, and supervision caseloads of 1:56 for youthful of-

fenders and 1:81 for all others.

Implement a statewide information and education program to

convince the judiciary of the utility of intensive probation,

fines and restitution as alternatives to prison.

Encourage establishment of optional pilot local offender

advisory councils to develop programs for maintaining offenders

within the community, and to make recommendations to the

sentencing courts relative to placement of offenders in these


Create a category of probation known as community control

with specific versus general conditions of probation.

Require judicial use of pre-sentence investigations for any

case where there is consideration of incarceration.

Expand residential probation services statewide to absorb an

increasing proportion of convicted felony offenders.

Maintain an appropriate custody/treatment balance between

major institutions, community facilities, and non-residential


3.2 Operation of Correctional Industries

One of the broad goals of the correctional system is to rehabili-

tate the offender, thus improving his/her chances of obtaining

full time, gainful employment and breaking the cycle of unemploy-

ment criminal activity incarceration. In addition to vocational

training, emphasis has been placed on correctional industries as a

means to provide meaningful work experiences to inmates, thereby

increasing post release employment opportunities. But a host of

issues surround the operation of these programs. What is a satis-

factory level of inmate participation? What should the emphasis of

correctional industries be relative to agricultural versus indus-

trial operations? How can the State best link vocational training,

correctional industries, and post release employment? Once begun

what is the appropriate response when industries prove to be non-

cost effective? Should wages be paid to inmates to insure industries

are operated as closely as possible to the private sector? What

should the involvement of the private sector be in industrial opera-

tions? What is the optimal diversification of industries? Should

emphasis be placed on capital versus non-capital industries? How

should industry products be marketed to governmental entities?

Given these questions what policy approaches should the State adopt

in addressing the goal of reducing the self sufficiency of the

correctional system and at the same time ensuring meaningful work

experiences to provide post release employment opportunities?


Provide correctional industries to increase the self sufficiency

of the correctional system, and to provide relevant training

opportunities leading to meaningful post release employment


Ensure operation and development of correctional industries

are in accordance with a long range functional plan,

Provide sufficient inmate work stations to allow at least 15

percent of the inmate population to participate in correctional


Emphasize development of non-agricultural industries given

consideration of inmate employment goals upon release from


Ensure the availability of correctional industries at designated

youthful offender institutions, and at other facilities not

having the benefit of these programs.

Link vocational training, correctional industries, and post

release employment of inmates.

Maximize private sector involvement in the operation of

correctional industries through the private non-profit corporation.

Develop non-capital intensive industries, but where significant

capital costs are incurred for initiation of new industries

adequate sources of working capital funds should be provided

for startup costs.

Capital equipment used in industry operations should be

comparable to that found in private enterprise.

Limit fragmentation of industry operations to receive the

benefit of economies of scale in the acquisition of raw

materials, capitalization, and supervision of operations.

Specific industries should be self supporting and operate in a

cost effective manner within a reasonable period after startup,

and those programs not satisfying this requirement should be

phased out.

Certify the availability of goods produced in the correctional

industries program.

Market industries products through establishment of a discrete

entity to focus on product development and sales to governmental


3.3 Psychiatric Care for Mentally Disturbed Inmates

The settlement agreement in the Costello v. Wainwright litigation

stipulates that the Department of Corrections shall develop plans

for the implementation of a mental health delivery system with a

capacity to provide three levels of care for mentally disturbed

inmates: (1) acute care hospitalization; (2) out-patient care in

a closely supervised setting, and (3) general diagnostic and limited

treatment capabilities in open population. Chapter 82-224, Laws

of Florida, requires that the capabilities to provide a complete

range of treatment services for mentally ill and retarded inmates

be developed within the Department of Corrections. What is the

appropriate level of mental health services for inmates? What

security considerations are pertinent in the development of this

treatment capability? To what extent should the State provide

mental health services through Department of Corrections staff

vis-a-vis contractual arrangements with persons or agencies qualified

to provide such services? What treatment capabilities should the

State provide within the Department of Corrections for retarded




Mentally ill inmates should receive evaluation and appropriate

treatment through a continuum of psychiatric services.

The mental health treatment system for inmates shall continue

to segregate youthful offenders and female offenders from the

remainder of the prison population.

Implement the Department of Corrections three tier treatment

system for mentally disturbed inmates.

Provide a treatment capability for mentally retarded inmates

at such time as the repeal of transfer mechanism under

Section 945.12, F.S., becomes effective.

Any corrections mental health facility should satisfy forensic

hospital licensing requirements, and be staffed based on

acceptable forensic standards.

Ensure that the treatment component of any newly constructed

psychiatric facility is provided under contract.

3.4 Correctional Health Care Services

One of the most fundamental responsibilities of a correctional

agency is to care for offenders committed to it, and adequate

medical care is as basic as food and shelter. What are the legal

and humane obligations of the State?


Ensure appropriate, quality health care in state and local

correctional settings which meet generally acceptable health


Responsibility for planning and professional supervision of

all health care services in the Department of Corrections

should be charged to one health care professional.


3.5 Chaplaincy Services to Inmates

The nature of religious services in institutions has two dimensions;

an accommodation of inherent rights of religious liberty, and one a

part of a total rehabilitative program. Total institutional ser-

vices should include programs that deal specifically with clients'

religious and spiritual concerns. How should the State proceed in

providing for the religious needs of inmates?


Ensure availability of an adequate level of chapliancy services

for all inmates.

All inmates should have access to a full range of religious


Adequate and appropriate space should be available for conduct

of all religious services.

3.6 Inmate Legal Access to the Courts

Offenders are sent to prison as punishment, not for punishment. They

do not forfeit all their rights because of criminal convictions.

Specifically, they retain their right of access to the courts to

resolve legal questions affecting the validity or length of sentence

(facts of confinement) or relating to the deprivation of consti-

tutional rights while in confinement (conditions of confinement).

What is the State's role in ensuring inmates' access to the legal

system? Relatedly, courts have held that parolees are entitled to

"due process" in parole revocation hearings. What is the State's

responsibility to ensure parolees' due process rights in revocation



Provide legal advice and assistance to all inmates who are

indigent and educationally or linguistically deficient and

by reason thereof are unable to represent himself/herself in

all matters affecting the validity or length of sentence under

Florida or Federal law.

Provide a counsel of record and legal advice and assistance

to all inmates and parolees who are indigent and educationally

or linguistically deficient and by reason thereof unable to

represent himself/herself in all matters of the deprivation of

constitutional rights relating to conditions of confinement or

relating to parole revocation hearings, respectively.

Provide these services to all inmates and parolees under State

custody or supervision through the statewide network of Public


3.7 Transitional Services to Released Inmates

Almost every offender who enters a correctional institution is

eventually released. The only relevant questions are when and

under what conditions? Other than those paroled to community

supervision there is no provision for reintegrating the inmates

into.society. Hence, what can be done to assist these ex-inmates

in readjusting to the non-prison setting?


Develop systems and procedures to assist inmates who have been

released at the expiration of their sentences to make the

transition from incarceration to freedom.




4.1 Compliance of Highway Users

Traffic accidents most often occur as a result of either drivers

disregarding traffic laws, inadequate drivers skills, equipment

failure or some combination of these factors. Then, what approaches

should the State pursue to reduce unsafe driving practices?


Expand the size of the highway patrol to assume greater

responsibility for traffic law enforcement from local

sheriffs' offices.

Provide a coordinated public information and education

program to realize a credible deterrent threat to unsafe

driving practices.

Index traffic fines to the level of inflation.

Authorize the use of civilian paraprofessionals for traffic

law enforcement.

Do not require the investigation of non-injury related

accidents where the property damage is less than $250.

Prohibit the use of any device by vehicle operators which

seeks to detect speed measuring devices.

4.2 Driver Licensing Efficiency in Urbanized Areas

Long waiting lines continue to plague numerous dirver license

offices throughout the State. The problem is particularly severe

in driver license offices located in highly urbanized counties,

such as Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Hillsborough, Duval, Pinellas,

and Orange Counties. These seven counties represent 58 percent of

Florida's total population according to the 1980 census. The

excessive waiting time in driver license offices relates directly

to both procedural deficiencies within the system and program



Driver licensing services should accommodate the public in an

efficient manner.

Driver license requirements, which can not be demonstrated to

positively impact highway safety, should be repealed.

The safe driver renewal program should be extended to six years.

4.3 Classified Driver License System

Reasonable assurance that all.drivers are qualified to safely

operate their vehicles is a fundamental requirement for keeping

traffic accidents under control. This requires a driver licensing

system capable of effectively limiting driving privileges to

persons who can demonstrate these abilities. In view of the

specialized qualifications needed for each different type of

vehicle, and the increasing complexity of traffic, is Florida's

current driver licensing system adequate to maintain a fully

competent driving populace?


Adapt driver licensing regulations to differences in the

driving population.

Require that drivers are qualified to operate the class of

vehicle for which they are licensed.

4.4 Highway User Environment

Despite the fact that the human factor is the most important

causal variable related to traffic accidents it is recognized

by engineering experts that a roadway environment, which assures

drivers of a clearly delineated path, free from potential

conflict with oncoming traffic, safe recovery from errant

vehicles, and obstructions which are "forgiving" of driver

error, is essential to improved highway safety.


Develop and maintain a system to provide information to local

traffic engineering agencies to identify and analyze high traffic

accident locations.

Provide financial and technical assistance to local traffic

engineering agencies to improve the highway environment.

5.1 Hazardous Materials Response

Many local governments lack the expertise to adequately respond

to hazardous materials accidents. These deficiencies in response

endanger not only the health and safety of the emergency response

personnel, but also the health and safety of nearby residents.

What should be the response of the state government to this situa-



Provide enhanced training for local and state agencies to

respond to emergencies involving hazardous materials.

5.2 Radiological Emergencies

Although nuclear energy is an alternative that provides relatively

low-cost utility rates and freedom from the OPEC cartel, it also

poses the possibility of accidents with unknown consequences.

Planning for the possibility of a radiological emergency is neces-

sary to adequately prepare for and respond to such an event.


Assure plans for response to all types of radiological emergencies

involving state, local, and federal elements, as well as private


Provide training to local governments in their role in responding

to radiological emergencies.

5.3 Evacuation Planning

The majority of the State's population is extremely vulnerable to

natural and man-made disasters, such as hurricanes and nuclear

power accidents. In events such as these evacuation is the only

practical way to save lives.


Complete development of an integrated statewide evacuation

plan, and maintain the currency of plans.

Encourage local governments to actively participate in the

development of regional evacuation plans as components of

the statewide plan.

Provide training to local governments in the development of

their components of the regional and statewide plans.

5.4 Disaster Hazard Mitigation

Florida has a high probability of hazard occurence, ranking first

in hurricanes and in severe thunderstorms, second in tornadoes,

and seventh in riverine and flash floods among the fifty states.

In addition, there are numerous man-made hazards (e.g., nuclear

power) that could pose potential danger to the State. How should

the state government respond to mitigate these potential hazards?


Develop a plan for statewide hazard mitigation by building

on current State efforts.

Provide technical assistance to local jurisdictions to promote

changes in land use patterns, thereby reducing the potential

for disasters.

Develop and provide local governments standards and criteria

to be applied in development of hazard mitigation elements.



* Hazard mitigation should be included as an element of local

government comprehensive plans.

* Acquire undeveloped land that has the potential to mitigate

or prevent future disasters.

* Discourage development in hazard prone areas by making them

ineligible for State assistance in the event of a disaster.

5.5 Critical Resource Shortages

In the past decade the State has experienced several serious

shortages of critical resources. In some cases these shortages

were peculiar to Florida, e.g., water shortages following long

periods of drought, and in other the shortages were part of

a national pattern, e.g., the energy crisis following the oil

embargo of 1974. How should the state government plan for and

respond to these shortages?


Establish and maintain a planning capability for response

to critical resource shortages at the local, regional, or

state level.



Table of Contents
Preface............................... ........ ..... 4-1

1.0 Institutional Care and Community Care
Alternatives ... ................. ......... 4-2

1.1 Accreditation or Certification of
Institutional Care Facilities.......... 4-2
1.2 Deinstitutionalization and Community......
Alternatives ............................ 4-5
1.3 Institutional Care for Multi-.............
Problem and Specialized Clients......... 4-8
2.0 Public Assistance.............................. 4-13

2.1 Financial Assistance...................... 4-15
2.2 Medical Assistance........................ 4-20

3.0 Maternal and Child Health ..................... 4-24

3.1 Family Planning........................... 4-24
3.2 Perinatal Care........................ ... 4-25
3.3 Child Health.................................... 4-27

4.0 Services to the Elderly....................... 4-33

4.1 Community Care for the Elderly............ 4-33
4.2 Adult Congregate Living Facility Services. 4-34
4.3 Nursing Home Services.................... 4-36

5.0 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health
Services and the Criminal Justice System...... 4-39

6.0 Services to Children and Youth with Special
Needs....... ........................... ..... 4-42

6.1 Juvenile Justice......................... .... 4-42
6.2 Children at Risk........................ 4-44
6.3 Dependent Children in Need of Permanency..
Planning ................................ 4-45
6.4 Emotionally Disturbed Children and........
Adolescents............................. 4-47
6.5 Child Abuse and Neglect.................. 4-48

7.0 Environmental Health ................... ...... 4-51

7.1 Toxic/Hazardous/Solid Waste............... 4-51
7.2 Sewage Disposal ........................... 4-52
7.3 Safeguarding Florida's Drinking Water..... 4-53

U w-

8.0 Vocational Rehabilitation...................... 4-56


Florida's population is now over 10 million.
Approximately 2.3 million of these citizens are age 60 or
over representing 24 percent of the total. Another 40
percent of the total population is less than age 25. The
implications for this population distribution are
substantial. Increasing needs are being expressed for a
broad range of health and human services including: services
to the elderly, mentally ill and developmentally disabled,
aid to families with dependent children, protection of basic
health standards, hospital care, nursing homes, congregate
living facilities, home care, community care, medical
services, as well as health services, day care, counseling
services, and parent education programs.

Floridians of all ages, races, and income levels face
problems that require assistance if they, as individuals,
are to become as self-sufficient and productive as possible.
The demand for these services has increased dramatically
with the rapid growth in Florida's population. These
increases appear in the form of demands for services to the
elderly and children, a need for increased income
maintenance, growing pressure to improve the treatment of
clients in institutions and additional public health care

Society's institutions--political, social, and
economic--have developed alternatives for individuals to
meet their health and social needs more readily, care for
those unable to care for themselves or those in need of
assistance, and developed ways by which a society can meet
health needs that the individual can not meet. Florida's
approach centers on providing the individual an opportunity
to achieve the highest possible level of physical and mental
health, gainful activity, the ability to function in the
least restrictive environment and protective, maintenance,
and social services when that individual is partially or
completely dependent.

The State must emphasize planning and programming for
services to those needing them. Quality of care must always
remain a cornerstone of our service plans along with an
insistence on the provision of needed services in the least
restrictive environment consistent with appropriate
treatment. Finally, a continuum of service delivery for the
broad range of needs among Florida's citizens must continue
to be stressed.



In mid-1982 over 15,000 of Florida's citizens required
state supported therapeutic care in a residential setting.
This care is required due to a handicapping condition, such
as a developmental disability or a mental illness, or due to
a juvenile delinquency or dependency problem.

Historically most therapeutic residential services have
been provided in a State operated type of setting. Although
the use of institutions in Florida spans many years, Florida
is now following a national trend towards placement of
clients in alternative types of settings. This trend is a
result of the realization that many clients are capable of
independent or semi-independent living in a normalized,
community setting. This policy is stated in the Florida
Statutes in sections such as Chapter 393.066 (1) which
states, "The goal of such programs shall be to allow clients
to live as independently as possible in their homes or
communities and to achieve productive lives as close to
normal as possible."

In planning for the needs of clients today it has
become necessary (1) to develop a continuum of services in
the community in terms of restrictiveness of setting for
meeting client needs, (2) to review the appropriateness of
placement for each client periodically, and (3) to provide
clients with the setting and services most appropriate for
their individual needs.

In cases where an institutional setting is
inappropriate, deinstitutionalization and avoidance of
unnecessary institutionalization have been and will continue
to be a priority policy consistent with available resources.

In this environment, the current quality of care within
State institutions, the degree of development of community
alternatives, and meeting the needs of specialized client
populations, continue to be areas of concern.

1.1 Accreditation or Certification of Institutional Care

How can satisfactory levels of care and standards be insured
for the State's institutional programs and facilities?



SThe certification and accreditation of all
institutional programs shall be pursued in an
effort to assure an acceptable standard of client care.

1.2 Deinstitutionalization and Community Alternatives

How can the use of large institutions be minimized?

The State shall strive to achieve the most appropriate
placement of clients needing residential care.

Continued movement of developmentally disabled and
mentally ill clients toward the least restrictive high-
quality environment consistent with effective treatment
and care will be pursued.

Frequent reviews of institutional populations with the
goal of decreasing the institutionalization of
individuals who might be more effectively treated or
cared for within a community setting, will be pursued.

SThe development of community-oriented support services
that enable individuals to remain in the least
restrictive settings shall be encouraged.

1.3 Institutional Care for Multi-problem and Specialized

How can the specific needs of Multi-Problem and Specialized
Clients be appropriately addressed?

The most appropriate placement of multi-problem clients
requiring specialized services should be pursued.

Nursing home services should be made available to the
mentally ill geriatric population within the State
institution when appropriate community placement for
such individuals is not available.

Institutions shall be utilized only as the treatment
of last resort for children and adolescents if
appropriate community treatment and care is not avail-
able. When such institutional treatment is necessary
the child or adolescent shall be placed in a specially
designated unit.

The State's priority shall be to achieve the
appropriate range of service options for retarded
offenders/defendants including small, secure

SThe State's priority shall be to achieve specialized
treatment programs to meet the needs of the mentally
ill retarded clients in both institutional and
community settings.

SSpecialized inpatient services for persons found
incompetent for trial, not guilty by reason of
insanity, or transferred from the Department of
Corrections as psychotic or as mentally disordered sex
offenders, should be provided in secure settings. A
range of specialized community-based services should
be available to these populations, including in-jail
services to prevent unnecessary admissions to State
forensic facilities and to provide aftercare upon

2.0 Public Assistance


Public assistance programs in Florida during Fiscal
Year 1982-83 cost over $1.8 billion in State and Federal
funds. Florida's six major need related income support
programs are: Aid to Families with Dependent Children,
Supplemental Security Income, Optional State
Supplementation, Low Income Home Energy Assistance, Food
Stamps, and Medicaid.

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC):

In Fiscal Year 1982-83 an estimated 280,000 Florida
residents will receive $226 million in AFDC cash benefits.
The AFDC Program provides financial assistance directly to
families with children deprived of the care or support of
one or both parents to assist them in providing for their
daily needs. The purpose of the program is to help families
to become self-supporting while allowing the children to
remain in their own homes. In addition to meeting other
eligibility criteria, the family must be without enough
income to meet their needs based on the State established
payment standard ($246 per month per family of four) and
have recognized assets of less than $1,000. Recipients of
AFDC are entitled to Medicaid benefits and usually are
eligible for Food Stamps. The average total benefits for a
family of four including AFDC, Food Stamps and Medicaid is
$573.00 per month.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Optional State
Supplementation (OSS):

On January 1, 1974 the state administered programs of
Old Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the
Disabled were transferred to the Supplemental Security
Income program, administered by the Social Security
Administration. The SSI program is based on the concept of
statutory entitlement to a minimum income, regardless of the
state or residence, to be totally administered and funded by
the Federal Government, i.e., the Social Security
Administration. The SSI Program was conceived as a

guaranteed minimum income for the aged, blind, and disabled
which would supplement the Social Security Program, to
provide for those who were not covered under Social Security
or who have earned only a minimal entitlement under that
To be eligible for an SSI payment an individual must be
65 years of age or older, or be blind or disabled. The
individual must be a citizen, an alien admitted for
permanent residence, or legally residing in the United
States and have resources less than $1,500 or $2,250 for a
married couple. The maximum individual payment (Federal
Benefit Rate) per month is currently $284.30 as compared to
$140 in January 1974, the first month of the SSI Program.
The SSI caseload in Florida has grown from 94,426 recipients
during the last month of the State program (December 1973)
to 171,174 in September of 1982. Federal payments to Florida
SSI recipients in Fiscal Year 1982-83 will be $376 million.
All SSI recipients are eligible for Medicaid.

When the Federal Government assumed responsibility for
the SSI program, states were given the opportunity to
supplement SSI payments. The Optional State Supplementation
(OSS) Program in Florida expends approximately $3.5 million
per year to provide supplemental income to approximately
3,500 elderly and disabled adults living in adult congregate
living facilities or adult foster homes. The OSS payment
supplements the difference between the income of an SSI
recipient and the approved monthly rate of the ACLF or adult
foster home. The program encourages community residential
placement in lieu of more restrictive higher cost settings
i.e. nursing homes and state institutions. The average OSS
monthly payment is $77 for an ACLF resident and $59 in an
adult foster home.

Low Income Home Energy Assistance Programs (LIHEAP):

Congress passed the Home Energy Assistance Act of 1980
in response to the rising cost of energy during the late
1970's. Funds were from the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax
Act of 1980. The FY 1982 Low Income Energy Assistance
Program was funded by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
as a block grant and provided more flexibility in terms of
fewer regulations as well as the limited ability to transfer
funds from the block grant to other programs. The 1982
LIHEAP issued about $16,732,000 in one-time payments to
120,000 low-income households.

Food Stamps:

Statewide implementation of the Food Stamp Program was
completed in Florida in 1972. The United States Department
of Agriculture is responsible for promulgating the
regulations which govern implementation of the Food Stamp
Act of 1977, establishing eligibility and benefit policies,
printing food stamp coupons and providing them at no cost to
the states. The Florida Department of Health and
Rehabilitative Services is responsible for determining
eligibility and issuing coupons throughout the State. The
administrative costs are shared equally between Federal
funds and State general revenue funds.

In Fiscal Year 1981-82 Florida issued Food Stamp
allotments valued at $461 million to an average monthly
caseload of 878,000 persons. Due to caseload turnover, an
estimated 20 percent of Flcrida residents may receive food
stamps during the year.


Title XIX of the Social Security Act established the
Medicaid Program in 1965 for the purpose of helping
recipients of public assistance and other low-income persons
to meet the costs of necessary medical care in order to
promote independence and self-care. A minimum Medicaid
Program was implemented in Florida on January 1, 1970. Since
that date, the additional services of transportation, home
health care, early and periodic screening, diagnosis and
treatment of individuals under 21 years, intermediate care
facility services for the mentally retarded, inpatient
psychiatric services for certain individuals under 21 years,
advanced registered nurse practicioner, rural health clinic
services, adult visual, dental, and hearing services, and
community mental health services have been added. The
$734,000,000 FY 1982-83 Florida Medicaid Program is funded
through Federal and State participation with counties
contributing to inpatient and out-patient hospital services
and nursing home care services.

Current eligibility for Medicaid Services in Florida is
limited to persons receiving federally supported financial
assistance, children in foster care, and certain other
groups who meet the eligibility requirements for these
assistance programs except for income. The typical Medicaid
eligible individual is either a child or mother in an AFDC
family or an aged, blind or disabled adult recipient of the
Federal SSI Program benefits. An estimated 548,000
individuals will be eligible for Medicaid services during
Fiscal Year 1982-83.

2.1 Financial Assistance

How can the state provide fair and equitable financial
assistance to Florida's needy citizens within available
revenue resources? What mechanisms are appropriate to
encourage economic self sufficiency and control fraud and

SThe State shall strive towards public assistance
programs based on the needs of individuals, not
categories of people, (i.e., income levels, not family
The State shall strive to provide benefits which
approach the income level necessary to meet basic

The State shall adjust eligibility requirements and
Optional State Supplementation to resolve inequities.

The State shall emphasize the preservation,
rehabilitation and reuniting of families.

The State shall require parents to be responsible for
the support of their children.

The State shall orient public assistance toward
removing persons from dependency into full-time
productive employment.

The State shall implement, statewide, an integrated
and coordinated system of employment-related services
for public assistance applicants and recipients.

SThe State shall strive to reduce error rates, fraud and
abuse and avoid fiscal sanctions.

2.2 Medical Assistance

To what extent should the State provide health care
benefit coverage to individuals who do not have sufficient
resources to purchase necessary health care? How can the
state assure that needy persons have access to providers of
health care services? How should the State structure
reimbursement methodologies, cost containment principles and
funding strategies?


The State shall promote continuity of care.

SThe State shall strive to improve access to primary and
preventive care.

SThe State shall encourage the development of
alternative program strategies that increase the
availability of medical support services for Medicaid
recipients in community residential settings.

The State shall establish principles of reimbursement
that promote equity among provider groups and provide
incentives for effective, efficient, and economical
delivery of services to Medicaid recipients.

SThe State shall strive to improve the quality of
medical care received by Medicaid recipients.
3.0 Maternal and Child Health


Every child in Florida is entitled to the best start in
life attainable within the means available. Protecting the
health of children requires the efforts of public and
private providers working together to perform a wide array
of prevention and treatment activities. There must be a
healthy environment in which the skills needed to assume
growing self-responsibility for personal and family health
can be provided. Improved techniques for instilling these
skills in our children must be found. Health services for
children and mothers should be comprehensive, effective and
integrated into a single system of care.


3.1 Family Planning

How can the health care system in Florida provide citizens
with adequate accessibility to family planning services?

SAccessible comprehensive family planning services shall
be insured.

SCommunication between parents and children relative to
responsible human sexuality shall be encouraged.

The education of individuals on the economic, health,
and social factors associated with pregnancy, child
rearing, and family relations shall be promoted.

3.2 Perinatal Care

How can perinatal care (pre-natal care for mothers and
neonatal intensive care services for newborns) be enhanced?

Access to perinatal health care shall be assured.

Infants born with birth defects shall have access to
optimal health and rehabilitative care.
3.3 Child Health

How can health services to children best be provided?


SAccident prevention programs shall be promoted.

SThe State shall strive to assure access to optimal
diagnostic and treatment services for infants and

SPreventive health care programs and personal health
education for children and young adults shall be

4.0 Services To The Elderly


In Florida emphasis has been placed on developing
continuum of community-based care through the encouragement,
expansion and coordination of various services unique to the
needs of the functionally impaired elderly. These services
are provided in an environment which is the least
restrictive and most suitable for the needs of individuals
thereby delaying or preventing institutionalization. For
this reason this section is developed around the continue of
of services: Community Care, Adult Congregate Living
Facilities, Foster Homes and Nursing Homes.

4.1 Community Care for the Elderly

Are sufficient services being delivered through the
present system to effectively meet the needs of Florida's
increasing elderly population and to maintain those
individuals in the most appropriate and least restrictive

Continue support for the community care for the
elderly concept, moving towards increasing the
percentage of need met for community living arrange-
ments where most appropriate.

The humanistic values of home care for the elderly will
be encouraged through the informal support system of
family friends, and individual care givers.

Volunteer participation on the part of citizens will be
encouraged in an attempt to meet the increasing service
needs of the elderly.

SPromote lifestyles that will keep elderly in the most
independent environment suitable.

4.2 Adult Congregate Living Facility Services

What can be done to better meet the needs of an
increasingly impaired frail elderly population through the


SOptimal Quality of care in Adult Congregate Living
Facilities shall be pursued.

Development of needed supportive services for Adult
Congregate Living Facility residents shall be

SAppropriate training for Adult Congregate Living
Facility licensing staff and for Adult Congregate
Living Facility operators shall be promoted.

SReimbursement rates to Adult Congregate Living
Facilities should be reviewed annually to ensure
adequate rate levels.

ACLFs shall be encouraged to serve a more impaired
population by allowing for the provision of limited
nursing services by appropriate personnel.

4.3 Nursing Homes Services

How can the quality of nursing home care be improved in


The nursing home preadmission screening process
shall identify all nursing home applicants that can
remain in the community with appropriate community
care and facilitate the development and implementation
of a community care plan.

Nursing home licensure standards should enhance the
quality of care and life of a nursing home patient.

Nursing homes should reserve beds for a reasonable
period of time when Medicaid nursing home patients
are admitted temporarily to a hospital or on community

Nursing home licensure standards shall be enforced on a
timely basis, provide appropriate follow-up activities
to determine that deficiencies are corrected, and the
rating of nursing homes should be based on survey

Reimbursement to nursing home facilities should be
periodically reviewed to ensure the availability of
nursing home beds to Medicaid patients and quality of
patient care.

Medicaid nursing home patients should be assured of
adequate funds, after payment of their contribution for
patient care, to meet their personal needs.

5.0 Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services and the
Criminal Justice System.


The court system and County jails in the State of
Florida are continually confronted with defendants and
prisoners who have behavior and health problems because of
dysfunctional drug or alcohol use, or serious emotional

If persons with alcohol, drug abuse and/or mental
health problems are neglected, their conditions will
deteriorate. They will be less able to participate in their
defense, more likely to create serious problems in the jail
(including both drug abuse and contraband), and less able to
function as a lawful citizen upon release from the criminal
justice system.

How can those persons in the criminal justice system -
in county jails awaiting trial, in correctional facilities,
or in juvenile facilities be assured specialized alcohol,
mental health, or drug abuse treatment so that they do not
further deteriorate emotionally and psychologically?


Alternatives to criminal imprisonment shall be
available for individuals with drug, alcohol, or
emotional problems who are capable of rehabilitation.

A comprehensive system that will assure appropriate
screening and treatment of defendants for alcoholism
drug abuse, or emotional disorders shall be developed.

SIndividuals with serious alcohol, drug abuse or
emotional problems shall be treated in the least
restrictive setting.

6.0 Services to Children and Youth With Special Needs


Children with special needs may require one or more
types of intervention to effectively address their problems.
A comprehensive continuum of services, ranging from the less
intensive community-based programs to the more intensive
institutional programs is needed. In many instances the more
intensive and expensive programs have received more
attention and funding. While these programs serve a valid
function, the emphasis should be redirected to prevention
and an attempt to limit entry into the more intensive

A number of areas of special needs have surfaced that
must be addressed. These are front end programs for
delinquents, children at risk, serious juvenile offenders,
dependent children in need of permanency planning,
emotionally disturbed children and adolescents, and abused
and neglected children. Services to these groups need to be
better coordinated and targeted to the specific needs of
each child or family.

6.1 Juvenile Justice

How can the State continue to improve its Juvenile Justice
System and best meet the needs of committed youths?

SSpecialized programs should be made available to meet
the needs of the serious and chronic juvenile offender
in both institutional and community settings.

Assessment of juvenile offenders to identify the
serious offender for placement and programming purposes
shall routinely be made.

Increased emphasis on the development of innovative
delinquency prevention activities shall be pursued.

The State shall, when possible, contract with local
units of government and/or community agencies to
provide prevention diversion services.

6.2 Status Offenders

The term "Status Offenders" is used to identify any
child whose offense would not be a criminal act if committed
by an adult. How should services be provided to more
appropriately meet the problems of these youth?


SA continuum of services designed specifically for
children at risk and their families and directed at
preventing family dysfunction and allowing children
to remain in their own homes shall be developed.

SThe State shall, when possible, contract with local
units of government or community agencies to provide
services to children at risk.

6.3 Dependent Children in Need of Permanency Planning

How can the State of Florida adequately and expeditiously
facilitate permanent placement planning for children in
foster care?


SThe primary focus of all services to children and
their families should be on the prevention of family
dysfunction through the provision of exemplary programs
of prevention services.

Every child has the right to a permanent, stable and
loving family. The State's services directed to this
end should be comprehensive and should include:

a. A program to return children, where appropriate, to
their families as expeditiously as possible.
b. A well designed information and case review system
c. An adoption program designed to meet the special
needs of children.

A continuum of services for dependent children in need
of permanency planning shall be provided.

6.4 Emotionally Disturbed Children and Adolescents

How can services to emotionally disturbed children and
adolescents best be provided to ensure early intervention
and reduce the utilization of costly long-term residential
or institutional care?

A comprehensive continuum of children's mental health
services directed at preventing family dysfunction and
and at allowing children to remain in their own homes
shall be developed.

6.5 Child Abuse and Neglect

How can a comprehensive system of prevention of child abuse
and neglect services best be provided to protect the
children of Florida?

SPreservation and strengthening of family ties shall be

STreatment of abused and neglected children within their
own family systems, shall be provided whenever

Intervention and treatment services should be provided
in the least restrictive and least coercive manner.

SChildren in crisis and subject to temporary placement
shall be placed with permanent and stable caretakers
as quickly as possible.

The provision of necessary education and training shall
be provided to enforce, investigate and adjudicate
child abuse and neglect cases.

Maximum coordination of services and access to a
continuum of family support and child abuse and neglect
services shall be assured.

Interstate alliances for sharing and coordinating
research and prevention and treatment efforts for child
abuse and neglect shall be provided.

7.0 Environmental Health


Florida is a rapidly developing state with
approximately ten million residents. In addition, millions
come to Florida each year to enjoy the climate and other
natural resources. Citizens and visitors alike have come to
expect a quality of life that is dependent on an environment
that has not been degraded. The basic necessities for a
quality life depend on a safe food and water supply and
proper removal and treatment of wastes. Several state
agencies attempt to oversee proper sewage and hazardous
waste disposal and treatment. However, there is a need to
assess the impact of these wastes on the public's health.
There are presently over one million septic tank systems,
several hundred central sewage treatment facilities, and
over 200 potentially dangerous
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in Florida.

7.1 Toxic/Hazardous/Solid Wastes

One of the most life and health threatening hazards in
Florida's environment is the improper disposal of waste
materials generated by our urban and industrialized society.


SEnvironmental hazards in high risk areas should be
eliminated so human exposure can be avoided.

SCoordinate with other states to ensure safe transport,
and effective and efficient disposal of all hazardous

7.2 Sewage Disposal

A source of pollution that has not received attention
commensurate with its hazard potential is the use of septic
tanks for sewage disposal. In addition to the 300 million
gallons of sewage disposed into septic tanks each day by the
residential segment of the population, millions of gallons
of sewage from industrial and commercial operations are also
disposed via onsite waste systems.


The State shall ensure that the environment, and
especially the State's water supply sources, will
not be contaminated.

Research efforts should be encouraged to ascertain the
affects of individual onsite waste systems on the

7.3 Safeguarding Florida's Drinking Water Sources

Protecting the sources of Florida's drinking water supply is
of paramount importance for protection of the public's
health and for the economic well being of the State.
Although there is an overall abundance of water in the
State, much of this water is vulnerable to contamination
from natural and man-made sources.


SIntergovernmental efforts in efficiently safeguarding
drinking water sources shall be encouraged.

SAll public water supplies should be monitored and
corrective action taken to prevent waterborne health

8.0 Vocational Rehabilitation


In Florida, approximately 267,185 individuals have
substantial physical or mental handicapping conditions that
interfere with their ability to participate in the work
force. The Vocational Rehabilitation Program provides
services to help these handicapped citizens prepare for and
enter gainful employment.



SEmployment of handicapped persons is encouraged as is
advocacy for their rights so that they may achieve
their optimal vocational, economic and social

SThe State should provide leadership in the effort to
encourage the involvement of handicapped citizens in
the economic and social structure of Florida.

SEqual access to the broad range of services, programs
and opportunities available in Florida should be
provided to handicapped citizens.

SEnvironmental, programmatic and attitudinal barriers
toward handicapped should be removed.

SRehabilitative programs should be structured so as to
help handicapped people become as self-sufficient as


Over the last ten years, Florida has experienced an
enormous increase in population and physical development.
More importantly, this population growth and development has
been concentrated in several urban and urbanizing areas.

While Florida, as a whole, grew 43.4% between 1970 and
1980, adding almost 3 million residents, nine counties
realized growth rates in excess of 100% with Citrus County
almost tripling its population during that time. Even the
ten densest counties in 1970 exceeded Florida's average
growth by almost 4%.

While the total population growth is expected to slow
to a 26% increase between 1980 to 1990, total population
is forecast to increase by over 2,500,000 new residents. The
concentration of population in urban and urbanizing areas is
is expected to continue through 1990. The publication
"Florida's Decade of the Eighties", projects that the 18
Florida Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs)
"will absorb 85.5 percent of the growth over the decade.
The three largest areas alone (Miami, Tampa-St. Petersburg,
and Ft. Lauderdale-Hollywood) will account for over 40 per-
cent of Florida's population growth during the 1980s."

A major challenge to Florida over these next ten years
will be our ability to cope with this growth. Without
exception, all of Florida's resources will affect, or be
affected by, this continuing population influx. However,
one of the most important policy areas that will be required
to cope with this growth will be the ability of our local
communities to develop in a manner that the quality of life
of Florida's present and future residents does not decline.

The ability of Florida's local communities to develop
in this manner will be determined largely in three policy
areas: community development, intergovernmental relations
and housing.

Community development is a complex, interrelated
process. A community must be able to provide an adequate
infrastructure streets, efficient water and sewer facili-
ties while insuring a responsible level of local govern-
ment services to assure decent and safe neighborhoods with
sufficient housing.

Three areas in which policies will have the most impact
are growth management, including who will pay for the costs
of growth, integrating community development policy within
the state governmental structure and insuring community
development efforts and economic development efforts are
coordinated, and assuring the efficient and effective
development of local infrastructure.

A major component of any community development policy
is the viability of the local government service delivery
system. The status of the State's intergovernmental rela-
tions will be critical to this system. The authority for
local governments to obtain sufficient revenues to provide
an adequate level of services comes from the State. In
addition, the State provides the parameters for the local
government structure and organization that must provide
these services in the most efficient, effective and equi-
table manner.

Without an adequate affordable stock of housing other
community development efforts will be meaningless. The
State must not only consider its own role in the provision
of housing, but it must also examine appropriate ways to
insure housing is affordable to the consumer and that a
range of housing alternatives is available to Florida's

1.1 Growth Management

Growth is occurring in areas that cannot accommodate it,
neither fiscally nor environmentally. What is the appro-
priate state role in managing and directing growth?

To maximize agreement among policies,
procedures and regulations between the
state's land use controls and the
environmental regulations.

To encourage the direction of growth
away from environmentally sensitive areas.

To insure that public facilities and
support services are capable of supporting
the State's growth.

To protect and conserve existing energy

To reach agreement on major growth issues
with local governments to achieve common
objectives that affect local and state

To minimize the negative impacts of
trade-offs from the competing uses of

To encourage future population and
business growth to locate where the water
supply is plentiful.

To encourage the practice of
"infilling" for land development
within urbanized centers through the
use of incentives.

To use state capital investment
policies to reinforce local efforts
in achieving state goals.

To distribute the cost of growth
equitably among current and new

To anticipate the effects of large
scale developments upon the local
government's fiscal capacity.

To integrate all state review processes
to make knowledgeable and comprehensive
decisions on development.

1.2 Integrated Community Development

Is there a state role in establishing a well-defined
community development poligy that can be implemented by
local government in a consistent fashion, with a minimum
amount of conflict.


To formulate a state development policy.

To pursue the development of regional
policy plans that would embody for each
region the broader state development

STo pursue an established procedure to
resolve problems that arise from the
implementation of several state poli-
cies in an individual region.

To ensure a process whereby local
government goals are considered when
state objectives are being implemented.

To strengthen sub-state organizations
and processes that provide a forum
to integrate policies.

Support federal and local programs that
align themselves with state development
goals, through state funding, and through
the review process.


1.3 Local Infrastructure Development

The tremendous dispersion of population in Florida has
caused substantial impact on the cost and use of public
facilities. What should be the role of the state in
supplying this infrastructure?


Support state funding in combination with
local funds to provide public facility infra-
structure improvements as required by state

Minimize the need for additional public
investment in developing areas beyond
where such public infrastructure can be
effectively provided and maintained.

Encourage the full utilization of existing
public and private facilities and services
in developed areas through the appropriate
use of underutilized sites.

Discourage legislative or executive actions
that would impair the ability of local
governments to provide for adequate funds
for debt service payments.

Encourage the provision of full information
to the state on debt requirements of local
governments, including short-term debt.

Encourage the state to act as insurer
of local government bonds, upon meeting
state requirements and standards.
2.0 Intergovernmental Relations


The relationship between the state and local govern-
ments is predicated upon restrictions and authorities
provided in Florida's constitution. Except for authority
to levy ad valorem taxes, all taxes are preemptedd to the
state, except as provided by general law. Local govern-
mental structures and powers are also outlined with sub-
stantial power provided to the Legislature to grant or
deny powers.

Within these constitutional limitations, the state
holds the key to most matters determining the well-being
and success of general and special-purpose local govern-
ments. It can grant or deny revenues or revenue raising
capability and is the architect of the structure of local

Further, with the radical changes in the federal grant
system embodied in the "block grant" and "new federalism"
concepts, the state will be more heavily engaged as inter-
governmental bankers, regulators and administrators than
ever before.

2.1 State Mandates

What is the state's role in mandating service delivery
activities by local governments or limiting local revenue


Eliminate the state mandate or provide full
funding for state mandates on local governments
except in those instances where local govern-
ment actions would affect persons or property
outside of their jurisdiction, when there is
a need for uniform operating procedures or
when there is a clearly demonstrated overriding
state interest.

Encourage the adoption of actions to deter state
mandating including supporting the Florida ACIR's
proposals to provide for "sunset" and "sunrise"

2.2 Local Fiscal Emergencies

What should the state's role be in preventing or
resolving local government financial emergencies?


Encourage actions that will provide local
local governments with the means to deal with
their own financial problems, such as increasing
the use of professional managers, completing
annual financial and compliance audits, insuring
stable revenue sources, and urging that revenue
and expenditure analyses are performed by local
Invoke the powers provided for in the "Local
Government Financial Emergencies Act" only
in those cases where the local government has
no alternatives remaining to resolve their
problems and where the emergency will
impact other local governments, statewide.

2.3 Double Taxation

Double taxation refers to the inequity resulting from
the taxing of county residents who live inside a city to
finance services provided only to residents in the unin-
corporated area of the county. What should the State's role
be in resolving the problem of double taxation?


Support the elimination of double taxation
through Florida's growth policies and inter-
governmental revenue sharing programs to
insure equitable treatment of Florida's tax-
payers regardless of residence.

Discourage the overlapping of governmental
services, fragmentation of local governments
and the proliferation of special districts
which lead to inefficiencies in local govern-
mental service and payments of taxes for which
no real and substantial benefits are received.

2.4 Fiscal Capacity of Local Government

Do Florida's local governments have sufficient sources
of revenue and sufficient revenue generating capacity
within those sources to provide adequate service to their

Assure that local governments have
revenue sources which provide a level
of government services that meets the
demands of their citizens.

Discourage efforts by the state to limit
local property taxes except in those
instances where a temporary limitation
meets a justified, well-documented state

2.5 The Changing Federal System

What will be the roles of the state and local governments in
the changing federal system?

Initiate policy within Florida to insure
that in the changing roles and relationships
of all levels of government that local general
purpose governments are included in the
state's governmental partnership and that
local government representatives participate
fully in all decisions affecting local govern-
ments. Further use established state policy
as the guidelines for state decisions
affecting local governments.

Support the role of the Florida Advisory
Council on Intergovernmental Relations to
serve as the forum to insure that the views
of local and state government officials are
brought to bear on intergovernmental policy.

Assure that as federal initiatives are
adopted which change the state's relation-
ship to local governments that the state
maximize services to its citizens and
minimize the costs of state administration.

2.6 Local Government Structure

What is the most appropriate local government structure
for effective, efficient and equitable delivery of
governmental services.


Encourage municipalities to annex adjacent
urban and urbanizing areas in a manner that
insures the primary consideration is effi-
cient and effective service delivery and
where residents of these areas are protected
by requiring the annexing city to meet legis-
latively set standards including meeting a
required service delivery plan without a
requirement that veto authority is held by
any small group.

Support general purpose local governments
and the accountability they have to their
electorate by opposing the creation of
independent special districts.

Support efforts which provide county
government the means to manage their
local communities by encouraging the
adoption of county charters and enhancing
the professional management of Florida's
2.7 Multi-County Organizations

How should multi-county organizations fit into Florida's
governmental structure?

For needs of substate planning and inter-
governmental coordination activities,
support regional planning councils to
provide those services rather than single
purpose multi-county organizations.

Continue the water management districts
in their current functions.

Provide adequate state support to regional
planning councils for all state-mandated
services and substate planning and inter-
governmental coordination activities that
are of benefit to the state.

3.1 Conventional Housing

The lack of affordable housing has undermined Floridians'
ability to own their own homes. This, coupled with low
vacancy rates and high rents in the rental housing market,
has left few avenues open to the housing consumer. How can
the state have an impact upon the housing process and
respond to the affordability issue?

Support for home ownership and construction
financing through creative financing tech-
niques including bond issues by the Housing
Finance Agency.

Encourage the investment of state pension
funds in Florida mortgages in accordance
with the fiduciary responsibility of the
pension system.

Encourage local governments to have an
efficient and timely housing develop-
ment process.

Support a mix of types, sizes and prices
of housing based on need.

Discourage the negative results of
impact fees on the development of
low income housing units.

Provide access to state-owned property
to local housing authorities for the
construction of affordable housing.

Support housing rehabilitation efforts
to increase the number of existing standard

Encourage energy-efficient housing
plans, and the use of energy audits
by local governments.

Assume an active role in establishing
housing policies for the state.

Determine the state's housing priorities
which will influence a funding distribu-
tion for any state accepted housing
block grant.

Establish state funded programs to complement
existing local or federal housing initiatives.

3.2 Manufactured and Modular Housing

How can the state improve the role of manufactured housing
as a housing alternative for Floridians?

Ensure that local governments develop
detailed evacuation and temporary housing
plans for mobile home communities.

Discourage zoning practices that place
mobile home communities in flood-prone

Encourage the construction of shelters
that can accommodate residents in the
event of a severe weather emergency.

Monitor the enforcement of existing tie-
down regulations.

Require the insurance of mobile homes,
which will encourage third-party certi-
fication on the adequacy of the tie-down

Work towards the acceptance of mobile
homes as a housing alternative through
encouraging the adjustment of codes and
zoning requirements.

Evaluate mobile home ad valorem taxation
and its effect on mobile homes' accepta-
bility by local governments.

Assess the equity and effect of the
state's current taxing structure on
manufactured housing.


NRPU Policy Guides draft -Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface................................................. 2
6.1 Natural Resources................................... 4
6.11 Air Quality.................... ...... ...... 5
6.12 Coastal Protection and Management............ 9
6.13 Energy.......................................13
6.14 Fish and Wildlife........................... 18
6.15 Marine Resources.. .............. ............. 21
6.16 Mineral Extraction and Reclamation...........24
6.17 State Land Acquisition and Management......... 29
6.18 Waste Management .............. ............ 33
6.19 Water Resources Protection and Management....37

6.2 Agriculture........................................ 41
6.21 Agricultural Land Protection................. 42
6.22 Forest Development and Management............46

6.3 Recreation and Culture ............................49
6.31 Archaeological & Historical Resources
Protection....................... ......... 50
6.32 Arts and Culture........ ......... ............ .53
6.33 Recreation................................. ..56


Florida is an elongated peninsula with a total land
area of 58,560 square miles that includes 4,424 square miles
of water. White sandy beaches along the Gulf of Mexico and
the Atlantic Ocean account for most of the State's 1,350
miles of coastline. Florida has 12,000 miles of freshwater
streams and almost 7,800 lakes including Lake Okeechobee,
the largest natural fresh water lake in the conterminous
United States which lies entirely within one state.

Florida lies completely within the temperate zone, yet
much of the State, particularly the lower peninsula, has a
subtropical climate characterized by hot, humid summers,
mild winters, and year-round rainfall. Northern and southern
Florida experience significant differences in winter
temperatures; northern Florida winter temperatures average
in the low 50's, while winters in southern Florida average
in the high 60's.

Most of the State's average annual rainfall of 53
inches comes in the form of summer showers. During the
winter, however, Florida enjoys the greatest average amount
of sunshine of any state east of the Mississippi River.

Florida has a floral and faunal diversity unique to the
nation which includes a large number of endangered species.
Vegetation ranges from tropical hardwood to temperate
forest. Pine and hardwood forests cover more than 60% of the
State, and marsh lands, wet prairies, mangroves and scrub
forests cover most of the remaining land.

Florida is rich in historical and archaeological
features. Evidence of earlier Indians, Spaniards and
Englishmen is found throughout the state in the form of
mounds, forts and mission sites, many of which have been
restored to their original state.

Tourism is the principal economic activity. In 1980,
over 36 million tourists, including overseas visitors,
visited Florida and spent nearly $17 billion. Tourism
generated over 580,000 jobs (15 percent of Florida's total
employment), nearly $4 billion in payrolls, and $785 million
in tax revenues.

Florida is second among southeastern states in value of
farm sales. In terms of the State's economy, agriculture
accounted for almost $4 billion in 1979 marketing receipts
and provided employment for over 100,000 persons. Citrus
production accounts for almost 30 percent of all agricultur-
al sales by value and in fact, Florida leads the nation in
citrus production. Florida ranks first in sugar production
and fresh tomatoes and ranks second in greenhouse and
nursery production, seventh in peanuts and twenty-fifth in
livestock products. Florida's agriculture is important in

supplying the nation with high quality fiber food,
particularly winter vegetables, and is vital to the
maintenance of a prosperous and balanced State economy.

Florida leads the southeast in mining and ranks sixth
in the nation in value of nonfuel minerals produced. Florida
produces over 75 percent of the nation's phosphate, much of
which is exported, and has proved reserves of phosphate
greater than that of any other mineral.

Florida's fishing industry is well developed and makes
an important economic contribution to the State's economy.
In 1981 over 200 million pounds of seafood worth nearly $165
million were caught by Florida fishermen. Shrimp account for
over 40 percent of total sales, followed by lobster, crab
and snapper.

In 1980 Florida became the second largest state in the
south and seventh largest state in the U.S. with a popula-
tion of 9,739,992. Estimates indicate that Florida's
population will be approximately 12 million by 1990 and
between 13.5 and 14 million by 2000. It is estimated the
additional population will locate primarily in the coastal

The warm climate, white sandy beaches, millions'of
acres of clean water, and uniqueness of natural systems and
features that make Florida a very attractive place to live,
visit and work, account for the extremely high growth rate.
It is the intent of the policies contained herein to ensure
that the environment and natural resources responsible for
the attractiveness of the State are managed so that they are
preserved for future generations.

It shall be the policy of the State to conserve and
protect its natural resources and scenic beauty.
Adequate provision shall be made by law for the
abatement of air and water pollution and of
and unnecessary noise." Section 7, Article II,
Constitution of the State of Florida.



The natural resources and environment are the basis of
Florida's wealth and future social and economic potential.
The state's diversity of flora and fauna is biologically
unique in the nation. The expansive estuarine and marine
waters and thousands of acres of freshwater lakes, rivers
and streams place Florida among the most productive salt and
freshwater fishing areas in the world. Florida's white sandy
beaches that border the Gulf and Atlantic Ocean are
unequalled in North America. These resources provide for a
pleasant place to live, work and enjoy leisure-time

The capability of the land and water resources to
support an increasing population without degradation is
limited. Air, water, fish and wildlife, marine and coastal
resources are vulnerable to the consequences of mismanaged
growth. Among the greatest challenges facing the State are
protecting and conserving its natural resources, conserving
energy, managing and reusing waste materials, restoring
mined land to productive uses and acquiring and managing
state land for a multitude of needs.

6.11 Air Quality

How can Florida ensure the continued protection and
enjoyment of its relatively clean atmosphere, and
maintenance of established ambient air quality standards?
Will continuing development and industrialization, unknown
effects of acid rain, and the potential conversion of coal
as a fuel for electric power generation, adversely affect
Florida's air quality?


Incorporate the highest emission standards possible to
achieve and maintain such levels of air quality as are
necessary to protect human health, welfare and safety, and
prevent injury to plant and animal life and property, while
at the same time permitting reasonable economic and social
growth and development in the state.

Afford the greatest protection to areas where no air
degradation is permitted (Class I) and regulate the quality
of the air in attainment areas which exceeds the minimum
quality necessary to support the designated use of those
areas so that they shall be protected and enhanced.

Require the limitation of air contaminants at the
point of emission and also the control of dispersed sources
of air pollution.

Ensure that land development is consistent with the
maintenance of clean air and plan land development to avoid
further air quality degradation and improve air quality
where possible.

Provide strong inspection, surveillance, and enforce-
ment programs at the district and local levels by assisting
these levels with coordination and technical and legal

Achieve air quality goals within the framework which
identifies necessary tradeoffs and allows competing values
to be balanced in the public interest.

Locate and design transportation systems to minimize
air quality degradation and also improve existing roadways,
including traffic signal synchronization, protected turning
lanes and reduction of access drives.

Encourage the location of power plants in areas where
meteorological conditions will disperse pollutants and thus
avoid their accumulation.

Discourage the aerial dissemination of pesticides and
other toxic substances if the atmospheric transport of these
substances would result in hazards to natural systems or the

Reduce or prevent acid rain in Florida.

6.12 Coastal Protection and Management

How can the State protect and manage its coastal
resources to provide for outdoor recreational needs,
environmental quality and public safety?

Continue and accelerate acquisition of coastal land for
the protection of the coastal environment and explore and
encourage cost effective acquisition strategies and revenue
producing post-acquisition management.

Explore and implement tax, regulatory and/or adminis-
trative measures to ensure that development permitting and
redevelopment do not exceed the capacity of State and local
government to provide essential services and emergency

Encourage legislation which would prohibit expenditure
of State funds to subsidize development in environmentally
sensitive areas.

Consider combined impact of concurrent but independent
projects in regulatory actions.

Develop an integrated policy framework for managing
coastal resources encompassing interagency and intergovern-
mental cooperation.


Encourage land and water uses which ensure the
continued productivity and beneficial use of sensitive
coastal resource systems that are vital to human needs and

Encourage legislation which would provide funding and
assistance for local governments to develop approved coastal
protection plans.

Protect barrier islands through such mechanisms as
lowering the DRI threshold.

Support the exploration and development of mineral
resources in State waters, except in bays and estuaries, and
federal waters (OCS), provided that the sensitive, unique
and valuable near and off shore ecosystems and environmental
features of Florida are protected.

6.13 Energy

How should the State manage declining non-renewable
resources and develop alternative energy resources?


Research, develop and utilize desirable alternative
energy resources to diversify Florida's energy supplies and
thereby encourage a safe and orderly transition from
non-renewable energy resources to desirable alternatives.

Increase the efficiency of fuel energy use in the short
term by promoting more efficient production and consumption
through technical, capital or operational improvements.

Develop and institute state and local management
programs which include energy considerations in planning,
public and private resource use, and land use.

Encourage energy saving through investment incentives,
efficient land use and state and local regulations and state
demonstration projects.

Encourage energy conservation through consumer
education on energy issues, increasing community involvement
in energy related decisions and by providing consumers and
businesses with energy use data and life cost projections on
appliances, machinery and solar equipment.

Promote a diversified transportation system capable of
reliably and economically transporting present and future
energy supplies with minimal environmental impact.

Manage energy supplies and use consistent with
environmental quality and health, welfare, safety, social
and economic well being of the public.

Complete a source and consumption study of the State's
energy resources.

6.14 Fish and Wildlife

How can the State improve the protection of fish,
wildlife and their habitats in the wake of greater resource
demand, population growth and urban encroachment?


Support legislation to establish a Fish and Wildlife
Coordination Act that would require consideration of habitat
in permitting.

Coordinate permitting requirements so as to fully
consider the development impacts on wildlife and its

Protect fish and wildlife and their habitat in
administering State sponsored, funded or regulated land and
water development activities.

Ensure the long-term maintenance of the habitats of
rare and endangered species of plants and animals.

Support legislation that will ensure future protection
of threatened and endangered species and their habitats.

Protect fish and wildlife habitats against the adverse
effects of heavy traffic by motorized vehicles and boats.

Manage Florida's fish and wildlife resources in a
manner that will perpetuate a diversity of native species
with densities and distributions which provide substantial
recreational, scientific, educational, aesthetic, and
economic benefits to the public, consistent with the welfare
of the resource.

6.15 Marine Resources

How can the State improve the management of marine
fisheries resources to ensure that the continuing commercial
and recreational value of this industry is maintained?

Protect fishery habitat through review of dredge and
fill activities and other potential habitat alterations.

Develop and implement practical management strategies
to preserve and maintain existing mangroves and seagrasses
on State lands, and investigate the best methods for
restoring damaged habitats.

Prioritize and fund marine research and development
programs for the maintenance of resource health and
abundance goals.

Orient the State's marine program toward the
maintenance of sustained yields of marine resources.

Promote the creation (legislation) of a Marine
Fisheries Commission consistent with the recommendation of
the Saltwater Fisheries Study and Advisory Council to build
flexibility and more public input into fishery management
decisions within established standards and qualities.

Require the impacts of dredge and fill activities be
minimized or mitigated to insure the long term productivity
of estuarine areas.

Develop a method for increasing the funding of
management, law enforcement and/or research needs.

Support the construction of artificial fishing reefs to
increase fish populations and angler success.

Manage living marine resources in a manner that will
perpetuate a diversity of species with densities and
distributions providing substantial recreational,
scientific, educational, aesthetic, and economic benefits to
the public, consistent with the welfare of the resources.

6.16 Mineral Extraction and Reclamation

How can the State protect its air, land and water
resources from the adverse effects of mineral mining and
ensure that mineral land is returned to a productive use in
the least amount of time?


Require that mined land be restored to productive, safe
and beneficial use in the minimum time feasible.

Develop appropriate radiological health protection
measures for phosphate lands.

Determine the location, supply, demand and depletion
rates of solid minerals.

Regulate when practical the permanent storage of
phosphate waste clay slimess) at or near the natural land

Avoid or mitigate the impacts of phosphate waste clay
(slime) and gypsum disposal.

Protect ground and surface waters of the State from the
detrimental effects of mining and other mineral extraction

Avoid mining and mineral exploration in bays, estuarine
areas, rivers, streams and important wetlands and restore
those that have been damaged or destroyed by the mining

Prohibit surface mining in State parks, preserves and
forests and oppose mining in National Parks and other
federal lands within the State.

Discourage surface mining that would disturb
environmentally sensitive areas, resource management lands,
and important agricultural areas.

Encourage the development of a national phosphate

Promote the establishment of a Comprehensive State
Phosphate Policy to regulate mining and eliminate or
minimize duplicative state and local regulations.

Consider establishing a phosphate monitoring program to
provide early warning of any degradation of ground and
surface water.

Develop regional comprehensive planning for reclamation
so that plans made by contiguous companies are consistent.

Develop oil, gas, phosphate, sand, gravel or any other
mineral resources within the territorial waters of the
state, except in bays and estuaries, only after careful
evaluation proves that Florida's unique aquatic and
biolgocial environment can be maintained and protected.

6.17 State Land Acquisition and Management

How can the State improve its land acquisition and
management capabilities to better serve the various public

Improve the State's capability to effectively acquire
and manage state land.

Utilize private proprietary standards in the lease and
sale of state property.

Discourage public and private activities which
adversely affect state land and resources.

Identify and survey state-owned uplands and submerged

Utilize state-owned and controlled land to facilitate
effective and efficient water management so as to minimize
the adverse effects of these practices on other natural

Protect important agricultural resources of state-owned

Coordinate acquisition proposals and activities of the
Conservation and Recreation Land Acquisition, Save Our
Rivers, Save Our Coasts and State Parks Acquisition

Determine the best use of state-owned lands and avoid
interagency and interest group conflicts.

Develop and implement management plans for all
state-owned land; where no suitable plan can be developed,
dispose of such land by swap or sale so that beneficial
property may be acquired.

Enforce laws designed to protect resources on
state-owned land.

6.18 Waste Management

How can the State protect water quality and public
health from the adverse effects of liquid, solid and
hazardous waste and at the same time conserve energy and
natural resources?


Eliminate the discharge of inadequately treated
wastewater and poor quality stormwater runoff into the
waters of the state.

Identify and develop alternative methods of wastewater
treatment, disposal and reuse of wastewater to reduce
degradation of water resources.

Conserve water by reducing the amount of wastewater and
also by encouraging the reuse of wastewater.

Regulate the storage, treatment, disposal and
transportation of hazardous waste and require plans for
proper handling.

Coordinate hazardous waste management efforts with
other states.

Emphasize the identification and cleanup of hazardous
waste sites.

Promote the research, development and implementation of
recycling, resource recovery, energy recovery and other
methods of utilizing municipal garbage, trash, sewage
sludge, and hazardous waste.

Vigorously enforce hazardous waste laws and
aggressively prosecute the violators of these laws.

Develop a strong protection and water quality
regulatory program for groundwater.

6.19 Water Resource Protection and Management

How can the State protect its water quality and manage
water and related land resources to provide water supplies
for human and environmental needs and to protect against

Assure availability of an adequate and afforca.ble
supply of water for all reasonable-beneficial uses. Uses of
water authorized by a permit shall be limited to
reasonable-beneficial uses.

Ensure that a nonstructural alternative is part of
every water resource proposal.

Reserve from use that water necessary to support
essential non-withdrawal demands, including navigation,
recreation, wetlands and the protection of fish and

Promote water conservation as an integral part of water
management programs, rules, and plans and the use and reuse
of water of the lowest acceptable quality for the purpose

Utilize, preserve, restore, and enhance natural water
management systems and discourage the channelization or
other alteration of natural rivers, streams and lakes.

Protect the water storage and water quality enhancement
functions of wetlands, floodplains, and aquifer recharge
areas through acquisition, enforcement of laws, and the
application of land and water management practices which
provide for compatible uses.

Mitigate adverse impacts resulting from prior
alteration of natural hydrologic patterns and fluctuations
in surface and ground water levels.

Establish minimum flows and levels to protect water
resources and the environmental values associated with
marine, estuarine, freshwater, and wetlands ecology.

Utilize nonstructural solutions to water resource
problems and give adequate consideration to nonstructural
alternatives whenever practical.

Manage floodplains and other flood hazard areas to
prevent or reduce flood damage, consistent with
establishment and maintenance of desirable hydrologic
characteristics of such areas.

Manage the construction and operation of facilities
which dam, divert, or otherwise alter the flow of surface
waters to prevent increased flooding, soil erosion or
excessive drainage.

Encourage the development of local or regional water
supplies within districts rather than transport water across
District boundaries.

Control point and non-point sources of water pollution
to the greatest degree feasible as provided by law.

Develop interstate agreements and undertake cooperative
programs with Alabama and Georgia to provide for coordinated
management of surface and ground waters.

Encourage research on nonstructural techniques for both
water quality and quantity resource problems.

Encourage the preservation of mature vegetation and the
use of native plants for landscaping to reduce irrigation

6.2 Agriculture


Unprecedented growth and the accompanying rural and
urban development have placed a tremendous burden on the
finite natural resources available in Florida. Both
agricultural land and forest lands are being converted to
non-agricultural and non-forest uses at an alarming rate,
and the consequences of these losses to Florida are
significant. Agriculture and related industries are vital to
the maintenance of a healthy and balanced state economy, yet
the rapid and oftentimes unguided growth poses a serious
threat to long-term agricultural and forest production.

Florida does not have a comprehensive state policy to
protect agricultural land and forest lands from conversion
to other uses. The major state program relating to such
protection are the agricultural preferential tax assessment
(Greenbelt), Chapter 193.461, Florida Statutes; Soil and
Water Conservation Districts, Chapter 582, Florida Statutes;
and protection for farmers against nuisance complaints,
Chapter 823.14, Florida Statutes. Local government
comprehensive planning and zoning has had only limited
success in protecting these lands from urban development.

6.21 Agricultural Land Protection

How can the State protect its agricultural land, which
is being converted to nonagricultural uses at a rate of
347,800 acres per year, due primarily to heavy development

Create an Agricultural Lands Study Committee to review
the agricultural lands conversion issue, and prepare
necessary legislation to help mitigate the problem.

Ensure that the impact on agricultural land is assessed
and where possible mitigated for all major State capital

Protect, preserve and retain agricultural lands for
agricultural use, particularly those considered "prime" or

Maintain and preserve agricultural lands for food and
fiber production, particularly those lands most seriously

Accelerate and complete the Soil Survey Program.

Encourage the multiple use of agricultural lands when
such uses are compatible with production.

Encourage agricultural water conservation practices,
such as trickle irrigation, recycling and reuse of properly
treated agricultural wastes, wastewater, and runoff.

Require an agricultural element in the Local Government
Comprehensive Plans.

Gain an understanding of the energy and water demands
of different types of farming activities.

Support legislation for and funding of technical
assistance to local governments to develop and implement
programs to preserve and protect agricultural lands by
curtailing farm land conversion.

Provide incentives that will encourage local
governments and farmers to retain agricultural land for
agricultural use.

Involve the U.S. Soil Conservation Service in
implementing State policies and plans which can benefit from
their expertise.

6.22 Forest Development and Management

How can the forest resources of the State be best
managed and protected in order to provide wood products,
recreation and natural resources?

Provide resources and assistance to ensure improved
development, quicker replanting, better management, more
efficient utilization, and further enjoyment of forest

Encourage multiple use of forest resources to provide
for timber production, recreation, wildlife habitat,
*atershed protection, erosion control, and maintenance of
air and water quality.

Protect forest resources from fire, pest, and disease
by developing a strong forest fire management and protection
program, and an effective pest and disease evaluation and
management program.

Provide professional urban forestry assistance to
promote the use of native trees for energy conservation and
improved air quality, and tree planting to enhance community

Encourage the use of Best Management Practices in
forest lands to preserve land, air, and water quality.

Encourage government to utilize native plantings in
thier projects.

Re-establish to the extent possible appropriate native
communities that have been modified, invaded by exotics or
6.3 Recreation and Culture


Warm, sunny outdoors and a beautiful natural
environment attract more than 30 million tourists to Florida
annually. Saltwater related beach activities represent the
State's most valuable and pursued recreational asset. Over
the past several years, Florida has developed one of the
best state park programs in the nation. However, spiraling
costs and decreasing availability of choice recreational
land make it increasingly difficult to maintain the
acquisition and management capabilities necessary to
continue providing high quality recreational and cultural
opportunities to a growing population.

A prosperous tourist industry and a strong statutory
basis create a receptive climate for visual and performing
arts. However, the State's achievements in the arts have
been limited due to a lack of adequate funding.

At the community level, 344 libraries help to fulfill
Florida's educational and cultural needs by providing books,
films, magazines, reading and community rooms for all to
share. Lack of adequate funding has likewise impeded the
full development of the local libraries program.

6.31 Archaeological and Historical Resources Protection

How can the State improve the identification,
protection, and evaluation of significant archaeological and
historical sites and properties?

Ensure the identification, evaluation and protection of
significant archaeological and historical resources on
state-owned and controlled lands, and in the administration
of state sponsored, funded or regulated development

Encourage the identification, evaluation and protection
of significant archaeological and historical resources on
private lands.

Encourage adaptive re-use of existing historic
structures for public and private facilities as an energy
conscious and cost effective alternative to new

Provide incentives that will encourage local government
and private citizens to preserve and adaptively re-use
historical and archaeological sites and properties.

Encourage public understanding of and involvement in
the preservation of the state's historical and
archaeological resources through education and awareness
6.32 Arts and Culture

How can the State develop a high quality and effective
performing and visual arts program? Should the State provide
better funding for local libraries?

Encourage the development of a statewide arts program
that will complement the State's economic and social
development efforts.

Prioritize the development of high quality fine arts
programs to maximize limited resources.

Develop an arts construction strategy based on
assessment of regional and statewide capabilities and needs.

Improve the quality and quantity of libraries in the

Inventory facilities available for arts activities and
develop a coordinated planning and development program for
major cultural facilities throughout the State.

6.33 Recreation

How can the State continue to ensure the availability
of quality outdoor recreational opportunities?

Emphasize the acquisition of sandy beach front property
on the Gulf and Ocean and provide recreational access to
those beaches.

Provide for increased public use and benefit of the
State's outdoor recreational land.

Continue the acquisition and development of State lands
for recreational use with emphasis on high quality resources
and public accessibility.

Provide recreation programs, sites, and facilities
which best meet public needs.

Expand recreational opportunities, particularly in and
around urban areas to provide convenient and energy
conservative outdoor recreation.

Emphasize interagency coordination and cooperation in
providing improved and diversified outdoor recreational

Ensure that the use of recreational land is compatible
with the protection of valuable natural resources.



Florida's transportation system moves people and goods
by many modes and vehicles provided by both the public and
private sectors. The system is comprised of many elements
and each mode has separate vehicles, routes and terminal
facilities which are interconnected to permit portal-to-
portal movement. Although transportation is a service and
subservient to population growth, economic development, and
land use policies, it has a major impact on land use, popu-
lation density and distribution and economic development.
In addition, an excellent transportation system is essential
to sustain the continued growth of Florida's tourism indus-

The development of a transportation system is
influenced by the natural and socio-economic environment
in which it performs. Florida's transportation system has
been created in response to the state's unique geography,
its economy and population profiles, its natural environ-
ment, and the uses of its land. The creation of this
transportation system has had a corresponding influence on
those factors.

A major element in the development of Florida is its
pleasant sub-tropical climate. Much of the state is a low-
lying peninsula separating the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf
of Mexico. The state's coastline of 8,500 miles is the
longest in the United States. Higher lands are in the
panhandle and along the northern state line. The state is
notable for its more than 30,000 lakes, the largest of which
is the 700 square mile Lake Okeechobee, and for the Ever-
glades occupying the southern part of the state. A rich
vegetation and extraordinarily attractive natural environ-
ment has developed and flourished in the warm and moist

The configuration of the state and its boundaries
places it in two time zones. Distances between parts of
the state impose Texas-sized transportation problems. It is
653 miles from Miami to Pensacola, 322 miles from Naples to
Jacksonville, and 354 miles from Jacksonville to Pensacola.
The state extends an equivalent distance from Philadelphia
and New York to Chicago.

Florida is one of the more rapidly growing states in
the nation. With so many retired persons, the population
is older than the national average, and this affects all
aspects of life in Florida including the political process.
Of course, all parts of the state have not grown at an equal


Maintenance of a quality environment is also essential.
Environmental considerations now affect all new urban
development in the state. Because of air and noise pollu-
tion, any adverse impacts of transportation facilities on
the environment are magnified. Metropolitan areas in six
counties currently violate federal air quality standards.

Rapid population growth has made it extremely difficult
to guide and direct new development to its optimum location,
to insure that it is of a satisfactory quality, and to
supply rapidly growing urban areas with needed public
services and facilities, including transportation.

The existing transportation system has evolved with the
state. A state road department was created in 1915; Federal
Aid for highways initiated in 1916; and a state gas tax was
imposed in 1921. Railroad construction occurred early in
this century. The system of airports was initiated in 1936.
Long-range highway planning was initiated in 1935; planning
on the local and state level became more universal and
accepted, and such planning included transportation facili-
ties as an integral element. Public investment in the
Florida highways has been estimated to total $6,500,000,000
or about $725 per capital. The total investment in the other
components is not known.

The existing transportation system moves goods and
people by many means. The many means of travel are provided
by both public and private agencies operating within the
state and nationally. These include local and state levels
of activity on both federal and non-federal systems; federal
systems receive federal financial assistance. The current
annual level of public expenditures for transportation is
about one and one-half billion dollars. The purchase of
vehicles, their servicing, provision of fuels and other
needed materials, and other activities may add another seven
billion dollars. The total represents 13 percent of the
total state personal income of $65 billion in 1978.

The basic element of transportation is a trip from one
place to another by goods or people, with frequently more
than one means of travel being used to make the trip. The
trip may be as simple as walking to one's car, driving to
another location, and walking to the final destination.
Trips involve a vehicle, a route, and terminals. The move-
ment of goods such as food, clothing, and other necessities
can become even more complicated, involving numerous means
of travel, intermediate storage points, and final delivery
to the customer (who often makes an additional trip to
deliver the goods to a final destination).

Thus, the transportation system is made up of many
elements, each of which has its own vehicles, routes, and
terminal facilities. These are interconnected and often

overlap to the extent that portal-to-portal movement of
people and goods can be accomplished; unfortunately, con-
gestion and conflict often make these movements less effi-
cient than desirable.

The transportation system can be divided into three

1. The surface subsystem: streets and highways,
truck transportation, bus and other public
transit, railroads, pipelines, bikeways, and
pedestrian ways.

2. The air subsystem: airports and airways.

3. The water subsystem: ports and navigation

These inter-relate; the air and water subsystems seldom
accommodate an entire trip without use of the surface sub-

1.0 Highway Issues


Over 90,000 miles of streets and highways serve
Florida's.residents and visitors. This highway network is
divided jurisdictionally among state, county, municipal and
private entities. It accommodates over 70 billion vehicle
miles of travel each year which consume in excess of 5.4
billion gallons of motor fuel annually. Users of the system
pay over $212 million annually in vehicle registration fees,
$648 million in motor fuel taxes (including $216 million
collected by the Federal Government), and $97 million in

1.1 Financing Florida's Highways

What are the most appropriate methods of financing Florida's
highway system?


Encourage the establishment of a user-fee
system of transportation revenues that
insures that all users, private, public and
commercial, pay their equitable share of
highway costs.

Insure that local governments receive an
equitable share of transportation revenues
so that local governments are able to
maintain and provide an adequate local
road system.

Encourage changes to State laws and the
federal funding system that will allow
Florida to utilize federal funds based
upon state priorities.

Provide additional funding mechanisms
and flexibility to local governments.

1.2 Intergovernmental Jurisdiction Responsibilities

Is the current system of responsibility for roads and
traffic control devices appropriate?

Jurisdictional responsibility for the
state's highway and road system should
be allocated among the state, counties
and cities based upon use criteria.

Insure that revenues for maintenance of
the highway and road system are allocated
among the state and local governments so
that jurisdictional responsibilities can
be met.

Review the responsibility for maintenance
of the traffic signalization system so
that, as much.as possible, systems are
uniform throughout the state and revenues
are available at the appropriate level of
government for adequate maintenance.

Funding for maintaining traffic signals
should be based on use criteria, but
timing and coordination of signals should
reside with the local government.

1.3 Toll Road Development

Does the present system of toll road development best
accommodate the basic responsibilities of each level of

When constructing toll facilities, insure
that planning and development are coordi-
nated by integrating the needs of interested
private and public parties.

Toll roads and bridges are a viable solution
to construction financing when the benefits
of the construction are predominantly local.

The State should promote the increased use
of toll facilities on the State highway system
where applicable.
1.4 Transportation Regulation

What is the appropriate level of truck, bicycle and moped
regulation in Florida?

Encourage the de-regulation of the trucking
industry except in those cases where it
is clearly needed for the health, safety
and welfare of Florida's citizens. Any
regulations should be results-oriented, not
process oriented.

SProvide regulation of bicycles or mopeds
only in those instances where they are
clearly needed for the health, safety and
welfare of Florida's citizens, con-
sistent with a user pay policy.

Increased availability of pathways for

bicycles and mopeds should be encouraged
including funding through user fees and
state matching funds.

2.0 Public Transit Issue


There are over 24 transit systems operating in Florida
with 15,000 buses serving 5,000,000 people. Fares collected
pay less than half of the public transit operating costs.
Local governments are currently experiencing great diffi-
culty in funding these systems and face the prospect of
losing federal support. The only rail rapid transit system
in Florida is the Metro Rail Rapid Transit System currently
being constructed in Dade County. However, the private
sector has recently decided to examine the feasibility of
operating a high speed "bullet train" between major Florida
cities with possible utilization of existing limited access
highway corridors. Funds for planning and design phases of
"people movers" for several major cities have recently been

2.1 Finance Transit Capital Improvements

Are current policies for funding public transit adequate
and appropriate?

Establish a direct relationship between
the State and local funding for capital

Authorize additional local government
funding resources for public transit costs.

2.2 Transportation Disadvantaged

What role should the State play in providing transportation
services to the elderly, physically handicapped, and other
disadvantaged citizens?

Establish standards for all transportation
providers to assure availability of safe
and efficient transportation for the dis-

Establish a funding mechanism through
social service providers to provide funding
for continuing costs of the availability
of transportation services to the dis-

Investigate the possibility of returning
urban transit systems to private owner-
ship and creation of public administration
for specific funding for selected client
groups and public purposes.

Provide State funding to help local govern-
ments and nonprofit providers acquire the
needed capital improvements to provide
transportation opportunities to the dis-

2.3 Jurisdictional Responsibilities

Are current jurisdictional responsibilities for public
transit appropriate to maximize effective service delivery
to all user groups?

Maintain the current jurisdictional role
of the State in public transportation.

Increase the State's exercise of that role
by increasing interaction with local govern-
ments on planning, design, and construction
of projects.

Encourage dual use of public school system
transportation resources.

Increase the State's role in meeting transit
needs through ride-sharing.

2.4 Economic Regulation

What level of economic regulation should be applied to
intrastate public transit systems in Florida?

Maintain deregulation of intercity buses,
but provide a means for small communities
to provide incentives to private enterprise

Minimize regulation of intracity buses and
make all regulations result-oriented instead
of process-oriented.

Provide targeted assistance for the trans-
portation disadvantaged instead of general
assistance to all users.

3.0 Railroads


There are more than 4,000 miles of railroad track in
Florida which transports about 55 percent of all commodities
originating in the State and about 1 million passengers
annually. The tax value of railroad property in the State
is in excess of $10 million. Due to concentration of
service areas, approximately 300 miles of track is proposed
for abandonment, and the State has recently implemented a
modest program to purchase abandoned rail rights of way.
Rail passenger service in the State is provided by Amtrak,
a quasi-public corporation established by Congress.

3.1 Preservation and Relocation

Are current policies regarding preservation and relocation
of rail facilities and rail lines appropriate?


Encourage the acquisition of abandoned
rail rights-of-way when necessary for
urban mass transit needs.

Provide local entities with mechanisms
for creating incentives to maintain rail

3.2 Rail Safety/Jurisdiction

What should the State's role in rail safety be?


.Maintain the State's role of enforcing
Federal standards.

3.3 Economic Regulation

Are existing policies regarding regulation of intrastate
rail speed and safety appropriate?


SDeregulate intrastate rail activities,
except for continued safety requirements.


4.0 Aviation Issues


Florida's 450 airports serve over 22 million passengers
and accommodate movement of over 400,000 tons of cargo and
mail annually. There are 16 large air carrier airports in
the State that transport approximately 1/3 of all visitors
to Florida and over 400 general aviation airports that pri-
marily serve small aircraft. Florida airports accommodate
over 46,000 licensed pilots and more than 12,000 general
aviation aircraft. Airports are usually constructed and
operated by local governments or authorities with funding
provided primarily by the Federal Aviation Administration,
landing or other user fees paid by aircraft operators, and
modest grants from the State for matching federal grants.
4.1 Funding Florida's Airports

Is the State's current role in providing funding assistance
to air carrier and general aviation airports appropriate?

Ensure an equitably structured state
funding program that will provide suffi-
cient revenues for the state's aviation
related needs in accordance with state-
wide transportation priorities.

Institute the "user fee" concept in
aviation funding.

Expand the State's role in aviation
funding by providing a direct link for
State participation in capital projects.
4.2 Intergovernmental Jurisdiction of Airports

Is the present jurisdictional assignment for development
and operation of airports a reasonable division of responsi-
bility among Federal, State and local entities?


Maintain the state's present role
and participation in airport develop-
ment, oversight and management unless
changes in federal policy dictate
additional statewide responsibilities
are needed.

Maintain the present jurisdictional
assignment among the various levels
of government.

Provide specific statutory authority
for the State's role and make it compatible
with the Statute on Public Transit.

Support continued deregulation of the
air industry, except for safety require-


4.3 Registration and Licensing

Does the State's current role in the registration and
licensing of aircraft, airports, and tall structures provide
adequate safeguards to protect the public?

Encourage long term airport development
planning as a part of state plans, Regional
Comprehensive Policy Plans, and Local
Government Comprehensive Plans.

Minimize air industry regulation and make
all safety regulations result-oriented
instead of process-oriented.

Increase private involvement in airport
management by encouraging local governments
and airport authorities to use competitive
bidding for management contracts.

5.0 Pipeline Issues


There are over 3,200 miles of pipelines in Florida.
The predominant portion of this system (over 2,800 miles)
is used to transport natural gas with the remainder utilized
for petroleum products. Other than certain safety regula-
tions, the State assumes no jurisdiction over pipelines.
However, development and construction of new pipelines or
corridors requires action and policy decisions by State

5.1 Jurisdictional Responsibilities
Do currently defined areas of responsibility for pipelines
in Florida provide the best arrangement for growth of the

Maintain current jurisdictional

Within existing resources, monitor
pipeline growth and jurisdictional
6.0 Water Transportation


Twenty-seven public ports within the State accommodate
the transportation of over 80 million tons of commodities
each year. This mode is utilized to move a major portion
of phosphate rock, petroleum products, coal, and sulphur.
Sixteen of these ports are deep water ports. State Govern-
ment does not operate ports; but the State Legislature
establishes, by separate acts, public ports and independent
agencies. Seven of the ten major ports are independent
authorities, two operate under county government management
and one under municipal management.

6.1 Financing Florida's Ports

Are current policies for funding ports appropriate?


Encourage sufficient revenues for port
funding consistent with a user pay policy.
6.2 Port Jurisdictional Responsibilities

Does the present delineation of responsibilities for water-
ports foster the development necessary to support the
State's growth?

Maintain the current jurisdictional
roles among the state, local governments,
and port authorities.

Provide increased cooperation and
communication among the various State
agencies having responsibilities in
the area of ports.

Agricultural Transportation Problems

How can the state protect the shipping of fresh produce within the state and

nationally, which is threatened by the decreasing number of carriers due to high

interest rates, capital replacement costs, high fuel costs, and no backhaul



o Encourage the standardization of shipping containers, and the use of pallets
and slipsheets.

o Promote the economical and efficient distribution of agricultural products of
this state.

o Encourage cooperative efforts among growers to gain economical and efficient
transportation of agricultural products.

o Encourage the industry to adopt more efficient and economical shipping

o Provide state assistance to growers in the event of a truck shortage or strike
in the movement of perishable produce.

o Develop a system to assist truckers in obtaining backhaul loads into Florida.

o Provide facilities at State Farmers' Markets to assist truckers during layover


Governmental Administration Page


1.0 Human Resources
1.1 Employee Productivity 2
1.2 Equal Employment Opportunity 6
1.3 Contracting for Services 8
1.4 Public Sector Labor Relations 11

2.0 Physical Resources
2.1 Energy Conservation: State and
Non-State Responsibilities 13
2.2 Governmental Facilities 15

3.0 Support Services
3.1 Information Resource Management 18
3.2 Purchasing: Competition 21

4.0 Regulation of Professions
4.1 Standards for Regulation 26
4.2 Interstate Transfer of Licensure 28

5.0 Cash Management 30

6.0 Accountability of Public Mangers 31

7.0 Taxation

7.1 Adequacy 33
7.2 Stability 36
7.3 Neutrality 37
7.4 Efficiency 39
7.5 Earmarking 41
7.6 Equity 42


The primary goal of State government is to provide services
to its citizens in a cost effective, efficient and timely
manner. Governmental administration provides the underlying
policies and procedures which can either support cr uncer-
mine these goals. Labor relations is a key component in how
the work force is manager. Florida's history is recent but
instructive in this area.

The issues and policies in this guide are intended to
provide support for ti.e State's major policy cirecticns.
This guide covers issues under seven main governmental
administration areas:

1. Human Resources
2. Physical Resources
3. Support Services
4. Public Regulation of Professions
5. Cash Management
6. Public Accountability and Procuctivity
7. Tax Section

Human Resources

Government is labor intensive. The cost of salary anc
benefits exceeds 2 billion dollars; this figure woule be
much higher if the salary and benefit costs that are
provided in the form of grants to school districts and local
governments were included. Effective human resource
management is the centerpiece of productivity anc central to
the State's service delivery goals.

Physical Resources

These are the brick and mortar resources of state
government. Cover the last decade there has been wide
fluctuation in expenditures from a low of 97 million in
1971-72 to a high of 364 million in 1981-82. Recent
priorities include: 1. maintenance and repair of existing
facilities; 2. provision of physical resources for client
services at the hospitals, retardation centers and community
correction centers; 3. energy conservation to lower
operational costs; and 4. construction of general office
buildings where high private costs make it economically

Support Services

Support services include purchasing, record keeping, bill
paying, and the various telecommunications and data

processing areas that basically support administrative or
program functions. There is considerable debate concerning
the costs of information management ana its organizational
design. Ccitrol over government enterprise is largely
through the collection and dissemination of information.
Broader issues such as office automation and deregulation of
telecommunication services need a State response over the
next biennium. Many of these issues are being studied by the
Joint Select Committee on Electronic Data Processing which
will be making its report prior to the 1983 Session.

State government purchase over $2 billion collars in goocs
and services. To assure competition and access to a brcac
spectrum of vendors, the State must have procedures which do
not inhibit the willingness of firms to do business with the

Public Regulation

An increasing number of professional-occupational groups are
requesting regulation. Typically, a rigorous examination of
the potential threat to public health and safety is lacking.
Individual professional regulation is conducted by several
State departments--Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS),
Education, and Professional Regulation (DPR). The Department
of Professional Regulation is the largest repository with
over 800,000 licenses in 27 professions.

Recent legislative initiatives have favored DPR as the
appropriate department fr additional group licensure. For
example, a part of the Emergency Medical Services
reauthorization act directs the Auditor General to examine
HRS allied health licensure to determine whether transfer tc
DPR is justified.

The public safety aspect of licensure is continually in
question. Whose interests are served--the public or the
practitioner--is an ongoing debate.


The primary goal of tax administration policy is to generate
a sufficient and stable revenue flow to func a given package
of State provided goods and services. The kind of taxes and
the types of activities taxed interact to determine the
magnitude of funds available. The result of this interaction
depends upon the neutrality, efficiency, and equity
characteristics of the State tax structure.

1.0 Human Resources

1.1 Employee Productivity

Issue Definition

How can the public sector maximize the productivity of its


c The public sector shall d4.velop and maintain
compensation plans that provide fair wages
for work performed and ensure internal equity
within the system.

o The public sector shall develop and maintain
compensation plans which allow appropriate
competition within the labor market.

o T..e public sectcr shall consider all elements
of compensation in the development and
maintenance of compensation plans.

o The public sector shall develop, implement, and
encourage participation in programs for recognition
of meritorious performance.

o Tne public sector shall develop and implement
performance appraisal systems base on objective
job-related factors.

o The public sector shall develop and maintain
organizational and job classification structures
which maximize opportunities for career advancement.

o The public sector shall provide its employees
opportunities to acquire increased knowledge and
skills necessary to deliver services in keeping
with current and anticipated conditions and

o The public sector shall provide its employees
opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills
necessary for upward mobility within the work

o The State shall develop a comprehensive plan for
t'Aining and developing employees which shall

an assessment of training needs,

identification of training priorities,

identification of strategies for delivery
of training which are cost efficient and
cost effective,

a proposed method for determining training
costs and identifying training expenditures.


1.2 Equal Employment Opportunity

Issue Definition

How can the public sector ensure the right of all citizens
to compete for government employment based on their
knowledge, skills and abilities, uninhibited by race, sex,
age, religion, national origin or handicapping conditions?

o The public sector shall ensure that employment
decisions are based upon valid requirements
to perform the job.

o The public sector shall actively seek to
employ a work force that is representative
of the State's labor market.

o The State shall develop and implement plans tc
achieve representation of Hispanic and
handicapped persons in accordance with the
State's labor market.

c The State shall develop and implement plans
to achieve representation of women, minorities
and handicapped persons in all job classes, and
across all salary ranges in accordance with
their availability in the State's labor

1.3 Contracting for Services

Issue Definition

Under what conditions should the public sector contract for


o The public sector shall consider contracting as
an alternative to direct delivery of public
services and/or adding public employees.

o The public sector shall assess the ability of
public sector agencies to deliver
services when making decisions to contract.

o The State shall develop mechanisms to accurately
compare costs and quality of service delivery.

o The State shall develop contract management
procedures to ensure that contract terms and
conditions are met and that quality of service
is maintained.

o The public sector shall ensure appropriate program
coordination and integration when contracting
for services.

o The public sector shall consider long-term impact
on public policy and operating costs when making
decisions to contract.

1.4 Public Sector Labor Relations

Issue Definition

How can the public sector maintain and enhance the delivery
of services through collective bargaining with public

o The public sector shall adhere to the letter and
intent of the law relating to public sector
collective bargaining.

o The public sector shall promote harmonious labor
relations by approaching negotiations with an
open mind and bargaining in good faith.

o The public sector shall preserve the right of the
public employer to manage government activities while
preserving the right of public employees to
collectively bargain terms and conditions of

2.0 Physical Resources

2.1 Energy Conservation: State and Hon-State
Issue Definition

What energy conservation goals and programs shculc be
pursued by State government?

What programs and services are appropriate to insure tihe
conservation of energy by State operations?

How should the State stimulate energy conservation by
non-State sectors?

How should the State assist in developing.and promoting
renewable energy resources?


o The State shall continue a coordinated approach to
energy conservation that will stimulate each Florida
citizen to adjust energy consumption patterns in a way
that will preserve the quality of life and growth rate
that we currently enjoy.

o The State shall continue energy conservation efforts
in State operations through continued enhancement anc
emphasis of the State Energy management Plan and
analysis of construction plans to stimulate energy
efficient design in State facilities.

o State government shall be a strong advocate and
sponsor for research and development of renewable
energy applications. Capital expenditures
to convert State facilities to renewable
energy should be expanded when the economic
feasibility is clearly demonstrated.

2.2 Governmental Facilities

Issue Definition

What policy should the State adopt concerning the
improvement, maintenance, repair anc replacement of public
facilities owned and operated by all levels of government in

Uhat methods should the State employ to acquire the use of
facilities required to carry out State programs?

oEw can multi-use of State facilities between State
government, local governments, and private entities be
festered? To ::hat extent is this desirable?

o The State shall develop an assessment of the overall
capital maintenance required to preserve the integrity
of all public facilities in Florida and develop a plan
to satisfy these needs.

c The State shall develop and install a preventive
maintenance program that will maximize the useful
life of major equipment components at all State

o The State shall continue the established pattern
of State ownership of major institutions. Increases
in the ratio of State-owned office facilities shall
occur only after a thorough analysis of the special
requirements associated with the functions proposed
for location in a new facility and a comparison of
the life cycle costs of ownership versus lease-hold

o The State shall actively pursue joint facilities
planning, financing, construction and occupancy
ventures with local government and private entities.

o The State shall intensify its effort to install a
viable long-range facilities planning system which
includes a provision for advanced pursuit of site

3.0 Support Services

3.1 Information Resource Ianagement

Issue Definition

To what extent should the State consolidate authority and
responsibility for the direction and management of its
information collection, retention and dissemination


o The State shall develop and staff a resource
management organization with State-wide policy
development responsibility and authority for
management and coordination of information resources,
information resource exchange and data communications.

o The State will consider the rights of its citizens
to privacy in the design of cata security.

o The State shall encourage managers to develop agency
information management plans which respond to
their programs.

3.2 Purchasing: Competition

To what extent does the State of Florica contract with small
and/or minority business for governmental wcrk?

Eow can the State ensure broac access to government
contracts by small and/or minority businesses?


o Procurement procedures should be continually
reviewed for any unnecessary complexity, both in
the method for submitting bids as well as the form and
content of bid information. Approaches including
regional or substate delivery, or less comprehensive
contracts should be considered where it is cost

o The State shall pay its bills promptly in
accordance with Section 215.422, Florida Statutes.

o The State shall promote an environment of
accessibility, information exchange, and education to
inform and solicit minority business enterprise on
State contracts.

4.0 Regulation of Professions

4.1 Standards for Regulation

Issue Definition

When should the State regulate a profession and to what
degree should it be regulated?

o Encourage a balanced debate between the citizenry
and professional groups during review and consideration
of requests for regulation.

o Fromote enactment of a sunrise process that requires,
a singular set of well-defined criteria for reviewing
the need for regulation and ensure that the least
restrictive level of regulation is imposed.

o The State should promote the development of
national standards for the regulation of

4.2 Interstate Transfer of Licensure

Issue Definition

To what extent should the State ensure that cut-cf-state
practitioners have fair and reasonable entry to the
professions in Florida?

o Promote licensure by endorsement by encurinc that
State standards are only high enough to protect the
public's safety.

o Encourage the utilization of national exams by all
regulatory boards so that a common standard will be
available. If a national exam does not exist for a
profession, promote the creation of one.

o Continue oversight of regulatory bodies to ensure
reasonable access to Florida's professional fields.

5.0 Cash managementt

Issue Definition

What practices should the government use to maximize use of

o The State should use modern business technologies
to maximize its opportunity to invest its revenues
and cash balances.

o The State should balance its obligations to pay its
bills in a timely manner with efficient receipt,
processing anc cisbursement of funcs.

6.0 Accountability of Public tlanagers

Issue Definition

How can the State enhance the accountability of government
managers to provide effective, efficient services to the
citizens of the State?

To what extent should the State develop more effective
systems for preventing and detecting fraud anc abuse, making
it more difficult, and decreasing the likelihood of error
and waste?


o Continue to decentralize authority and responsibility

to the operational level.

o Enhance the accountability of public management
and minimize the potential for fraud anc abuse
through implementation of a much stronger system
of management controls.

o Continue to achieve full integration of the planning
-policy-budgeting process.

o Improve the cost effectiveness of governmental
programs through the application of modern industrial
engineering techniques, behavioral science inter-
ventions, and recent technological innovations.

7.0 Taxation

The primary purpose of a State tax structure is the
generation of revenues sufficient to fund particular levels
of State provide services. This section does not address
what is an appropriate level of revenues. With this
consideration in mind, we have evaluate Florida's tax
structure in relation to the following criteria: h1,
adequate is the yield, how stable is the revenue flow, do
revenues keep pace with economic growth, how costly is it tc
administer (efficiency), how does it affect economic
decision making (neutrality), and who should bear the burden
of financing government (equity)?

In practice, as a tax structure is framed or revised,
conflict between evaluation criteria is almost inevitable.
Provisions that increase equity may complicate
administration and compliance to such an extent that evasion
becomes substantial. To resolve such conflicts, society must
weigh the importance of the various conflicting stancarcs.
Actual tax structures, thus, reflect a compromise among
different attitudes of persons about these evaluation
criteria. It is recognized, however, that these criteria can
make a strong contribution to building an optimal tax system
for the taxed community.

7.1 Adequacy

Issue Definition

Will the present tax structure generate adequate revenues to
maintain the current level of State provided services? In
particular, will it accommodate increased spending neecs as
the Florida population continues to grow?


c Value based taxation should replace unit base
taxation such as those on gasoline, cigarettes
and beverages so as to automatically adjust for
price inflation.

c ic help offset high future infrastructure ccets,
additional revenue sources will need to be found.
Taxes in the form of impact fees fcr sewer hookups,
building permits, etc. are possible solutions.


7.2 Stability

Issue Lefinition

Does the tax structure yield a stable fle% of revenues from
year to year to provide dependable funding for existing


o The State shcule maintain a "rainy cay" fund in
an amount adequate to cover a revenue shortfall.

c The State should tie the rate of spending grcwth
to the rate of growth of the SCt't's economy
and the need for State provided services.

7.3 rTeutrality

Issue Definiticn

Taxes may seriously distort economic choices of indivic.:,.ls
anc businesses. Should the State attempt to discourage cr
encourage economic behavior through the tax structure?


Taxes can be imposed on most economic activities. Trey can
be placed on consumer and business purchases, property,
income, estates, and financial transactions amonc other
things. The amount of the tax and the activity upon which it
is placed will affect choices between work and leisure, the
purchase of good A as opposed to good E, and saving cr

The main purpose of the tax structure is to raise revenues
to fund State government rather than modify behavior. Taxes
on products or activities considered potentially harr.ful to


c The primary goal of Florida's tax system should
be to raise a specific amount of revenue in an
equitable and efficient manner.

o The State should structure its tax system so
as to avoic serious distortions of economic decision
making of individuals and businesses.

o Any exceptions to the above, such as "sin" taxes or
pollution based taxes, should be examined for all
direct and indirect effects particularly in light
of the policy of other states.

o Since tax exemptions decrease the tax base
thereby increasing the taxes paid by nonexempt
persons or businesses, they should only be
used where they are base on equity considerations
or there is a clear net gain to the State.

I .

7.4 Efficiency

Issue Definition

The process of levying, paying and collecting taxes requires
administrative expenditures of both money and time. Dces the
present tax structure maximize efficiency in the ccllecticn
of and distribution of tax receipts?


The State should strive to maximize the
efficiency of the tax structure from both
the perspective of the taxpayer and of the
tax collector.

The State should eliminate all nuisance
taxes or minimize their nuisance value by
consolidation where feasible.

7.5 Earmarking

Issue Definition

Is the current practice of designating revenue from a
specific tax source to a particular program expenditure
compatible with efficiency and equity goals? Does this
practice result in the under or over funding of programs
relative to those funded out of General Revenue?

o The State should minimize the extent to which
particular revenue sources are earmarked for
particular expenditures. The General Revenue
appropriations process provides flexibility and
healthy competition for scarce tax resources.

o Earmarking should only be used where there is
a clear or direct relationship between the
activity taxed and the program funded by those

7.6 Equity

Issue Definition

How should the burden of a tax be distributed? Shculc those
who receive State provided services pay for them through
user charges (the benefit principle) or should persons be
taxed according to their individual capacity to cive up
income (the ability to pay principle)?


o With the exception of merit goods, State
provided goods and services should be finance
by specific benefit taxes and user charges.

o The State should improve the equity of the tax
structure by exempting only basic necessities
such as food and medicine from taxation.

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