Title: State of Michigan - 1955 Report on Water Resource Conditions and Uses in the Paw Paw River Basin
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00003156/00001
 Material Information
Title: State of Michigan - 1955 Report on Water Resource Conditions and Uses in the Paw Paw River Basin
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: The Conservation Foundation
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - State of Michigan - 1955 Report on Water Resource Conditions and Uses in the Paw Paw River Basin
General Note: Box 12, Folder 11 ( Conservation Foundation - Symposium Papers on Water Allocation in Eastern U. S. - 1956 ), Item 9
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00003156
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text




~szv~ ~~Qg~r~* r
-I.


-., #-9 .8

r ^-': .E..r









Q1 iiflomNs or4 USES

In the


PAW PAW CiVER AS


r -. -


- I

*'..


14 --


I


.4
*. 'W

-- -,- *, ^
':?. 4w
LAw


,,' ,,- r "-" '* ,



,. ^ .. -. '-I, ..
i- '


--4..


v. "l




-.9-
-**' .;' .' '*



'1
_. r 's



. ., "'.- .
I-^". ^'sy


2' -


7' .L-.~Lj~!*km^
+.j
rl
'"
~f~'~~w
,; ,':. ''
~i~l~ ~;rFd~ ~lq


Tr~' F~


-
:." 5


" '

n


C
5
.r
















STATE OF MICIGAN


1955


REPORT


ON


WATER R RESOURCE


CONDITIONS AND USE8


IN THE


PAW PAW RIVER BASIN


Prepared and Published

by the

Water Resources Coomassion











2 r *



Paz&

General Information 1

Population 2

Description of the Area 2

Climate 4

Geology 9

Surface Water Resources 13

Drainage and. Floods 17

Ground Water Resources 19

Municipal and Industrial Water Supply 25

Irrigation Uses 29

Summary of Pollution Status 33

Recreational Uses 35

Power .,, 36

Conclusions and Recomendations 37

References 41



Notes Three maps, presenting drainage surfacee geology and irrigation systems,
will be found at the end of the report.


A











LIST i TABLrS. BIOMRBS AND MAPS

No. Title Pat

TABLES

1 Population Trends of Municipalities 2

2 Population Trends of Townships 3

3 Annual Rainfall in Inches 5

4 Mean Annual Rainfall 6

5 Average Temperatures 7

6 Chemical Analysis of Paw Paw River 16

7 Chemical Analysis of Well Waters 24

8 Summary of Municipal Water Supplies 27

9 Summary of Industrial Water Supplies 28

10 Irrigated Crops 30

FIGURES

1 Thiessen's Precipitation Polygon 6

2 Plow Duration Curve, Paw Paw River at Riverside 14

3 Mean Monthly Discharge, Paw Paw River at Riverside 15

4 Growth Bate Curve of Irrigation 32

MAPS
1 Drainage Map of the Paw PawiWatershed See

2 Surface Geology of the Paw Paw Watershed end of

3 Irrigation Map of the Paw Paw Watershed report


1~1 _


___~_




-* ..z ". .... "' "*""*-I'" .t.- ... ...^ .. i-, -' ,-, "., ,.. '






INTRODUCTIOr

This report on the water resource conditions and uses of the Paw Paw

.iver Basin is the second of its kind to be completed by the Water Resources

Commission. The first, a report on the water resources of the Clinton River

Basin, was published in 1953. Reports are planned for other river basins in the

state where the husbandry of the water resources is or may become critical. The

Paw Paw is not a large watershed, yet there is present here a growing conflict

between uses of water for irrigation and water for industrial water dilution.

This situation becomes acute in the summer months, particularly during drought

periods.

The Commission staff has collected and analysed available data on the

water resources and uses from the files of industry, municipalities and

governmental agencies. Because of the growing use of water for irrigation,

staff members interviewed all known irrigators in the basin in order to deter-

mine the uses, practices and trends of this industry as they relate to other

water resources problems. The Commission is particularly indebted to the

farm irrigators, the Agricultural Agents of Kalamazoo, Tan.Buren and Berrien

counties and the District Horticultural Agent for assistance in the comple-

tion of this inventory of irrigation uses.

This report will serve to document these present uses and to indicate,

at least to a degree, bated on the limited data available, the availability

of the water resources of this basin. It would seem probable that future

increased uses of this resource for supply will be largely developed from

ground water sources. The chapters on the "Geology" and "Ground Water

Resources" indicate the desirability of such development.















GINRAL IO(KMASiON


The Paw Paw irver Basin occupies southern Van Buren, northern Berrien

and west central Xalamaaoo counties, extending from Benton Harbor nearly

to Kalamazoo.

Federal highway US-12 traverses the east-west length of the basin and

state highways 8-140, M-40 and M-119 cross it north and south. Numerous

primary county roads, join with these main arteries of traffic. The New

York Central and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad serve the cities and

larger villages.

Principal industrial activities are food processing and the manufacturing

of home appliances, paper, automobile parts and other metal products. A

number of wineries and small dairies also are operated in the basin.

The light, sandy loam soils are well suited to the production of fruits

and vegetables. These crops not only support the food processing industries,

but also contribute substantially to the world-famous Benton Harbor Truit

Market. The large acreages of fruits and vegetables require heavy employ-

ment of migrant workers during the growing and harvesting seasons. At

those times, small villages of these migrant workers are not unusual on the

larger farms.

A survey in the summer of 1954 reported 254 irrigation systems which

were supplying supplemental moisture to some 5,500 acres of vegetables,

fruits and specialty crops.










POPUL TION (1)

The population data for the major political subdivisions of the Paw Paw
Basin are shown in Tables No. 1 and 2.

Table No. 1
Population Trends of the Paw Paw River Basin

Area 1950 % Gain Population
City or Village se.mi. Density 1940-50 1950 1940 1930
Berrien County

Bentonq..rbor City 3.32 5,651, 12.60 18,769 16,668 15,434

Ooloa -. City .41 2,53w 8.44 1,041 960, 826

Watervliet --City .67 1,980 11.23 1,327 1,193 1,207

Van Buren County

Bartford Vill g .96 1,915 8.50 1,838 1,694 1,484

lawrence Village 1.38 492 0.0 679 679 570
Paw Paw IVillage 1,20 1,98,5 24.71 2,382 1,910 1,684

Lawton -- Village 2.25 536 6.35 1,206 1,134 1,164



aSoaiPtioN Or THE ABA

The Paw Paw River rises along the western edge of falamasoo County, flows

generally in a westerly direction some 60 miles to join the St. Joseph River

within the city limits of Benton harbor. The drainage area, consisting of
446 sq. miles, is shaped somewhat similar to the leaf of the burr oak. The
north and south branches join the main stem in Waverly Township in Vat Buren
County. The watershed is a rolling, glaciated region, ranging in elevation"
from practically Lake Michigan level (578') at the mouth, to elevations ofT

1000 feet at the eastern end of the basin.,








Table No. 2


Township


S Po1ilatioa

'eaig


Treads of

1950
1ena4p k


Par Paw Blver Bsia


1Q~n 19150


Berrien eC6nty
Benton township

Bainbridge Township

Eager Township

Coloea eowaship

Watervliet Township

Van auren Oolaty
Keeler ownship

Hamilton Township

Decatur Township

Porter Township

Hartford& Township

Lawrence Township

Paw Paw Township

Antwerp Township

Covert Township

Bangor Township

Arlington ovwnship

Waverly Township

Almena Township

Bloomingdale Township

Pine Grove Township

Kalamazoo County
Prairie Bonade Towuship

Texas Township

Oehteno Township

Alaso T2wnsh1p


19V


421

61

123

142

86


87.18
S7.23

71.52

-1.48

58.00


26.36

4.30

13.04

8.33

5.35
5.26

18.03

21.50

3.40

11.03

-5.27

9.59
6.85

-0.36

25.00


-15.07

31.03

34.83

20.94


15,171

2,194

2.451

2,267

1,715


1,414

898

1,092

845

1,418

1,120

1.368
1,746

1,734
1,218

1,043
914
1,014

1,092

1,280


36

36

36

36

36

36.5

37.5

36

35

36

35.5

34.5
36

36

36


36

36

36
$4


8,105

2,046

1.429

2,301

1,086


1.119

861

966

780

1.346
1,064

1,159

1,437

1,677

1,097
1,101

834
949

1,096

1,032


670

1,028

1,892

1,060


5,631

1,838

1,343

1,993
948


946

793

1,036

843

1.141

923

1,229

1,399

1,402

1,073

1,055

875
781

850

992


630

794

1,620

921


39

25

30

23

39

31

36

49

50

34
29

27
28

30

36


16

37

71

36


569

1,347

2,551
1,282


S -,w -- --


,~,L",










The Kalasazoo eoraine just yest' the it ,of Xaauoo forms the divide

between the Paw Paw and Kalamasoo River Basins. Elevations between 90' and

1,000' above sea level.,re commOn along Ihs ridge-

Throughout the entire area, the soils consis slargeley. of aady loaos

with nmBerous, gravel tposita.6 commercial valueQ (The many lakes and marshes

in the headwater"area feed the stream, aAndthe saady loam soil. of. the basin,

being favorable, to rather high infiltration rates, maintakr ;setrable iound

water conditions.) These hydrological factors have produced a stable streak;

with greater base flows than other streams not too distant froi the Paw Paw.


CLIMAX (4)

The climate of this basin is considerably moderated by Lake Michigan

lying immediately to the west. In the region all along the lakes .eastern

shore, the extremes of temperature,both winter and summer, are reduced. This

great expanse of water warms very slowly in the summer and cools slowly in

the winter. The prevailLng westerly winds tend to carry this effect over the

leeward shore. Since most winter storms approach from the west, they are

made less severe, the temperature being 200 to 300 higher here than farther

inland during extreme cold spells. The Paw Paw Basin lies within the area

known as the fruit belt,where climatic conditions especially favor fruit

production. The slow warm-up in the spring retards the fruit buds until

danger of frost Is past and the reverse is true in the fall, allowing fruits

to ripen before killing frosts occur.

The average rainfall in this area is 35.52 inches (Table 4), about 5

inches more than the state average. Most of this rain,,lpcant during te

growing seasaq Seria d Troughts are rare, The most severe on record occurred

in 1908 covering a perio of 47 days in August, Sptember, a lqpber during

which time only .50 4 .7?5 inch* of rain: fell. pamperaturees 9bye 900 rand

below fare rare along the lake sharp.
t
. .


___ 1__~_1 ____




-~~1


Table No. 3

ANNUAL AIMnALL IN lmC=r (4)


Beatoa
i arbor


1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938.
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1990
1951
1952
1953
1954


21.07
26.37
30.25
31.31
29.35
19.59
30.93
31.95
35.15
32.27
43.74
28.73
38.714 .
,30.83
31.23
30.30
44.437
36.22
48.98 '
30.85
38.26
23.27
36. 7"
31.90 '
32a. 2
41.05
38.61
30.10
24.94
49.09


Average at
station


33.288


1.Zan
Ale Clalre


33.93
36.34
37.82
33.02
35.12
22.92
26.82
30.21
38.66
29.10
36.58
32.42
45.43
36.67
31.79
36.55
35.81
48.54
36.84
30.97
35.65
26.59

37.33
38.07
40.53
40.56 -
32.97
29.74
43.17


35.150


25.96
40.66
43.15
38,81
36.16
27.38
34.91
42 14
25.98
43.62
27.75
39.00
28.68
34.29
29.64
44.05
33.72
::'46;013
29.16
35.87
27.514
39.67
31.97
42.44
45.88
43 55
32.88
23.98
48.92


36.592


alamazoor v Pay 8o. bfsm:


35.34
39.75
37.18
37.93
39.42
25.44
28.91
34.49
39.12
25.94
38.40
35.08
40.91
35.09
39.73
42.14
38.20,
38.31
37.40
29.65
39.75
30.16
38.&4
32.16
35.85-
39.85
38.46-
30.55
21.21
37.18

35.424


31.90
34.45
36.72
35.33
35.77
21.65
29.50
32.51
41.21
27.56
37.04
36.29
37.38
36.09
34.75
35.05
43.92
41.88
42.70
30.01
39.75
32.48
43.93
38.94
41.34
44.94
49.81
34.14
27.60
47.62


36.742


-47,.43 -.
39.23
35.34
36.34
2.11.
24.75
27.06 '
29.79
35.43,
25.04
35.29'
32.02
39.10
26.46
29.39
33.14
36.45
37.06
30.36
27.81
33.84
17.63
33.44
29.83
41.17
38.17
38.89
33.00
31.63
43.54


32.691


S
















Beatam harbor

BlsM afrtel
JaI 4laire


tw Earn


THIE
PRE(


able No. 4
Deteaiantio a of Mean AW1a hinfLall on
Basin by Thiieunes Method (30 yrs. record) (4)
Arel Precipitation at ~igtod Proportioe,
lalt .bStat ionn. Inb ai
0.2326 33.288 7.74
0.0828 35.150 2.91
0.0441 36.592 1.61
0.0326 35.424 1.15
0.5540 36.742 20.35

.02532 32.691 L2
1.0000 35.52
oa the aw r weait

SSEN POLYGON FOR DETERMINING MEAN
CIPITATION IN THE PAW PAW RIVER BASIN


, / South Haven ..._ .


oo12


faire so. 2.








Table No. 5


IBA!Ra Ag.PlHATs (4)


Location

Benton Harbor


Bloomingdle


lau Claire


- Kalaraaoo


Paw Paw

South Haven


Tra. of Becord.

7Lr pr.


50 yrs.


30 yrs.

78 yrs.


85 yrs.


86 yrs.


iAn.
26.4


25.1

25.1.

25.0


25.3


25.9


76b.
26.8


25.3

27.2


24.6


26.6


*3.3


mar.

35.4

35.0

36.1


34.0


35.1


'34.4


AR.

46.3

46.6


47.5

47.0


46.5


44.8


56.9'


57.!


58.3

58.2


57..7


55.3


67.3 7243

67.7 72,1


68.7 73.8

68.1 72.7


67.8 72.8


75.4 70.5


"aM.
70,6


70.3

72,4


70.6


71.0

68.9


63.5



65.0


63.7


63.9

6).2


41.4


39.7

40.2


38.5


39.7

40.8


Oct

53.7

52.2


53.9

51.8

52.8


52.5


Oe,

30.5

28.4


28.8


27.7

28.1


29.6


Annal

49.3

48.6


49.8


48.4


48.9


48.1










MAJOR STORMS 0 RBEORD WHICH HAVT OCURAED IN THE VICINITY OF THE PAW PAW
RIVER BASIN (5)



In 1895 between the 16-21 December, a storm of 144 hoursduration occurred

with its center at Three Rivers, Michigan. This storm put 35 ever the entire

Paw Paw River Basin, and at Three Rivers, Benton Harbor and Olivet 8.4", 6.60,

and 5.4", respectively.

In 1914 during 10-12 May, 1914, a storm of 48 hoursduration occurred with

centers at Adrian and Kalamazoo. This storm put 3" over the entire Paw Paw

River Basin and at Kalamazoo and Allegan 5.20" and 3.98W, respectively.

In 1914 during 31 August, and 1 September, a storm of 6 hoursduration

occurred with center at Cooper and Bloomingdale, Michigan. The storm put 3"

over the entire Paw Paw River Basin and at Cooper and Blooaingdale 11.0" ad

10.4" of rain fell in the 6 hours.

In 1918 during 13-14 March, a storm of 36 hoursduration occurred wih

centers at Throwbridge, Charlotte, Ann Arbor. The storm put 2" over the entire

Paw Paw River Basin and at Bloomingdale 4.2" fell.

In 1941 between 30 September 7 October, 1941, a storm of 186 hours

duration occurred with its center in Davis, Oklahoma. This stora,which was

generally over the upper Mississippi Valley,covered the southern half of the

lower peninsula with 3" rain and at Zau Claire, Michigan, there were9.0".

Heavier concentrations of rainfall from local thunderstorms may have

fallen between the recording stations. This often happens because of the

small area covered by such storms and the relatively long distances between

rainfall recording stations.


_ __I __1~1~











aOUW-T (2) (3)
The geology of an area the nature and arrangement of its earth materials -

governs very importantly the occdrence and behavior of its water remoureea.

It strongly influences runoff and infiltration rainfall. It determines

where and how much underground water storage occurs. It aff cts drainage,

stream flow and. lake loevia, and has much to do with the cheaieal content W

water.
The earth materials of the Paw Paw River Basin, fro6 the land surface

to dpth beyond the bottoas f most water wellsare (glacial drift" the

debris deposited by ancient gaie Under t glacial drift i Coldwate

shale a dense, fine grained rock which was d 6loed ftroa water-laid lays

through eons of compression and cementation. The clay were deposited i *'

one of the shallow inland seas which,millions of year ago, covrf ed this

whole region. Long afterward, the shale wea raise above eba level, becaae

dry land on which was developed. an undulating terrain, with hills, valleys,

and plateaus. Some of the irregularities in the bed' rock surface ar

ohannel-like depre ions which are undoubtedly extinct river valley. They

were formed long before the glaUcier spread their mantle of sand, silt, clay,

and gravel. Buried. valm ys in other parts of the state contain gravel we'

which are iapertant sources of v"e water. 1utur' drilling miy discilso

buried channel gravel in the Paw Paw basin.

The thickness of the glacial drift varies considerably from place to 0lace

beceaise the glacier deposited drift of varioua thicknesses, and both the la38" .
surface and the underlying bedrock surface are uneven. The drift is more than

400 feet thick in some parte of the basin, more than 200 feet thiek throughout
most of the basin and not less than 100 feet thick at any point yet tested. :

Information on this subject comes largely .fom oil ad. gas well resordi, whis


J_______'_______










are on file with the Geological Survey Division of the Michigan Department of

Conservation.

The different geological features of the glacial drift are classified

according to how they were formed. The action of the gigantic ice sheets was

varied and colorful. They left clear evidence of their behavior, which is

corroborated by observations of existing continental glaciers, such as now

cover Greenland. Briefly, the story is this:

The glaciers formed because of a reduction in average annual temperature

which permitted the snows of each succeeding winter to stay in part unmelted

through the summers. ,Year by year, the snow piled up in parts of Canada -

just as it does in Antarctica and Greenland today until it became so thick

that its great weight forced it to flow outward in all directions. Grinding,

shoving, gouging., and sliding, the huge ice mass,- miles thick at its center,

crept southward century by century until it covered all of North America

(with some isolated exceptions) south to a line now marked approximately by

the Ohio and Missouri rivers. The ice did not move as a rigid block, but

kept splitting horizontally with'rearward bottom layers being shoved up over

forward bottom layers a "leapfrogging* progress, if the ponderous and

deliberate motions of a glacier may be described in such flippant terms. That

over-riding of ice layers brought vast quantities of earth materials up into

the ice mass and carried them far southward. In every farm stone pile of

Michigan, we find granites and other rocks of Canadian origin. It is

important to understand that our present glacial drift was brought southward

in the ice not under it, as plaster, for example, is spread under the trowel.

The glacial drift was deposited when the ice finally melted. Had the

ice simply melted where it lay, the placement qf its incorporated earth materials

wou14,have been in a relatively simple pattern. However, the ice kept flowing












atawrd intermittently while melting backward from i4a tetrinal edges. Aand ea.

the edge retreated back northward into Michigan, the dyaig glacier gradually

divided into forward flowing lebes" which followed the great valleys now

occupied by the Great Iakes.

Climate in glacial time vasted from year to year a dd decade to decade,.

as it does in modern times. This variation ceased ao oscillating movement inma

the glaciers edge. When warm weather prevailed, backward aeltig, dominated

forward ice movement, and during coaer periods, the reaersee as true. _.q

each seesanive readvance, and daring times when the two free were Aska t

ia balance, the Ice freot bulliosed up Pwindre of the earth materialss its

melting had released, hece rews or belts of ice-shoed dr t are identified

as morainee. The moraines, oe the Paw Paw basin, having been forced by the

lake NJehigan ice lobe, roughly parallel the present Lake Michigam hore.

Bach moraine is named for an area where it is a dietinet topographic feature.*

The easternoet of the *Pw Paw basins meraines hhe Kalamaso moraine ,

forms the basin's eastward headwaters. Other orainio belts in the nr.ther,.

central, a~d western parts of the basin are eoqpnents of the Valparaiso

sorainae syste... The Uake Border moraine lies aleag tpn northwetern edge-..

of the basin frea Sentoa Barber through Orthestern Coloa Twnship.

As aight be asseaed from the aede off formation, the a&aterial of oraites

is a&iedl, jumbled-arrangement oj all sorts, from clays to great boulders.

however, since the iet fret aset only deppoited earth ,but also spewed forth

great torrents ofa salt water, lee -Aepeit of washed gravel and sand are.

common to this type of glacial feature.

The escaping melt waters arrived much material with them and deposited-:

the* as sheet s or hapaels of "oi'tish* clean, highly pevieus sead ant ,

gravel bed s. : t o ..:;- : ;

Melt waters of the glacier during the tiae of its retreat acreess the Paw
S11


I I
I~









I'
t
I
1


-------
'~~'~r*~t!i2' rr;-....i ri~~ ..,~











Paw basin drained generally toward the southwest. Naturally, the water followed

the .lay of the land.', sometimes and in some places lying pounded in broad.

shallow lakes which drained later when lover avenues of escape became vtncevered

to the west. That ponding permitted finer particles to settle out, but the

absence of heavy clay soils in the ponding areas indicates a deficiency of

such materials in the glacial load in this region.

During periods when the ice lay stagnant and melted and evaporated down

from the top, it deposited the mixed materials which it had picked up and

incorporated within its mass. Under 'sch conditions the earth materials did

not have an opportunity to become Washed by the melt waters. They still contain

the clay and silt particles and tend to be denser than the outwash plains.

Such features are called "till" plains or ground moraines. In general, they

are good farm lands. Even the till plains are quite porous in the Paw Paw

basin.

Many other types of deposits were formed by the glacier, but these

three moraine, till plain, and outwash plain- make up the greater part of

this area. One feature which may puzzle the observer is the rock-like

material appearing in some gravel pits, road cute, or natural banks. This

material has the appearance and hardness of sandstone or conglomerate. .It '

is not bedrock, however, but merely glacial drift which has become cemented

with lime carried in the ground waters. It is known as "crag". A few large

blocks of Marshall sandstone are found at scattered points. These, like

other rocks in the glacial drift, were freighted in by the glacier,

Far further detail, the reader is referred to U. S. Geological Survey '

Monograph 53, by Leverett and Taylor; and Publication'48 Michigan Geological

Survey; Pt.1l The Glacial Geology and Ground Water Resolrees of Vaenure ounry,

by F. Wells Terwilliger. Map No. 2 shows the surface geology of the basin.


_1~1_











SUaACO WOWUR a MsCS (6)

The United States Geological.Survey established a stream gaging station

on the PPaw Paw at Riverside in September, 1951. Complete records of discharge

for the years 1952, 1953, and 1954 from this continuous recording station were

used in the study of hydrologic characteristics of the basin.

Lacking discharge records of a relatively long period, which are essential

in the statistical study of discharge, a correlation between the Paw Paw and

three other streams, the Kalamasoo, the Battle Creek, and the Thornapple, was

developed in order that a more reliable picture of discharge characteristics

could be presented. These three rivers are closely related to the Paw Paw

geographically and are rather similar in topography and soil types. Figure

No. 2 is a synthetic flow-duration curve ef discharge of the Paw Paw River.

As indicated above, it was prepared by correlation of the three years of

record of the river with those of three other streams which are closely

associated with the Paw Paw, and have longer periods of records. Such a

curve shows the percentage of time any given discharge is equaled or exceeded.

Prom the curve it is determined that river discharge is equal to or exceeds

0.42 c.f.s. per square mile, 98 per cent of the time; in other words, in an

average year the flow will be less than 188 c.f.s. at Riverside only 7 days

in the year. This is in rather sharp contrast to the Clinton River Basin

where similar studies indicate a discharge equal to or exceeding 0.075 c.f.s.

per square mile, 98 per cent of the time.

A study of the geology of these two basins reveals, at least in part,

the answer. The Paw Paw basin is composed principally of glacial drift

consisting of sandy and gravelly loams. Many lakes are interspersed through-

out the basin, some of which are directly connected to the river system.

Such glacial developments have high rates of infiltration and are very

favorable to stable stream flows, releasing greater quantities of water as






Figure No. 2


FLOW


DURATION


CURVE


PAW PAW RIVER AT RIVERSIDE


Drainage Area


391 Sq. Mi.


In
40
30

20
zo - --- -- -_ ---_--


I Synthetic Long Term
7

4' Recorded Stream Flow

3 --~~~~- -- -= -^ -. -- --..--- __ -_ _




0 .4 ---9 -" "_, _,




05


06


000









0006
004
0 3
GOZ


QLOI




003
010==
4 i07 --- __ __ *^ __ __ . i -
ao -_ _ _ ZZ -^ -~
QOj0 __ _ __ _ ~
04 0 4 -- - _ __ __ __ _
tt 0 3 __ __ __ _ _

aQ O t _ _ _ _ _


ao _
? ======= ==== =========


Iu LU 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95
TIME IN PERCENT OF TOTAL PERIOD


98 99 995 998939


vU W l Ul L ILJ


f


I


I I I I


Inn





Figure No. 3


HYDROGRAPH
PAW PAW RIVER AT RIVERSIDE
Mean Monthly Discharge

Jan. 1952 _Dec. 1954

Jan. Feb. Mar. May June July Aug.Sept Oct.' Nov. Dec


700


600


40


300











base flow to the system. In contrast,in the Clinton Basin, the headlands area,

about 1/3 of the basin, is rolling glacial till, poorly drained and containing

numerous swamps and lakes and the remainder is old lake-bed plain consisting

of very dense clayey soils, whose runoff tends to be flashy. Once these

heavier soils become saturated, they do not release these waters as readily

as natural drainage,

Samples of river discharge at 6 stations were collected for chemical

analysis. Table No. 6 presents the results of this analysis.

Table No. 6

CHKEMIAL ANALYSIS OF PAW PAW RIZVR


Total Solids

Silica-1i02

Iron, as Ie

Calcium -

Magnesium 4#g

Na and E

Nitrates N03

Chlorides -Cl

Sulphate -804

Bicarbonate-EC03

Oarbonate-00

Hairdess-OCa00

Fluoride-7

Hydrogen lon-pi

Conductance


Near Bridge at Watervliet
Biverside Coloa Paer Oo.

296 260 260

10. 10. o0.

0.45 0.15 0.4

54. 52. 52.

20.7 20.7 20.7

13.7 9,8' 10.8

#one oene Hone

10. .7. 7.

36. 28. 29.

244. 239. 239.

None None None

220. 215. 215.

0,0 .0.0 0.0

7.6 7.5 7.5

500. 460. 460.


Applegate
Bride

254

10.

0.15

52.

20.7

8.9

None

5.

29.

235.

nons

215.

0.0

7.7

460.


Warner Rd.
Bridage

234

10,

0.1

48.

19.4

9.6

None

4,

24.

227.

None

200.

0.0

7.8

420.


Passmore
EP. Bride

264

10.

0.2

52.

19.5

10.1

None

5.

33.

230.

None

210.

0.0

7.6

460.


Notes All Results are


in Parts

16


Per Million


__11___1_ ___


XI^ _* _I~ r I ___ ______ __ _I __^____ __ _____ __ 1











DRAAGU8. AMD FLOODS (8). (9)

A complete drainage map of the basin (Map No. 1)Jis i eluded ia the baek

of the report showing natural and artificial waterceurses. The main stem of

the Paw Paw River drains an area of 446 square miles and is sgoe,60 miles in.

length. Although this river basin is not considered one of the major flee

problems of the state there are two areas where high water has caused con-

siderable damage. These two problems are the flooding ef the cottages o

Paw Paw Lake and the flooding o highways, railroads, and industries# in Rnta

Harbor by the overflowing of Ox Oreek..

Cottage owners on Paw Paw Lake have suffered damages from high lake levels

during the heavy spring runoff, igh levels in the S awP River result ii

a reversal of flow and allow direct inflow from the Paw Paw River into the ,

lake, which is coanected to the main stem by a channel., In April, 1947,

heavy precipitation occurring in this area raised the level of Paw Paw Lake

to 627.10 feet,which is 6.13 feet above the lowest level eofrecord occurhr ng ,

on April 15, 1941. Lake levels of 627.19 feet elevation caused flooding ef

foundations of 84 cottages, interfered with septitan ta* operation and subjected

well to the possibility of pollution...

Flooding in the o-rtheastera section of Aeaton harbor has been due ,,

primarily to flash floods on Ox Creek. This creek with a watershed of about

15 square miles has a reported fall of 8 feet per mile through the city and

14 feet per mile in the upper reaches. The upper reach of Ox Creek is an

improved county drain named the Tore & Stoeffer drain. During periods of

heavy rains the channel cross section and the bridge openings in Benton

Harbor were inadequate to pass the runoff from this small watershed. In

the lower reaches, near its outlet into Paw Paw River, the stream has a

very flat slope and becomes sluggish, particularly when the Paw Paw River

and St. Joseph are also at high stages. It is near this flat, swampy land
S17











that numerous industries have located and it is here that the greatest flood

daAhges have occurred in the past.'

Information from the City of Benton Harbor indicates that in the years

1943, 1947, and 1950 ,flods caused: damage to these industries located near

the creek.

Immediately following the 1950 flood, the City of Beaten Harbor initiated

remedial measures to correct this flood condition. A study was made by the

city engineering staff to determine the necessary channel capacity and upon

their recommendations the channel was cleaned, deepened, widened, and straightened,

and bridges with larger openings were built. Unless there are more drainage

improvements in the upper reach, the fled condition on 0t Creek is believed

corrected.

The 1947 flood in April not only caused flood damage at Paw Paw Lake

and lA-x Csreek areas, but was responsible for the failure of low-head dams

at Lawrence and Hartford.

:Becase of the relatively high infiltration capacity of the sandy loam

soils found in the Par Paw watershed, and because the flood plains have not

been developed to any great extent, flood problems in this basia have been

spotty, with relatively little damage occurring as, compared to other water-

she d- in the state. *


18


~~I ~__ ____~I~_


~-""im,. .. .- ------- -- ---- ----- -- ------ .-.,.~.-.~~.











GaOD WVATRa ssOUaRCE (1o) (3) (14)

Potable ground water in the Paw Paw River Basin is obtained almost entirely

from the glacial drift. Although some fresh water is in limestone layers of

the underlying Coldwater formation, it is not a dependable reserve because

the limestone is not only lenticular, but also permeability is irregular.

The glacial drift in the Paw Paw River Basin is divided into; (1) the

Kalamasoo morainic system at the head, eastern part of the basin; (2) the

Valparaiso morainic system in the intermediate part of the basin; and (3)

the tills and lake bottom sediments between the Valparaiso morainic system

and the shore of Lake Michigan in the lower western part of the basin.

TOh KALAMAS00 MORAINIC SYSTEM

The xalamazoo moraine in the Paw Paw watershed is composed mainly of

gravelly and sandy drift underlain in places by clay till at moderate depth.

Wells on the inner ridge are 70 to 80 feet deep, but decrease in depth down

the back slope of the ridge toward the Dowagiac Drainage Channel. Several

wells, as much as 130 feet deep, are in the crest of the inner ridge. The

drift shown by the log of an oil test well in the Sj* 83 Sj) section 5,

Porter Township, is 447 feet thick. This well penetrated a good water

zone at 174 feet. The log of an oil test well drilled in a re-entrant in

the inner ridge near Mattawan, where the surface is about 100 feet below

the crests of the adjoining ridges,records:
Thickness Deth
Sand and gravel 240 2
Sand, reddish at 240
Sand and gravel 63 303

At Mattawan, domestic wells drilled in the till plain are some 20 feet in

depth, but on the moraine, water is obtained at 90 feet.

Other wells in the moraine show that the drift overlyig the COAdwter

shale bedrock, is 350 to 450 feet thick... Wells on the crest of the outer
19











ridge are 100 to 140 feet deep. The deepest wells are in sections 1 and 12,

Porter Township. Wells drilled in the weak morainic ridge which runs from

Almena in a southwesterly direction to the Paw Paw River just east of Paw

Paw are 30 to 100 feet deep, depending on topographic position.

Wells in the outwash in southeastern Almena Township are 50 feet deep;

in sections 25 and 36, Antwerp Township, they are 60 feet deep; in sections

9 and 16, Porter Township, 75 feet; in southeastern Decatur Township, 40 to

50 feet. Deeper aquifers are indicated by oil tests in sections 9 and 16,

Porter Township. The log of the well in section 9 shows very good water zones

at depths of 144 and 273 feet. A half mile south in section 16 a zone of

fresh water 25 feet below the top of the Coldwater limestone was drilled

into at a depth of 500 feet. Artesian aquifers are encountered in sections

12 and 13, Almena Township, at the Wolf Lake State Fish Hatchery. A 3-inch

well at the CommUity House, drilled to a depth of 70 feet in 15 feet of

water-bearing gravel, flowed 60 gallons a minute, with a head of seven feet

when completed. A farm well three-tenths of a mile west, completed at 68

feet, flows 40 gallons a minute. A well owned by Mr. H. Hatt, three-fourths

of a mile southeast of the Hatchery Community House, has a steady year around

flow with a head of seven feet from a higher aquifer than the aquifer which

supplies the wells in the drainage-way. The Hatt well is on the back slope

of the moraine, and was drilled through 80 feet of clay hardpan. Two springs,

one-eighth and one-fourth of a mile south of the Hatt well, flow 90 and 194

gallons per minute, respectively, apparently from under the same clay hard-

pan. At the village of Lawton at the contact of the inner ridge and the till

plain behind it, the old village well was 44 feet deep and water from it had

a total hardness of 228 parts per million. A new well, drilled in 1953 for

the city, was completed at a depth of 110 feet. It is 12 inches in diameter

and showed a drawdown of 60 feet after pumping 930 gallons per minute for
20


__II ~____~~_ _____ 1~___1--------------1











five hours. The well did not completely penetrate the sand,

VALPARAISO MORAINIC SYST

Some wells in the Dowagiac Drainage Channel in Decatur Township find water

Just beneath the surface, but aest wells are 12 to 20 feet deep. Along the

northwest side of the channel, an artesian aquifer is 80 to 100 feet below

the surface. An oil test in section 14, Deeatur Township, reported a flow

of fresh water at the rate of 500 gallons per minute froa the Coltwater

limestone at a depth of 216 feet. A flow estimated at 1,000 gallons per

minute, from a depth of 160 feet, was reported from an oil test well in section
32. A celery washing plant in Decatur is using an artesian well reportedly

finished at 150 feet. In Paw Paw Township, wells in the channel on each side

of Prospect Bill reach depths of 20 to 50 feet; the average depth is less

than 35 feet. Flowing wells have been constructed along the north side of

Maple Lake at Paw Paw. In Almena Township, wells in the channel are 20 to

38 feet deep. -A flowing well in section 20 is 70 feet deep, another in

section 29 is 45 feet deep; both wells have low head.

In the Paw Paw Drainage Channel, the water table is close to the surface

and nearly all its wells are shallow. An oil test in seotion 5, Paw Paw

Township, penetrated water-bearing sand from 43 to 93 feet. Lawrence nuni-

cipal wells are 90 and 106 feet deep. Flowing wells 30 feet deep are in

sections 31 and 32, Waverly Township, which have a 2-foot head. The record

of an oil test in the 8t1 85t SW. section 19, Waverly Township, shows a

drift thickness of 480 to 500 feet and flowing water from 120 to 160 feet.

In the great area of outwash in the south half of Van Buren County,

wells 10 to 25 feet deep in the vicinity of Eagle Lake in southwestern Paw

Paw Township, are surrounded by wells 30 to 80 feet deep farther away from

the lake. Wells in Keeler and Hamilton Townships are 20 to 40 feet deep,

No wells in Deeatur Township are more than 60 feet deep. Wells in the high
21
; :t










outwash and moraine; of northwestern Paw Paw Township are 70 to 90 feet deep

and have a static water level of 50 or 60 feet.

An irrigation well in section 21, Keeler Township, is 110 feet deep.

Another well just east of Three Mile Lake in Paw Paw Township, was completed

at 68 feet. The static level of this well is 3 feet below the surface, and

pumping at the rate of 1,300 gallons a minute produced a drawdown of 28 feet.

MORAINIC BELT AND INCLUDED TILL PLAINS AND OUTWASH PLAINS

The moraine and till plain in Van Buren County proves the rule that the

rougher the terrain, the coarser is the material in the glacial drift. The

Valparaiso moraine, Bainbridge Township, Berrien County, is pierced by wells

of great variation in depth and in head. In Keeler Township, Van Buren County,

wells are 60 to 80 feet deep. They are deeper in Lawrence and Arlington

Townships 80 to 140 feet in the high moraines and less than 80 feet at

lower altitudes. Farther east in Waverly Township, wells are shallower, being

60 to 80 feet deep. Records of Pine Grove Township wells show wide variation

from the outwash east of Gobles, where the wells are 35 to 112 feet deep and

average 50 feet to Kendall Ridge where two important aquifers supply water.

In one aquifer, wells are 20 feet deep, and in the other, wells are from 70

to 115 feet. In the area of outwash in sections 27, 32, and 33, some wells

are 40 and 45 feet deep. The morainic hill south of Hartford boasts a well

115 feet deep with a static water level of 75 feet. An oil test well in

section 13, Waverly Township, showed a very good water-bearing formation from

30 to 170 feet. Along the moraine running through the hamlet of Glendale,

wells are constructed 90 to 155 feet deep.

Wells in the extinct lake bed west of Glendale in Arlington Township,

Van Buren County, are 20 to 30 feet deep. Wells in the moraine in the south-

east quarter of Bloomingdale Township average 90 feet in depth and the water


~____1_1_ 1_____~_ _II___ __ ~I~____~__~ __1__LII____I___I___


~ir_~i~CI._.- ___~_ ___ __ __ _______________ __ ___ -I











stands between 10 and 20 feet from the surface. a the sae., township in. the

immediate vicinity of All Lake, eetions 13, 14, 23,, and 24 the .ells are,

about 50 feet deep, the static level is about 25 feet below lake level. A

well one-half mile northwest of the lake in section 14 is 100 feet deep and

has a static level of 18 feet. Wells on the outwash plain east of Gobles

in Pine Grove Township, range in depth from 35 to 112 feet,

In the till plain behind the TalpPraie so orie, the water table is

relatively high. Pitcher pumps are common in the field adkthe majority

of fara wells are 50 feet deep, although some are ,7 or 80 feet dee p. n

a once-flowing well area around ush Lake, in northwestern Hartford Township,

the head has recently fallen below the ground surface.

In Berrien County, the area waet of or behind the Valparaiso Moraine

and in front of the Lake Border moraine, formed an iapondment at the junor -

tion of the St. Joseph and Paw Paw livers. It ie covered with glacial

drift 50 to 150 feet thick above the bedrock of Coldwater formation. Channels

and lens like depressions cut on the surface of the Coldwater formation are

filled with a coarse gravel a few feet thick, Above the gravel is a bed

of lake clay that averages 100 feet in thic3oes a and above the lake clay are

alluvial sands, gravels, and silts which range from a thin film to 10 feet

in thickness. The gravel lenses beneath the clay furnish most of the water

to the wells.

CONCLUSION

The glacial drift of the whole Kalamazoo morainic system in the drainage

area of the Paw Paw River is capable of producing large amounts of fresh

water for irrigation. The presence of aquifers, deeper in the drift than those

ordinarily reached by the wells in the district, is indicated by the logic of

oil test wells.


I_ __











The Valparaiso Morainic System, in the Paw Paw River drainage basin, is

capable of producing large amOunts of water for irrigation, especially in the

large area 6f outw~sh in the southern half of Van Buren County where as much

as 1,300 gallons a minute has been pumped from one well with only 28 feet of

drawdown resulting.

The morainic belt with its included areas of outwash, till plains, and

extinct lake beds, varies geatly'in the depth of wells and the elevation

of the water surface in the well when in a static condition. In the moraines,

wells are deeper in the center of the belt toward the northeast, but wells

are shallow near the drainage divided.

Behind, west of, the Valparaiso Morainic System in the till plain, the

water table is high and the wells average 50 feet deep. In the old lake bed

in the valley of the Paww Pa River in Berrien County, large quantities of

water may be produced in a bed of gravel lying on the bedrock surface, below

a bed of clay that has an average thickness of 100 feet.

Table No. 7

Partial Chemical Analysis of WVels in the Paw Paw River Basin

Village of Village of Village of City of Village of
jM ..e GLes Hartford Ooleoa. Paw Paw
Iron as fe 1.5 Trace .5 .75 Trace

Chloride- Cl 9 4 6 7 13

Hardness, CaC03 245 215 245 280 205

pH 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.1 8.0

H003 276 220 260 320 230

Conductance 500 430 500 540 450

Sulfate 804 30 39 45 28 24


Note: All results are reported as parts per million (7)


_______1_1____1__11__










MIORM IM I


Bento Harbor Ci'ty of' Binton Harbor's source of water supply is Lta"'

Michigan. The average daily' snsumption dfr the years 1953-54

was 2368,000 gallons per Ay. Nearly 50 of all water

consumed is used y' commercial "and industrial customers.

Bent on Harbor ith 18,769 personal 'ai population which

is over twice as large as all their Aunieipalities in the

Paw Paw Basin.

Coloma The City of Ooloma's source of *tir S pply is five wells,

te diaaeters ofhich are 10' 6", 2-3' and a 2". Depths

of these wells are reported' to be 100 feet. The city con-

sum es an aerge 7 600 'gallone per day, of which ne

industry uBei 14,800 gallohi'per day.

Goble -1 The Village of Gobles source^ of' water sBupply is three wells,
'the diameters o wiieh are 26 6*-and an 8'. Depths of these

wells are reported to be 106-109 ftet. The well system

produces average ej75,000 a9llnAsepr day for the

population of 622 and the maximum summer pumpage is reported

to be 165,000 allows per day.

Hartford The Village of Hatford's source of water supply is three
wells, the diameters of which are 2-12* and 8". Depths

are reported to be 60 feet for the 8" well and 100 feet

for the lZ' wells. These wells produce an average of

190,000 gallons per day and have a maximum pumping rate

of 400,000 gallons per day.

Lawrence The Village of Lawrence's source of water supply is 2-120
wells, whose depths.are reported to be 100 feet. These
25
I


s

BP~c~a3~,













Lawtqn -


















Paw Paw -











Watervliet -


wells produce approximately 66,500 gallons per day average

and have a maximum pumping rate of 113,000 gallon per day.

The Village of Lawton's source of water supply is four

wells, the diameters of which are 2-12' and 2-16". Depths

of these,wells vary from 45 feet to 100 feet. The village

consuaes an average of 592,000 gallons per day with 70%

of this amount supplied to the Welch Grape Juice Company.

The maxiaum pumping rate is reported to be 2,000,000 gallons

per day. The major water consuming industries supplied

by Lawton are:

Welch Grape Juice Company 412,000 gpd
laton Manufacturing Company 38,200 gpd
Gold Medal Dairy Company 14,600 gpd

The. Village of Paw Paw's source of water supply is 3 wells,

whose diameters are 12", 16", and 30", and whose depths

vary fro a72 feet to 106 feet. The village consumes an

average of 250,000 gallons per day. Two industries supplied

by the city are;

Paw Paw Vine Company seasonal supply 35,400 g.p.d.
Paw Paw Plating Company 11,000 g.p.d.

The city's source of water supply is 2 wells, whose diameters

are both 6". Depths of these wells are reported to be

209 feet and 217 feet. The city consumes an average of 73,000

gallons per day and in 1953 the maximum was 190,000 gallons

per day. All the industries in the city are relatively

small users of water except the Watervliet Paper Company

which supplies its own requirement.


i___~




e 9


Table -o. 8
MIPAL VATR SUPPLY PAW PAW RR BAS
0MCIPAL -,':. SOMI OF P** M P" 0 IV BASIN


.___ W_____0M _MO_ Gal. Per
Population Source of Be sapentiir C aita
MmuiciaiitR 1i990 Supply ,a trial ann. otee. t.... Per Day


Berrien Coaty
1953-1954

sentob Harbor

Goloia

Watervlist



Van Bture

Hartford.

Lawrence

Paw Paw

Lawt on

Sobles


18,769

1,041

1,327





1,838

671

,382

:1,206

622


Lake Mich.

Wells




Wells


Wells


Wells


Wells

-wells


1,146,000

11,800

--








46,400

464,800'


1,222,000

62,200

t3,000





190,000

66,500

203,600

127,200

75,000


S2,368,000

S77.0000

A3.000


190,000

66,500

,250,000

592,000

75,000


126

S74

55




103

98

105

490

120











Table No. 9

INDUSTRIAL WAMBR SUPPLIES CO THE PAW PAW RIVER BASIN *

Industry a ndLoeation Source of Suply Pr


oduction img


Coloma

M. Steffin an~ Coupany

Ooloma Cooperative Canning Co.


Hartford

Burnette fares Paeing Co.

Bronte Champagne & Wine-Co.


Auto Specialties Mfg. o0.

Frigid Foods (Keeler)

Lawrence

Lawrence Frosen Foods

Lawrence Packing Co.

Paw Paw

St. Julian Wine Co, Inc.


Michigan Wineries, Inc.

Paw Paw Canning Co.

Maple Dairy Co.

Riadon Wine & Champagne Co.

A. F. Murch Champagne Co.

Watervliet

Waterrliet Paper Co.


2 Wells (4L dia. 92' deep)

3 Wells (1-12" dia. 94' deep,
1-i-8 & 1-4 ..iaa. 74V deep) 11



3 Wells (2-6" & 1-8" dia.-170'deep)

2 Wells (1-l" dia. 72' deep .&
1-6" dia. 130' deep)

3 Wells (2-10" A 1-6" dia. 143' eep)

2 Wells (8" dia. & 2" dia.-85' deep)



1 Well (8" dia. 80' deep)

2 Wells (8" dia. 90' deep)



2 Wells (12" dia. 188' deep &
'1" dia. 90 deep)

1 Well (8" dia. 88' deep)

2 Wells (8" dia. 110' deep)

3 Wells (4" dia. 52' deep)

2 Wells (4" & 6" dia.)

2 Wells (8" dia. 100' andl40' deep)


12 Wells (7-17" dia. A 5-12" dia.


250,000**


,000,000**



360,000**


86,p00**

120,000

576,000**


120,000**

180,000**




216,000**

288,000**

300,000**

7,000

100,000**

600,000**


all 100' deep) 5,000,000

* This tabulation lists the major,water-using industries that produce all
or part of their requirements.

** Used seasonally.


___~I ~_____


I'- I-I '-~- '~ -~--- -- ------ ---------- --- --- ----- ---












A detailed feld survey of irrigation usee in the Paw Paw watershed was

conducted during the sruaer of 1954 by the staff: of the Water Resources

Camission. Information gainedo in this survey revealeA that the first system,

in the basai was placed in eperatioa in 1929. a* e growth ot the u eto

irrigation was rather slow until the aid-eorties,when 27 system were an pokr

tion. Since 1949 the growth has been at a Meh greater rate and the survey

reveals 234 systems in operation in 1954. total eareage under irrigation

during 1954 was 5,563 acres. One thousand seventeen hundred areas were

irrigated from ground wates sources, 3,686 acres froa surface sources sad

860 acres were applied by systems using both surface and ground water supplies.

Nap No. 3 shows the distribution of irrigation in the basin.
Table No. 10 presents data on acreage of various crop under irrigation

in 1954. 50% of the total acreage va devoted to fruit crops production, 37%

to vegetable crops and 13% was utilized for mint, pasture, flowes,- and

nursery crops.
Information on irrigation practices in the basin indicates that the

average annual application amounts to approximately 5 inches. Ratss of

application were generally as follows

Crop / A~rielation Bate ApiLest.LonMs l Teat

Berries 1 to l" 3 to 4

Potatoes 1" to l' 46 to 8

Asparagus 3/4* to 1" 2
Tomatoes 1" to lf' 4 to 5
Truck Crops 1" to 4 to 5

Tree Pruit 1 1 2 to 3

hint 1 to 1"* 4 to 5

]lowers 1 4 to 8
29










It is estimated that approximately 760 million gallons of water, pumped

from wells or surface water sources, were utilized for irrigation purposes

during the 1954 growing season. Information from the survey indicated that

20% of this total was pumped from ground water wells. Irrigation systems

are of the spray type and pumping units range in capacity between 300 and 500

gallons per minute.

Table No. 10

IRRIGATED CROPS IN THE PAW PAW BASIN



CROP ACREAGE

Vegetable Crops

Asparagus 260

Potatoes 188

Tomatoes 367

Truck & Field Crops 1.23~

Total 2,052

Fruit Crops

Blueberries 175

Raspberries 325

Strawberries 1,640

Peaches 233

Other Tree Fruits 419

Total 2,792

Mint 253

Pasture 130

Flowers & Nurseries 336

Total Acreage Under Irrigation 5,563









During the early growing season, below-freesing temperatures often

occur at night. Tarsers report that a continuous application of water

by overhead spray irrigation has proven effective in preventing frost

damage to blossoming strawberries. Generally, rate$ of .10 inch per hour

at temperatures, down to 20 7, are successful.

Figure o. 4 is a growth rate curve of irrigation systems utilized

in the Paw Paw basin since 1929 when the first unit was installed. The

curve has been extended in order to estimate future growth of irrigation

water supply requirements. from this extension it is estimateA that

approximately 1,000 systems may be in operation by 1961. ,Assuing that

new units to be added will serve the same average acreadt per unit, it

would appear that over 20,000 acres may be under irigaLtion by this date.

Annual water requirements to support this operate wnwill amount to at

least 3 billion gallons. If present trends cetinme, 40 of this needed

supply will be drawn directly front -the Paw Paw river. Such withdrawals

will reduce streak flow in the lower re che of the stream by about 50

cubic feet per second. the 1955 te day low flow at the Riverside gaging

station on the PawPaw River pcodured in August and averaged 186 cubic

feet per second. It should so be borne in hid that continued nereas-

ing withdrawals frem ground afterr wells in this basin will ultimately

reduce the base flow t the streak. It is not unreasonable to expect

that total irrigaton reauirements of the future may reduce flew by

as mach as 30 td 40 per cent in drought years.

A map study of far plat book published by the Rockford Map Pabliehers

shows over 46,000 aeres of riparian'land on the Paw Paw River Syatea.

Intended drainage and lake frontage not connected to the drainage system no

doubt increase this acreage to over 50,000 acres. It is recognized that


31L
"* 1








FIGURE NO. 4


0








L
















o
------- _____ ---C











--- ---_-






























-
- _ ---g_ _



















0220 0 0oo 0 o 9o 0 h


SW31SAS NOIIVO9IlI JO U3IWnN


00 0) 0 (o0 v 10










this totax acreage is not all suitable for farmiag, particularly for irritated

crops, yet the figure does indicate, to.aoo d.agree, what the ftVre Mu hold

with respect to the growth of irrigation and tta water supply nee-ad.

SUNgMA or POlUMIs a STATUS PAw Ra W T3.A Mayr. 1955, tl)

Gates Drain via Layton Drain

Village of Lawton:

Population 1,206. Secondary treatment (activated sludge) and

chlorination of sewage sinef 1937.

Welch Grape Juice Company, Lawtonu

No treatment except screening. Source of large organic pollution

load seasonaly resulting in local odor nuisance in Lavton Drain

and balanced. oxygen conditions in Gates Drain. A contributing

factor to unbalanced oxygen cond ition in Maple Lake.
Uast Branch Paw Paw River

Paw Paw Canning Company, Paw Paw:

No treatment except screening. Minor proble 'at present.

Paw Paw Vine Coemipany, Paw Paw:

No treatment, minor problem at present.

St. Julian Vine Company, Paw Paw:

No treatment, minor probli aat present..

Michigan Wineries, Inc., Paw Paw:

Major source of organic pollution contributing to unbalanced lsgenm

conditions in Maple Lake.
Paw Paw River

Village of Paw Paw:

Population 2,382. Primary treatment of sewage since 1935.

Village of Lawrence:


1











Population 69. Septic Tank treatment of sewage 1915-1951. Primary

'treatment and chlorination since 1951.

Lawrence Canning Company, Lawrence:

Spray irrigation disposal of cannery waste.

Village of Hartford:

Population 1,838. Primary treatment and chlorination of sewage since

1939.

City of Watervliet:

Population 1,327. Primary treatment and chlorination of sewage since 1940.

Watervliet Paper Co., Watervliet:

Source of organic pollution equivalent to the domestic sewage from

60,000 persons. Company presently making process change by which

pollution load will be reduced approximately one-third during summer

low flows. Necessity for further reduction to be considered by

Commission after process change has been completed.

Paw Paw Lake Resort Developments:

Inadequate private sewage disposal systems in congested areas result

in localized health hazards and odor nuisances.

City of Coloma:

Population 1,041, plus local cannery and pickle processing plants.

No treatment. Seasonal pollution load equivalent to domestic sewage

from a population of 25,000. Treatment needed.

Benton Township:

Inadequate private sewage disposal systems from urban areas, plus

small amounts of industrial wastes contribute to pollution of the

lower river by way of Barnes & Hamilton Drain. Population distribu-

tion and financing pose major obstacles to correction.


__il~~_____l___ __


I ~










fISLAIONAL DSMO (12) (13)

The Paw Paw besia ofera asay r'ecratieasL opportunities. Over sixty-five

lakes dot the area. am7lg in size from sevewl aers to ae wbih is erver

aors. these lakes provide "xe
angler. sady beaehqs and. hilly to flat .terr&ai aloag thee hpr s are faverf'ble

as sites f.o s*uep coettages ed. the .influx of r tewef in th4e *S r is

heavy. Most of the lakes have cowmrcial 'boat 4LTeries mad swaimiag, beating,

and fishing activities oake goo4 use :g thels agia ti.e paygraouna.

The MichAgan. Conservation Departaeat maintaias aevrs paulic fishing site&

in the basin for public access.

The Paw Paw is listed 4s one of the. caoe trails of Michigan this

water way of. forty ailes from Oasmty Eighway 68 (Tan teren Oenty) requires

two days with only one portage ruaad jhe danaer WAtervliet. Pike, bas,

and pantish are foound on the w in stresas #a4 treat are taken 9a the aorth

breach where the journey bosei,. ,

There are no state parks or 4fret lands ft s ba ia3l however, Lfke

Michigan, lying just west of the waterhid. oftiers mny fine 1athing and

picnic arean in short driTvag distance froa most parts of the basin.











rPOn (9)

Power di aa' ply a m aor par' t -ii t over-all water resources utilization
in'"he w'Paw Biver Bsin.". e jrdaa with any appreciable storage

capacity are the -dai on the Stoth Br~eh of the Paw Paw iver in the Village

of Paw Paw and the Watervliet Paper Coapany dam at Watervliet on the Main

Branch. A 'luber company' in Paw Paw'maintaine a small dam which supplies

power to rUi the machine 'in t`e sawkiill. EAiis at vawrence and Hartford

were washed out in 'th April torm of 194.7. The power dam at Hartford has

not been rebuilt, but "the mill dam at Lawrence now maintains a head and is

reported used on occasions.

The dam ait' Paw f Pw, owned by thi village, is on the South Branch of

the Paw Paw iver and has a normal operating head of 16 feet and its storage

reservoir is Maple lake, whose area is estimated to be 300 acres.

atierliet Paper C0ompz 'maintains a'& a on the Main Branch of the

Paw Paw at Watervliet. The power produced by the tuvrbine is reported to

be aoi 1l,86d,b00tf.i.H. eacdhyea and i* used only on Sundays. Maxiain

power ie developed wit a discharge o ~0 c:'f., and optian head of about

11 feet. The tiora!ge ponia drops rapidly during s mer low stream flow when

turbines are at full capacity.


_____rl Y-------~IYII---~-DI---ll-~


L-I- I-~----- ___










Conclusions and Recommendationsl

The water problem confronting the people of the Paw Paw River Basin is how

to manage their water resources so as to offer the best possible- potential to

every present and prospective user. Water means money to agriculture, industry

and business. Its recreational values, although not readily reduceable to

monetary terms are unquestionably very great. The total water resource poten-

tial as shown by Paw Paw River flow records is apparently adequate to meet all

conceivable needs. In spite of this over-all abundance, seasonal shortages

and competition amdng users are already beginning to appear. There is no

question but that these conditions will become more serious as time goes on.

Achievement of maximum water utilization in the Paw Paw River Basin will

not be easy and will require the fullest cooperation among all interests. Many

aspects of water management should be carefully studied with reference to local

conditions and needs. Above-ground reservoir sites suited to the efficient

storage of excess flood water may have value for gradual release during drouth

periods. The topography and soils of this basin are not generally favorable

for such sites although several are indicated by topographical asps. Practically

all of them are privately owned and many of them are in use for agriculture,

business or residence. The practicability of their conversion from existing

use to water storage would be questionable in many csses.at the present time.

As the value of water grows, however, more and more of them may become attrae-

tive for that purpose. Unfortunately, the passage of time can be expected to

make acquisition of these sites increasingly difficult if not impossible due

to their intensive development for other uses. The use of surface reservoirs

to augment low stream flow may be impractical until state legislation is enacted

which will safeguard uses of the increased flow. Storage reservoir operation,

of course, benefits only the stream below it and has no effect on conditions

upstream or in the drainage areas of other tributaries.

^











One direction of effort warranting the united asppprt of all interests for

both on-site and downstream benefits is the adoption of land use practices which

tend to reduce surface run-off and increase infiltration of water into the soil.

Another practice in which the effect on water resources would appear to be

almost entirely beneficial is farm pond construction. By capturing a portion of

the seasonal excess water these ponds tend to reduce downstream flood damage;

they bring into economic utility resources which would otherwise be wasted,

relieve the use-pressure on other sources, and, by seepage losses, tend to

increase underground storage. Such seepage losses, of course, are contrary to

the purpose of farm ponds and will be prevented as far as possible by selection

of pond sites with impervious soils or by pre-treatment of the pond bottom to

reduce permeability. However, ndry" reservoirs to trap surface run-off in the

uplpnds and hold it for infiltration into the underground reservoirs that sustain

stream flow may be found worthy of community or even basin sponsorship.

The topography and soils of the basin are generally conducive to good land

drainage. The light, open soils permit a high percentage of the precipitation

to enter the ground. This is borne out in the study of flow-duration character-

istics of the Paw Paw, where high base flows were evident. Because of these

soil types, there has not been a great need for the development of artificial

land drainage in the agriculture areas of the basin. Natural drainage-ways

have been developed and improved in most of the sub-watersheds. Righ ground

water tables have been a problem in some areas where lake levels (expressions

of the water table.) remain high during years of surplus precipitation. Such

lake and swamp areas have utility as waterfowl and wildlife habitat; however,

improved drainage of such areas may reduce or destroy these values. Where

and how to drain are complex questions, the answers to which can be accurately

reached only by careful evaluation of all the factors which may be involved.


)________ ~I~


----~; CY _-_ __ ~~_X---n-XI--- _~~_1I^-I-1II ~_.___._~_._~_____~~~~~~~___ I-I- I_ -











Means for control of the flood problem on Paw Paw Lake have been the -

subject of a study by the ~ ngeineerng and Architecture Section, Administrative

Services, Michigan Department of Conservation. This study recommends: (1)

changes and improvements at the existing outlet control structure at Highway

M-140 and; (2) an auxiliary outlet channel with controls from the southwest

corner of the lake, running southerly to the Paw Paw River at a point downstream

from the two dams at Watervliet.

Ground water resources of the basin appear hardly to have been tapped for

supplies through wells, and it would seem likely that substantially increased

utilization can be made in many localities. Much more detailed information

than is now available will be necessary to reveal the full potential. Such

information can be obtained in part from scientific pumping tests and in part

from well drilling records. The pumping tests should precede any large scale

development of ground water, but they can be scheduled to coincide with area

development plans as economic growth demonstrates the need. No time should be

lost, however, in making arrangements for recording the data on underground forma-

tions which can be obtained during well drilling. The vital information each

drilling record reveals can be duplicated only by drilling another well at the

same site. Very record discarded is a loss, not only to the well owner, but

to the people of the basin. Had accurate information been kept on the thousands

of wells that have been drilled in this basin, a very useful picture of the basin's

geology and its water yielding capacity would be available. It is recommended

that the records of well logs be sent to the Geological Survey Division, Michi-

gan Department of Conservation at Lansing.

From a water quality management standpoint, it seems certain that tighten-

ing of controls over pollution will be necessary to meet the requirements of

water users. Industrial and municipal waste disposal is subject to control by

39

__________ .











the state, but local government must perform its functions in controlling

pollution originating in individual sever outlets to surface waters. Develop-

ment of the area's recreation potential will undoubtedly be contingent on the

water quality maintenance which can be accomplished only through vigorous and

coordinated attention by basin interests.

The complex inter-relationship among the basin's water resources and between

its water and land uses would seem to imply an important community of interest

of basin-wide extent. This community of interest might well warrant the organi-

zing of a basin committee on water resources. Such a committee, if representa-

tive of all water interests and geographical areas, could serve very fruitfully

if only in a coordinating, fact-finding and advisory capacity. Eventually, unless

development in this area departs radically from trends followed elsewhere through-

out the nation,Paw Paw Basin residents will want to form an organization with

basin-wide administrative authority over water management. Lacking some coordi-

nating entity,' Paw Paw River Basin water uses and management practices can

hardly develop other than independently of one another. Conflicts resulting

from such development may grow unnoticed through a series of normal years to

culminate in numbers when drouth depresses common supply.

Whether or not any basin committee or organization is considered worth while,

water users of all kinds will want to maintain active interest in the development

of state legislation on water rights as well as on drainage, lake level control,

pollution control and other water conservation subjects that bear importantly

on basin water utilization.


__~_~___ _I___ ____ __~~____~__~_I


II











wUnOS AND ACOoWLDGNTS

1. 1950 United States Census~of Population, U. S. Bureau of the Census.

2. U. S. Geological Survey, Monograph 53, by Leverett and Taylor.

3. Publication 48, Michigan Geological Survey, Part I, "The Glacial Geology
and Ground Water Resources of Van Buren County," by F. Wells Terwilliger.

4. Data from U. S. Weather Bureau Records, East Lansing, Michigan.

5. Storm Rainfall of the United States, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.

6. Data from U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Papers.

7. Michigan Department of Health records.

8. City Engineer's office, City of Benton Harbor.

9. Report on Paw Paw Lake Level Control, Eagineering and Architecture Section,
Administrative Services, Michigan Department of Conservation.

10. Prepared by John G. Rulison, In Charge, Water Resources Section, Geolo-
gical Survey Division, Department of Conservation.

11. Summary of pollution status prepared by the Pollution Abatement Division,
Water Resources Commission (May, 1955).

12. West Michigan Tourist and Resort Association publications.

13. "Canoe Trails of Michigan," Michigan Tourist Council.

14. "Ground Water Resources of the Benton Harbor Area, Michigan," by W. T.
Stuart and R. W. Stallman, Michigan Geological Survey Progress Report,
November 12, 1945.


_ Y_ ~I~ _____




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs