-T' : --
Rivers, TVA must regulate the rele e of water fronma:thTen'
nessee River into the Ohio River in accordance with insthuc-
tions of the Department of the Army.u" '; : '
S Internm tional Commissions ;
Duplication may again be avoided, b'y reference to a discu-
ion~ of this subject in the preeing chapter, "Navigation."
ere as there, signicance attaes to the duties, responsibil-
ities, and jurisdiction of the International Joint Commission."
Similarly pertinent here are th tetibt&sponsibilities, and
jurisdiction of the International Boundary and Water Com-
mission, Ulited States and Mexi-O. 'The Cdnvention of eb-
ruary 1, 1933, provides for rectification by te Co~miison
of the Rio Grandebetween El Paso and Fort Qitman, Texas,
for flood protection and for the stabilization of the interna-
tional boundaryy= Likewise, the ertar' o State, acting
through the American Commissioner, isauthorized to conduct
investigations relating to flood control, among other things,
upon the boundary between the United States and Mexico.'
And the President has authority over construction, operation,
and maintenance of anyproject provided for in a treaty with
Mexico.' Also, Congress has authorized the United States
Section of the Commission to construct the Rio Grande Canali-
zation Project, designed pri for flood control ad to facil-
itate compliance with the Witer Conention of Daey 21, 1O 6.1
Considerable -xransion of tie Commission's activities re-
suited under the Treaty of February 3, 1944. 'It wagiven gen-
eral jurisdiction over the boundary parts of the Rio Gra de
and'the Colorado River, with provision for construction "of
works of conservation and flood control 6i the Rii Grande, and
id. ,, ,
SSee upra, pp. 121-123.
m See supra, pp. 11-122.i
SSee supra, pp. 122-128.
SArt's. I, VI, 48 Stat. 1621, 122, 1624.
SAct of M4y 1, 1924, 1,48 Stat. 118, as amended, 22 U. .S C. 27a. ,
ms 1,43 Stat. 18,22L 0.27TTb.
At.oi August P9, p, 1 3,, 49 4J 961; A 7ct f June 4, 198! SI t .
1468; Act of April k, 1940, l 54 tat.'lL .
on the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers, in connection with the
division of their waters between the| two countries.1"
Assumption of federal responsibility for control of floods on
a national basis is a relatively recent development. Although
beginning about a century ago, legislative evidence of federal
interest was long confined principally to the Mississippi Valley.
In 1917 and again in 1928, such interest was accentuated and
broadened. Finally, Congress in 1936 pronounced a national
flood-control policy and authorized numerous flood-control
projects throughout the Nation. "Hood control" is defined to
include "channel and major drainage improvements."
In the main, legislation relevant here bears a marked simi-
larity to that governing navigation improvements. Thus,-in-
vestigations and improvements of rivers and other waterways
for flood control and allied purposes are prosecuted by the
Army Engineers. In the preparation of flood-control projects,
many laws concerning navigation improvements are expressly
made applicable. Similarly, authorizations of surveys, prep-
aration of reports thereon, cooperation with states and other
agencies, and review by the Board of Engineers for Rivers and
Harbors--all substantially follow the pattern applicable to
Projects may be undertaken only when expressly authorized
by Congress, and a number of laws| have been enacted in the
nature of continuing authorizations for specified types of work,
many allowing varying degrees of discretion in the use of funds.
Excepting dam and reservoir projects, law generally appli-
cable to authorizations for flood-control work requires that
states or other local interests provide the necessary lands and
maintain local works.
With few exceptions, laws concerning funds and concerning
prosecution and operation of projects, including multiple uses,
are substantially like those governing navigation improve-
As to certain international waters, two international com-
missions have functions concerning, among other things, flood
S59 Stat. 1219.