Title: Water Management in Developing Countries
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Title: Water Management in Developing Countries
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Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - Water Management in Developing Countries
General Note: Box 12, Folder 6 ( Legal, Institutional and Social Aspects of Irrigation and Drainage and Water Resources Planning and Management - 1979 ), Item 14
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Social Changes : Impact of Siwani Canal Project


Dr. G.P.Malhotra, MASC


Abstract

An area of about 250,000 acres situated in north-
western region of the State of Haryana in India, was a
veritable desert till about seven years ago. Receiving only
about 25 cm of very erratic and undependable annual rain-
fall, the misery of the people of the area was accentuated
by the fact that two vast irrigation networks on the
northern and eastern sides of the area stopped short at its
boundaries. This happened because the general slope of the
area was in a reverse direction as compared to the direction
of flow of the canals in these networks. Water could not
therefore reach this area by gravity flow. The groundwater
in the area was brackish and totally unfit for drinking for
agricultural purposes. People walked miles for a bucket of
water from sweet water wells which were few and far between.

Drought and famine were an almost annual feature.
Population and cattle migrated on a large scale to adjoining
areas during these periods of droughts. Large sums of money
were doled out to the people during such famines. This
provided only temporary relief. The sandy nature of soil,
highly undulating topography and strong winds kept the
sand dunes shifting from place to place.

The Siwani Canal Lift Irrigation Project was
conceived in 1971 for the area. It has a 450 mile long
network of canals with 20 pump houses which lift the canals
at suitable points. The impact of the Project has already
brought a complete social change in the area. With the
availability of canal waters, the farmers have started
growing two crops. Employment of labour on farms almost
throughout the year has stopped the migration of
population. Piped rural drinking water supply schemes fed
from canals have been extended to nearly 50% of the villages.
Deep-rooted customs like the marriages of yoUfl people are
gradually changing as are eating and other daily habits of
people.

Superintending Engineer, Ujina Diversion Drain Project,
Faridabad, Haryana, India. Formerly, Superintending
Engineer, Siwani Canal Project, Hissar, Haryana, India.






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Even the construction procedures adopted had an
impact on the-social and economic life of the people.

Introduction

India, with its unique rainfall pattern is largely
dependent on irrigation canal systems for its agriculture,
particularly for winter and early summer crops. Areas
which are fed by canal waters are not only better developed
but also have socially greater prestige attached with
them. Government revenue records classify separately
the canal-irrigated and non canal-irrigated areas; and
the market value of agricultural land situated in the
command of irrigation channels is considerably higher than
the rest.

The classical irrigation canal feeds the area by
gravity flow. A main canal has branches which in turn, have
offtaking distributary channels. Irrigation outlets are
fixed on the distributaries which feed the field channels.
There is inevitable loss of head along the length of these
channels and at offtake points. Since most of the
distributaries and field channels are unlined, they run
at comparatively steeper grade and thus some pockets in
the command area of a field channel remain unirrigated
owing to their higher levels. Enterprising farmers
generally employ some water lifting devices to irrigate
such pockets. However, since in most areas, particularly
for the winter crop, there is not enough water in the canals
to irrigate 100% area under their command, such pockets tend
to be left out from canal irrigation and largely depend
upon rainfall for agriculture.

Siwani Project Area

The misery of a large tract of land may be well
imagined if its topography is such that the land is-es
in a reverse slope as compared to the flow of water and
the canals stop short at the foot of such a tract. Such
conditions prevailed in the 250,000 acre tract of the
Siwani Project aree. Although two extensive canal systems
existed on the northern and eastern sides of the area,
they stopped short at the foot of the area which went on
rising towards south and west and merged into the adjoining
desert State of Rajasthan. The prevailing conditions
are further made miserable by the fact that whole area is
sandy and desert-like and receives only about 25 cm of
annual rainfall. Even this scanty rainfall is very erratic
as most of it falls within a few days which quickly
seeps into the ground. The complete failure of rains every
third or fourth year further heightened the misery of
people. The ground water is very deep and brackish rendering
it totally unfit for drinking or agriculture purposes.







SIWANI CANAL PROJECT


Sweet wSier.wells were few and far between and people
(specially the womenfolk) had to trek miles to get few
buckets of water. Such tales of woe are told in many
bik songs which the village belles sing in chorus while
going in groups for water to far off places.

When the rains failed and the drought hit the area,
indescribable conditions of misery prevailed. Large scale
migration of people and cattle to adjoining areas became
a regular habit. The governments of the time doled out
large sums of money, food grains and fedder. There was no
industry in the area and employment prospects outside
agriculture were virtually negligible. During the 1966 and
1968 droughts, over 200 villages were affected covering
almost the entire area. The damage to crops during these
two years was 7 million and 36 million rupees respectively.

The Siwani Canal

In the late 1960's, serious thought was given to the
problem of bringing canal waters to these areas. The obvious
solution was to lift the canal against the slope in a
series of steps to meet the rising topography. Two feeder
canal of 550 and 300 cfs capacity were constructed
entering the foot of the area on the northern and eastern
sides. These feeders went as far they could go by
gravity flow. Two large pump houses were constructed at
the end of these feeders. These pump houses are fitted
with vertical axial-flow pumps of adequate capacity to
lift the entire canal discharge# At these two pump houses,
the eastern canal was lifted by 25 feet and the northern
by 14 feet. The canal flowing out of the first pump house
on the northern side was named "Siwani Canal" after the
largest village in the area. The eastern canal is named
Nigana Canal.

A series of pup houses are located on both the
canals raising the water to a total lift of 100 feet on
each of the two canal systems. The total number of such
pump houses is twenty.

In between any two pump houses, distributary channels
offtake at appropriate points and of adequate capacities
to cater for the irrigation needs of the area falling under
their command. These distributary channels flow in an
opposite direction to the main canal. Thus, they flow
along the general ground slope and are mostly gravity-flow
channels. Common type of irrigation outlets are fixed on
these distEibutaries so that as far as the farmer is
concerned he finds himself at par with his counterpart in
ordinarily irrigated areas. On account of very undulating
topography of the area strewn with a large number of sand
dunes, the alignment of field channels presented some
problems. The age-old type of straight field channels could







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


not be constructed as it involved major portion of the
channel in fill which is hard to maintain in these sandy
areas. Contour field channels were therefore constructed
which are in cutting in most of their length and also
maintain maximum irrigation command. However, a much
larger number of outlets and field channels were required
for a given area than in an ordinary gravity-flow canal
irrigation system.

Because of the highly sandy conditions in the
area, all canals and distributary channels have been
lined with a single layer of brick tiles. The field
channels, however, haveibeen left out unlined for the
present. After the irrigation pattern is reasonably
established in the area, the field channels will also be
lined. The lifted water being very precious, every effort
has been made to conserve its use and to reduce the
seepage losses as far as possible.

The Siwani Canal Project has a gross areas of
about 250,000 acres (100,000 hectares) out of which
180,000 acres has been brought under the command of the
irrigation channels. The total length of canals and
distributary channels, constructed or remodelled under
the Project, is 750 kilometres (450 miles). This length
does not include the field channels which have an
aggregate length of many times over. The total cost of
the project was 220 million rupees. About 10,000 people
were employed on the construction of the project for a
period of over 5 years.

Social Impact of Siwani Canal

As was expected, there has been a tremendous social
impact on the people of the area during and after the
construction of the canal project. The areas of such
impact may be broadly categorized as follows :

a- generation of employment potential

b- development of "mechanized look" among the people

c- better use of the available local resources

d- stoppage of seasonal migration of population

e- new-born sense of security

f- drinking water supply


g- afforestation







SIWANI CANAL PROJECT


a) Generation of employment

A large labour force was required for the
construction of the project. The project was deliberately
planned labour-intensive to provide maximum employment
to local people. Only most essential mechanical
equipment was used for construction. Consequently, new
horizons of employment were thrown open to the people.

Before the start of the project the menfolk had
very little employment during the year outside the
three rainy months when agricultural activity was at
its peak. The project brought employment year-round. Not
only manual labour was required for the excavation
of channels, but diversified skills were also needed for
construction of civil engineering works and repairs and
maintenance of machinery and equipment.

Locally available skilled labour, e.g., masons,
carpenters, brick moulders etc. who had very little
employment previously got engaged in large scale
construction activity on pump houses and lining of
channels. Newer vocations like tractor and dozer
operators, concrete mixer handlers, motor mechanics,
pump operators, fitters, foremen, electricians etc. were
thrown open to the youngmen many of whom got trained
in these skills. They had never known such jobs before.
Many private petrol and diesel oil stations, workshops,
garages and other ancilliary small-scale shops sprang
up to cater for the large fleet of vehicles owned by
contractors and the project authorities which suddenly
a showed up in the area. Many people were employed in
the central project workshop on the repair and
maintenance of project machinery and equipment.

b) Development of "mechanized look".

The type of employment thrown open to a
virtually primitive people almost overnight, brought
a fantastic change in the outlook of people towards
machinery and mechanization of agriculture. After the
full benefits of the irrigation water were available,
many farmers purchased tractors and other mechanical
implements which boosted the agricultural activity a
great deal. Many of them stalled sprinkler irrigation
systems particularly those who had higher level pockets
of land. Thus, these people suddenly got directly
concerned with the maintenance and repair of machines.
This proximity to machines brought relief at home as well.
The electric fan which was previously considered as a
"machine" and was therefore half-abhorred and half-feared
found its smooth entry in the home and gave the much-needed






800 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


relief from the summer heat. The radio appeared in many
houses and tractors were seen parked alongwith camels and
bullocks outside the thatched mud houses. The farmer who
had never held in his hand anything but the handle of
the centuries-old wooden plough was suddenly seated behind
the steering wheel. The very fact that the fields were
being irrigated by "machine-lifted" water, spread the
mechanization all over.

With the availability of canal water and agricultu-
ral machinery, the modernization of agriculture followed
fast. It was amazing to see old farmers used to their
antiquated agriculture methods inherited from centuries,
adopt hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizers and more frequent
waterings almost overnight. The changeover from one crop
to two crops a year pattern has also found acceptance
almost everywbere., The additional winter crop keeps the
farm labour employed for greater number of days during
the year. Cash crops were introduced. Wheat being a
winter crop which was almost non-existent in the area
before, was started being groM~n on a moderate scale.
The common man started getting better and more balanced
food.

c) Use of local resources

The only source of power in the area apart from
manual labour was the camel. In the sandy desert-like
tracts camel is used not only for transportation and
haulage, but also for ploughing fields .and drawing
water from wells. During the construction of Siwani
Canal, maximum use was made of the camel. Special
haulage carts were designed fitted with wheels
mounted with used aeroplane tyres. This device was
used for haulage of construction material like cement
sand, steel etc. to even remote parts of the area
where even a four-wheel drive truck could not find access.
These carts were also used for haulage of excavated
earth from high sand dunes wherever an irrigation
channels had to run across them. They also proved
handy for carrying drinking water to labour working
in remote areas.

On account of the new-found use of the camel,
thousands of such camel carts sprang up in the area
within a matter of months. The airlines cleared all
their stocks of used aircraft tyres. Hundreds of road-
side mechanic shops came up for maintenance and repair
of these carts. The camel who was previously busy only
for a few days in the year, was suddenly called upon to
work two shifts per day. Consequently, the camel feed
had to be enriched. Previously the camel lived on
the leaves of a particular local tree (which,







SIWANI CANAL PROJECT


incidentally, perfectly matches the height of the
camel so that he can mrch the leaves liesurely
while standing). Because of tremendous extra demands on
his working stamina, his feed was made more nourishing.

After the project was over, these carts are being
used by the farmers to carry their agricultural produce
to the marketplace, and for many other odd jobs.

d) Stoppage of population shift

Whenever rains failed, no matter if the farm
was big or small, nothing could be produced on a
single acre. The big farmers could store their
requirement of food grains probably for 2 3 years
whereas a smaller farmer was dependent on the produce
from year to year. A drought left most of the
population without any food at home and no employment
prospects outside. Consequently, population migration occurred
every second or third year. The scale of migration
depended upon the intensity of drought. The cattle
were the worst to suffer.

The migration of population and cattle was
always to the adjoining areas which in themselves
were not prosperous; enough to withstand the pressures
of such an influx. These conditions obviously caused
many economic and social problems.

The irri-ation from Siwani Canal assured a
minimum of agricultural produce even during severe
Sdrou!ht conditions. Since thi popular ion zf th'
s.- !- i! bpirec, the nosured produce was adequate for
the annual consumption of the entire area. rith the
development of irrigation, the conditions are improving
every year.

e) New-born sense of security

Assured agricultural produce, freedom from
want every now and then, disappearance of the fear
to occasionally mig;rate to other areas and the
attendant humiliation, generated a new sense of
security in the common man of the area. He developed
a sense of belonging. He started looking around
to the environment and making some effort to improve
it.

Better maintained farms and better homes have
started appearing in the arca. Another project has
provided link roads and electricity to every village.
The farmer can look around him with a sense of pride
which he naver knew earlier.







802 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


In India, there is a certain status attached
to the rural areas where lands are canal-irrigated.
Young women do not like to be married to youngmen
belonging to areas where irrigation waters do not
flow. Larger a canal passing through an area, greater
is its social status.

The people in the Siwani Canal command area
have become very conscious of this newly acquired
social status. Their longstanding grouse that their
youngmen do not get brides from "good" areas is fast
diminishing.

The full granaries and changed agricultural
pattern which includes some cash crops, have
produced moderately prosperous conditions. With
village ponds ever full with canal waters, the cattle
look healthier. There has been a virtual milk
revolution in the area. The tall and wiry people
of the desert are sparing no effort in improving
their lot with redoubled zeal.

f) Drinking water supply

The biggest boon accruing to the area from the canal
has been the piped drinking water supply to the villages.
About half the number of villages in the area have already
been covered and the rest are scheduled to benefit in the
next couple of years. A number of waterworks have been
constructed at various places which are fed by canal
water. Booster stations are located at convenient points.
Hundreds of miles of pipeline has been laid for the
purpose. All stations are provided with filter beds and
chlorination units.

Because of the tremendous cost involved in
the venture, drinking water taps in a village have
not been provided in homes but at common places outside.
The number of taps depends upon the size of a village.
Separate taps have been provided for schools and
dispensaries.

Although this facility may look almost
negligible from urban standards, the tremendous
impact it has been made on the daily lives of people
cannot be easily gauged. Because of brackish
ground water, the people till recently considered
a glass of drinking water as more valuable than
a glass of milk. It was a common tale about many villages
in the area that they could offer milk to the
guests but not water. Measured quantities of
drinking water were kept under lock and key for the
use of children and the sick. Special devices were







SIWANI CANAL PROJECT


in use for storing rainwater during monsoon to be
gradually consumed during the rest of the year.
Sweet water wells (open type) wherever available were
guarded like treasure. Special canopies were
constructed over them to minimize the evaporation
losses. During drought, cattle perished of thirst in
large numbers.

Imagine the joy of a bouselady who has only to
step out of her house, open a tap and fill any number
of pitchers, utensils or buckets with clean water.
Only five years ago she probably walked a couple of
miles with two pitchers balanced precariously on her head
watching each step lest the precious water spilled
over. The saving in time on water-fetching alone is
estimated to be enough for her to complete all other
domestic chores. Some spare time on her. hands now is
being gainfully utilized elsewhere.

g) Afforestation

A side development due to the canals in
the area has been the introduction of lqrge-scale
planting of trees. Previously the trees were very
few and only those which could withstand extreme
hot and dry conditions. Such trees are provided
by nature for camel feed.

The canal authorities planted trees on both
banks of the channels, three to four deep, to
stabilize the banks and halt their erosion during
strong winds. The trees have now been planted all
over the area. Certain areas, specially nearer the
canals, do not look like desert anymore. Many
groves provide as picnic spots (as are the
lawns and parks attached with the many waterworks).
This has generated greater sense of cohesion within
the family as they can go out together somewhere
away from home and from the unending toil and
routine hardwork which is required of them to
face the hardy life they have been experiencing
from centuries.

















STRATEGIES FOR PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


G. L. Corey1 and Ernest T, Smerdon2 M.ASCE


The world community has long realized that development of
irrigation is an essential element in producing sufficient food for
ever increasing numbers of hungry and malnourished; yet also there is
ample evidence of concern for the inadequacies of existing irrigation
systems. Depletion and degradation of natural resources continues at
an alarming rate. Much attention is now being paid to better manage-
ment of natural resources.


BACKGROUND

The UN Indicative World Plan concluded that the 1970's would see
about forty percent of all capital investment in developing nations
in water projects, a major portion going to irrigation and to power
for irrigation. The Science Advisory Committee Panel on World Food
Supply, in its report to the President of the United States in 1967,
identified expanded irrigation as an essential component of agricul-
tural development in the world. The World Food Conference of 1974
stressed the critical role for irrigation with the adoption of a
resolution calling on the world community to increase investments in
inventory, development, training, research, and implementation of
water and water management systems. The UN Water Conference in March
1977 concluded that countries should "focus attention on better water
use and management practices, proper maintenance, control and opera-
tion of distribution systems and joint use of surface and ground
waters."

Irrigation is not a modern agricultural device recently developed
to increase production. It has been practiced for at least 5,000
years; yet less than fifteen percent of the total cultivated land of
the world is under irrigation. The availability of water and soil
resources limit its extent; however, where irrigation is practiced the
production potential is so vastly increased that approximately one half
of the world's population is highly dependent on irrigated agriculture
for its food.



1Senior Water Management Specialist; Agency for International
Development; Washington, D. C.

2Vice President for Academic Affairs; the University of Texas
System; Austin, Texas.



804







DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


Unfortunately, notwithstanding the long history of irrigation,
massive investments, and much research all over the world, a significant
number of irrigation projects encounter problems which cause them to be
less effective than anticipated, with near or total failures sometimes
occurring. Some argue that irrigated agriculture is not a permanent
agriculture. The symptoms warning of irrigation project problems
include low yields, low efficiencies of water use, water logging,
salinity, low level of project utilization, farmer discontent, excessive
costs, and general dissatisfaction with the system by technical per-
sonnel and policy makers. This range of symptoms and the variety of
circumstances under which they occur suggest that the problem or pro-
blems are manifold, not readily identified nor easily solved.

All of these symptoms relate to management. It therefore appears
logical for the problems to be attacked within the management framework.
There are, however, clear indications, if not evidence, that there are
serious deficiencies in the current process of planning, design, and
implementation of irrigation projects. It is generally recognized
that irrigation projects are complex with physical, technical, economic,
and social components all interacting. The planning and design process
does not usually give equal emphasis to components and sometimes ig-
nores the economic and social ones. Rarely are the interactions
considered.

One of the major deficiencies in the development process, as it so
often is applied, is the relative neglect of the human factor. Too
often it has been assumed that simply providing the "material" inputs
of building roads, dams, irrigation systems and providing seeds and
fertilizers will lead to economic progress and consequently to an
improved standard of living. This attitude has led to the common view
that the irrigation system is a physical entity which collects, trans-
ports and distributes water. The system then becomes a mere water
disposal networks which requires a great deal more water than is
necessary for plant growth. Wasted water within the various components
of the irrigation system, though often recoverable for use elsewhere,
is expensive, creates environmental hazards, reduces yields, and
requires yet another system for its removal. A properly planned, de-
signed, implemented, and managed system should not tolerate excessive
waste. A good irrigation system properly managed should supply enough
water for healthy plant growth; yet many systems are considered quite
good when only one-half of the water is actually available for plant
growth.

It is a mistake to assume that, if dams provide water for irri-
gation systems, people will automatically use them efficiently. We
cannot assume the irrigation system ends at the canal outlet nor that
all farmers somehow instinctively know how to irrigate efficiently.
And certainly we should not assume that he is not interested nor able
to do a better job. Shultz's "poor but efficient" theory should not
be blindly accepted with regard to irrigation farmers. We must pay
more attention to the human resources aspect of the total irrigation
system. Just as we learned how to build dams we must learn how to
design and operate irrigation systems so that our answer to increasing
production through irrigation is not always "build another dam" or






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


"drill another well." Additional water resources can be found within
the existing poorly operated irrigation systems. There is an abundant
supply of it there and it should be relatively inexpensive compared to
new projects.

To be truly effective an irrigation system must deliver water in
response to plant needs while being operated within the existing insti-
tutional, human, and economic constraints. If these constraints are
ignored the farmer is totally unprepared to operate efficiently.
There are tremendous inefficiencies within most systems. We build an
engineering marvel, a beautiful water disposal system, which delivers
much more water than crops need. We usually do not carry the planning,
design, construction, and management far enough down the farmer's
field where, after all, the total benefits of the project are produced.
This results in much water being wasted; yields and production far
below optimum; expensive water; waterlogged and salinized soils; and
the need for an internal drainage system. As food needs increase we
search for a new solution which typically means finding new sources of
water, building more systems and extending agriculture to marginal
lands often unsuitable for irrigation. The price we pay for this
management is high, yet it continues. The world cannot continue to
ignore the on-farm water management problem. We must set about using
the water in the irrigation systems which is now being wasted. We
have not adequately attacked this problem.

Water management is more and more being recognized as a promising
means of solving future pressing food production problems. In October
1977, the Food Task Force of the Trilateral Commission proposed a $52
billion project to double rice production in Asia by 1990. This would
be done by providing new irrigation systems and rehabilitating old ones
This plan is receiving much favorable attention among politicians and
world leaders because it appears financially sound and technically
possible even though the time frame is undoubtedly overly optimistic.

It appears certain that irrigation water management will continue
to be a key element in agricultural development strategies for most
nations. It is therefore essential that more attention be paid to
learning more about the water management process and the institutional,
social, and economic interactions involved.


SOME DEFINITIONS

Chambers (1975) defined water management as the "control and
operation of the distribution, allocation, application, and drainage
of water from the source of supply to the end of the drains." This
implies a much broader definition than one usually hears within his
own discipline. Engineers view water management as control, collection
storage, distribution and drainage of water. Agriculturists relate it-
to supply, control, and use as regards to crop growth. Economists are
concerned with costs, benefits, and alternative use; sociologists with
the social processes and relationships; hydrologists with inventories,
conjunctive use, and environmental aspects; political scientists in
terms of legal aspects and allocations; and finally the farmer views it







DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


as an input to production. It is any wonder that definitions vary and
in most cases the term "water management" simply is not defined?

The term agricultural water management is "the process by which
water is provided for and used in agriculture." It includes all
those things mentioned in Chambers' definition but also relates to the
procedures, rules, and institutional arrangements involved. To further
confuse the issue, the evaluation of water management is also dependent
upon the viewer. Chambers (1976) proposed five generic criteria for
evaluation of water management. Briefly these are productivity, equity,
convenience, stability, and cost effectiveness. There are obviously
complementaries and conflicts between these. Engineers are most often
interested in water use efficiencies but too often they are only con-
sidering if in terms of efficient use of the resource by a specified
user. Equity, cost effectiveness, and stability could all be sacri-
ficed in a highly efficient system.

Skogerboe (1977) suggested dividing the irrigation system into
three major sub-systems; water delivery, the farm, and water removal.
He pointed out that development of irrigated agriculture in most
places has traditionally been focused almost entirely on the water
delivery sub-system. He suggested that "the greatest deterrent to
improved water management in most irrigation systems today is the
inordinate focus on the water delivery sub-system and the almost
complete neglect of the other problems." We might add that, insti-
tutional problems emerge because the water management programs within
the three sub-systems are usually administered through separate agencies
having responsibility for only one sub-system. This greatly complicates
the development and implementation of programs for improvement.

The focus on the delivery sub-system has naturally led to solu-
tions being sought within that system. A commonly suggested and
accepted solution to the problem of inefficient use of water is to
add more water through the delivery system. We all know of examples.
In design, we almost always calculate or estimate crop consumptive
demand to a precise degree only to add a large portion of water to
allow for mismanagement. When this proves inadequate the first and
often disastrous solution is to add even more water. This concept
which leads us to solve product waste problems by supplying the users
with more of the product carries the implicit assumption that the
management process has been optimized and the users can do no better.
We must not accept this assumption, at least until we have more proof
that it is true.


THE HUMAN ASPECT

If management is a process then people are involved. To improve
the process, decisions and actions must be taken by individuals. Pure
"hardware" approaches have proved inadequate. The realization is
emerging that interdisciplinary approaches are necessary if improvement
is made. The physical irrigation system, the biological production pro-
cesses, the farmers, the institutions, the rules, laws and regulations,
the social structure, and the political and economic environment arp







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


all elements of the management system. Permanent solutions to opera-
tional problems cannot be successfully implemented without consideration
of all elements.

The World Food and Nutrition Study (NAS 1977) indicated that
"any attempt to choose or improve an irrigation design must consider
all the relevant social, economic, political, and technical conditions.
Too often important considerations are overlooked, ignored, or their
consequences undervalued. Irrigation system failures have been, to a
large degree, the result of improper matching of irrigation methods
with the social, political, economic, and technical management capa-
bilities of those responsible for the irrigation and farming system
as well as the physical characteristics of the land and water. Such
mismatches are bound to result in partial or total failure of the
system."

The next one or two decades will see great emphasis and financial
resources directed toward development and improvement or irrigation
systems throughout the developing world. As solutions are attempted
we must realize that each country has its own set of political, eco-
nomic, social and technical conditions and constraints. It is
essential that a working knowledge of these be at hand before a
particular approach to solving the problem is attempted. In the end,
knowledge must be applied innovatively at each site. Success will
require a diagnostic approach based on as much relevant site data as can
be obtained, including the views of the farmers. Finally, results must
be translated into action by human beings individually and collectively.

Much of the technology being promoted to improve the effectiveness
of irrigation throughout the world was instigated in the high income
nations. This technology reflects the economic, social, and political
predilections of the conditions where it originated and may be ill-
suited to the less developed countries.


A STRATEGY FOR LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

Too often, projects are planned and designed by a team of "experts'
from donor nations without adequate knowldege of local conditions.
Developments and technologies for improvement must, somewhere along the
line, become the ideas, procedures and technologies fostered by the
local scene if they are to be successful. This step of transference of
ideas is essential; yet, since it ordinarily takes time, it is seldom
programmed into the process. It is often the cause of failures.
Clyma, et al (1977) have presented a course of action which calls for a
clinical approach of careful at site determination of problems and
constraints, with selection and testing of solutions before implemen-
tation programs are initiated. This time consuming process cannot be
ignored if solutions are to be appropriate within the local environ-
ments.







DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


Perhaps the most often ignored aspect of water management is the
consideration of the farmer and his role. Regardless of how elaborate
an irritation project may be with big dams, diversion structures and
canal works, it cannot be successful unless the individual farmers
themselves also succeed. It is the farmers that make the system work.
Therefore, the irrigation water management of the individual farm
becomes a matter of first priority.

Every country with irrigation should have a national irrigation
planning effort usually encompassing two phases. One phase is, of
course, the planning and development of new irrigation projects. This
phase is often given the highest priority by the governments. This is
a mistake if this is the only part of the national irrigation planning
program.

Most less developed countries already have irrigation and may have
had it for hundreds and hundreds of years. Some of these projects, if
not most, are not functioning as well as they might. Therefore, before
new projects are planned, there should be a concerted effort to make
certain that the existing irrigation projects and practices on the
individual farms are the best possible. It is not wise to develop new
projects which may not produce food up to their expectations without
first making certain that existing projects are performing well and
producing food at an optimal rate.

Food production will only be increased by farmers committed to
growing more food who have the resources and the means to do so.
Farmers are the key and farmers the world over want to produce more
because if they do it will improve their economic condition and
welfare. Therefore, it is essential to clearly understand all the
factors which influence their actions. If several changes in farmer
practices are needed to achieve better irrigation water use, it is
essential that the consequence of each change be understood by the
farmer. A first necessary step is to identify the most serious pro-
blems concerning irrigation water management on their farms. The
farmers should be actively involved in this problem identification
process.

After the most severe problems have been identified, the next
step is to convince the farmer to consider changes. The process is
more difficult if the changes require the action of a group of farmers.
While some may be naturally inclined to adopt changes, others will be
reluctant. The problem then becomes one of finding ways to motivate
the individual farmer or group.

Once farmers are motivated to consider changes, a plan of action
must be developed and presented to them. This plan should be deve-
loped with those affected by it actively involved. The development of
the plan of action, its implementation and subsequent evaluation
should all have the active involvement of all who will be affected.
The farmers need to understand what the changes will mean to them and
to have a part in determining how the changes are implemented.







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Five steps in a strategy for implementing changes are briefly
given.

Identifying the Most Severe Problems: A frequent cause of low pro-
duction is that the water supply is not adequate. This may be because
of excessive losses of water in the canals and watercourse. Or the
water may not reach the farms when needed by the crop. Perhaps the
application of water is poorly distributed over the fields. The needed
fertilizers may not be available or the farmers may not realize the
value of proper fertilization.

These are only a few of the many problems which frequently occur
in irrigation farming. It may not be possible to solve all of them
at once. However, it is important to systematically study the water
management practices and determine which problems are most important
in limiting the food production. It is equally important to identify
which of the problems can be solved with the resources available to the
farmer. Nothing is accomplished if the solutions to the problems are
so costly that they are beyond the means of the farmers.

The process of identifying the most critical water management pro-
blems is not simple. Trained technicians must determine where the
water losses are occurring in the fields and on the watercourses.
Again, the farmers and local leaders should be acgively involved so
they become a part of this determination.

Motivating the Farmers to Consider Change: Sociologists have for years
studied motivation principles and what motivates a typical human being
to act. The principles apply to all--the rich and the poor. There is
a natural priority in motivation which says that a person is not moti-
vated by higher order considerations until more basic needs have been
fulfilled. An understanding of these motivation principles is most
important if we are to understand the human aspects of on-farm water
management.

These motivation principles can be presented in an order which
illustrates that certain basic needs must be satisfied before an indi-
vidual will give serious attention to other, higher order, needs. The
most basic are given first and until they are satisfied a person will
not give much thought to higher needs. When the basic needs are met,
then other needs are considered. The most basic need is the physiolo-
gical need of food and shelter to stay alive. This is followed by
security needs, then love and belonging needs. Next comes ego and self-
esteem needs finally followed by self-fulfillment needs.

The motivation of poor irrigation farmers in the less developed
countries is dominated by the first two or three of these motivational
needs. In most cases their physiological needs are met and the farmers'
decisions are largely influenced by the motivation for the maximum
security possible. If the typical low level of agricultural production
provides minimal needs for the farmer and his family, he will be reluc-
tant to adopt changes if he fears they may endanger the security provide
by the knowledge that past practices have met his needs--even if only







DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


minimally. If an improved technological practice can be shown to
improve the individual's security, it will be quickly adopted.

The love and belonging need is important when group action is
required. For example, if there is need for a group decision by the
farmers to repair and rebuild a watercourse, one farmer alone will
usually be reluctant to hold out because it tends to destroy his sense
of belonging to the group. However, if the farmer believes that the
group action will hurt him individually and threaten his security, his
decision will be controlled by the more basic motivation for security
and the motivation of belonging will not prevail.

The local leaders are motivated by self-esteem. That is why it is
so important to involve them in any actions related to the local
farmers. To fail to recognize this basic motivation of the leaders
and ignore them will most surely destine an effort to failure. If
leaders have had their self-esteem damaged by being ignored, they may
silently work against the effort and reduce the chance for progress.

Developing a Plan with Farmers Involvement: After the most critical
problems concerning water management have been identified and the ones
most feasible to implement determined, an implementation plan is de-
veloped. This plan should be developed with the active involvement of
the farmers. The principles of human motivation should be considered
at each step. In fact, if the farmers have been actively involved and
their suggestions considered, the progress of getting them motivated
to act will follow naturally.

Implementing the Plan with Farmer Involvement: The agreed to plan of
action should be implemented as soon as possible. This should be done
with sufficient guidance of technical managers to assure the task is
done properly. If construction is involved, an engineer must check all
the phases are properly completed so the effort does not fail because
of careless work. Measurements as needed must be made, always being
sure that all parties involved understand why this is being done.

Evaluating the Finished Plan with Farmer Involvement: The final success
of the plan will depend on how it improved the water management and,
ultimately, how much more food production results. The farmers them-
selves will be evaluating the project, but they must know what to look
for. The engineers and technical managers must help in this. The
measurements should show that improvements have actually resulted. If
the improvement provides the farmer with more water, he must be advised
on how to use the additional water most effectively.


CONCLUSION

As emphasis and money are directed to the irrigation water
management field there will be a strong tendency to attempt single
discipline solutions. Selfish attitudes of disciplines will tend to
lead them to vie for what they assume to be the same dollars. This
vested interest approach must not be tolerated. Also professional
arrogance tends to give disciplines the feeling that they alone have







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


valid solutions. Engineers, agronomists, economists, sociologists, and
political scientists must work together toward interdisciplinary solu-
tions since the problems within the managmenet of an irrigation system
are highly complex and there is not enough time to permit piecemeal
solutions. Adoption and adaptation of improved water management tech-
nologies by a substantial number of farmers within an irrigation system
is a highly site specific, personalized, time consuming, human adven-
ture. The job is not easy; but the potential rewards are great indeed
and no greater challenge has been placed on those who profess to be
water management experts.



REFERENCES


1. Chambers, Robert. "Criteria for Evaluating and Improving
Irrigation Management." ODI Workshop on Choices in Irrigation
Management. October 1976.

2. Chambers, Robert. "Water Management and Paddy Production in the
Dry Zone of Sri Lanka." Occasional Paper No. 8 Agrarian Research
and Training Institute. January 1975.

3. Clyma, Wayne; Lowdermilk, Max; Corey, Gilbert. "A Research
Development Process for Improvement of On-Farm Water Management."
Colorado State University, Water Management Technical Report No. 47
June 1977.

4. Food Task Force Trilateral Commission. "Expanding Food Production
in Developing Countries: Rice Production in South and Southeast
Asia." Umberto Colombo, DiGale Johnson, Toshio Sushido.

5. President's Science Advisory Committee. The World Food Problem.
The White House. May 1967.

6. Shultz, Theodore, W. Transforming Traditional Agriculture. Yale
University Press. 1964.

7. Skogerboe, Gaylord V. "Water Management and Water Management
Relationships." Proceedings of the ASCE Irrigation and Drainage
Division Specialty Conference. Reno, Nevada. July 1977.

8. World Food and Nutrition Study, Support Papers. "Utilization
of Irrigation Water." Profile 7. National Academy of Sciences.
1977.
j














PEASANT INVOLVEMENT IN ON-FARM IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT


By

Nancy Adams,"- Jack Keller, M.ASCE and
Bonnie M. Spillman--

ABSTRACT

An approach to irrigation project planning involving more social
input has been developed. This plan follows much of the traditional
planning approach; however, a strong human component has been incor-
porated. The approach is as follows.

An interdisciplinary planning staff investigates the proposed
project area. If project development proves physically feasible, this
staff pursues investigation of current on-farm practices and a more
detailed physical investigation. In addition, a team is formed from
members of the staff to interact with the local people. The initial
focus of this team is to determine human constraints on project devel-
opment.

This process of constraint determination is based on both informal
and structured interaction between the planners and peasants. In order
to achieve maximum benefit from this interaction, the planning team
should determine who the local opinion leaders are. The team also needs
to decide how to involve the leaders in the planning and development
process. Hopefully, such information can be obtained during informal
interaction with local farmers and other community members. The plan-
ners should also communicate with people knowledgeable about local farm
practices and constraints.

Once the planners decide which local people to involve, an agricul-
tural circle is organized. The purpose of this circle is to provide a
setting where peasants can learn about irrigation practices and discuss
project development potentials. In addition, it functions as a feedback
channel through which planners obtain some insight into community mem-
bers' needs and concerns, what their reaction to development might be,
and how this response might be altered, if necessary.



-/Agricultural Engineer, Ag. Engineering Dept., Colorado State Uni-
versity, Ft. Collins, CO, 80521.
/Professor, Agricultural and Irrigation Engineering Dept., Utah
State University, Logan, UT, 84322.
!/Asst. Professor, Dept. of Communication, Utah State University,
Logan, UT, 84322.






814 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Having local people participate in the circle increases the like-
lihood that a core of individuals committed to development will be
formed. Their increased technical know-how and their understanding of
how development will improve local conditions will enable them to en-
courage adoption of the new practices. They will also be able to show
their neighbors "how to do it." If some participants are local opinion
leaders, their support will be even more beneficial.

Through this process, the socio-psychological dynamics of the par-
ticipants may also be altered. Such alteration will reflect out into
the community and, in doing so, will change other individuals. Thus,
through this development process, there is greater possibility that
community transformation will be initiated. This can lead to quicker
acceptance and, consequently, more timely social benefits and economic
operation of the project.

INTRODUCTION

Historically, irrigation project development throughout the world
has seldom produced the returns envisioned by planners. This is espec-
ially true with projects in developing countries involving peasant
farmers. In short, one would be hard-pressed to find many projects
which come close to reaching the production expectations in anything
like the projected development time schedule. We think that this prob-
lem arises, in part at least, with the belief that a good physical ir-
rigation system is synonymous with good irrigation. This is definitely
not the case. It is very easy to have poor or essentially no irrigation
even with a good system, and it is even possible to have good irrigation
with a poor system.

We believe it is this confusion between the physical irrigation
system and the activity of irrigation that leads to the disappointing
results in irrigation project implementation. To stress this point,
let's consider how this same kind of confusion would affect a game like
basketball.

THE SITUATION

Basketball: An Analogy

The Oriac Eagles have learned all they know about basketball from
watching others play the game and from their own playing experience.
Recently, they have been losing more games than they have been winning.
Local spectators are disappointed. Attendance in other towns is poor
when their teams compete with the Eagles. Obviously, action must be
taken, and Oriac promoters are demanding that something be done.

The city planners decide that the answer to the problem is to
supply the team with a new basketball facility and new equipment. The
mayor and city council agree. Plans are made, and a new sports arena
is built. It is an engineering wonder: In addition to the court it
contains comfortable seating, good lighting, good acoustics, tempera-
ture control, refreshment stands, a loudspeaker system, electronic
scoreboards, and restrooms for the spectators. The arena in turn is







PEASANT INVOLVEMENT


surrounded by a large parking lot and provided with public transporta-
tion to accommodate the spectators.

When the arena is finished, local fans wait expectantly for the
team's game to improve. It doesn't.

"What went wrong!" the city council demands. "We gave them the
best available facility we could afford, and they are playing no better
than they did before and perhaps even a little worse." Indeed, what
can be wrong?

Well, first of all, the players were unfamiliar with the new facil-
ity, since the plan did not call for practice on the new court before
the first big game. But the source of the problem was that coaching
and practice were not incorporated into the plans for improving Eagle
basketball. The planners simply forgot that without coaching and prac-
tice the new facilities would be of little, if any, benefit.

Irrigation

This all relates to irrigation in that the activity of irrigation
is often taken too much for granted once the physical system has been
developed. In the United States this problem may be less serious. We
are familiar with the overall system, so we tend to develop irrigation
techniques which are congruent with existing levels of technology and
farmer practices.

This situation, however, does not exist with relation to peasant
farms in developing countries, and other factors must be taken into
account. For one, where labor intensive agriculture is practiced, it
may not be appropriate to replace the irrigator with machines. Then it
is especially important for planners to remember that irrigation is a
human activity. In such cases, planners must select irrigation tech-
niques which have a reasonable chance of being productive without ab-
ruptly replacing labor with capital intensive machinery. In addition,
the training needed for successful operation and maintenance of the
system must be incorporated into the development procedure.

In order to achieve these results, the social context within which
development is to occur has to be taken into account. Therefore, let's
briefly review some major characteristics of a peasant community which
affect on-farm irrigation development.

The Peasant Community

Each peasant community develops its own cultural dynamic; neverthe-
less, anthropologists have thoroughly documented several basic charac-
teristics which are inherent in the traditional peasant community. Such
attitudes govern the peasant farmers' decision-making process, and
thereby, affect farming activities.

Perhaps the most characteristic feature of peasant culture, aside
from poverty, is a fatalistic attitude. Peasants occupy very low socio-
economic levels, and we find that for peasants "the basic decisions







816 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


which affect their lives are made from outside their communities. (4)"
Thus, even if the peasant farmers are interested in using new practices,
they seldom have the necessary resources (including investment capital,
knowledge, and experience with "how to do it") for the improvement. The
combined effect of poverty and powerlessness usually causes peasants to
retreat into their culture to the point where they even lose the ability
to consider alternatives, let alone make decisions about them.

The planner working in the developing world today, however, may be
encountering such a peasant community less and less. Peasants are in
transition, education and mass communication through radio and televis-
ion are beginning to reach them throughout the world. In addition, the
peasant community is experiencing repeated exposure to international as
well as national development programs. For example, the authors' ex-
perience is that peasant farmers in Egypt have been exposed to many new
agricultural practices and are willing to try even more. Nevertheless,
project planners must be aware of local attitudes and concerns and must
explore the current agricultural practices in order to develop realistic
project objectives and viable means of attaining them.

Social Development Inputs

Aaron Weiner (9) has described a set of inputs which he sees as
crucial to agricultural development. His structure, paralleling our
approach, incorporates nonmaterial inputs as well as material inputs.
In Weiner's analysis, nonmaterial inputs include: 1) improving tech-
niques and know-how; 2) restructuring the socio-psychological space;
and 3) restructuring the organizational-institutional space.

Improved techniques and know-how is the nonmaterial input which
has most often been incorporated into agricultural development, but it
is seldom included in irrigation projects. Somehow, it is assumed
that when a new irrigation system is introduced, farmers will use it
effectively.

Restructuring the socio-psychological space involves developing
the decision-making skills of peasant farmers in the project area. In
on-farm irrigation development these skills can be developed by having
the peasant farmer consider how and why he uses a particular agricultur-
al practice. By doing this he will become aware of his alternatives
and realize his own power. This activity plays a central role in the
social development process.

The organizational-institutional space is defined by the institu-
tions which form the agricultural infrastructures from the village to
the national level. In a village, restructuring this space might be
achieved by establishing a water users organization. At the national
level, it involves structuring institutions to make them responsive to
farmer needs and supportive of farmer efforts. This restructuring is
critical, because even if the farmer's decision-making skills are in-
creased, if the agricultural infrastructure does not expand to support
these skills, much potential advantage will have been lost.

Fortunately, an effective technique for restructuring these spaces






PEASANT INVOLVEMENT


has been noted by investigators in the area of human relations. This
technique involves a two-way process of communication, and it can be
applied to any of the three essential non-material inputs. An applica-
tion of the technique has also been developed for use in planning for
water resource development in the United States (7). Our task is to
examine this tool and develop a process for using it on irrigation pro-
ject development at the on-farm level.

Two-way Communication

Some of the most exciting work involving two-way communication is
that which Freire (5) and his colleagues used in a literacy program de-
veloped for Brazilian peasants. Interestingly, Freire also considered
the problem of agricultural development in the light of the principles
on which the literacy program was based. Freire describes two weak
links in the typical agricultural extension approach: 1) it does not
provide peasants a way to communicate their agricultural needs and
concerns, i.e., there is no feedback mechanism; and (2) it does not
provide farmers with an adequate understanding of the practices being
introduced.

Freire hypothesized that if the peasants become aware of the power
they were exerting in altering their world, they would want to gain more
power and would eagerly participate in a program designed to that end.
This proved true. The way chosen to achieve these results was through
dialogue between a coordinator and peasant participants in a group set-
ting, called a culture circle.

Freire developed "culture circles" to facilitate such interaction.
Participants in the culture circle were presented with a series of rep-
resentative, everyday situations. Coordinators, instead of describing
the situations, encouraged dialogue about the significance of these
situations in present life. Topic selection was based on impressions
and data collected during informal encounters with the peasants. These
topics represent. .

.everyday situations of the group with which one
is working. These representations function as chel-
lenges, as coded situation-problems containing elements
to be decoded by the groups with the collaboration of
the coordinator. .(5)

Through their decoding activity the peasants become aware of them-
selves in their world as transformers of that world. This is important
in project planning, because it is not until people realize how they
affect their world that they can conceive of possible alternatives and
indicate preferences. We will next suggest a procedure for incorpora-
ting such a communication process into on-farm irrigation development.

Both a two-way flow of information and the ability to evaluate new
practices need to be incorporated into agricultural development to real-
ize the full development potential. Freire's method provides the first
step in meeting these requirements. More will be said about this in the
section below on interaction procedures for project development.






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


INTERACTION PROCEDURES FOR PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

One possible strategy for interaction between the peasant community
and project planners is outlined in the remainder of this paper. This
strategy involves some activities which are carried out exclusively by
the planning staff, others involve both planners and selected peasants
in the setting of an "agricultural circle." A schematic diagram of
this strategy is shown in Figure 1. The strategy includes both infor-
mal encounters and formal agricultural circle activities.

The Planning Team

In on-farm irrigation development the planning team which interacts
with the peasants should consist of at least one social scientist and
one agricultural expert. More members, representing similar or comple-
mentary disciplines, may be added as needed.

The agricultural experts are responsible for deciding what new
technical information and practices should be introduced. The social
scientists can provide input about cultural factors and how to interact
with community members. Together they can determine techniques for
transferring knowledge and skills necessary for successful irrigation.

All members should work together providing input and sharing ideas
to devise a workable development approach. In addition, communication
between this team and the overall project planning staff must be of such
quality that everyone on the project has the necessary information for
making effective decisions.

Rural sociologists, Rogers and Shoemaker (8) have researched how
transfer of knowledge and skills (innovation) occurs. Their studies
indicate that client response is more favorable when the planners ex-
hibit both appreciation of and concern for the farm community with which
they are working. Specifically, the following activities, attitudes,
and attributes were found to be beneficial:

1. "Client orientation rather than change-agency orientation." --
This will require diplomacy on the part of the planners, but otherwise
their effectiveness, as well as project returns, will be greatly reduced.

2. "Program compatible with client needs." -- If the innovation
is not perceived as needed, it won't be used.

3. "Change agent empathy with client."

4. "Change agent homophily with client." -- Homophily is the de-
gree to which planner attributes are perceived by the peasants to be
similar to theirs. As planners exhibit an open mind, an empathic atti-
tude, and a basic respect for the peasant culture through concerned
communication, even the problem of perceived differences may be over-
come as the perception of a shared humanity is developed. This is es-
pecially true in the case of agricultural development. While peasants
and planners have differing backgrounds, all agricultural systems are
the result of human organization of land, water, and plants, the common








PEASANT INVOLVEMENT


FOMWNITY ACTNI =ES


PLANNER ACTIVITIES


Contact Community
(open *ncounters)


Community Inventory
(Itructured oncountr-)


SCommunity Assessment


Organize Agricultural Circle
Analysis of community leading
to codification
S-Construction of visual aids
. Develop field trip and demon.
stration strategy

Determine who is to participate
SSet meeting time and place
_ Find attendance motivators
_Select coordinators
Notify proposed participants


Figure 1. Strategy for interaction between community
members and planners during irrigation project
planning.






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


purpose of which is the provision of a better way of life. It is at
this point that understanding and respect for each other must be devel-
oped.

5. "Agent works through opinion leaders." -- Some characteristics
of an opinion leader are status in the community, influence on friends,
and willingness to consider and accept new ideas. Note, however, that
an opinion leader is not always an innovator. An innovator often has
a reputation for being a deviant within the community, and therefore is
not in a position to influence other community members. On the other
hand, adoption of innovation by opinion leaders sets a pattern for
change within the community.

6. "Agent credibility in the eyes of the client." -- Credibility
can be increased by demonstrating rather than reporting information and
techniques (a hands-on approach), by taking "risks" in order to build
trust between themselves and the peasants (taking the farmers' side
whenever possible), and by developing a comradeship with the peasants
(6).

7. "Agent effort in increasing client ability to evaluate innova-
tions." -- Eventually development will occur as a natural process. This
is indeed success.

Informal Encounters

The initial contacts between the planning team and the local com-
munity can occur at the same time that physical data for determining
project feasibility is being collected. By encouraging the local
farmers to talk about their farm management practices and irrigation,
the planning team will be able to gain an impression of local farmers'
needs and concerns during these first informal encounters. Once project
feasibility is determined, the investigation will either be terminated,
or a more detailed investigation, involving both physical and social
elements, will follow.

The detailed investigation requires traditional planning investiga-
tion activities. These activities are thoroughly described throughout
project development lit rature. In addition, the current on-farm prac-
tices must be analyzed. Finally, an investigation of the social fac-
tors affecting on-farm irrigation development must be carried out.

Social development investigation allows planners to locate reliable
sources of information and determine who should be included in agricul-
tural circle activities. Also, the prevailing level of decision-making
skills among the peasant farmers and their attitudes toward new irriga-
tion practices can be determined. Agricultural circle activities will
be planned on the basis of this information.

4
A method of investigating and evaluating these practices has been
presented by an interdisciplinary group at Colorado State University.
This method is described in a paper by Clyma, Lowdermilk and Corey, en-
titled "A Research-Development Process for Improvement of On-Farm Water
Management (2)."







PEASANT INVOLVEMENT


Through their initial encounters with the peasant community, the
planning team should begin to gain credibility with at least some (hope-
fully influential) community members. Also, the peasants should begin
to understand the aim of the project and be motivated to participate in
the agricultural circle. This motivation will result from trust in plan-
ning team members and from some glimmer of awareness that this activity
will enable them to be more productive farmers.

The Agricultural Circle

The agricultural circle provides the context in which structured
communication between selected peasants and the planning team can occur.
To be effective the communication must be directed by persons who re-
spect both their own and the peasants' knowledge and culture. The plan-
ners can contribute knowledge of modern agricultural practices and an
attitude which affirms change. Peasants have experience with local
farming practices and are intimately acquainted with the local culture.
The procedure then is for planners and peasants to exchange knowledge.

Visual aids depicting relevant situations can be used to evoke dia-
logue about local agricultural practices and common peasant experiences.
It may be that culture circle activities will have to be carried out
before the peasants can be involved in the project planning process. In
this case, dialogue can be directed to develop the peasants' decision-
making skills.5 As these skills emerge, the agricultural circle can
function as a forum in which local inputs into the planning process can
be generated.

The model used for generating these inputs was developed by Orto-
lano (7) for use in water resource planning. It was formulated in
response to environmental concerns in the United States, and consists
of a process by which local participants can be involved in planning
the development. The planning process itself consists of four planning
activities: Problem identification, formulation of alternatives, impact
analysis, and evaluation.

Peasant understanding of alternative irrigation practices and devel-
opment of peasant decision-making skills are designed into this process
through an exploration of farmer goals and concerns.as an integral part
of project planning. The model, on the other hand, provides the struc-
ture for the activities which will occur during project planning. And,
while any one of the activities might be emphasized at a particular
time in the agricultural circle, each activity is always open for re-
consideration. As the process continues, the concepts should focus
toward a particular plan which will be adopted.

PROBLEM DEFINITION

Problem definition, identifying goals, concerns and constraints
affecting the project development, must be actively worked on from the
inception of the project. The evaluative factors encountered during

5For further development of these ideas and possible application,
Freire's book, (5) Education for Critical Consciousness,is recommended.






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


problem identification depend on the preferences of non-local publics
(people indirectly affected by project development) and local publics
(those who are immediately affected by the project) as well as on tech-
nical and scientific judgments.

It is the planners' responsibility to determine constraints rela-
ting to non-local publics and to technical judgments. The non-local
publics' interests can be determined by communicating with relevant
government officials or agencies, by communicating with representatives
of related interest groups, and by investigating existing laws and reg-
ulations. Technical judgments can be made on the basis of planner
training and experience.

During this stage, activities in the agricultural circle can be
designed to develop both peasant understanding of alternative irriga-
tion practices and peasant decision-making skills through exploration of
farmer goals and concerns. This can occur as an integral part of the
actual project development by means of discussion about everyday agri-
cultural or community situations, hands-on training, question-and-answer
group discussions and analysis, role-playing, and formal and informal
persuasive communication. The following list indicates a specific con-
tent and ordering of activities and topics which might occur in the
agricultural circle during problem definition:

1. Discuss everyday agricultural situations and problems; explore
their origins and possible solutions.

2. Take field trips to demonstration farm. Show the benefits of
irrigation, fertilizer plus irrigation, and of various tillage practices
etc.

3. Discuss irrigation of local farms. Use pictures of local
farms, irrigation systems, and systems in typical locations.

4. Discuss local farming practices including irrigation. What is
done now, why it is done, and how the farmers think the practices might
be improved on the basis of what they have learned in the agricultural
circle.

5. Discuss secondary aspects of irrigation or water delivery,
monoculture, and fertilization.

6. Discuss and try on-farm water management procedures or when
to irrigate, how much to irrigate, and how to irrigate, etc.

Pictures of typical local farm conditions, systems which the farm-
ers have handled, as well as sketches of different systems in appro-
priate locations can be used to generate discussions. These discussions
should not be highly technical. The purpose of the discussions is to
involve the farmer in considering possible alternatives and to produce
commitment to the development, not to develop an irrigation expert.

Secondary requirements for developing a more modern agricultural
system might also be presented and discussed. Topics may include "new






PEASANT INVOLVEMENT


crops, block farming, cooperative farming, the use of new equipment and
methods, irrigation (scheduling), and other procedures." Agricul-
tural development researchers in Honduras state that when irrigation
water is made available for the first time in an area,

this resource makes the beneficiaries very recep-
tive. and other procedures can frequently be init-
iated at the time that irrigation is introduced. How-
ever, once farming and operating procedures have been
established, changes are apt to be very difficult to
make unless some substantive new factor requiring an
overall change is introduced at the same time (1).

The planners may want to postpone these discussions until the project
is operational; however, the opportunity to encourage new practices
along with irrigation should not be overlooked.

On the basis of the understanding about irrigation gained during
these activities, diverse opinions about the local situation and its
improvement should emerge. Excitement will likely occur as new possibil-
ities become apparent. If the process assumes the form of the coordina-
tors presenting an idea and the peasant participants simply going along
with it, there is something wrong. This is a place for peasant expres-
sion of concerns and needs, not for planner proclamation of what is
going to happen.

Formulation of Alternatives

On the basis of goals and constraints encountered in the problem
definition activity, planners will be able to start conceptualizing
technical alternatives for improving local agricultural production. To
do this, planners must -- "translate concerns, needs, etc. of the affec-
ted publics into technical concepts and parameters that are operational
(7)." Once these alternatives are delineated, the planners can go back
to the agricultural circle and explore peasant response to their ideas.

HUMAN IMPACT ANALYSIS

As alternatives are generated, planners, using technical judgment
and models, can forecast and describe probable impacts. In the agricul-
tural circle, the consideration of impacts should focus on changes in
local agricultural practices and consumption patterns (not on the sys-
tem's physical requirements). The analysis of physical impacts is the
responsibility of technical experts on the team.

Like all other activities in this process, impact analysis occurs
repeatedly. Early in the planning when goals are roughly defined, limit-
ing alternatives and impacts are considered. This information allows the

.publics and other decision makers to: think
through their own perceptions of the problem (i.e.,
refine some of the evaluative factors), make their
own judgments concerning preferences for different
alternatives, and suggest new alternative actions (7).







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


As the process evolves, the issues become clearer and available alter-
natives are fewer and more completely defined.

Topical considerations may include how a system can be modified to
better suit farmer operations or how farmer activities will have to
change to fit the system. No matter what the topic, however, the peas-
ants should be contributing opinions about how the new practices will
affect their way of life.

Consideration of alternatives and impact analysis will probably
create controversy and conflict. Coalitions may even form to support
various alternatives. Meanwhile, the planners can be evaluating the
available development alternatives by categorizing the concerns and
ideas arising from the agricultural circle discussions.

PREFERENCE EVALUATION

Evaluation occurs whenever preferences are expressed. When the
evaluation activity is emphasized, previously expressed values and the
corresponding alternatives and impacts can be organized and ranked in
terms of participant preferences.

One possibility for preference ordering is in terms of known prior-
ities and constraints. For on-farm irrigation development, significant
categories include physical resources and constraints, changing agricul-
tural practices and institutions, and changing agricultural consumption
patterns.

Evaluation activities in the agricultural circle require the peas-
sants to analyze development alternatives on the basis of impacts they
have discussed. By expressing their opinions about irrigation and other
relevant farm practices, the peasants will be able to clarify their pref-
erences. Furthermore, during this kind of interaction conflicting inter-
ests can be resolved.

Fisher (3) delineates four distinct phases describing the type of
interaction which occurs during participatory resource planning. In the
orientation phase, participants spend time getting acquainted. Attempts
are made to clarify issues, opinions are tentatively expressed, and
decision alternatives are generated. A conflict phase follows: dissent,
controversy, social conflict, and innovative deviance predominate. Par-
ticipants discuss many alternatives and form coalitions to support var-
ious points of view. The next phase, emergence, is characterized by
the dissipation of social conflict and dissent. Ambiguity toward various
decision proposals recurs, thereby allowing those who dissented from a
particular alternative to change their position. During this phase the
decision emerges. Finally, in the reinforcement phase, consensus is
achieved. Ideally, there is no further testing of ideas and the opinions
expressed are predominantly favorable toward the proposal and toward the
opinions expressed by other participants. This phase is pervaded by a
spirit of unity and results in commitment to the proposals which were
previously the subject of conflict and from which the decision emerged.

Although researchers point out that the group decision making


M







PEASANT INVOLVEMENT


process (a form of dialogical interaction) seems to take an excessive
amount of time, they conclude that this is only true during the begin-
ning stages (3). Once the background has been laid, the process speeds
up and the resulting decision is often of higher quality than a unilat-
eral solution would have been. An added benefit is that group members
are committed to effecting the emergent decision. When this group in-
cludes opinion leaders of the farm community, this commitment can hasten
adoption of the proposed innovation throughout the community. Moreover,
this interaction allows for personal growth and increased understanding
of the proposed development.

Through compromise and elimination, the participants can settle on
a satisfactory plan of irrigation development. Then planning team en-
gineers can design a system which will fit the expressed preferences
given the existing constraints, i.e., SELECT "BEST" ALTERNATIVE.

After a "best" alternative has been selected based on the strategy
outlined in Figure 1, the planning team may decide that a demonstration
farm is necessary. If so, they should locate a cooperative farmer who
is respected locally and provide incentives for him to use the new sys-
tem on his land. If this cannot be done, a demonstration farm may have
to be set up by the project staff.

CONCLUSION

Peasant involvement can promote project success in several ways.
First, it provides the developers with better insight into peasant
agricultural needs and concerns. At the same time, it allows planners
to tap the knowledge peasant farmers have developed through many years'
experience in the project area. Peasant involvement can also increase
peasant commitment to new practices and alter community organization.
Finally, it can be used to create sufficient understanding of the pro-
ject for peasant farmers to make further improvements as needed.

In order to achieve these benefits, social development inputs are
required in addition to traditional development inputs. One highly
effective human developing technique, directed communication between a
planning team and the peasant community, has been presented. In addition,
a structured planning procedure was outlined and specific interaction
activities for peasant participation in on-farm development were identi-
fied.

REFERENCES

1. Alfaro, J. F., R. E. Griffin, G. H. Hargreaves, G. E. Stringham,
and L. S. Willardson. "Improvement of Small Farm Irrigation in
the Republic of Honduras." Utah State University, Jan., 1977.

2. Clyma, W., M. K. Lowdermilk, and G. L. Corey. "A Research-Develop-
ment Process for Improvement of On-Farm Water Management." Paper
presented at Second International Conference on Transfer of Water
Resources Knowledge, Colorado State University, June 29-July 2,
1977.
3. Fisher, B. Aubrey. Small Group Decision Making. Mc-Graw-Hill,







826 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Inc., New York, 1974.

4. Foster, George M. Traditional Societies and Technological Change,
2nd Edition, Harper and Row, New York, 1973.

5. Freire, Paulo. Education for Critical Consciousness. The Seabury
Press, New York, 1973.

6. McCroskey, James C., and Lawrence R. Wheeless. Introduction to
Human Communication. Allyn Bacon, Inc.,Boston, Mass., 1976.

7. Ortolano, Leonard. "A Process for Federal Water Planning at the
field Level." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 4, August,
1974, pp. 766-778.

8. Rogers, E. M., and F. F. Shoemaker. Communication of Innovations.
The Free Press, New York, 1971.

9. Weiner, Aaron. "Comprehensive Sectoral Planning of Irrigated Agri-
culture in Developing Countries." Presented at the 1967 Inter-
national Conference on Water For Peace, Washington, D.C., Vol. 7,
pp. 206-216.


I
















PHYSICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN1/
by
Max K. Lowdermilk, Wayne Clyma and Alan C. Early '


There is a growing awareness today (1978) that an important aspect
of irrigation has been neglected. Water management on-farm must be
improved to meet the present and growing demands for increased food
production. Levels of living must be enhanced in rural areas. Improve-
ment of on-farm water management directly meets both needs and provides
local employment to a large number of the rural underemployed.

This paper describes a procedure for the identification of priority
problems in water management. The procedure is applied as a case study
of an outlet command area in Pakistan. Problem identification involves
an interdisciplinary approach with farmer participation to achieve an
understanding of the farm water management system operation. The result
is an objective, quantitative definition of priority problems.

A systematic approach to improving water management as a research-
development process includes problem identification, a search for solu-
tions, assessment of solutions and implementation of a program that
provides the solutions to all farmers (Clyma, Lowdermilk, and Corey,
1977). This approach has been tested in Pakistan and is being tested
in Egypt.

Irrigation began in Pakistan with the Mohanjandaro civilization
more than 3500 years ago. Modern irrigation was begun by the British
in the late 1800s. Major emphasis on irrigation development and im-
provement increased in the early 1960s. Corey and Clyma (1974) and
Clyma and Corey (1975) have summarized these developments and discussed
their implications. Basically irrigation in Pakistan is characterized
by continued waterlogging and salinity, a shortage of water such that an
average of only half the available irrigated land is cultivated during
any year, and low crop yields relative to the potential. The great
emphasis on irrigation development during the 1960s neglected water
management because on-farm use of water was assumed to be very efficient
(Clyma and Corey, 1975).

I/Prepared under support of the United States Agency for International
Development Contracts AID/ta-c-1100 and AID/ta-c-1411. All opinions
are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the funding
agency, the United States Government or Colorado State University.
2/Director, Office of International Education and Assistant Professor,
Department of Sociology and Associate Professor, Agricultural and
Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
Colorado; and Associate Agricultural Engineer, International Rice
Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, previously member
of Colorado State University Research Team in Pakistan, respectively.


__







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


METHODOLOGY

In problem identification studies of an irrigation system, an
interdisciplinary understanding of system operation is obtained. An
engineer typically views the system as the flow of water consisting of
delivery, field application, plant water use, and water removal. The
physical control and management of water is the focus of his interest
and represents a very important aspect of the system. The management
is accomplished by the farmer within his constraints and has the
objective of crop production.

The agronomist starts with the basic building block of the plant.
If he is a geneticist or breeder, this may be the primary focus. The
production agronomist takes many plants to build a field and fields to
build a farm. The economist frequently views the system as the costs
and returns for the field or farm. The fields receive water from the
delivery subsystem, a subsystem applies and distributes water to the
field, the plants use the water and the excess must be removed. The
physical processes that supply water and grow a crop are directly
affected by the social and institutional constraints that influence
farmers' management decisions.

The sociologist frequently views the system as a man with social
and institutional constraints. Much like the engineer who measures the
status of the water in the system, the sociologist many times measures
the attitudes and perceptions of the farmer as influenced by social
norms, legal codes and administrative rules. The social factors are
essential to an understanding of how the farm water management system
operates. They must be related, however, to specific management deci-
sions of the farmer on his farm. For example, physical measurements
may show that the farmer practices poor timing of water application to
his fields. The sociologist can then show that this attitude toward
irrigation timing is based on the farmer's perception that timing is not
important and that his attitude is the result of lack of knowledge.
Such an interdependency of disciplinary views arj typical of complex
irrigation systems. The key to understanding the system is the teamwork
and interaction of several disciplines.

The methodology used in this study was to use a team to analyze the
physical, socio-economic and institutional subsystems simultaneously to
gain an understanding of system constraints. Physical measurements such
as soil, topographic, cropping and ownership maps were prepared. The
water delivery subsystem was mapped including each outlet to a field.
Water delivery was measured at various points in the delivery system
and at selected fields.

Data on farmer attitudes, knowledge, decision making processes and
perceptions were collected by structured interview schedules which were
carefully pretested. Farmer and key informant interviews were by
appointment and no session lasted longer than one hour.

Historical and institutional information were obtained from key
informants about the canal system, outlet command area and government
personnel. This information was compared with the results of intensive







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN


interviews with 35 of 41 available farmers. The six farmers owned a
total of only 13 acres (5 ha). Therefore, almost a complete enumera-
tion of all farms was obtained. A 10 percent reliability check was made
by the interview method and farmer reports were checked with mapped
cropping patterns and irrigation schedules and with observed adopted
innovations.

Data were also collected from the Irrigation Department on autho-
rized discharge, regulated command area, rotation system, rules regard-
ing water distribution and channel maintenance, and canal closures.
Police records were also reviewed to compare with farmer reports of
major conflicts about land and water problems.

FARM WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OVERVIEW

The farm water management system begins at the canal outlet and
ends at the field (Figure 1). Water is delivered at a canal outlet
called a mogha which is designed to supply water at a constant flow rate
in relationship to the area to be irrigated, the climate, and crops
cultivated. Water is provided to farmers on a rotational system of
specified minutes per acre once each week. Farmers are charged for this
water in relationship to a duty for specific crops seasonally. They are
also expected to clean and maintain the earthen channel system and
settle disputes that inevitably arise.

The three major subsystems investigated are shown in Figure 2 with
the major factors for which data were obtained. The procedure was to
collect data on each subsystem and interrelate the results to obtain an
understanding of system operation including farmer behavior. Figure 2
is not to be viewed as three discrete disciplinary areas because the
factors are interdependent forming a network of complex relationships.
This paper, for example, will describe how distribution of water and
maintenance of the system are related to a particular social arrange-
ment. Likewise, input use is related to availability of inputs and the
presence or absence of extension assistance. The complex interdepen-
dencies are dynamic and no factor stands alone in a farming system.

DESCRIPTION OF THE MAJOR SUBSYSTEMS

The outlet command area is located 11 miles (6.9 km) from Lahore,
Pakistan. Farmers cultivate wheat, rice and fodder crops. The latter
are used for milk production or marketed along with milk in the city.
The canal system was established about 1860-61. Four outlets serve a
village area of 1426 ac (577 ha). The study outlet command area has a
total of 238 ac (96 ha).

Rainfall during the summer season ranges from 10 to 25 in (25-
64 cm) and during the winter season from 3 to 5 in (8-13 cm). Mean
maximum temperatures from May to July range between 960F to 1030F (36-
39C) with extremes of 1150F (460C). From December to February, mean
maximum temperatures range between 640F and 700F (18-210C) with minimums
of 340F (1PC) resulting in year-round crop production. A soil survey of
the outlet command area classed all the soil as silt loam except 10 ac
(4 ha) which was a silty clay loam.







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Water Management Research
Area Command of Mogha
for
Study Watercourse




Watercourses


6.o -- Square Line
'c. -- Acre Line
-Watercourse
-- Path
W** Persian Well
5.5 ,*. Tube Well
S Houses
-- Full Supply Level, Disty
--*--x- Serveable by Mogha


Scale
0 400 800 1200 1600 ft


Figure 1. Topographic map of the study watercourse.







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN


Farmer
Behavior




Physical Subsystem
Water Production
Conveyance Soils- Types
Application -Fertility
Use Crops -Types
Removal Quality
Water Lifts -Yields
and Structures Intensities
Field Size Rotations
Topography Use of Inputs


Figure 2. Major factors investigated within the three subsystems
for problem identification.

Physical Subsystem

Major aspects of the physical subsystem are the water delivery
including the lifting of water by Persian wheels; water application for
low flows and unlevel fields; water use by crops under a deficient water
supply; and the interaction of soils, crops, inputs and water supply
that result in yields and cropping patterns for the watercourse. Water
supply for the outlet command area will first be discussed.

Water Supply According to Irrigation Department records the official
water supply rate is 1 cubic foot per second (cfs)(28.3Z/s) for 268 ac
(109 ha). The officially recorded outlet command area is 268 ac but
-, only 201 ac (81 ha) receive canal water. The official water supply is
thus 0.8 cfs (23a/s) plus 0.4 cfs (llR/s)(50 percent extra because the
Water must be lifted) or 1.2 cfs (34 /s). The actual irrigated area is
238 ac (96 ha). The actual water supply rate depends on the rate farmers
use water. In one instance with three Persian wheels and one gravity
channel in operation. 3.2 cfs (90.69/s) was used by the farmers. The
greater flow occurs because the outlet had been altered .by the farmers
to increase the available water supply. When less water is used, sub-
mergence of the outlet reduces the flow such that the water supply rate
equals the use rate.


Socio-Economic Subsystem
Social Classes Land Tenure
Farmer Organization Farm Size
Conflict Resolution Marketing
Power/Influence Input Avail-
Farmer Perceptions ability
and Knowledge Credit
Farmer Linkages Facilities
With Institutions


Institutional Subsystem
Water Codes and Laws
Irrigation Department Services
Extension Services
Linkage of Authorities
With Farmers
Credit Facilities
Input Availablity







832 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Due to the irregular topography of the area served by the canal
outlet, much of the irrigation water must be lifted by a water wheel
powered by a team of bullocks or a camel. The height of lift is
commonly 0.5 ft (0.15 m) and does not exceed 3.0 ft (0.9 m).

The topographic map in Figure 1 shows the area above the full
supply level in the distributary which corresponds to the 7.5 ft (2.3 m)
contour. All water must be lifted to irrigate the area above this ele-
vation. Allowing for a head loss across the outlet, a grade for con-
ducting water to the field, and an elevation at the field, all areas
below the 6.5 ft (2.0 m) contour can be irrigated by gravity but above
6.5 ft a reduction in flow from the canal outlet will occur.

When sediment is allowed to accumulate in the channel near the
canal outlet, the flow from the outlet is regulated by the degree of
outlet submergence and not the use rate. Flow at the outlet usually is
limited by sediment. Since the outlet usually operates at least par-
tially submerged, accumulation of sediment results from the reduced
velocity in the watercourse channel near the canal outlet.

The problem of lifting irrigation water is further complicated by
the fact that farmers have lowered the channel while cleaning with the
result that the channel bottom is much below the surrounding land sur-
face. With the flow restricted at the canal outlet by sediment accumu-
lations, farmers frequently lift water several feet to a channel where
it flows by gravity to a field. Often farmers even lift water for
irrigation when water would normally flow by gravity. 4

Much labor and expense is required to lift water from the main
ditch to a height of .5 to 3.00 feet (0.15 .9 m) before fields can be
irrigated. The estimated cost of lifting water is about Rs. 7.00 per
hour for an average water delivery rate of 0.70 cfs (20 R/s). This
costs about Rs. 1203 per acre foot (AF)(Rs 0.10/m3) at the lift point
and Rs. 240 per AF (Rs 0.20/m3) of water delivered at the remote field
assuming a 50 percent delivery efficiency.

Water Delivery Water flows by a network of channels as illustrated in
Figure 1 to each farmer's field. The water is used 168 hours per week
except for canal closures. Cleaning and maintenance, flood control,
repairs and shortage of water are the usual causes of canal closure.
Each farmer receives the full flow for the allotted minutes per acre in
rotation from the canal outlet to the end of the channel.

Significant conveyance losses occurred in the delivery system.
Detailed measurements are reported by Lowdermilk, Clyma and Early (1975)
but the results indicated about 50 percent of the water lifted by the
water wheel was lost within 2000 feet. Losses were low in some of the
channels because they were below the ground surface. Loss rates on the
outlet command were from 50 percent to several hundred percent higher
than that measured on other watercourses ( 2 ) (7) (9). The causes of
such losses have been discussed by Corey and Clyma (1974) and Kemper,
Clyma and Ashraf (1975). For this watercourse, extremely thin banks of

3/One U.S. dollar equals approximately 10 Rupees ($1.00 = Rs. 10.00).







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN


the channel, an average of 5 outlets per acre, and an average of one
mile of channel for 20 acres of land were major factors.

An analysis of flow losses during a period when the branches were
using water by gravity flow suggested only 30 percent of the inflow of
canal outlet reached the farmers' fields. This data also suggested that
the effectiveness of the water wheel was not simply the amount delivered
to the field, but was the difference between what is delivered at the
field by gravity and that delivered from the water wheel. This differ-
ence was near 0.1 cfs (3 k/s) and makes the cost of lifting water by the
water wheel very expensive.

Water Application The process by which farmers determine how, when and
how much water to apply to a field constitutes the water application
subsystem. Farmers use small irrigation basins which they assume have
zero slope. Measurements, however, show that fields are not level and
have negative or positive slopes. Clyma and Arshad (1977) have summa-
rized irrigation practices for Pakistan and Early, Lowdermilk and
Freeman (1978) have presented additional data which show that throughout
Pakistan field levelness is a major problem.

Farmers on this outlet command area practiced underirrigation when
using canal water partially because of rationing of canal water supplies
(see Lowdermilk, Clyma and Early, 1975 for detailed data). Well water
was applied excessively, however, apparently because a servant did not
exercise care. Seasonal application efficiency on a farmer managed
field was near 50 percent. Farmers appear to overirrigate even with a
shortage of water, but also underirrigate during extreme shortages and
during peak crop demand periods which significantly reduce yields.

Preliminary results from seasonal irrigation practices for wheat
suggest that farmers apply almost twice as much water as the consumptive
use requirement. In field demonstrations on this watercourse, the yield
on properly irrigated plots was double the farmers' yield. Thus, about
60 percent as much water for irrigation gave double the yield.

Types of Crops and Intensities Farmers attempt to manage the cropping
* system even under conditions of a scarce water supply and lack of con-
trol over water deliveries. As distance from the water supply increases,
* total water available decreases. Evidence of how farmers respond to the
above factors can be obtained by a study of their cropping patterns and
intensities.

Each irrigation unit (the area surrounded by a ridge) was mapped as
to type of crop for both the winter and summer seasons. Three areas
Were selected for analysis but Area III was excluded because of the
higher lifts practiced by the farmers in lifting water and because water
was used extra-legally from another outlet to irrigate a part of the
area (Figure 3). The two areas below the last waterlift were demarcated
Sin relationship to distance from source of supply of water. Figure 3
shows Area I which lies from a few feet to about 1,300 ft (396 m) from
the water supplies, which are two water lifts and two small discharge
wells all located close to each other at the head of Area I. Area II
is located at the tail of the watercourse and extends from about







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Figure 3. Areas of different water supply and brotherhood locations.

1,300 ft (396 m) up to more than 3,500 ft (1037 m) from the same source
of water supply as Area I (Figure 3).

The differences in cropping patterns and cropping intensities be-
tween Areas I and II as affected by distance are substantial. Area I
has a cropping intensity of 178 percent. In contrast, Area II has an
average of 130 percent. Rice and berseem with high water demands are
almost entirely located in Area I. In Area II, about 70 percent of the
land is left fallow during the summer. In Area I, only 22 percent is
fallow. A farmer with well water in Area I had a cropping intensity of
185 percent for the summer and winter seasons, 1974-75.

Along a given watercourse, there is considerable variability in the
availability of water for crops. This results in major inequities for
farms at the tail compared to farms at the head of a delivery channel.
The data presented show that farmers are rational in their attempts to
adjust cropping patterns and intensities to water supplies over which
they have little control. The farmer with the well demonstrated that
given more water and control over the supply, farmers can increase
cropping intensities and improve cropping patterns.

Socio-Economic Subsystem

The socio-economic dynamics of a farm irrigation system can be as
important as physical factors but are far more difficult to measure.
Nevertheless, since public canal water is a collective good, farmer
organization is intimately related to the allocation, distribution and







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN


removal of water. A good farm organization is necessary for farmers to
manage water, maintain the conveyance system or settle disputes among
themselves effectively. Therefore, system operation is affected by
social stratification of various classes of farmers, leadership and
decision making roles and patterns of conflict and cooperation. Other
aspects of the social subsystem must be understood also.

Social Stratification The social stratification of any human group
explains how a group is structured to achieve certain goals. The
Pakistan social system can be divided into various strata which include
the basic joint family unit, the brotherhdod kinship unit (biradari),
the patti or group of brotherhoods, the caste or tribal unit, and the
nation. The universe of the farmer is not only perceived in these terms
but definite norms regulate the behaviors of one group in interactions
with others. Otherwise, outsiders such as government workers and
refugees from India in 1947 are relegated to special status roles. These
social strata relationships directly affect the operation of the farm
system and the relationships between farmers.

First, the location of farmers' fields, ownership of water wheels,
cooperative water well and tractor, cleaning and maintenance of sections
of the main watercourse, and location of houses are a result of a clear
system of social stratification. Who operates with whom for what tasks,
when, and to what degree are all influenced by the particular social
stratification identified on this watercourse. Figure 3 shows the five
main social groups and the location of their lands and water wheels.

Note on the map the separate location of the houses or settlements
of brotherhoods A, B, C, and D. Brotherhood B through E are known as
SArians and the A group is known as Bhattis who are actually a separate
caste. Not only physical boundaries such as houses and land separate
the two castes but social boundary maintenance is observed in many ways.

Power and Influence The power structure and the leadership patterns on
this watercourse, or in a village or community, can be identified. Other
studies (Raza, 1969) and experience in the Punjab confirm the findings
that larger landlords (by virtue of their holdings) usually have more
power, prestige, and influence than farmers with smaller holdings. Other
sources of prestige and authority in rural Pakistan are good linkages
with officials and politicians, ability to give advice and settle dis-
putes, caste positions, and spiritual attainment such as that of a
religious leader.

A detailed analysis was made to determine the leaders of each
social group and the overall leaders in relationship to certain func-
tions (see Lowdermilk, Clyma and Early, 1975). All the five social
group leaders owned 20 acres or more. The average holding for all
farmers was about 6 acres. Likewise, farmers gave a high class ranking
to all the leaders of the five brotherhood or caste groups.

At the time of the study, the leadership roles of the above iden-
tified leaders were observed and documented in the settlement of a dis-
pute over'water, in different group interactions and by observing who
acted as spokesman for a group. Both data and actual experience from
the investigation convinced the team members that to favor one leader






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


over others not only increases existing cleavages, but can spell total
disaster in any program of implementation.

Cooperation and Conflict Patterns Since the water lifts are coopera-
tively owned by members of brotherhood groups and location of farms is
influenced by kinship patterns, the pattern of turns on the irrigation
rotation reflect the brotherhood social system. Though each water wheel
receives regular supplies of water, the water is divided among the users.
Therefore, farmers within brotherhood systems trade water regularly as
well as animals and work. Within a water wheel system there is a quasi-
demand distribution of water.

Villagers cooperate across brotherhood and caste lines in relation-
ship to a primary school,a mosque, a yearly vaccination program, partial
support of a night watchman, and other village concerns. Major coopera-
tive patterns, however, are explained in terms of the brotherhood groups.
For example, wangar (to request) is an informal system whereby farmers
trade work and bullocks for land preparation, threshing grain, and other
tasks which require extra labor. Another form of cooperation (seri)
includes joint farming.

Farmers also have a definite organization for cleaning silt from
the main watercourse channel, though little maintenance and no improve-
ments are done. When silt accumulations become excessive, however,
farmers work in kinship groups to clean about 2300 ft (700 m) from the
canal outlet to the last water wheel. Each group cleans a designated
length of channel in relationship to the hours of water received on the
weekly rotation. Also, since there is more sediment near the canal
outlet, the length for cleaning is less to equalize the work. Fines are
usual when members do not participate in cleaning.

Cooperation exists in joint farming as seen by the fact that 25 of
the 35 farms were joint operations. This is a result of small holdings
and the joint family structure which helps families to maintain holdings.
Though fragmentation continues due to inheritance laws, joint farming
slows the process and also provides an excellent multi-purpose insurance
scheme. The problem of fragmentation is great as seen from a total of
250 separated parcels on this and other watercourses owned by 41 farmers.

Major conflicts follow kinship group lines as does cooperation
because each group must protect its izzat or pride. Therefore, conflicts
may persist for years. True to a local proverb, there are three major
sources of conflict zun (women), zur (money), and zamin (land). Con-
flicts between two groups started 12 years ago over land when the
government attempted to consolidate holdings. Since then, these two
kinship groups have had major problems over the division of trees, land
boundaries, water wheels and stealing of water. At water wheel sites
III and IV, previously only one water wheel was used but when a single
kinship group split into two, another water wheel was added.

Farmers' Attitudes and Perceptions Farmers have developed their own
art of farming. Though this art may result in low yields, the methods
used result in a low level of risk but at a low level of production.
While farmer perceptions of problems may differ from actual measured
problems, knowledge of how the farmer views his problems provides a







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN


starting point for change. Data collected related to attitudes and
perceptions are only summarized in this paper. Detailed data and
analysis are given by Lowdermilk, Clyma and Early, 1975.

Major Losses of Water:
When farmers were asked to rank the major perceived losses of water
at the farm level, 18 reported dead storage in channels, eight reported
leaks and spills, five reported unlevel fields, two reported silt, one
reported seepage in channel, and one reported vegetation in channels.
These losses are those farmers can see. Therefore, they evidently were
unaware of the degree of loss to the farm system by submergence of the
canal outlet.

While unlevel fields were reported by only five farmers as a source
of loss, 63 percent reported that their fields (basins), ranging from0.l
to .25 ac (.04-.1 ha) in size, required leveling. Farmers usually level
their fields using a large board (karah) drawn by bullocks. The fre-
quency which farmers reported that they usually level their fields are:
two after each crop; 12 after two crops; 15 after 2 to 3 years; five
after 4 to 5 years; and one after 6 or more years.

SA Good Irrigation:
Farmers have no means except guesswork for applying water. When
asked how much water they apply, they usually give minutes per unit of
land or show on their hands the depth of water usually bonded in a field.
These crude measures range from 3 to 4 inches of ponded water. Fifty-
one percent reported about three inches and the remainder reported 2
to 4 in (5-10 cm).

When asked to give the usual and optimum number of irrigations for
seven crops, there was much variation. For high yielding wheat, the
usual and optimum number of irrigations and number of farmers reporting
were as follows:

Usual Farmers Optimum Farmers
3-4 9 5-6 12
5-6 24 7-8 17
7-8 1 9-10 5

SReported usual and optimum number of irrigations for other crops varied
more widely. Farmers believe they underirrigate.

Farmers responded to "When water is available, how do you decide
which particular field needs irrigation?" as follows: 11 gave date of
last irrigation; 14 gave from appearance of the soil surface; nine gave
appearance of plants; and one gave stage of crop growth. No farmer
reported ever checking the subsoil for moisture content.

Farmers decide when to stop an irrigation by: 16 said when water
covers the high spots; 16 said when water reaches the end of the basin;
and three said a few feet from the far border. Farmers do have the idea
that "plants drink water through their roots." However, when asked to
estimate the depth of movement of five inches of water ponded on their
fields, the responses were as follows: 13 gave 0 to 12 in (0-30 cm);
14 gave 12 to 24 in (30-61 cm); three gave 24 to 36 in (61-91 cm); and







838 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


five said "do not know." Farmers estimated the rooting depth for five
major crops. Their estimates imply that farmers think water and roots
of crops penetrate only to very shallow depths. Farmers estimated that
the cotton root system penetrates to a depth of 1 to 1.5 ft (30-45 cm),
berseem to only about 4 in (10 cm), sugarcane to about 12 in (30 cm) and
wheat along with rice to maximum depths of about 6 in (15 cm). Is it
conceivable that farmers do not have any concept of overirrigation and
loss of water, or of nitrogen loss by leaching through the root zone?
Do farmers, in fact, have any concept of soil moisture storage for crops
with a deep extensive root system?

Farmers' Perceptions of Major Problems:
Given their existing conditions, 30 of the 35 farmers reported the
most serious problem in improving crop yields is water supplies. One
each reported fertilizer, lack of tractors for good land preparation,
and lack of land. Two farmers did not know because the problems are
many and complex. Physical measurements of losses do suggest that water
available at the farmer's field is a major problem.

Economic Problems Farmers made rational decisions about crops and
cropping patterns when constrained by water supplies as discussed pre-
viously. Farmers were also interviewed about the various factors they
consider when making cropping decision. Farmers were asked to give the
most important factors which helped them make decisions about crops and
crop acreage. Twenty-four gave water supply; price level of either
rice, fodder crops, or milk was given by five farmers; and six gave both
water supply and price level. The 11 farmers who reported price or
price and water supply either own shares in the two water wells or have
easy access to extra water supplies. This suggests that price became
most important only when the water constraint was removed. The con-
straint of water is also seen in the fact that during summer season
1974, 100 acres were left fallow. The previous year with early, un-
precedented rains only a few acres were not cultivated according to the
farmers.

The 35 farmers interviewed were asked what changes they would most
likely make in their cropping patterns if their water supply was doubled.
Present price levels for crops and input costs would enter strongly into
farmer decisions. Farmers report that they would substantially increase
rice and wheat acreage. Also, at least two crops of maize for fodder
would be cultivated according to farmers' reports in the summer season.
The estimated cropping intensity would increase to more than 193 percent
and only a few acres would remain fallow. When more water becomes
available through an improved delivery system, water wells or
more efficient irrigation practices, the price factor becomes increas-
ingly important. Evidence from farmers on this watercourse suggests
that farmers strain to increase cropped acreage.

Institutional Subsystem

The purpose of an institutional subsystem is to provide the rules
by which water and other inputs can be distributed, and to make avail-
able the services and information necessary for improved crop produc-
tion. There is much contrast between the official rules for canal
system operation and the actual operation, between the information and







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN


services received by the farmers from government, and the alleged
services available to farmers (see Lowdermilk, Clyma and Early, 1975;
and Early, Lowdermilk and Freeman, 1978).

Distribution of Canal Water The pucca warabundi system or fixed rota-
tion was established by the British under the Canal and Drainage Act of
1873 (Hassan, 1974). The fixed turn system is sanctioned under Section
68 of the Act and is binding upon all the shareholders of that particu-
lar canal outlet. The day of the week and hours of turn of each share-
holder are fixed. Through the years many amendments have been made in
the rotation regulations. However, it is evident from a study of these
rules that the additive process has made these regulations somewhat
cumbersome, difficult to administer and most unintelligible. The listing
of what the law states and what the farmers actually do is provided in
Table 1.4/ A major conclusion of this analysis is that farmers have
learned how to manipulate a system which greatly restricts them.

Irrigation Department Communications Farmers should have a maximum of
knowledge about future water supply conditions and of any changes in
regulations. Such information as rationing closures, closures for emer-
gency and regular repairs and cleaning, and forecasts of expected sea-
Ssonal supplies would help farmers make better decisions. A written
notice of any canal closure is to be provided by the Divisional Officer
through channels to the local officer to the farmers. This notice is to
be signed as a receipt and posted at a conspicuous place in the village
(Hassan, 1974). Canal officials of the area confirmed such a notice had
been posted and that radio and newspapers announcements had been made.

Thirty-one of the 35 farmers reported that they never had received
information about canal closures. Four farmers reported that sometimes
they were told by minor canal officials, or heard the news on the radio.
During the investigation, due to an acute shortage of water for the
winter season, 1974-75, a water rationing system was begun. Farmers
learned of this for the most part when the water supply was stopped.
Thirty-three did not know the published rotation schedule issued by the
Canal Department. Two farmers read about it in the local newspaper.
The senior author obtained a copy of the schedule and made it available
to the leaders of all brotherhood groups on the watercourse. However,
the actual rotations were often different from those listed.

No farmer ever recalled a seasonal canal water supply report that
would give some idea about the expected volume of water to be received
such as "good," "fair" or "poor." It must be realized that press re-
leases reach only a small percentage of largely illiterate farmers. No
farm family on the watercourse received a newspaper regularly, and only
four farmers reported reading a newspaper from time to time. However,
15 of the 35 farmers owned radios and 22 reported listening regularly
to certain programs.

Institutional Services A simple technique was used to determine
farmers' knowledge of personnel from agencies established to assist them.
The names of existing personnel and their period of service in the area
4/De jure refers to what the law is. De facto refers to what happens in
practice. In this case to what degree the law is implemented or
followed.








840 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES



Table i. Selected watercourse rules and regulations: de jure versus de facto operation
(based on a survey of one watercourse).


de jure (What the law states)
Watercourse regulations


I. Punishable for damage of outlet
a. official discharge 1.8 cfs

b. permissible annual cropping
intensity 80% of 213 acres


II. Regulated turns cannot be changed
by farmers
a. No trading of turns


b. canal water not to be traded
for well water

III. Illegal to use water of one command
area for fields on another command
area



IV. Illegal to make unauthorized cuts
in main watercourse or build any
structure

V. Only a prescribed number (usually
one) of field outlets per 25 acres

VI. Illegal to steal water


VII. Unauthorized remission of water
rates cannot be given.
a. Authorized remission cases
must be approved by three
levels of canal officers.


b. Farmers on jalar systems pay
only 1/2 of abiana

VIII. Main watercourse repairs and main-
tenance to be checked by zilladar
who Can have fines levied or water
supply closed


IX. Illegal to bribe patwari or other
officials



X. Canal Department must notify
farmers of closures for repairs,
cleaning, and rationing purposes


de facto (What in fact takes place)
Reports and observations


I. Outlet size enlarged
a. actual discharge greater than
3.0 cfs
b. actual annual cropping inten-
sity observed 157% or 373
acres
c. 33 of 35 farmers report that
outlet can be changed

II. Farmers at water wheels frequently
change night-day turns
a. 60% of farmers trade full
turns and 86% trade partial
turns
b. 10 farmers trade canal water
for well water regularly

III. About 22 acres of land on adjacent
command area irrigated from study
outlet and 8 acres of study out-
let irrigated from adjacent out-
let

IV. Farmers have built a concrete
outlet in an adjacent watercourse
(documented by pictures)

V. This watercourse has outlets at
farmers' will about 125/25 acres

VI. Farmers near the canal outlet
irrigated small rice fields at will.

VII. Farmers have water rates reduced

a. 33 of 35 farmers report hav-
ing the patwari (revenue
collector) reduce their
abiana (water rates) by
generous faslana tips.
b. Farmers once on a jalar but
now on gravity flow still pay
the 1/2 rates
VIII. Farmers work on watercourse only
infrequently to remove silt accu-
mulations. No supervision or fine
ever levied for lack of water-
course maintenance.

IX. 33 of 35 farmers pay the customary
faslana and 32 pay it seasonally.
Farmers report paying other
officials when needed.

X. 33 of 35 reported not receiving
information in advance; and did
not know rationing schedules that
started during watercourse study.


F







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN


were determined. If a government worker had recently been transferred,
information on the previous worker was obtained. Each farmer was then
asked the name and number of contacts with each worker.

Thirty-four farmers reported that they had no purposeful contacts
with their agricultural assistant, field assistant, development assis-
tant or Cooperative Department officials in the past three month period.
The first three are responsible for providing extension services. None
of the farmers reported contacts with the Irrigation Department officers
responsible for operation or maintenance of the canal system. Twenty-
three of the 35 farmers knew the revenue officer (patwari) by name and
had contacts with him in the past three months. Farmers have limited
contacts with those personnel responsible for providing knowledge and
services.

Data were collected on the trial and adoption of nine innovations
recommended by the Agriculture Department. While 85 percent had tried
two high yielding wheat varieties only 57 percent had adopted these
varieties. Only about five to ten percent of the farmers had tried or
adopted a new rice variety, planting of cotton in rows, line planting
of rice seedlings, used insecticides for rice or cotton or used a wheat
drill. A significant finding is that 40 percent reported trying phos-
phate fertilizer and only 23 percent reported adoption for any crop.


RECOMMENDATIONS FROM PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

Farmers recognize that shortage of water is their major constraint.
They further recognize many of the factors that cause loss of water.
Measurements of the system show that major losses do occur up to 50
percent or more in many instances. Why do farmers not prevent these
losses? The first conclusion of the authors is that farmers do not
recognize the magnitude of these losses. When water is stolen during
his turn, the farmer expends time and effort to insure the water is
stopped. He does little about the losses. The second conclusion is
that he does not have the organization to stop the losses. The present
social structure is such that all the farmers on the outlet command area
can not easily participate together. The third conclusion is that he
does not know how to prevent the losses and lacks (government) technical
assistance to accomplish the improvements. Experience since this study
(Bowers et al., 1977) plus existing cooperative efforts suggest that
farmers will cooperate given knowledge and the necessary technical
assistance. The authors recommend that delivery channel improvement be
given a high priority. Farmers need to be made aware of the problem and
need to be provided with the services to solve the problem.

The data from this study have shown that farmers lack knowledge
about water management and practices for improved crop production as
well as extension services. Farmers did demonstrate that increased
cropped area and cash crops would result from an increased water supply.
Bowers et al. (1977) have documented that farmers will respond when they
are aware of the problem and provided with assistance. This suggests
that the problem is more related to a lack of knowledge, appropriate
technical assistance and the required institutional services and







IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


policies. The authors recommend improvement of agricultural and
irrigation extension services to assist farmers in improving their crop
production.

The laws and codes governing Pakistan's irrigation system, espe-
cially those related to on-farm water management, need to be examined
critically. Times have changed since the British transplanted the laws
governing irrigation to the subcontinent. The form of government, needs
in agriculture, and traditions and roles of farmers have changed. Since
partition, other civil and criminal laws have been examined and changed
to meet the religious, cultural and value systems of a modern nation.
Changing water laws to better reflect present day needs and realities
is urgently needed.

This interdisciplinary approach to problem identification in water
management is recommended for studying other irrigation systems. The
experience in Pakistan suggests appropriate solutions are more readily
developed from the more thorough understanding this problem identi-
fication procedure provides.


REFERENCES

1. Bowers, Sidney A., Wayne Clyma, Sam H. Johnson III, W. Doral Kemper
and John O. Reuss. 1977. Watercourse Improvement in Pakistan:
Pilot Study in Cooperation with Farmers at Tubewell 56L. Water
Management Tech. Rept. No. 45, Colorado State University, Fort
Collins, Colo., May.

2. Clyma, Wayne, Arshad Ali and Mohammad Ashraf. 1975. In Optimum
Use of Water in Agriculture, CENTO Scientific Paper No. 16, Tehran.

3. Clyma, W. and Arshad All. 1977. Traditional and Improved Irriga-
tion Practices in Pakistan. Proc. of Water Management for Irriga-
tion and Drainage, ASCE, Reno, Nev. July 20-22, pp. 201-216.

4. Clyma, W. and G. L. Corey. 1975. The Importance of Farm Water
Management in Pakistan. Water Management Tech. Rept. No. 38,
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., March.

5. Clyma, W., M. K. Lowdermilk and G. L. Corey. 1977. A Research-
Development Process for Improvement of On-Farm Water Management.
Water Management Tech. Rept. No. 47, Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, Colo., June.

6. Corey, G. L. and W. Clyma. 1975. Improving Farm Water Management
in Pakistan. Water Management Tech. Rept. No. 37, Colorado State
University, Fort Collins, Colo., March.

7. Early, A. C., M. K. Lowdermilk and D. M. Freeman. 1978. Farm
Management Constraints to Indus Basin Crop Production. Paper No.
78-2023, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.







IRRIGATION IN PAKISTAN 843


8. Hassan, S. Masud-ul-. 1974. The Canal and Drainage Laws as
amended up-to-date, revised and enlarged edition, Kyber Law
Publishers, Lahore, Pakistan.

9. Kemper, W. D., W. Clyma and M. M. Ashraf. 1975. Improvement and
Maintenance of Earthen Watercourses to Reduce Waterlogging and
Increase Water Supplies for Crop Production. Proceedings of the
International Conference on Waterlogging and Salinity, Dept. of
Civil Engr., Univ. of Engr. and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, Oct.

10. Lowdermilk, M. K., W. Clyma and A. C. Early. 1975. Physical and
Socio-Economic Dynamics of a Watercourse in Pakistan's Punjab:
System Constraints and Farmers' Responses. Water Management Tech.
Rept. No. 42, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo.,
December.

11. Raza, M. R. 1969. Two Pakistani Villages: A Study in Social
Stratification, Punjab University Sociologists Alumni Assoc.,
Univ. of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, pp. 30-31.










MECHANIZED IRRIGATION
IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES /

Hameed R. Rasheed 2/
and
Jack Keller, M. ASCE



ABSTRACT
Mechanized irrigation systems in the developing countries were
studied to determine the economic feasibility and the management require-
ments. The key to the success of these projects is not only the proper
technical design and system selection, but the management techniques
that deal with the problems of personnel, logistics, communications,
project transfer, and the lack of in-country know-how in irrigation
practices.

Introduction
The population explosion and the limited supply of feasible land
and water resources, especially in the developing countries, have created
an urgent need for substantial increases in food production. Because
of this, and for political reasons, remote and less feasible resources
are being used for large scale mechanized irrigation projects. Develop-
ing countries with limited capital have remained dependent to a great
extent on the agriculturally productive countries. At times this has
imposed great strain on the world economy. Developing countries with
high oil revenues have chosen to increase agricultural production
through ambitious, large scale, mechanized projects to attain food
self-sufficiency and a strong agricultural economy.

Some countries, such as Libya, have started large projects in
desert areas under severe environmental constraints. Such projects are
being designed, installed, and managed by highly technical and exper-
ienced firms from developed countries, such as USA and France. Indus-
trial type management techniques are being implemented as a new
approach to food production.
_/ Research funded by Ball Agricultural Systems, Inc. of Boulder,
Colorado

2/ Head, Irrigation Department, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq

3/ Professor, Agriculture and Irrigation Department, Utah State
University, Logan, Utah




844

t. ________ ___________________






MECHANIZED IRRIGATION


The productivity of most of these industrial projects has been dis-
appointing, a few have had partial success, but are having difficulty
in sustaining desirable production levels. This is due to the existing
economic frame-work, social problems, environmental constraints, lack
of mechanical in-country know-how, and an almost complete absence of
knowledge concerning the "art of irrigation". The technical require-
ments and design criteria of mechanized irrigation systems are well
known and commonly applied in such agriculturally developed countries
as the USA and France. The transfer of this knowledge to the develop-
ing countries should not be too difficult, and suitable irrigation
equipment is available for almost all soil conditions and crop require-
ments. Therefore, other variables such as management problems, logis-
tics, communication, project transfer, etc., detrimental to the success
of these projects, must be identified and analyzed to determine reasons
for the failures and to develop recommendations for suitable approaches
to future projects.


General Description of the Projects
The projects considered in this study were selected to have the
same general characteristics and physical requirements (except for
scale) with similar constraints. This was done so that a comparison
could be made relative to project scale. The projects have the fol-
lowing common characteristics:

1. The locations are remote, 667-1000 Km (400-600 miles), from
any city that can provide minimal services to the project.

2. They are administered by in-country governmental agricultural
agencies and personnel.

3. They utilize highly mechanized irrigation systems. All have
center pivot systems which irrigate 50 to 80 ha with each
machine, and use Divot inlet pressure ranging from,482.63 x
10" 620.52 x 10 pascals. (70-90 psi).
4. Water is taken from wells with static water level ranging
from 33m (100 ft.) to 76m (250 ft.) and electric powered
submersible pumps are used.

5. The projects were initially designed, installed, and operated
by expatriate agricultural firms from developed countries.
6. All irrigation systems, installation equipment, living facili-
ties, and agricultural equipment and facilities were purchased
from developed countries and involved high ocean and inland
freight costs.

7. An electrical power generation station is part of each project.
This and the distribution lines add an additional cost burden
to the projects.






846 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


8. All of the personnel used for installation and the initial
operation were expatriates, except for local trainees. This
required special living and catering facilities for each pro-
ject site.

9. In each case the soils are sandy and have very high infiltra-
tion rates.

10. Extensive cropping patterns are used in an effort to off-set
the high investment costs. Extreme dry desert conditions pre-
vail on the sites with temperatures reaching 50oC in the high
summer months.

11. Figures (1) through (5) show photographs depicting the typical
site conditions and various other particulars.

Economic Analysis

Even though suitable irrigation techniques for various site condi-
tions are known and practiced in many countries, the creation of human
and material resources for large remote projects in developing countries
pose severe problems and require high initial capital and operational
costs. In fact, the costs are so high that the projects may be econo-
mically unfeasible using normal considerations.

To demonstrate the high initial on-farm costs, five projects of
various sizes and similar characteristics in remote desert areas were
chosen (Libya and Saudi Arabia). The cost of various items for these
projects was obtained from bid documents. Some of these projects are
now operational and others are still under construction.

The project sizes ranged from a 100 ha experimental farm to a large
8000 ha project. A breakdown of the total cost and cost per hectare
for equipment and installation in each project is given in Table (1).
From Table (1) the following can be observed.

1. The fixed cost for supply and construction ranges from a low
of $9,997/ha for the large farm, to a high of $20,470/ha for
the small experimental farm. These values are shocking when
compared with irrigation projects in the USA or other develop
countries.

2. The cost of irrigation and pumping equipment amounts to 23.4%
of total cost for the large project and 27% for the small
experimental farm.

3. The greatest expense item for each of the projects considered
is the cost of installation, ranging from 26.7% for the large
project to 37.4% for the small experimental farm. This high
cost is associated with importing and housing an expatriate.
It includes the transportation for bringing staff to the
country and the cost of facilities required to maintain
acceptable working conditions at the site.





MECHANIZED IRRIGATION


* 1 'I *


FIGURE (1) Camp Site in Sahara Desert (Libya)
Compliments Ball Agricultural Systems, Inc.


k4
4. *,


--"Xi


FIGURE (2) Pivot Irrigator Being Assembled on the
Desert Site
Compliments of Ball Agricultural Systems, Inc.


~_ ----------
B;j~Ltg~q~Laa






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


V li V


11 V r I V I r I A


FIGURE (3) 80 Hectare Pivot Irrigator being towed to
site from Assembly Camp (Libyan Desert)
Compliments of Ball Agricultural Systems, Inc.


FIGURE (4) Wheat Crop under Pivot Irrigator in remote
desert region (Libya)
Compliments of Ball Agricultural Systems, Inc.






MECHANIZED IRRIGATION


FIGURE (5) Wheat crop being harvested in Libya from
the desert sand
Compliments of Ball Agricultural Systems, Inc.






















TABLE (1)

Supply and Construction Cost in US Dollars
For Mechanized Irrigation Systems (Well and Power Generator Costs Not


8000 ha


Pumps and Irrigation Equipment

Farm Equipment and Facilities

Support Equipment & Facilities

Freight (Ocean & Land)

Direct Support

Finance and Insurance

Installation Equipment,
Labor and Material

TOTAL COST ($)


21,165,000

10,656,000

11,505,000

7,612,000

7,250,000

2,080,000


20,710,000

79,978,000


6400 ha


16,376,000

9,233,000

10,950,000

6,751,000

6,900,000

1,801,000


18,715,000

70,006,000


2400 ha


5,700,100

4,447,000

4,500,000

2,961,000

3,200,000

1,550,000


9,130,000

31,488,000


Included)


250 ha


714,000

670,000

631,000

460,000

675,000

150,000


957,000

4,257,000


5

2

1

1

1


7

2,0


100 ha
0
z

52,000

50,000

56,000

39,000 >

34,000

50,000


66,000

47,000


9,997 10,938 13,120


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.


---A"--B------------ ~ct~s*r


~---a^- I


COST/ha ($)


17,028 20,470






MECHANIZED IRRIGATION


The annual operation plus management costs for four of the projects
are shown in Table (2). This cost data is based on five-year averages
and it ranges from $2,576/ha to $6,000/ha. These are high values com-
pared to typical mechanized irrigation projects in developed countries.
Expatriate labor is needed because of the lack of skilled local workers.
This raises the managing company's direct costs to approximately 50% of
the total operation plus management cost, even though the irrigation
systems used are highly mechanized and require a minimum amount of
labor. Figure (6) shows capital and annual operation plus management
costs per hectare for projects of various sizes.

Straight line depreciation over a 15 year period with 6% interest
was used to arrive at the total annual cost per hectare. This not only
included the pivots but also capital cost items such as: drilling,
developing and casing the wells, power generation, and power distribu-
tion lines. The total annual costs for the four projects are tabulated
by categories in Table (3). The total annual cost for the projects
ranges from $4,355/ha to $9,007/ha, depending upon the project size.

Data for Table (3) is plotted along with expected income per hec-
tare. The cost per hectare increases rapidly as the project size
decreases, because the manpower and machinery requirements are not
linearaly proportional to project size. The annual income depicted in
Figure (7) is based on the typical cropping program of 50% of the area
in alfalfa and 50% in winter wheat and summer millet. The yields
actually being obtained and selling prices of these products which are
equivalent to what it would cost the government to make them available
at the sites are:

Alfalfa: 40 Tons/ha $150/Ton
(8 cuttings/yr)

Wheat: 4 Tons/ha $250/Ton

Straw: 2 Tons/ha $150/Ton

Millet: 4 Tons/ha $200/Ton

The total annual per hectare revenue is calculated as:

Alfalfa = 0.5 Ha x 40 ton x $150 = $3200
Ha Ton

Wheat = 0.5 Ha x 4 ton x $250 = $ 500
Ha Ton

Straw = 0.5 Ha x 2 ton x $150 = $ 150
Ha Ton

Millet = 0.5 Ha x 4 ton x $200 = $ 400
Ha Ton

TOTAL = $4250

























TABLE (2) OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT COST
US Dollars for 5 year average


8000 Ha


6400 Ha


2400 Ha


Labor


In-Country Costs

US Direct Costs

Consumables
and Others

TOTAL

COST/ha


5,385,000 4,855,000

6,100,000 5,185,000

4,115,000 3,702,000


5,010,000

20,610,000


2,576


4,008,000

17,751,000

2,773


4,413,000 572,000

2,210,000 360,000

1,620,000 285,000


1,900,000

10,143,000

4,226


285,000

1,500,000

6,000


M- -t-B^U I.H^* -n! .---~-~. .K-ii -


Category


250 Ha


-i-~E~n~-rps~9-r^s~-asa*9rr~--rrx*ar=i
























TABLE (3) TOTAL ANNUAL COST PER HECTARE
US Dollars



Annual Operation plus
Management Costs 2,576 2,773 4,226 6,000

Annual Payment to
Pay Initial Cost 1,029 1,126 1,350 2,107
(15 years @ 6%)

Annual Cost Wells
and Power Generator 750 780 850 900
(15 years @ 6%)

TOTAL ANNUAL COST 4,355 4,679 6,426 9,007







(Is







854 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


n 19000-

S 17000-

M 15000-
4. Supply Plus Installation
S 13000

11000-

I
7 9000-

4J 7000-
0
S 5000-- Operation Plus Management

3000-

1000-

0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0
N O O O O O O O

Development Size Per Ha

FIGURE 6 TOTAL SUPPLY PLUS INSTALLATION (WELL AND POWERS
COSTS NOT INCLUDED) AND YEARLY OPERATION COST AS
A FUNCTION OF PROJECT SIZE
a
S 9000-
A 8000-

c 7000- Expenses
1-
0
o 6000-

5000-



3000-
3 Income
S 2000-


CO
i1000-
0o
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 0 en IT o Ln co

Project Size Per Ha


FIGURE 7 TOTAL ANNUAL EXPENSES AND INCOME AS A
FUNCTION OF PROJECT SIZE






MECHANIZED IRRIGATION


It is obvious, from a strictly economical point of view, that the
largest projects are not even feasible with the high commodity prices.
In Figure (7) the break-even point when the income equals the expenses
occurs at a project size of 8,250 ha.

The above analyses did not account for costs associated with any
in-country agricultural agency to administer the various phases of the
project. When this added cost is included, 10,000 hectare or larger
projects would not break even.

Development Philosophy

In view of the above one might suggest that these countries stop
investing in agricultural projects and remain dependent on agricultural
imports. Or perhaps they look at the unfavorable economic situation
as a transient stage with high costs resulting from imported staff,
management and know-how, who will eventually be replaced by local staff
and managers. This will not only reduce costs to where the projects
can become economically feasible, but also provide other benefits.

Following are several vitally important in-country side benefits
which might be gained that may justify discounting partially (or even
in its entirety) the initial fixed cost of the project.

1. The social and cultural changes that are brought to the remote
region of the country are of great importance. Such changes
encourage nomad settlement, transfer of the people from crowded
cities to create productive agricultural settlements, or both.

2. The technological know-how and experience gained by the people
during construction and maintenance operations will be of
great value when the projects are transferred to local manage-
ment.

3. The hard currency saved in reducing or eliminating the agricul-
tural imports should be helpful in stabilizing the country's
economy once the project operation and management has been
taken over by in-country workers.

4. The imported irrigation practices and know-how can be highly
beneficial in transferring technologies that have taken decades
to develop elsewhere.

5. The training of engineers, technicians and laborers can have a
beneficial impact on the future of the entire agricultural
sector in the host countries.

6. Information compiled during the beginning operation and manage-
ment period will yield much needed data on: crop water require-
ments, weather information, yields, crop adaptability, ferti-
lizer needs, etc. This data will help in efficient planning
of future projects in the country.






856 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


The benefits stated above (if totally achieved) may warrant dis-
counting the entire initial investment providing the project remains
profitable after being transferred to local agricultural authorities.
Unfortunately, in most cases operational profitability has not been
attained, because of the many problems associated with local management
of these projects.


Management Problems
The projects considered in this study require careful management
and timely control of the flow of material and personnel to the site.
A study of some completed projects points out the types of problems
that have caused significant set-backs and delays in completion. These
problems have resulted in substantially increasing the cost of the
projects. The project names and locations are of a proprietary nature
and are not mentioned. Some of the more important management problems
are described below:

Personnel. Almost all the personnel recruited for the supply and
installation phase of these projects are expatriates. They are not
familiar with remote desert camp living and usually 10 to 15 percent of
the workers leave prior to completing their job assignment. Due to
mental strain, some workers cause difficulty or mutiny with the manage-
ment. Such problems obviously delay completion and increase costs.
These additional costs are passed to the customer in terms of higher
prices in quoting new projects.

Material and Equipment. All system hardware and installation
equipment is purchased from different countries, shipped to local ports,
cleared through customs, and transported across the desert to the pro-
ject site. Typical problems encountered in clearing the material from
the docks through the customs routine are: loss, damage, delayed
unloading, and long unwarranted clearing time at the ports. In addi-
tion, in many cases desert transportation has been by local truck (a
union requirement), which can result in further delays, loss, or damage
due to mishandling. Such losses and damage have caused long delays in
completing the projects. Sometimes these delays have resulted in the
loss of a season's crop. Even without the associated delays, the cost
of replacements and repairs, due to transportation problems, has been
substantial in the past and resulted in significantly higher installed
costs than the original estimates.

Conflict of Management Schemes. Typically the management philoso-
phy, attitude, methods of accomplishment and pace of work are different
between an in-country project agency (usually governmental) and the
contractors from developed countries. A large part of the problem stems
from the local project agency not being involved in the initial design
detail, pre-planning, supply and construction schedules and requirements.
This leads to important issues being raised by the local project manage-
ment at the start or during the construction phase resulting in dis-
putes and misunderstandings between the two management groups. The
final result can be project delays and sometimes complete stoppage of
work and litigation. Such problems have discouraged some of the most






MECHANIZED IRRIGATION


qualified agrobusiness firms from bidding on these types of projects,
and others have increased the initial cost estimates to cover antici-
pated problems. Thus, in the long run, these problems are translated
into an increased cost of operation and management.

Project Transfer. Most of the large mechanized irrigation projects
are transferred to in-country authorities after installation is complete
and one year's operation. Some local personnel are trained for opera-
tion and maintenance during the one-year start-up period. The farming
and irrigation scheduling requirements are provided by local people
with limited experience in large scale farming. This normally results
in substantial reduction in the average yields. Thus, in many cases,
the annual revenue from the yields does not cover the yearly operation
costs.

For example, in one of the projects studied, the yield of winter
wheat dropped from 4 tons/ha to 1 ton/ha after the project was trans-
ferred to local management. In other cases total crop failures have
been experienced, as a result of poor farming techniques. In addition,
the annual machinery down-time and spare part requirements has increased
by 50 percent after the project transfer, which clearly indicates the
seriousness of the farm management problems. The entire blame for such
poor performance does not totally fall on the local management, since
the transfer of agricultural machinery to the developing country does
not automatically imply that farming know-how and the art of irrigation
has been transferred also.

Communication. The lack of direct communication between the con-
tracting firm's main office (outside the country) and the contractor's
site personnel along with the lack of communication between local pro-
ject authorities and contractor's site personnel (due to language,
social and cultural barriers) have caused severe problems in the past.
Normally, the problems are mainly between the local project authority
and the contractor's workers. However, many major decisions are made
at the contracting firm's main office. This causes substantial delay
in solving major differences in the work procedure and/or contract docu-
ments. On one of the projects studied, a contractor lost one million
dollars due to poor communications.

Irrigation Practices. Usually the project operation is taken over
by local personnel who have had limited experience with irrigation
practices and lack a full understanding of the art of irrigation. These
local workers and managers face many problems, mainly in scheduling
irrigation, management of the soil-water reservoir, and crop water re-
quirements. In the projects studied, it is easy to identify the effects
poor on-farm water management which has resulted in minimal yields.
This not only destroys economic justification, but also has a psycholo-
gical impact on the local farmers in terms of their capacity for running
productive farms. This suggests that a major project objective should
not only be the introduction of large agricultural projects to the
country, but also the building of human resources capable of sustaining
a viable agricultural system.






858 IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES

Discussion and Recommendation

A survey of well designed mechanized irrigation projects in various
developing countries reveals that at best, success is limited. Some
projects have floundered while others are a complete failure. The pro-
blem is critical, as sooner or later the correct approach must be
identified so that a self-supporting agriculture economy can be esta-
blished to satisfy the rising food demands. The problems identified in
previous sections of this report are not the only causes for the set-
backs and failures of these projects. However, resolving some of these
specific problems would contribute a great deal to the success of the
projects studied. To assure greater success in the future, we recommend
the following:
1. Many projects should be looked upon in other than purely econo-
mic terms. High initial supply and installation costs should
not discourage project development, as the side benefits
stated earlier may warrant discounting the entire capital cost
as the price of achieving a modern irrigated agricultural
technology.
2. Engineering institutional structures compatible with total
operation and management requirements of the agricultural pro-
jects should be developed within the countries. This should
be done after putting together the total project's technical
requirements and then planning the education and training of
capable local people.
3. The in-country project personnel must be involved with the con-
tracting firm in all phases of the project (design, planning,
logistics, and completion schedules). This will help them in
getting a better and more realistic insight into the project
requirements. This involvement will help eliminate conflicts
that may otherwise occur during later phases of project develop-
ment, and at the same time help the local project personnel
develop a real feeling for, and know-how in, irrigated agri-
cultural requirements.
4. The local engineers, technicians, and farmers who will be
responsible for the operation of these projects should also
participate in installation and testing of the equipment. The
farmers' participation should be on a "shadow basis" during
the initial operation years. Every functional assignment per-
formed by an individual from a developed country should be
shadowed by a capable counterpart who will eventually be
responsible for carrying out that assignment. This may cause
an initial increase in the cost of facilities and consumables
required. However, it will be much more cost effective than
superficial training of people after the project is complete,
without having the personal input of local people in the
initial development of the project.





|






MECHANIZED IRRIGATION


5. The governments of the developing countries should treat large
agricultural projects with special care (like is done for a
national airline) by eliminating the many time-consuming and
problem-causing procedures, such as port clearance, custom
duties and the normal red-tape involved in importing goods into
the country. This will eliminate many logistics problems that
typically cause delays and increase costs.

6. The farming know-how and the art of irrigation that has taken
decades to learn through on-farm experience, is not as easily
transferable as the transfer of design criteria and hardware.
Developing country personnel should have at least five years
of supervised farm operation experience, including participa-
tion at all operational levels. This is needed for farming
and irrigation specialists from the agriculturally developed
countries to gain a reasonable level of proficiency.

7. To insure the continuity of maintenance and proper operation,
an advisory committee should be established at the project to
guide the local staff in organizing the various functions of
the farming operations.

The above may seem to be rather rigorous and costly; however from
our analysis of existing systems, we believe it offers a reasonable
approach to the probability for success of costly mechanized systems
in the developing countries, and a sound means for transferring irri-
gated agricultural technology.















CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS


William Ackermann
Box 232
Urbana, IL 61801

J. David Aiken
314 H.C. Filley Hall
Univ. of Nebraska
Lincoln, NE 68583

Maurice Albertson
1502 Mathews St.
Ft. Collins, CO 80521

Richard Allison
2700 Bay Area Blvd.
Houston, TX 77058

Evan Allred
1426 Raymond Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55108

Klaus Alt
RR 1
Ames, IA 50010

Craig Alter
Rm. 112, Eng. 1-A
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

T. Al Austin
312 Beedle Dr.
Ames, IA 50010

Daniel Bacon
4293 Hambrick Way
Stone Mountain, GA 30083

Jay Bagley
1956 N. 1600 E.
Logan, UT 84321

Donald Baker
Office of Sec.
ORSPC, Rm. 5898C
U.S. Dept. of Commerce
Washington, D.C. 20230


Roger Barnes
3705 Three Chop Lane SW
Roanoke, VA 24014

Richard Baughan
Fort Monroe, VA 23651

George Baumli
4848 Elkridge Dr.
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274

Keith Beauchamp
605 N. Webster Ave.
Jacksonville, IL 62650

Roger Betson
Rt. 2, Lovingood Rd.
Maryville, TN 37801

Barry Bevier
2073 Neil Ave.
Columbus, OH 43210

John Bird
974 5th St.
Sparks, NV 89431

A. Alvin Bishop
1780 E. 1030 N.
Logan, UT 84321

John Bishop
6209 Dana Ave.
Springfield, VA 22150

Ronald Blatchley
1601 S. Federal Blvd.
Denver, CO 80219

Walter E. Blessey
Tulane University
New Orleans, LA 70118

John Bonell
1125 Williams Ave.
Reno, NV 89503


F






CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS


Sheldon Boone
1372 Hwy 1-25 SEDC
Castle Rock, CO 80104

Raymond Booth
32 Berkshire P1.
Madison Heights, VA 24572

Edward Boyd
1511 E. Edgewood Dr.
Lakeland, FL 33803

Charles Brockway
706 Sunrise Blvd. N.
Twin Falls, ID 83301

Peter Brooks
917 Stuard Rd.
Wilmington, DE 19807

Levi Brown
515 College View Dr.
Blacksburg, VA 24060

Randall Brubaker
505 Executive House
P.O. Box 2357
Harrisburg, PA 17120

Roy Burke
Civil Engineering Dept.
Charlottesville, VA 22901

Robert Burman
1214 Downey St.
Laramie, WY 82070

Lyle Bush
Adolph Coors Co.
Golden, CO 80401

Alfred Canepa
Rt. 2, Box 695
Palatka, FL 32077

Bram Cantor
Rm 355, Holland Law Ctr.
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

E. James Carlson
1189 Racine St.
Aurora, CO 80011


Roy Carriker
G 120 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Frederick J. Clarke
Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton
1101 15th St. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005

Wayne Clyma
Colorado State University
Ft. Collins, CO 80521

Jack Coe
303 Basetdale Ave.
La Puente, CA 91746

Thomas Collins
Dept. of Environmental Resources
Cook College, Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ 08903


James Corbalis
P.O. Box 1500
Merrifield, VA


22116


Gilbert Corey
1521 Beulah Rd.
Vienna, VA 22180

Charles Corke
11401 Lakin Pl.
Oakton, VA 22124

William Cox
617 N. Main St.
Blacksburg, VA 24060

Otto Craft
2310 Langhorne Rd.
Lynchburg, VA 24501

Leonard Crook
3355 Yellow Stone Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

Gary Crouch
Anderson & Assoc. Inc.
100 Ardmore St.
Blacksburg, VA 24060

Alfred D'Arezzo
4212 Gnarl Dr.
Austin, TX 78731






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


K.C. Das
State Water Control Board
Box 11143
Richmond, VA 23230

George Davis
U.S.G.S.
NH Center 407
Reston, VA 22092

Harold Day
725 Laverne Dr.
Green Bay, WI 54301

Thomas Debo
2450 Kirkland Dr.
Atlanta, GA 30345

Eckhart Dersch
Dept. of Water Development
East Lansing, MI 48824

James Dunne
216 Warren Hall
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14850

Billy Edge
Six Mile Mt.
Six Mile, SC 29682

Virginia Fairweather
345 E. 47th St.- A.S.C.E.
New York, NY 10017

Donald Feaster
304 Shady Dr.
Lutz, FL 33549

Stanley Feinstein
5518 Phelps Luck Dr.
Columbia, MD 21045

Don Finlayson
1404 Alder P1.
Davis, CA 95616

Robert Fish
405 Broad St.
Milford, PA 18337

J. Ernest Flack
4190 Eutaw Dr.
Boulder, CO 80303


Paul Folkman
48 Latham Ct.
Burlington, VT 05401

William Forrest
200 W. Grace St, Rm. 304
Richmond, VA 23220

William Frazier
7231 Jefferson St.
Harrisonburg, PA 17111

Michael Frank
1601 Holleman #7F
College, TX 77814

Augustine Fredrick
7459 Zanuck Ct.
Annandale, VA 22003

Elmer Gain
337 Sagamore Rd.
Havertown, PA 19083


Wayne Gentry
236 Gurnsey
Red Bluff, CA

John Gerstle
M.I.T.
Cambridge, MA


96080



02139


William Goldfarb
Department of Environmental Res.
Cook College, Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ 08903

J. Ken Goodmiller
U.S. General Accounting Office
441 G. St. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20548

Yoram Gordon
1448 Aldenham Lane
Reston, VA 22090

Marshall Goulding
366 William Dr.
Hershey, PA 17033

Morlie Graubard
Rand Corp. 1700 Main St.
Santa Monica, CA 90404







CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS


William Grecco
7935 Corteland Dr.
Knoxville, TN 37919

Richard Greenhalgh
3324 N.W. 42nd Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32601

J. Richard Gregg
4979 Tequesta Dr.
Tequesta, FL 33458

Neil Grigg
124 Riddick Hall, N.C.S.U.
Raleigh, NC 27650

Charles Hall
13 S. River Rd., 400 N. A-l-A
Jupiter, FL 33458

Alfred Hamilton
Strategic Planning Inst.
1 Broadway
Cambridge, MA 02139

W. Craig Hamilton
Hayes, Seay, Mattern & Mattern
1315 Franklin Rd. S.W.
Roanoke, VA

James Hanchey
8805 Nero St.
Annandale, VA 22003

Robert Hancock
8803 Staples Mill Rd.
Richmond, VA 23228

David Hardan
3808 Miami St.
Bakersfield, CA 93306

Joseph Haugh
8621 Darien Ct.
Annandale, VA 22003

J.C. Heatwole
Rt. 1, Box 24
Hinton, VA 22831

Otto Helweg
Dept. of Civil Engineering
University of California
Davis, CA 95616


Chris Herlache
5200 Lake Mendota Dr.
Madison, WI 53705


R.J. Hesse
1629 K. St. NW
Washington, D.C.


20006


R.D. Hester
4905 Hatton Pt. Rd.
Portsmouth, VA 23703

Daniel Hoggan
955 Foothill Dr.
Providence, UT 84332

Robert Hutcheson
P.O. Box 1163
Richmond, VA 23209

Richard Jennings
Box 82
Crozier, VA 23039

Michael Jess
Dept. of Water Resources
P.O. Box 94676
Lincoln, NE 68509

A.I. Johnson
4289 N. 38th St.
Arlington, VA 22207

John Johnston
Ministry of Agriculture and Food
Parliament Buildings
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M7A2B2

Kenneth Kauffman
786 S. Nelson St.
Lakewood, CO 80226

Sheldon Kelman
16501 SW 77th Ave.
Miami,.FL 33157

Waldon Kerns
617 N. Main St.
Blacksburg, VA 24060

Conrad Keyes
Box 3CE, N.M.S.U.
Las Cruces, NM 88003






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


David Kibler
116 Kennedy St.
State College, PA 16801

Clyde Kiker
224 S.W. 40 Terrace
Gainesville, FL 32607

James Kirby
308 Drury Lane
El Paso, TX 79907

Lowell Klessing
1815 University Ave.
Madison, WI 53706

Karl Klingelhofer
5417 Thetford P1.
Alexandria, VA 22310

Victor Koelzer
1604 Miramont Dr.
Ft. Collins, CO 80521

L. Koppelman
5 Cakewalk Terrace
Smithtown, NY 11787

Jim Krider
87 S. Sproul Rd.
Broomall, PA 19008

Don Krueger
2 South Main St.
Harrisonburg, VA 22801

Mary Langeland
3110 Meadowbrook D7
Blacksburg, VA 24060

Della Laura
C.A.C.I.
Reston, VA 22091

Gary Lewis
1725 South 53rd
Lincoln, NE 68506

Ray Linsley
1502 Page Mill Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94304

A.F. Lukey
Motherwell Bldg.-1900 Victoria Ave.
Regina, SASK., Canada 54PORS


Gary Lynne
8018 S.W. 17th Pl.
Gainesville, FL 32601

Wayne MacRostie
4755 Dovercourt Cr.
Carmichael, CA 95608

Thomas Maddock
4600 Park Newport
Newport Beach, CA 92660

Jeffrey Mahan
4330 East-West Highway
Bethesda, MD 20014

Frank Maloney
357 Holland Law Center
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

Brian Mar
10615 60th South
Seattle, WA 98178

Ralph Marlette
640 South 52nd St.
Lincoln, NE 68510

J. Charles Martorana
9315 Arlington Ave.
Manassas, VA 22110

M. Boyd Marcus
7825 Midlothian Pike
Richmond, VA 23235

Leonard Massie
460 Henry Mall
Madison, WI 53706

Harbans Matharoo
4100 Chain Bridge Rd.
Fairfax, VA 22030

Judith Maxwell
Dept. of Agric. & Applied Economic
University of Minnesota
St. Paul, MN 55108

John McSparron
364 N. Market St.
Elizabethtown, PA 17022






CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS


Philip Metzer
Rm 112, Engineering 1-A
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Robert Miller
280 N.W. 181 St.
Beaverton, OR 97005

Posey Mills
2766 Oakman Blvd.
Detroit, MI 48238

Marilyn Millstone
National Press Bldg.-Rm. 655
Washington, D.C. 20045

Tom Mizell
Rt. 2, Box 301 C
Bridgewater, VA 22812

Michael Mocek
2936 Soft Wind Trail
Fort Worth, TX 76116

Thomas Morin
104 Seminole
W. Lafayette, IN 47906

Kenneth Murdock
12724 Lincolnshire Dr.
Potomac, MD 20854

George Murfee
3445 Exec. Center Dr.-Suite 220
Austin, TX 78731

Philip Myers
509 N. Roosevelt Blvd.-D105
Falls Church, VA 22044

Donald Newman
719 Boston Blvd.
Sea Girt, NJ 08750

Paul Otter
6161 W. Arbor Ave.
Littleton, CO 80123

Donald Overton
Dept. of Civil Engineering
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37916


Leo Page
407 Mt. Airy Rd.
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920

William Park
Hutcheson 302D VPI&SU
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Barbara Phillips
P.O. Box 60
Lynchburg, VA 24505

Dayne Piercefield
P.O. Box 187
Lutz, FL 33549

W. Tom Pitts
4217 Fire Rock Ct.
Loveland, CO 80537

David Pollison
527 Greenway Ave.
Trenton, NJ 08618

Michael Ports
Water Resources Administration
Tawes Bldg. D-3
Annapolis, MD 21401

Bernard Proctor
37 Mistle Toe Dr.
Forest, VA 24551

Albert Ramey
2400 Buckingham Ave.
Richmond, VA 23228

Hameed Rasheed
Irrigation Dept.-College of Negg
Mosul, Iraq

Cecil Reinke
6709 Golfcrest
Galveston, TX 77550

Don Reynolds
345 E. 47th St. A.S.C.E.
New York, NY 10017

John Reynolds
G099 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Leonard Rice
2695 Alcott St.
Denver, CO 80211

John Richardson
123 VistaDelPrado
Los Gatos, CA 95030

W. Martin Roche
1332 Fitch Way
Sacramento, CA 95825

Thomas Rodhouse
106 JJ Coventry Manor
Lawrence, KS 66044

Jerry Rogers
Dept. of Civil Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77004

Peter Rosendale
1580 N.W. 9th Ave.
Homestead, FL 33030

William M. Sangster
College of Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332

Frederic Sargent
330 Spear
S. Burlington, VT 05401

R.A. Saville
P.O. Box 13446
Roanoke, VA 24034

Francis Schaefer
6301 Lemon Rd.
McLean, VA 22101

Joe Scalmanini
Dept. of Land, Air & Water Res.
University of California
Davis, CA 95616

Charles Scherer
Davis Hall U.C. Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720

Theodore M. Schad
4138 26th Rd. N.
Arlington, VA 22207


Mark Schiffman
Environmental Assessment Council
789 Jersey Ave.
New Brunswick, NJ 08902

Richard Schoney
308B Agriculture Hall
Madison, WI 53706

David A. Schultz
970 Hilltop Rd.
Arnold, MD 21012

Verne Scott
646 Elmwood Dr.
Davis, CA 95616

Leonard Shabman
Dept. of Agricultural Economics
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Robert Shelton
1431 Cherokee Trail #36
Knoxville, TN 37920

Edward Silberman
2325 Brookridge Ave.
Minneapolis, MN 55422

Larry Simpson
5420 Lone Tree Dr.
Loveland, CO 80537

Gaylord Skogerboe
Engineering Research Ctr. B-23
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523

Ralph Skoog
434 Topeka Blvd.
Topeka, KS 66603

Ernest Smerdon
601 Colorado St.
Austin, TX 78701

Sanford Smith
301 Oxford Dr.
Arcadia, CA 91006

Daniel Snyder III
1500 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19102







CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS


Herbert Snyder
1106 Maple Lane
Davis, CA 95616

Phillip Soice
16352 E. Bates Dr.
Aurora, CO 80013

Daniel Spangler

Phyllis Sprock
889 Catalina Dr.
Newport News, VA 23602

John Stallings
413 Wotan Rd.
Columbia, SC 29206

Jerry Stephens
U.S.G.S.
720 National Center
Reston, VA 22092

John Stephens
1111 N.E. 2nd St.
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33301


H.C. Stone
P.O. Box 353
Green Cove Springs, FL

Toto Sugianto
1901 S. Navajo
Denver, CO 80223

Marshall Taylor
300 Prestwick Rd.
Lincoln, NE 68505

Carolyn Thomas-Lewis
506 S. Main St.
Blacksburg, VA 24060

G.H. Toebes
124 Sumar Dr.
W. Lafayette, IN 47906

John Toomey
100 Madrid Dr. # M-216
Palm Springs, FL 33461

Harry Torno
2945 Hickory St.
Alexandria, VA 22305


32043


Robert Trotter
5903 A. Kingsford Rd.
Springfield, VA 22152

Harry Tuvel
345 E. 47th St. A.S.C.E.
New York, NY 10017

Max VanDenBerg
1990 East Amity Rd.
Meridian, ID 83642

Donald Van Hoose
1022 W. 24th St.
Norfolk, VA 23517

Warren Viessman
Congressional Research Service
Library of Congress
Washington, D.C. 20540

Charles Vincent
9302 Lee Ave.
Manassas, VA 22110


John Waelti
Dept. of Agricultural &
University of Minnesota
St. Paul, MN 55108

James Wageman
1118 Sutter St.
San Diego, CA 92103

John Walker
8120 Crestwood Dr.
Boise, ID 83704


Stephen Walker
P.O. Box V
West Palm Beach, FL


Applied Econ


33410


William Walker
617 N. Main St.
Blacksburg, VA 24060

James Wallace
2680 Peppermint Dr.
Tucker, GA 30084

Elizabeth Waring
Rt. 2, Box 26
Dunnsville, VA 22454


~






IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE AND WATER RESOURCES


Dennis Warner
Box 1963
Harrisburg, PA 17105

Calvin C. Warnick
University of Idaho
Moscow, ID 83843

Charles Warren
8803 Staples Mill Rd.
Richmond, VA 23228

Norman Wengert
Dept. of Political Science
Fort Collins, CO 80522

R. Timothy Weston
505 Executive House
Harrisburg, PA 17120

Jerome Westphal
Rt. 1, Box 135
Rolla, MO 65401


Hiroshi Yamauchi
1820 Kumakani P1
Honolulu, HI 96821


Eric Zicht
107 Wythe Ave.
Williamsburg, VA


23185


Gerald Zimmerman
10625 N. St.
Omaha, NE 68127

Jerome Zovne
1621 Osage
Manhattan, KS 66502

James Goff
3815 W. Garden Dr.
Phoeniz, AZ 85029

Robert Henderson
W7D190, 400 Commerce Ave.
Knoxville, TN 37902


Gene Willeke
Miami University
Oxford, OH 45056

Wallace Wilson
P.O. Box 30028
Lansing, MI 48895

Ray Winger
4050 Ammons St.
Wheat Ridge, CO 80033

Ed Wisniewski
106 Francis Meyers Rd.
New Britain, PA 18901


Carl Woehlcke
3301 Gun Club Rd.
West Palm Beach, FL


33402


James Wolfe
5232 Pumphrey Dr.
Fairfax, VA 22030

Steven Wozny
5231 Pommeroy Dr.
Fairfax, VA 22032

John Wray
2113 Yorkgate
Raleigh, NC 27612











Subject Index


Afforestation; Canals; Employment; India;
Irrigation; Natural resources; Population
migrations; Potable water; Water supply
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Agricultural wastes; Federal aid; Federal laws;
Institutional constraints; Land use; Legal aspects;
Social participation; Water pollution sources
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750

Agricultural wastes; Institutional constraints;
Irrigated land; Management methods; Pollution
control; Soil conservation; Water treatment
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, W.
Tom Pitts and F. A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Agricultural wastes; Irrigation systems; Return flow;
Water law; Water management (applied); Water
pollution; Water quality
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow,
George E. Radosevich and Gaylord V.
Skogerboe, 108

Agricultural watersheds; Droughts; Economies;
Groundwater elevation; Irrigation water; Social
values; Water resources; Water use
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Agricultural watersheds; Ground water; Irrigation;
Pennsylvania; Water allocation (policy); Water
conservation; Water plans; Water pollution; Water
quality; Water supply; Water use
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Air quality standards; Drainage; Environmental
factors; Irrigation; Law (jurisprudence); Pesticides;
Social impact; Water quality
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647

Appropriation (water rights); Beneficial use;
Esthetics; Recreational facilities; Streamflow
regulation; Water quality; Water resources; Water
rights
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Appropriation (water rights); Common law; State
laws; Water law; Water rights
The Appropriative Right as Common Law, John
W. Bird, 81

-Appropriation (water rights); Decision making;
Groundwater management; Stream flow; Water
Jaw; Water plans; Water resources; Wyoming
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511

Appropriation (water rights); Droughts; History;
Hydrology; Riparian rights; Routing; Water
demand; Water rights; Water supply
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219


Appropriation (water rights); Efficiency;
Wastewater; Water rights; Water supply; Water
use ,
Water Rights and Water Use Efficiency, J. Ernest
Flack, 143

Appropriation (water rights); Ground water;
Hydrogeology; Maryland; Regulation; Water
management (applied); Water resources; Water
use; Well spacing
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Appropriation (water rights); Ground water;
Hydrologic cycle; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water rights; Water sources
Legal Implications of Increasing the Available
Water, V. Phillip Soice and Ronald K.
Blatchley, 121

ASCE (Conferences); ASCE (National Affairs);
Coastal engineering; Coastal marshes; Coastal
plains; Land usage planning; Recreational
facilities; Water pollution; Wetlands
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436

ASCE (National Affairs); Coastal engineering;
Coastal marshes; Coastal plains; Land usage
planning; Recreational facilities; Water pollution;
Wetlands; ASCE (Conferences)
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436

Beneficial use; Economics; Hawaii; Properties;
Water conservation; Water rights; Water transfer;
Water use
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499

Beneficial use; Esthetics; Recreational facilities;
Streamflow regulation; Water quality; Water
resources; Water rights; Appropriation (water
rights)
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Benefit cost analysis; Cost sharing; Environmental
factors; Federal aid; Water conservation; Water
plans; Water policy; Water resources
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
1

Benefit cost analysis; Decision making; Economic
analysis; Evaluation; Marketing; Market value;
Prices; Pricing
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609

Benefit cost analysis; Decision making; Economic
efficiency; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water users
Administrative Allocation and Economic
Efficiency, Clyde F. Kiker, Gary D. Lynne and
Albert Starr, 52

Bridge construction; Navigable waters; New
Hampshire; Recreational facilities; Social needs;
Water rights; Waterways (watercourses)
Navigable Waterways: The New Hampshire
Experience, Mark J. Schiffman, 179







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Budgeting; Construction costs; Costs; Developing
countries; Institutional constraints; Irrigation;
Irrigation practices
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing
Countries, Hameed Rasheed and Jack Keller,
844

California; Conjunctive use; Court decisions; Ground
water; Institutional constraints; Water storage;
Water yield
Ground Water Storage for California Water
Project, Jack J. Coe, 311

California; Institutional constraints; Legal aspects;
Water management (applied); Water plans; Water
resources; Water supply
Ventura County Project: Laws and Institutions,
W. Martin Roche, 473

Canada; Common law; Drainage; Land use; Law
(jurisprudence); Liability, Municipal government
Drainage Law in Ontario, John Johnston, 632

Canals; Contracts; Financing; Government agencies;
Institutional constraints; Irrigation; Project
feasibility; Water resources; Water supply
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Hardan, 393

Canals; Employment; India; Irrigation; Natural
resources; Population migrations; Potable water;
Water supply; Afforestation
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Capital; Economics; Feasibility studies; Financial
feasibility; Government finance; States
(geographical); Water costs
Expanding Non-Federal Water Development
Financing, Daniel H. Hoggan and Kirk R.
Kimball, 668

Civil engineers; Education; Engineering education;
History; Human factors; Solar energy; Technology
Education for Technological Acceptance, William
M. Sangster, 16

Cloud seeding; Federal laws; Federal-state
cooperation; Law (jurisprudence); Legislation;
Research projects; State laws; Weather
modification
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235

Coastal engineering; Coastal marshes; Coastal
plains; Land usage planning; Recreational
facilities; Water pollution; Wetlands; ASCE
(Conferences); ASCE (National Affairs)
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436

Coastal marshes; Coastal plains; Land usage
planning; Recreational facilities; Water pollution;
Wetlands; ASCE (Conferences); ASCE (National
Affairs); Coastal engineering
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436

Coastal plains; Land usage planning; Recreational
facilities; Water pollution; Wetlands; ASCE
(Conferences); ASCE (National Affairs); Coastal
engineering; Coastal marshes
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436


Common law; Drainage; Erosion; Flood control;
Flood plain regulation; Land usage planning; Law
(jurisprudence); Pennsylvania; Sedimentation;
Storm water; Water plans
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637

Common law; Drainage; Land use; Law
(jurisprudence); Liability; Municipal government;
Canada
Drainage Law in Ontario, John Johnston, 632

Common law; State laws; Water law; Water rights;
Appropriation (water rights)
The Appropriative Right as Common Law, John
W. Bird, 81

Communication; Curricula; Engineering education;
Management methods; Model studies; Technology;
Universities
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
Donald E. Overton, 705

Compacts; Delaware Basin; Federal-state
cooperation; Institutional constraints; River basins;
Water resources; Water supply
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
Robert E. Fish and Francis T. Schaefer, 541

Computer applications; Computer models;
Environmental factors; Models; Research
management; Water resources management
Computer Models as Viable Management Tools,
Brian W. Mar, 697

Computerized simulation; Economic models;
Economics; Flooding; Flood plain studies;
Hydrologic models; Models; Storm water; Urban
studies; Water management (applied)
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Computer models; Discount rate; Inflation
(economics); Investment; Irrigable land; Irrigation;
Land values; Property taxation
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Computer models; Environmental factors; Models;
Research management; Water resources
management; Computer applications
Computer Models as Viable Management Tools,
Brian W. Mar, 697

Computer models; Hydrologic aspects; Hydrologic
models; Land use; Land use zoning; Predictions;
Stream flow
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, Gary T. Fisher, James E.
Ayars and Gary K. Felton, 256

Conjunctive use; Court decisions; Ground water;
Institutional constraints; Water storage; Water
yield; California
Ground Water Storage for California Water
Project, Jack J. Coe, 311

Conjunctive use; Droughts; Floods; Testing; Water
supply; Water supply systems; Weather; Weather
data
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555







SUBJECT INDEX


Conjunctive use; Droughts; Ground water;
Institutional constraints; San Francisco; Stream
flow; Urban studies; Water supply
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282

Conjunctive use; Ground water; Groundwater
management; Land subsidence; Overdraft; Saline
water intrusion; Water rights
Groundwater Management at the Local Level -
Theoretical Factors and Practical Experience,
Verne H. Scott and Joseph C. Scalmanini, 340

Construction costs; Costs; Developing countries;
Institutional constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation
practices; Budgeting
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing
Countries, Hameed Rasheed and Jack Keller,
844

Contracts; Financing; Government agencies;
Institutional constraints; Irrigation; Project
feasibility; Water resources; Water supply; Canals
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Hardan, 393

Costs; Developing countries; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation practices;
Budgeting; Construction costs
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing
Countries, Hameed Rasheed and Jack Keller,
844

Cost sharing; Drainage; Federal aid; Input-output
analysis; New York; Regional development; State
action
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York
State, James F. Dunne and David J. Alice, 598

Cost sharing; Environmental factors; Federal aid;
Water conservation; Water plans; Water policy;
Water resources; Benefit cost analysis
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
I

Court decisions; Ground water; Institutional
constraints; Water storage; Water yield; California;
Conjunctive use
Ground Water Storage for California Water
Project, Jack J. Coe, 311

Court decisions; Litigation; Technology; Water law;
Water management (applied); Water resources;
Witnesses
Water Resources Technology and Water Law,
Robert E. Miller, 197

Crop response; Institutional constraints; Water
allocation (policy); Water demand; Water law;
Water resources; Water supply
Crop Response Information for Water
Institutions, Gary D. Lynne and Roy R.
Carriker, 582

Curricula; Engineering education; Management
methods; Model studies; Technology; Universities;
Communication
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
Donald E. Overton, 705

Dam performance; Dams; Drawdown; Flooding;
Landslides; Performance evaluation; Water
pollution; Water storage
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525


Dams; Drawdown; Flooding; Landslides;
Performance evaluation; Water pollution; Water
storage; Dam performance
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525

Decision making; Economic analysis; Evaluation;
Marketing; Market value; Prices; Pricing; Benefit
cost analysis
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609

Decision making; Economic efficiency; Water
allocation (policy); Water management (applied);
Water users; Benefit cost analysis
Administrative Allocation and Economic
Efficiency, Clyde F. Kiker, Gary D. Lynne and
Albert Starr, 52

Decision making; Federal laws; Indian reservations;
Water allocation (policy); Water law; Water
policy; Water rights
Indian Water Rights: Law and Reality, Sanford
Smith, 131

Decision making; Florida; Institutional constraints;
Simulation; Social aspects; Water resources
management
Social Choice in the Upper St. Johns River Basin,
Roy C. Burke, III and James P. Heaney, 409

Decision making; Groundwater management; Stream
flow; Water law; Water plans; Water resources;
Wyoming; Appropriation (water rights)
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511

Decision making; Institutional constraints; Irrigable
land; Irrigation; Water allocation (policy); Water
law
Institutions: Key to Development of Irrigable Soil,
Richard A. Schoney and Leonard R. Massie,
382

Delaware; Ground water; Law (jurisprudence);
Water allocation (policy); Water law; Water use
Delaware Ground Water Use Policy: Some
Problems and Conflicts, Kenneth D. Woodruff,
297

Delaware Basin; Federal-state cooperation;
Institutional constraints; River basins; Water
resources; Water supply; Compacts
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
Robert E. Fish and Francis T. Schaefer, 541

Developing countries; Farms; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation practices;
Irrigation systems; Pakistan; Social needs; Water
management (applied); Water supply
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Developing countries; Farms; Irrigation; Irrigation
practices; Project management; Social needs;
Water management (applied)
Strategies for Program Implementation in
Developing Countries, G. L. Corey and Ernest
T. Smerdon, 804

Developing countries; Farms; Irrigation programs;
Planning; Project planning; Rural areas; Social
aspects
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, Nancy Adams, Jack Keller and
Bonnie M. Spillman, 813







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Developing countries; Institutional constraints;
Irrigation; Irrigation practices; Budgeting;
Construction costs; Costs
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing
Countries, Hameed Rasheed and Jack Keller,
844

Discount rate; Inflation (economics); Investment;
Irrigable land; Irrigation; Land values; Property
taxation; Computer models
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Drainage; Environmental factors; Irrigation; Law
(urisprudence); Pesticides; Social impact; Water
quality; Air quality standards
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647

Drainage; Erosion; Flood control; Flood plain
regulation; Land usage planning; Law
(jurisprudence); Pennsylvania; Sedimentation;
Storm water; Water plans; Common law
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637

Drainage; Federal aid; Input-output analysis; New
York; Regional development; State action; Cost
sharing
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York
State, James F. Dunne and David J. Allee, 598

Drainage; Florida; Management; Nutrients; Plant
nutrition; Pollution control; Sedimentation; Water
pollution sources; Water quality
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766

Drainage; Land use; Law (jurisprudence); Liability;
Municipal government; Canada; Common law
Drainage Law in Ontario, John Johnston, 632

Drawdown; Federal laws; Landslides; Oil spills;
Rainfall; Regulation; Reservoir operation;
Reservoirs; Stream flow; Water law
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Drawdown; Flooding; Landslides; Performance
evaluation; Water pollution; Water storage; Dam
performance; Dams
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525

Droughts; Economics; Groundwater elevation;
Irrigation water; Social values; Water resources;
Water use; Agricultural watersheds
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Droughts; Floods; Testing; Water supply; Water
supply systems; Weather; Weather data;
Conjunctive use
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555

Droughts; Ground water; Institutional constraints;
San Francisco; Stream flow; Urban studies; Water
supply; Conjunctive use
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282


Droughts; History; Hydrology; Riparian rights;
Routing; Water demand; Water rights; Water
supply; Appropriation (water rights)
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

Economic analysis; Evaluation; Marketing; Market
value; Prices; Pricing; Benefit cost analysis;
Decision making
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609

Economic efficiency; Water allocation (policy);
Water management (applied); Water users; Benefit
cost analysis; Decision making
Administrative Allocation and Economic
Efficiency, Clyde F. Kiker, Gary D. Lynne and
Albert Starr, 52

Economic models; Economies; Flooding; Flood plain
studies; Hydrologic models; Models; Storm water;
Urban studies; Water management (applied);
Computerized simulation
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Economics; Environmental factors; Pollution;
Pollution control; Research; Social needs; Water
policy
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights,
Klaus F. Alt and John A. Miranowski, 249

Economics; Feasibility studies; Financial feasibility;
Government finance; States (geographical); Water
costs; Capital
Expanding Non-Federal Water Development
Financing, Daniel H. Hoggan and Kirk R.
Kimball, 668

Economics; Flooding; Flood plain studies;
Hydrologic models; Models; Storm water; Urban
studies; Water management (applied);
Computerized simulation; Economic models
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Economics; Florida; Policies; Water allocation
(policy); Water management (applied); Water
plans; Water policy
Economic Evaluation of Water Management
Policies, John E. Reynolds, 457

Economics; Ground water; Irrigation; Legislation;
Management; Nebraska; Regulations; Water
resources; Water rights
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Economics; Groundwater elevation; Irrigation water;
Social values; Water resources; Water use;
Agricultural watersheds; Droughts
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Economics; Hawaii; Properties; Water conservation;
Water rights; Water transfer; Water use;
Beneficial use
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499







SUBJECT INDEX


Education; Engineering education; History; Human
factors; Solar energy; Technology; Civil engineers
Education for Technological Acceptance, William
M. Sangster, 16

Efficiency; Government agencies; Ground water
recharge; Irrigation water; Water allocation
(policy); Water permits
Midwest Allocation of Irrigation Water: How
Efficient and Equitable?, Judith A. Maxwell and
John J. Waelti, 366

Efficiency; Wastewater; Water rights; Water supply;
Water use; Appropriation (water rights)
Water Rights and Water Use Efficiency, J. Ernest
Flack, 143

Effluents; Hydrologic models; Storm runoff; Storm
water; Wastewater disposal; Water demand; Water
treatment
Hydrologic Models as Planning Tools, Harry C.
Torno, 730

Employment; India; Irrigation; Natural resources;
Population migrations; Potable water; Water
supply; Afforestation; Canals
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Engineering education; History; Human factors;
Solar energy; Technology; Civil engineers;
Education
Education for Technological Acceptance, William
M. Sangster, 16

Engineering education; Management methods;
Model studies; Technology; Universities;
Communication; Curricula
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
Donald E. Overton, 705

Engineering services; Ground water; State laws; '
Water law; Water management (applied); Water
quality; Water rights; Water use; Water users
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

Environmental factors; Federal aid; Water
conservation; Water plans; Water policy; Water
resources; Benefit cost analysis; Cost sharing
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
1

Environmental factors; Irrigation; Law
(jurisprudence); Pesticides; Social impact; Water
quality; Air quality standards; Drainage
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647

Environmental factors; Models; Research
management; Water resources management;
Computer applications; Computer models
Computer Models as Viable Management Tools,
Brian W. Mar, 697

Environmental factors; Pollution; Pollution control;
Research; Social needs; Water policy; Economics
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights,
Klaus F. Alt and John A. Miranowski, 249

Erosion; Flood control; Flood plain regulation; Land
usage planning; Law (jurisprudence); Pennsylvania;
Sedimentation; Storm water; Water plans;
Common law; Drainage
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637


Esthetics; Recreational facilities; Streamflow
regulation; Water quality; Water resources; Water
rights; Appropriation (water rights); Beneficial use
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Evaluation; Marketing; Market value; Prices;
Pricing; Benefit cost analysis; Decision making;
Economic analysis
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609

Farms; Institutional constraints; Irrigation;
Irrigation practices; Irrigation systems; Pakistan;
Social needs; Water management (applied); Water
supply; Developing countries
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Farms; Irrigation; Irrigation practices; Project
management; Social needs; Water management
(applied); Developing countries
Strategies for Program Implementation in
Developing Countries, G. L. Corey and Ernest
T. Smerdon, 804

Farms; Irrigation programs; Planning; Project
planning; Rural areas; Social aspects; Developing
countries
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, Nancy Adams, Jack Keller and
Bonnie M. Spillman, 813

Feasibility studies; Financial feasibility; Government
finance; States (geographical); Water costs;
Capital; Economics
Expanding Non-Federal Water Development
Financing, Daniel H. Hoggan and Kirk R.
Kimball, 668

Federal aid; Federal laws; Institutional constraints;
Land use; Legal aspects; Social participation;
Water pollution sources; Agricultural wastes
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750

Federal aid; Federal laws; Land use; Water plans;
Water policy; Water pollution sources; Water
quality
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, A.
Hamilton and L. W. Libby, 739

Federal aid; Federal laws; Municipal wastes; Potable
water; Wastewater treatment; Water law; Water
policy; Water pollution
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, III,
138

Federal aid; Input-output analysis; New York;
Regional development; State action; Cost sharing;
Drainage
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York
State, James F. Dunne and David J. Allee, 598

Federal aid; Water conservation; Water plans; Water
policy; Water resources; Benefit cost analysis; Cost
sharing; Environmental factors
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
1

Federal laws; Federal-state cooperation; Law
(jurisprudence); Legislation; Research projects;
State laws; Weather modification; Cloud seeding
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Federal laws; Forest management; Legislation;
Rivers; State laws; Water law; Water rights
Reserved Rights and Federal Claims to Water,
Norman Wengert, 93

Federal laws; Indian reservations; Water allocation
(policy); Water law; Water policy; Water rights;
Decision making
Indian Water Rights: Law and Reality, Sanford
Smith, 131

Federal laws; Institutional constraints; Land use;
Legal aspects; Social participation; Water
pollution sources; Agricultural wastes; Federal aid
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750

Federal laws; Landslides; Oil spills; Rainfall;
Regulation; Reservoir operation; Reservoirs;
Stream flow; Water law; Drawdown
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Federal laws; Land use; Water plans; Water policy;
Water pollution sources; Water quality; Federal
aid
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, A.
Hamilton and L. W. Libby, 739

Federal laws; Land use zoning; Legal aspects;
Performance; Storm water; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water pollution control;
Water pollution sources; Water quality
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Federal laws; Municipal wastes; Potable water;
Wastewater treatment; Water law; Water policy;
Water pollution; Federal aid
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, III,
138

Federal-state cooperation; Institutional constraints;
River basins; Water resources; Water supply;
Compacts; Delaware Basin
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
Robert E. Fish and Francis T. Schaefer, 541

Federal-state cooperation; Law (jurisprudence);
Legislation; Research projects; State laws;
Weather modification; Cloud seeding; Federal laws
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235

Financial feasibility; Government finance; States
(geographical); Water costs; Capital; Economies;
Feasibility studies
Expanding Non-Federal Water Development
Financing, Daniel H. Hoggan and Kirk R.
Kimball, 668

Financing; Government agencies; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation; Project feasibility; Water
resources; Water supply; Canals; Contracts
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Hardan, 393

Flood control; Flood plain regulation; Land usage
planning; Law (jurisprudence); Pennsylvania;
Sedimentation; Storm water; Water plans;
Common law; Drainage; Erosion
Byzantine Drainage Lawi Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637


Flood damage; Predictions; Riparian rights; Water
law; Water management (applied); Water
resources; Water supply
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast
U.S., Neil S. Grigg, David H. Howells, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 21

Flooding; Flood plain studies; Hydrologic models;
Models; Storm water; Urban studies; Water
management (applied); Computerized simulation;
Economic models; Economics
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Flooding; Landslides; Performance evaluation; Water
pollution; Water storage; Dam performance; Dams;
Drawdown
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525

Flood plain insurance; Floodproofing; Innovation;
Legal aspects; Liability; Planning; Social aspects
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, James R.
Dexter, Gene E. Willeke and L. Douglas James,
65

Flood plain regulation; Land usage planning; Law
(jurisprudence); Pennsylvania; Sedimentation;
Storm water; Water plans; Common law; Drainage;
Erosion; Flood control
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637

Flood plain studies; Hydrologic models; Models;
Storm water; Urban studies; Water management
(applied); Computerized simulation; Economic
models; Economics; Flooding
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Floodproofing; Innovation; Legal aspects; Liability;
Planning; Social aspects; Flood plain insurance
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, James R.
Dexter, Gene E. Willeke and L. Douglas James,
65

Floods; Testing; Water supply; Water supply
systems; Weather; Weather data; Conjunctive use;
Droughts
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555

Florida; Institutional constraints; Simulation; Social
aspects; Water resources management; Decision
making
Social Choice in the Upper St. Johns River Basin,
Roy C. Burke, III and James P. Heaney, 409

Florida; Land management; Regional planning;
Water allocation (policy); Water management
(applied); Water policy
Interrelating Land and Water Management in
Florida, Frank E. Maloney and Richard G.
Hamann, 150

Florida; Management; Nutrients; Plant nutrition;
Pollution control; Sedimentation; Water pollution
sources; Water quality; Drainage
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766


874







SUBJECT INDEX


Florida; Policies; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water plans; Water policy;
Economics
Economic Evaluation of Water Management
Policies, John E. Reynolds, 457

Forest management; Legislation; Rivers; State laws;
Water law; Water rights; Federal laws
Reserved Rights and Federal Claims to Water,
Norman Wengert, 93

Government agencies; Ground water recharge;
Irrigation water; Water allocation (policy); Water
permits; Efficiency
Midwest Allocation of Irrigation Water: How
Efficient and Equitable?, Judith A. Maxwell and
John J. Waelti, 366

Government agencies; Institutional constraints;
Irrigation; Project feasibility; Water resources;
Water supply; Canals; Contracts; Financing
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Harden, 393

Government agencies; Institutional constraints;
Regulation; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water use
Water Management: A Problem of Institutional
Design, David Mulkey and Roy Carriker, 426

Government finance; States (geographical); Water
costs; Capital; Economics; Feasibility studies;
Financial feasibility
Expanding Non-Federal Water Development
Financing, Daniel H. Hoggan and Kirk R.
Kimball, 668

Ground water; Groundwater management; Land
subsidence; Overdraft; Saline water intrusion;
Water rights; Conjunctive use
Groundwater Management at the Local Level -
Theoretical Factors and Practical Experience,
Verne H. Scott and Joseph C. Scalmanini, 340

Ground water, Hydrogeology; Maryland; Regulation;
Water management (applied); Water resources;
Water use; Well spacing; Appropriation (water
rights)
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Ground water; Hydrologic cycle; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water rights; Water
sources; Appropriation (water rights)
Legal Implications of Increasing the Available
Water, V. Phillip Soice and Ronald K.
Blatchley, 121

Ground water; Institutional constraints; San
Francisco; Stream flow; Urban studies; Water
supply; Conjunctive use; Droughts
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282

Ground water; Institutional constraints; Water
storage; Water yield; California; Conjunctive use;
Court decisions
Ground Water Storage for California Water
Project, Jack J. Coe, 311

Ground water; Irrigation; Legislation; Management;
Nebraska; Regulations; Water resources; Water
rights; Economics
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484


Ground water; Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Water
allocation (policy); Water conservation; Water
plans; Water pollution; Water quality; Water
supply; Water use; Agricultural watersheds
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Ground water; Land use; Nebraska; State laws;
Water levels; Water policy; Water resources;
Water sources; Well spacing
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

Ground water; Law (jurisprudence); Water allocation
(policy); Water law; Water use; Delaware
Delaware Ground Water Use Policy: Some
Problems and Conflicts, Kenneth D. Woodruff,
297

Ground water; Legal factors; Quality control; River
basin planning; Water law; Water management
(applied)
Legal Implications of Ground Water Quality
Control, Otto J. Helweg and Woody Brooks,
327

Ground water; Legislation; Riparian rights; Virginia;
Water allocation (policy); Watercourses (legal);
Water law
Development of Water Law in Virginia, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 28

Ground water; State laws; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water quality; Water
rights; Water use; Water users; Engineering
services
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

Groundwater elevation; Irrigation water; Social
values; Water resources; Water use; Agricultural
watersheds; Droughts; Economics
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Groundwater management; Land subsidence;
Overdraft; Saline water intrusion; Water rights;
Conjunctive use; Ground water
Groundwater Management at the Local Level -
Theoretical Factors and Practical Experience,
Verne H. Scott and Joseph C. Scalmanini, 340

Groundwater management; Stream flow; Water law;
Water plans; Water resources; Wyoming;
Appropriation (water rights); Decision making
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511

Ground water recharge; Irrigation water; Water
allocation (policy); Water permits; Efficiency;
Government agencies
Midwest Allocation of Irrigation Water: How
Efficient and Equitable?, Judith A. Maxwell and
John J. Waelti, 366

Hawaii; Properties; Water conservation; Water
rights; Water transfer; Water use; Beneficial use;
Economics
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499
History; Human factors; Solar energy; Technology;
Civil engineers; Education; Engineering education
Education for Technological Acceptance, William
M. Sangster, 16







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


History; Hydrology; Riparian rights; Routing; Water
demand; Water rights; Water supply;
Appropriation (water rights); Droughts
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

Human factors; Solar energy; Technology; Civil
engineers; Education; Engineering education;
History
Education for Technological Acceptance, William
M. Sangster, 16

Hydrogeology; Maryland; Regulation; Water
management (applied); Water resources; Water
use; Well spacing; Appropriation (water rights);
Ground water
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Hydrologic aspects; Hydrologic models; Land use;
Land use zoning; Predictions; Stream flow;
Computer models
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, Gary T. Fisher, James E.
Ayars and Gary K. Felton, 256

Hydrologic cycle; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water rights; Water sources;
Appropriation (water rights); Ground water
Legal Implications of Increasing the Available
Water, V. Phillip Soice and Ronald K.
Blatchley, 121

Hydrologic models; Land use; Land use zoning;
Predictions; Stream flow; Computer models;
Hydrologic aspects
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, Gary T. Fisher, James E.
Ayars and Gary K. Felton, 256

Hydrologic models; Models; Storm water; Urban
studies; Water management (applied);
Computerized simulation; Economic models;
Economics; Flooding; Flood plain studies
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Hydrologic models; Storm runoff; Storm water;
Wastewater disposal; Water demand; Water
treatment; Effluents
Hydrologic Models as Planning Tools, Harry C.
Torno, 730

Hydrology; Riparian rights; Routing; Water demand;
Water rights; Water supply; Appropriation (water
rights); Droughts; History
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

India; Irrigation; Natural resources; Population
migrations; Potable water, Water supply;
Afforestation; Canals; Employment
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Indian reservations; Water allocation (policy);
Water law; Water policy; Water rights; Decision
making; Federal laws
Indian Water Rights: Law and Reality, Sanford
Smith, 131


Inflation (economics); Investment; Irrigable land;
Irrigation; Land values; Property taxation;
Computer models; Discount rate
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Innovation; Legal aspects; Liability; Planning; Social
aspects; Flood plain insurance; Floodprooflng
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, James R.
Dexter, Gene E. Willeke and L. Douglas James,
65

Input-output analysis; New York; Regional
development; State action; Cost sharing; Drainage;
Federal aid
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York
State, James F. Dunne and David J. Alice, 598

Institutional constraints; Irrigable land; Irrigation;
Water allocation (policy); Water law; Decision
making
Institutions: Key to Development of Irrigable Soil,
Richard A. Schoney and Leonard R. Massie,
382

Institutional constraints; Irrigated land;
Management methods; Pollution control; Soil
conservation; Water treatment; Agricultural wastes
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, W.
Tom Pitts and F. A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Institutional constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation
practices; Budgeting; Construction costs; Costs;
Developing countries
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing
Countries, Hameed Rasheed and Jack Keller,
844

Institutional constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation
practices; Irrigation systems; Pakistan; Social
needs; Water management (applied); Water supply;
Developing countries; Farms
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Institutional constraints; Irrigation; Project
feasibility; Water resources; Water supply; Canals;
Contracts; Financing; Government agencies
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Harden, 393

Institutional constraints; Land use; Legal aspects;
Social participation; Water pollution sources;
Agricultural wastes; Federal aid; Federal laws
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750

Institutional constraints; Legal aspects; Water
management (applied); Water plans; Water
resources; Water supply; California
Ventura County Project: Laws and Institutions,
W. Martin Roche, 473
Institutional constraints; Regulation; Water
allocation (policy); Water management (applied);
Water use; Government agencies
Water Management: A Problem of Institutional
Design, David Mulkey and Roy Carriker, 426
Institutional constraints; River basins; Water
resources; Water supply; Compacts; Delaware
Basin; Federal-state cooperation
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
Robert E. Fish and Francis T. Schaefer, 541


876







SUBJECT INDEX


Institutional constraints; San Francisco; Stream
fow; Urban studies; Water supply; Conjunctive
use; Droughts; Ground water
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282

Institutional constraints; Simulation; Social aspects;
Water resources management; Decision making;
Florida
Social Choice in the Upper St. Johns River Basin,
Roy C. Burke, III and James P. Heaney, 409

Institutional constraints; Water allocation (policy);
Water demand; Water law; Water resources; Water
supply; Crop response
Crop Response Information for Water
Institutions, Gary D. Lynne and Roy R.
Carriker, 582

Institutional constraints; Water storage; Water
yield; California; Conjunctive use; Court decisions;
Ground water
Ground Water Storage for California Water
Project, Jack J. Coe, 311

Investment; Irrigable land; Irrigation; Land values;
Property taxation; Computer models; Discount
rate; Inflation (economics)
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Irrigable land; Irrigation; Land values; Property
taxation; Computer models; Discount rate;
Inflation (economics); Investment
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Irrigable land; Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Scheduling;
States (geographical); Water demand; Water plans;
Water use
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681
Irrigable land; Irrigation; Water allocation (policy);
Water law; Decision making; Institutional
constraints
Institutions: Key to Development of Irrigable Soil,
Richard A. Schoney and Leonard R. Massie,
382

Irrigated land; Management methods; Pollution
control; Soil conservation; Water treatment;
Agricultural wastes; Institutional constraints
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, W.
Tom Pitts and F. A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Irrigation; Irrigation practices; Budgeting;
Construction costs; Costs; Developing countries;
Institutional constraints
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing
Countries, Hameed Rasheed and Jack Keller,
844

Irrigation; Irrigation practices; Irrigation systems;
Pakistan; Social needs; Water management
(applied); Water supply; Developing countries;
Farms; Institutional constraints
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Irrigation; Irrigation practices; Project management;
Social needs; Water management (applied);
Developing countries; Farms
Strategies for Program Implementation in
Developing Countries, G. L. Corey and Ernest
T. Smerdon, 804


Irrigation; Land values; Property taxation;
Computer models; Discount rate; Inflation
(economics); Investment; Irrigable land
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Irrigation; Law (jurisprudence); Pesticides; Social
impact; Water quality; Air quality standards;
Drainage; Environmental factors
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647

Irrigation; Legislation; Management; Nebraska;
Regulations; Water resources; Water rights;
Economics; Ground water
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Irrigation; Natural resources; Population migrations;
Potable water; Water supply; Afforestation;
Canals; Employment; India
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Scheduling; States
(geographical); Water demand; Water plans; Water
use; Irrigable land
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681

Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Water allocation (policy);
Water conservation; Water plans; Water pollution;
Water quality; Water supply; Water use;
Agricultural watersheds; Ground water
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Irrigation; Project feasibility; Water resources;
Water supply; Canals; Contracts; Financing;
Government agencies; Institutional constraints
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Hardan, 393

Irrigation; Water allocation (policy); Water law,
Decision making; Institutional constraints;
Irrigable land
Institutions: Key to Development of Irrigable Soil,
Richard A. Schoney and Leonard R. Massie,
382

Irrigation practices; Budgeting; Construction costs;
Costs; Developing countries; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing
Countries, Hameed Rasheed and Jack Keller,
844

Irrigation practices; Irrigation systems; Pakistan;
Social needs; Water management (applied); Water
supply; Developing countries; Farms; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Irrigation practices; Project management; Social
needs; Water management (applied); Developing
countries; Farms; Irrigation
Strategies for Program Implementation in
Developing Countries, G. L. Corey and Ernest
T. Smerdon, 804







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Irrigation programs; Planning; Project planning;
Rural areas; Social aspects; Developing countries;
Farms
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, Nancy Adams, Jack Keller and
Bonnie M. Spillman, 813

Irrigation systems; Pakistan; Social needs; Water
management (applied); Water supply; Developing
countries; Farms; Institutional constraints;
Irrigation; Irrigation practices
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Irrigation systems; Return flow; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water pollution; Water
quality; Agricultural wastes
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow,
George E. Radosevich and Gaylord V.
Skogerboe, 108

Irrigation water; Social values; Water resources;
Water use; Agricultural watersheds; Droughts;
Economics; Groundwater elevation
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Irrigation water; Water allocation (policy); Water
permits; Efficiency; Government agencies; Ground
water recharge
Midwest Allocation of Irrigation Water: How
Efficient and Equitable?, Judith A. Maxwell and
John J. Waelti, 366

Joint operations; Land use; Storm runoff; Storm
water; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water policy; Watersheds
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Land management; Regional planning; Water
allocation (policy); Water management (applied);
Water policy; Florida
Interrelating Land and Water Management in
Florida, Frank E. Maloney and Richard G.
Hamann, 150

Landslides; Oil spills; Rainfall; Regulation;
Reservoir operation; Reservoirs; Stream flow;
Water law; Drawdown; Federal laws
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Landslides; Performance evaluation; Water pollution;
Water storage; Dam performance; Dams;
Drawdown; Flooding
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525

Land subsidence; Overdraft; Saline water intrusion;
Water rights; Conjunctive use; Ground water;
Groundwater management
Groundwater Management at the Local Level -
Theoretical Factors and Practical Experience,
Verne H. Scott and Joseph C. Scalmanini, 340

Land usage planning; Law (jurisprudence);
Pennsylvania; Sedimentation; Storm water; Water
plans; Common law; Drainage; Erosion; Flood
control; Flood plain regulation
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637


Land usage planning; Recreational facilities; Water
pollution; Wetlands; ASCE (Conferences); ASCE
(National Affairs); Coastal engineering; Coastal
marshes; Coastal plains
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436

Land use; Land use zoning; Predictions; Stream
flow; Computer models; Hydrologic aspects;
Hydrologic models
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, Gary T. Fisher, James E.
Ayars and Gary K. Felton, 256

Land use; Law (jurisprudence); Liability; Municipal
government; Canada; Common law; Drainage
Drainage Law in Ontario, John Johnston, 632

Land use; Legal aspects; Social participation; Water
pollution sources; Agricultural wastes; Federal aid;
Federal laws; Institutional constraints
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750

Land use; Nebraska; State laws; Water levels; Water
policy; Water resources; Water sources; Well
spacing; Ground water
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

Land use; Storm runoff; Storm water; Water
allocation (policy); Water management (applied);
Water policy; Watersheds; Joint operations
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Land use; Water plans; Water policy; Water
pollution sources; Water quality; Federal aid;
Federal laws
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, A.
Hamilton and L. W. Libby, 739

Land use zoning; Legal aspects; Performance; Storm
water; Water law; Water management (applied);
Water pollution control; Water pollution sources;
Water quality; Federal laws
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Land use zoning; Predictions; Stream flow;
Computer models; Hydrologic aspects; Hydrologic
models; Land use
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, Gary T. Fisher, James E.
Ayars and Gary K. Felton, 256

Land values; Property taxation; Computer models;
Discount rate; Inflation (economics); Investment;
Irrigable land; Irrigation
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Law (jurisprudence); Legislation; Research projects;
State laws; Weather modification; Cloud seeding;
Federal laws; Federal-state cooperation
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235

Law (jurisprudence); Liability; Municipal
government; Canada; Common law; Drainage; Land
use
Drainage Law in Ontario, John Johnston, 632


I







SUBJECT INDEX


Law (jurisprudence); Pennsylvania; Sedimentation;
Storm water; Water plans; Common law; Drainage;
Erosion; Flood control; Flood plain regulation;
Land usage planning
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637

Law (jurisprudence); Pesticides; Social impact;
Water quality; Air quality standards; Drainage;
Environmental factors; Irrigation
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647

Law (jurisprudence); Water allocation (policy);
Water law; Water use; Delaware; Ground water
Delaware Ground Water Use Policy: Some
Problems and Conflicts, Kenneth D. Woodruff,
297

Legal aspects; Liability; Planning; Social aspects;
Flood plain insurance; Floodproofing; Innovation
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, James R.
Dexter, Gene E. Willeke and L. Douglas James,
65

Legal aspects; Performance; Storm water; Water
law; Water management (applied); Water pollution
control; Water pollution sources; Water quality;
Federal laws; Land use zoning
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Legal aspects; Social participation; Water pollution
sources; Agricultural wastes; Federal aid; Federal
laws; Institational constraints; Land use
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750

Legal aspects; Water management (applied); Water
plans; Water resources; Water supply; California;
Institutional constraints
Venture County Project: Laws and Institutions,
W. Martin Roche, 473

Legal factors; Quality control; River basin planning,
Water law; Water management (applied); Ground
water
Legal Implications of Ground Water Quality
Control, Otto J. Helweg and Woody Brooks,
327

Legislation; Management; Nebraska; Regulations;
Water resources; Water rights; Economics; Ground
water, Irrigation
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Legislation; Research projects; State laws; Weather
modification; Cloud seeding; Federal laws; Federal-
state cooperation; Law (jurisprudence)
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235

Legislation; Riparian rights; Virginia; Water
allocation (policy); Watercourses (legal); Water
law; Ground water
Development of Water Law in Virginia, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 28

Legislation; Rivers; State laws; Water law; Water
rights; Federal laws; Forest management
Reserved Rights and Federal Claims to Water,
Norman Wengert, 93

Liability; Municipal government; Canada; Common
law; Drainage; Land use; Law (jurisprudence)
Drainage Law in Ontario, John Johnston, 632


Liability; Planning; Social aspects; Flood plain
insurance; Floodproofing; Innovation; Legal aspects
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, James R.
Dexter, Gene E. Willeke and L. Douglas James,
65

Litigation; Technology; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water resources;
Witnesses; Court decisions
Water Resources Technology and Water Law,
Robert E. Miller, 197

Management; Nebraska; Regulations; Water
resources; Water rights; Economics; Ground water;
Irrigation; Legislation
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Management; Nutrients; Plant nutrition; Pollution
control; Sedimentation; Water pollution sources;
Water quality; Drainage; Florida
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766

Management methods; Model studies; Technology;
Universities; Communication; Curricula;
Engineering education
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
Donald E. Overton, 705

Management methods; Pollution control; Soil
conservation; Water treatment; Agricultural
wastes; Institutional constraints; Irrigated land
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, W.
Tom Pitts and F. A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Marketing; Market value; Prices; Pricing; Benefit
cost analysis; Decision making; Economic analysis;
Evaluation
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609

Market value; Prices; Pricing; Benefit cost analysis;
Decision making; Economic analysis; Evaluation;
Marketing
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609

Maryland; Regulation; Water management (applied);
Water resources; Water use; Well spacing;
Appropriation (water rights); Ground water;
Hydrogeology
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Models; Research management; Water resources
management; Computer applications; Computer
models; Environmental factors
Computer Models as Viable Management Tools,
Brian W. Mar, 697

Models; Storm water; Urban studies; Water
management (applied); Computerized simulation;
Economic models; Economics; Flooding; Flood
plain studies; Hydrologic models
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Model studies; Technology;, Universities;
Communication; Curricula; Engineering education;
Management methods
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
Donald E. Overton, 705







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Municipal government; Canada; Common law;
Drainage; Land use; Law (jurisprudence); Liability
Drainage Law in Ontario, John Johnston, 632

Municipal government; Planning; Regional planning;
Social needs; Water plans; Watershed management
Planning Matrix-A New Concept in Watershed
Planning, Frederic O. Sargent and Richard F.
Dworsky, 355

Municipal wastes; Potable water; Wastewater
treatment; Water law; Water policy; Water
pollution; Federal aid; Federal laws
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, III,
138

Natural resources; Population migrations; Potable
water; Water supply; Afforestation; Canals;
Employment; India; Irrigation
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Navigable waters; New Hampshire; Recreational
facilities; Social needs; Water rights; Waterways
(watercourses); Bridge construction
Navigable Waterways: The New Hampshire
Experience, Mark J. Schiffman, 179

Nebraska; Regulations; Water resources; Water
rights; Economics; Ground water; Irrigation;
Legislation; Management
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Nebraska; State laws; Water levels; Water policy;
Water resources; Water sources; Well spacing;
Ground water; Land use
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

New Hampshire; Recreational facilities; Social
needs; Water rights; Waterways (watercourses);
Bridge construction; Navigable waters
Navigable Waterways: The New Hampshire
Experience, Mark J. Schiffman, 179

New York; Regional development; State action; Cost
sharing; Drainage; Federal aid; Input-output
analysis
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York
State, James F. Dunne and David J. Allee, 598

Nutrients; Plant intrition; Pollution control;
Sedimentation; Water pollution sources; Water
quality; Drainage; Florida; Management
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766

Oil spills; Rainfall; Regulation; Reservoir operation;
Reservoirs; Stream flow; Water law; Drawdown;
Federal laws; Landslides
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Overdraft; Saline water intrusion; Water rights;
Conjunctive use; Ground water; Groundwater
management; Land subsidence
Groundwater Management at the Local Level -
Theoretical Factors and Practical Experience,
Verne H. Scott and Joseph C. Scalmanini, 340


Pakistan; Social needs; Water management
(applied); Water supply; Developing countries;
Farms; Institutional constraints; Irrigation;
Irrigation practices; Irrigation systems
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Pennsylvania; Scheduling; States (geographical);
Water demand; Water plans; Water use; Irrigable
land; Irrigation
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681

Pennsylvania; Sedimentation; Storm water; Water
plans; Common law; Drainage; Erosion; Flood
control; Flood plain regulation; Land usage
planning; Law (jurisprudence)
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637

Pennsylvania; Water allocation (policy); Water
conservation; Water plans; Water pollution; Water
quality; Water supply; Water use; Agricultural
watersheds; Ground water; Irrigation
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Performance; Storm water; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water pollution control;
Water pollution sources; Water quality; Federal
laws; Land use zning; Legal aspects
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Brain D.E. Canter, 661

Performance evaluation; Water pollution; Water
storage; Dam performance; Dams; Drawdown;
Flooding; Landslides
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525

Pesticides; Social impact; Water quality; Air quality
standards; Drainage; Environmental factors;
Irrigation; Law (jurisprudence)
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647

Planning; Project planning; Rural areas; Social
aspects; Developing countries; Farms; Irrigation
programs
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, Nancy Adams, Jack Keller and
Bonnie M. Spillman, 813

Planning; Regional planning; Social needs; Water
plans; Watershed management; Municipal
government
Planning Matrix-A New Concept in Watershed
Planning, Frederic O. Sargent and Richard F.
Dworsky, 355

Planning; Social aspects; Flood plain insurance;
Floodproofing; Innovation; Legal aspects; Liability
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, James R.
Dexter, Gene E. Willeke and L. Douglas James,
65

Plant nutrition; Pollution control; Sedimentation;
Water pollution sources; Water quality; Drainage;
Florida; Management; Nutrients
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766







SUBJECT INDEX


Policies; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water plans; Water policy;
Economics; Florida
Economic Evaluation of Water Management
Policies, John E. Reynolds, 457

Pollution; Pollution control; Research; Social needs;
Water policy; Economics; Environmental factors
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights,
Klaus F. Alt and John A. Miranowski, 249

Pollution control; Research; Social needs; Water
policy; Economics; Environmental factors;
Pollution
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights,
Klaus F. Alt and John A. Miranowski, 249

Pollution control; Sedimentation; Water pollution
sources; Water quality; Drainage; Florida;
Management; Nutrients; Plant nutrition
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766

Pollution control; Soil conservation; Water
treatment; Agricultural wastes; Institutional
constraints; Irrigated land; Management methods
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, W.
Tom Pitts and F. A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Population migrations; Potable water; Water supply;
Afforestation; Canals; Employment; India;
Irrigation; Natural resources
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Potable water; Wastewater treatment; Water law;
Water policy; Water pollution; Federal aid;
Federal laws; Municipal wastes
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, HI,
138

Potable water; Water supply; Afforestation; Canals;
Employment; India; Irrigation; Natural resources;
Population migrations
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Predictions; Riparian rights; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water resources; Water
supply; Flood damage
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast
U.S., Neil S. Grigg, David H. Howells, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 21

Predictions; Stream flow; Computer models;
Hydrologic aspects; Hydrologic models; Land use;
Land use zoning
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, Gary T. Fisher, James E.
Ayars and Gary K. Felton, 256

Prices; Pricing; Benefit cost analysis; Decision
making; Economic analysis; Evaluation; Marketing;
Market value
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609

Pricing; Benefit cost analysis; Decision making;
Economic analysis; Evaluation; Marketing; Market
value; Prices
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique,
Richard Greenhalgh and Fred Stewart, 609


Project feasibility; Water resources; Water supply;
Canals; Contracts; Financing; Government
agencies; Institutional constraints; Irrigation
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Harden, 393

Project management; Social needs; Water
management (applied); Developing countries;
Farms; Irrigation; Irrigation practices
Strategies for Program Implementation in
Developing Countries, G. L. Corey and Ernest
T. Smerdon, 804

Project planning; Rural areas; Social aspects;
Developing countries; Farms; Irrigation programs;
Planning
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, Nancy Adams, Jack Keller and
Bonnie M. Spillman, 813

Properties; Water conservation; Water rights; Water
transfer; Water use; Beneficial use; Economics;
Hawaii
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499

Property taxation; Computer models; Discount rate;
Inflation (economics); Investment; Irrigable land;
Irrigation; Land values
Land Values: Impact of Land Irrigability, Richard
A. Schoney, 617

Quality control; River basin planning; Water law;
Water management (applied); Ground water, Legal
factors
Legal Implications of Ground Water Quality
Control, Otto J. Helweg and Woody Brooks,
327

Rainfall; Regulation; Reservoir operation;
Reservoirs; Stream flow; Water law; Drawdown;
Federal laws; Landslides; Oil spills
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Recreational facilities; Social needs; Water rights;
Waterways (watercourses); Bridge construction;
Navigable waters; New Hampshire
Navigable Waterways: The New Hampshire
Experience, Mark J. Schiffman, 179

Recreational facilities; Streamflow regulation; Water
quality; Water resources; Water rights;
Appropriation (water rights); Beneficial use;
Esthetics
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Recreational facilities; Water pollution; Wetlands;
ASCE (Conferences); ASCE (National Affairs);
Coastal engineering; Coastal marshes; Coastal
plains; Land usage planning
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436

Regional development; State action; Cost sharing;
Drainage; Federal aid; Input-output analysis; New
York
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York
State, James F. Dunne and David J. Allee, 598







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Regional planning; Social needs; Water plans;
Watershed management; Municipal government;
Planning
Planning Matrix-A New Concept in Watershed
Planning, Frederic O. Sargent and Richard F.
Dworsky, 355
Regional planning; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water policy; Florida; Land
management
Interrelating Land and Water Management in
Florida, Frank E. Maloney and Richard G.
Hamann, 150
Regulation; Reservoir operation; Reservoirs; Stream
flow; Water law; Drawdown; Federal laws;
Landslides; Oil spills; Rainfall
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Regulation; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water use; Government
agencies; Institutional constraints
Water Management: A Problem of Institutional
Design, David Mulkey and Roy Carriker, 426
Regulation; Water management (applied); Water
resources; Water use; Well spacing; Appropriation
(water rights); Ground water; Hydrogeology;
Maryland
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Regulations; Water resources; Water rights;
Economics; Ground water; Irrigation; Legislation;
Management; Nebraska
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Research; Social needs; Water policy; Economics;
Environmental factors; Pollution; Pollution control
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights,
Klaus F. Alt and John A. Miranowski, 249
Research management; Water resources
management; Computer applications; Computer
models; Environmental factors; Models
Computer Models as Viable Management Tools,
Brian W. Mar, 697

Research projects; State laws; Weather modification;
Cloud seeding; Federal laws; Federal-state
cooperation; Law (jurisprudence); Legislation
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235

Reservoir operation; Reservoirs; Stream flow; Water
law; Drawdown; Federal laws; Landslides; Oil
spills; Rainfall; Regulation
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Reservoirs; Stream flow; Water law; Drawdown;
Federal laws; Landslides; Oil spills; Rainfall;
Regulation; Reservoir operation
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Return flow; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water pollution; Water quality;
Agricultural wastes; Irrigation systems
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow,
George E. Radosevich and Gaylord V.
Skogerboe, 108


Riparian rights; Routing; Water demand; Water
rights; Water supply; Appropriation (water rights);
Droughts; History; Hydrology
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

Riparian rights; Virginia; Water allocation (policy);
Watercourses (legal); Water law; Ground water;
Legislation
Development of Water Law in Virginia, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 28

Riparian rights; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water resources; Water supply; Flood
damage; Predictions
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast
U.S., Neil S. Grigg, David H. Howells, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 21

River basin planning; Water law; Water management
(applied); Ground water, Legal factors; Quality
control
Legal Implications of Ground Water Quality
Control, Otto J. Helweg and Woody Brooks,
327

River basins; Water resources; Water supply;
Compacts; Delaware Basin; Federal-state
cooperation; Institutional constraints
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
Robert E. Fish and Francis T. Schaefer, 541

Rivers; State laws; Water law; Water rights; Federal
laws; Forest management; Legislation
Reserved Rights and Federal Claims to Water,
Norman Wengert, 93

Routing; Water demand; Water rights; Water
supply; Appropriation (water rights); Droughts;
History; Hydrology; Riparian rights
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

Rural areas; Social aspects; Developing countries;
Farms; Irrigation programs; Planning; Project
planning
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, Nancy Adams, Jack Keller and
Bonnie M. Spillman, 813

Saline water intrusion; Water rights; Conjunctive
use; Ground water; Groundwater management;
Land subsidence; Overdraft
Groundwater Management at the Local Level -
Theoretical Factors and Practical Experience,
Verne H. Scott and Joseph C. Scalmanini, 340

San Francisco; Stream flow; Urban studies; Water
supply; Conjunctive use; Droughts; Ground water;
Institutional constraints
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282

Scheduling; States (geographical); Water demand;
Water plans; Water use; Irrigable land; Irrigation;
Pennsylvania
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681


882







SUBJECT INDEX


Sedimentation; Storm water; Water plans; Common
law; Drainage; Erosion; Flood control; Flood plain
regulation; Land usage planning; Law
(jurisprudence); Pennsylvania
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637

Sedimentation; Water pollution sources; Water
quality; Drainage; Florida; Management;
Nutrients; Plant nutrition; Pollution control
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766

Simulation; Social aspects; Water resources
management; Decision making; Florida;
Institutional constraints
Social Choice in the Upper St. Johns River Basin,
Roy C. Burke, III and James P. Heaney, 409

Social aspects; Developing countries; Farms;
Irrigation programs; Planning; Project planning;
Rural areas
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, Nancy Adams, Jack Keller and
Bonnie M. Spillman, 813

Social aspects; Flood plain insurance; Floodproofing;
Innovation; Legal aspects; Liability; Planning
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, James R.
Dexter, Gene E. Willeke and L. Douglas James,
65

Social aspects; Water resources management;
Decision making; Florida; Institutional constraints;
Simulation
Social Choice in the Upper St. Johns River Basin,
Roy C. Burke, III and James P. Heaney, 409

Social impact; Water quality; Air quality standards;
Drainage; Environmental factors; Irrigation; Law
(jurisprudence); Pesticides
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647

Social needs; Water management (applied);
Developing countries; Farms; Irrigation; Irrigation
practices; Project management
Strategies for Program Implementation in
Developing Countries, G. L. Corey and Ernest
T. Smerdon, 804

Social needs; Water management (applied); Water
supply; Developing countries; Farms; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation practices;
Irrigation systems; Pakistan
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Social needs; Water plans; Watershed management;
Municipal government; Planning; Regional
planning
Planning Matrix-A New Concept in Watershed
Planning, Frederic O. Sargent and Richard F.
Dworsky, 355

Social needs; Water policy; Economics;
Environmental factors; Pollution; Pollution
control; Research
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights,
Klaus F. Alt and John A. Miranowski, 249

Social needs; Water rights; Waterways
(watercourses); Bridge construction; Navigable
waters; New Hampshire; Recreational facilities
Navigable Waterways: The New Hampshire
Experience, Mark J. Schiffman, 179


Social participation; Water pollution sources;
Agricultural wastes; Federal aid; Federal laws;
Institutional constraints; Land use; Legal aspects
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750

Social values; Water resources; Water use;
Agricultural watersheds; Droughts; Economics;
Groundwater elevation; Irrigation water
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Soil conservation; Water treatment; Agricultural
wastes; Institutional constraints; Irrigated land;
Management methods; Pollution control
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, W.
Tom Pitts and F. A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Solar energy; Technology; Civil engineers;
Education; Engineering education; History; Human
factors
Education for Technological Acceptance, William
M. Sangster, 16

State action; Cost sharing; Drainage; Federal aid;
Input-output analysis; New York; Regional
development
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York
State, James F. Dunne and David J. Allee, 598

State laws; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water quality; Water rights; Water use;
Water users; Engineering services; Ground water
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

State laws; Water law; Water rights; Appropriation
(water rights); Common law
The Appropriative Right as Common Law, John
W. Bird, 81

State laws; Water law; Water rights; Federal laws;
Forest management; Legislation; Rivers
Reserved Rights and Federal Claims to Water,
Norman Wengert, 93

State laws; Water levels; Water policy; Water
resources; Water sources; Well spacing; Ground
water; Land use; Nebraska
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

State laws; Weather modification; Cloud seeding;
Federal laws; Federal-state cooperation; Law
(jurisprudence); Legislation; Research projects
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235

States (geographical); Water costs; Capital;
Economics; Feasibility studies; Financial
feasibility; Government finance
Expanding Non-Federal Water Development
Financing, Daniel H. Hoggan and Kirk R.
Kimball, 668

States (geographical); Water demand; Water plans;
Water use; Irrigable land; Irrigation; Pennsylvania;
Scheduling
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681


883







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Storm runoff; Storm water; Wastewater disposal;
Water demand; Water treatment; Effluents;
Hydrologic models
Hydrologic Models as Planning Tools, Harry C.
Torno, 730

Storm runoff; Storm water; Water allocation
(policy); Water management (applied); Water
policy; Watersheds; Joint operations; Land use
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Storm water; Urban studies; Wtier management
(applied); Computerized simdlation; Economic
models; Economics; Flooding; Flood plain studies;
Hydrologic models; Models
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Storm water; Wastewater disposal; Water demand;
Water treatment; Effluents; Hydrologic models;
Storm runoff
Hydrologic Models as Planning Tools, Harry C.
Torno, 730

Storm water; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied); Water policy; Watersheds;
Joint operations; Land use; Storm runoff
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Storm water; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water pollution control; Water pollution
sources; Water quality; Federal laws; Land use
zoning; Legal aspects; Performance
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Storm water; Water plans; Common law; Drainage;
Erosion; Flood control; Flood plain regulation;
Land usage planning; Law (jurisprudence);
Pennsylvania; Sedimentation
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637

Stream flow; Computer models; Hydrologic aspects;
Hydrologic models; Land use; Land use zoning;
Predictions
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, Gary T. Fisher, James E.
Ayars and Gary K. Felton, 256
Stream flow; Urban studies; Water supply;
Conjunctive use; Droughts; Ground water;
Institutional constraints; San Francisco
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282

Stream flow; Water law; Drawdown; Federal laws;
Landslides; Oil spills; Rainfall; Regulation;
Reservoir operation; Reservoirs
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170

Stream flow; Water law; Water plans; Water
resources; Wyoming; Appropriation (water rights);
Decision making; Groundwater management
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511


Streamflow regulation; Water quality; Water
resources; Water rights; Appropriation (water
rights); Beneficial use; Esthetics; Recreational
facilities
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Technology; Civil engineers; Education; Engineering
education; History; Human factors; Solar energy
Education for Technological Acceptance, William
M. Sangster, 16

Technology; Universities; Communication; Curricula;
Engineering education; Management methods;
Model studies
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
Donald E. Overton, 705

Technology; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water resources; Witnesses; Court
decisions; Litigation
Water Resources Technology and Water Law,
Robert E. Miller, 197

Testing; Water supply; Water supply systems;
Weather; Weather data; Conjunctive use;
Droughts; Floods
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555

Universities; Communication; Curricula; Engineering
education; Management methods; Model studies;
Technology
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
Donald E. Overton, 705

Urban studies; Water management (applied);
Computerized simulation; Economic models;
Economics; Flooding; Flood plain studies;
Hydrologic models; Models; Storm water
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Urban studies; Water supply; Conjunctive use;
Droughts; Ground water; Institutional constraints;
San Francisco; Stream flow
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282

Virginia; Water allocation (policy); Watercourses
(legal); Water law; Ground water; Legislation;
Riparian rights
Development of Water Law in Virginia, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 28

Wastewater; Water rights; Water supply; Water use;
Appropriation (water rights); Efficiency
Water Rights and Water Use Efficiency, J. Ernest
Flack, 143

Wastewater disposal; Water demand; Water
treatment; Effluents; Hydrologic models; Storm
runoff; Storm water
Hydrologic Models as Planning Tools, Harry C.
Torno, 730

Wastewater treatment; Water law; Water policy;
Water pollution; Federal aid; Federal laws;
Municipal wastes; Potable water
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, III,
138







SUBJECT INDEX


Water allocation (policy); Water conservation;
Water plans; Water pollution; Water quality;
Water supply; Water use Agricultural watersheds;
Ground water; Irrigation; Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41
Water allocation (policy); Watercourses (legal);
Water law; Ground water; Legislation; Riparian
rights; Virginia
Development of Water Law in Virginia, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 28

Water allocation (policy); Water demand; Water
law; Water resources; Water supply; Crop
response; Institutional constraints
Crop Response Information for Water
Institutions, Gary D. Lynne and Roy R.
Carriker, 582

Water allocation (policy); Water law; Decision
making; Institutional constraints; Irrigable land;
Irrigation
Institutions: Key to Development of Irrigable Soil,
Richard A. Schoney and Leonard R. Massie,
382

Water allocation (policy); Water law; Water policy;
Water rights; Decision making; Federal laws;
Indian reservations
Indian Water Rights: Law and Reality, Sanford
Smith, 131

Water allocation (policy); Water law; Water use;
Delaware; Ground water; Law (jurisprudence)
Delaware Ground Water Use Policy: Some
Problems and Conflicts, Kenneth D. Woodruff,
297

Water allocation (policy); Water management
(applied); Water plans; Water policy; Economics;
Florida; Policies
Economic Evaluation of Water Management
Policies, John E. Reynolds, 457

Water allocation (policy); Water management
(applied); Water policy; Florida; Land
management; Regional planning
Interrelating Land and Water Management in
Florida, Frank E. Maloney and Richard G.
Hamann, 150

Water allocation (policy); Water management
(applied); Water policy; Watersheds; Joint
operations; Land ; Storm runo Storm water
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Water allocation (policy); Water management
(applied); Water use; Government agencies;
Institutional constraints; Regulation
Water Management: A Problem of Institutional
Design, David Mulkey and Roy Carriker, 426

Water allocation (policy); Water management
(applied); Water users; Benefit cost analysis;
Decision making; Economic efficiency
Administrative Allocation and Economic
Efficiency, Clyde F. Kiker, Gary D. Lynne and
Albert Starr, 52
Water allocation (policy); Water permits; Efficiency;
Government agencies; Ground water recharge;
Irrigation water
Midwest Allocation of Irrigation Water: How
Efficient and Equitable?, Judith A. Maxwell and
John J. Waelti, 366


Water conservation; Water plans; Water policy;
Water resources; Benefit cost analysis; Cost
sharing; Environmental factors; Federal aid
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
1

Water conservation; Water plans; Water pollution;
Water quality; Water supply; Water use;
Agricultural watersheds; Ground water; Irrigation;
Pennsylvania; Water allocation (policy)
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Water conservation; Water rights; Water transfer;
Water use; Beneficial use; Economics; Hawaii;
Properties
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499

Water costs; Capital; Economics; Feasibility studies;
Financial feasibility; Government finance; States
(geographical)
Expanding Non-Federal Water Development
Financing, Daniel H. Hoggan and Kirk R.
Kimball, 668

Watercourses (legal); Water law; Ground water,
Legislation; Riparian rights; Virginia; Water
allocation (policy)
Development of Water Law in Virginia, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 28

Water demand; Water law; Water resources; Water
supply; Crop response Institutional constraints;
Water allocation (policy)
Crop Response Information for Water
Institutions, Gary D. Lynne and Roy R.
Carriker, 582

Water demand; Water plans; Water use; Irrigable
land; Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Scheduling; States
(geographical)
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681

Water demand; Water rights; Water supply;
Appropriation (water rights); Droughts; History;
Hydrology; Riparian rights; Routing
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

Water demand; Water treatment; Effluents;
Hydrologic models; Storm runoff; Storm water;
Wastewater disposal
Hydrologic Models as Planning Tools, Harry C.
Torno, 730

Water law; Decision making; Institutional
constraints; Irrigable land; Irrigation; Water
allocation (policy)
Institutions: Key to Development of Irrigable Soil,
Richard A. Schoney and Leonard R. Massie,
382

Water law; Drawdown; Federal laws; Landslides; Oil
spills; Rainfall; Regulation; Reservoir operation;
Reservoirs; Stream flow
A Federal Case Involving Reservoir Regulation
Under Section 311 (i), P.L. 92-500, Jerry R.
Rogers, 170







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Water law; Ground water; Legislation; Riparian
rights; Virginia; Water allocation (policy);
Watercourses (legal)
Development of Water Law in Virginia, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 28

Water law; Water management (applied); Ground
water; Legal factors; Quality control; River basin
planning
Legal Implications of Ground Water Quality
Control, Otto J. Helweg and Woody Brooks,
327
Water law; Water management (applied); Water
pollution; Water quality; Agricultural wastes;
Irrigation systems; Return flow
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow,
George E. Radosevich and Gaylord V.
Skogerboe, 108
Water law-, Water management (applied); Water
pollution control; Water pollution sources; Water
quality; Federal laws; Land use zoning; Legal
aspects; Performance; Storm water
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Water law; Water management (applied); Water
quality; Water rights; Water use; Water users;
Engineering services; Ground water; State laws
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204
Water law; Water management (applied); Water
resources; Water supply; Flood damage;
Predictions; Riparian rights
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast
U.S., Neil S. Grigg, David H. Howells, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 21

Water law; Water management (applied); Water
resources; Witnesses; Court decisions; Litigation;
Technology
Water Resources Technology and Water Law,
Robert E. Miller, 197

Water law; Water management (applied); Water
rights; Water sources; Appropriation (water
rights); Ground water; Hydrologic cycle
Legal Implications of Increasing the Available
Water, V. Phillip Soice and Ronald K.
Blatchley, 121

Water law; Water plans; Water resources; Wyoming;
Appropriation (water rights); Decision making;
Groundwater management; Stream flow
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511
Water law; Water policy; Water pollution; Federal
aid; Federal laws; Municipal wastes; Potable
water; Wastewater treatment
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, III,
138

Water law; Water policy; Water rights; Decision
making; Federal laws; Indian reservations; Water
allocation (policy)
Indian Water Rights: Law and Reality, Sanford
Smith, 131
Water law; Water resources; Water supply; Crop
response; Institutional constraints; Water
allocation (policy); Water demand
Crop Response Information for Water
Institutions, Gary D. Lynne and Roy R.
Carriker, 582


Water law; Water rights; Appropriation (water
rights); Common law; State laws
The Appropriative Right as Common Law, John
W. Bird, 81

Water law; Water rights; Federal laws; Forest
management; Legislation; Rivers; State laws
Reserved Rights and Federal Claims to Water,
Norman Wengert, 93

Water law; Water use; Delaware; Ground water; Law
(jurisprudence); Water allocation (policy)
Delaware Ground Water Use Policy: Some
Problems and Conflicts, Kenneth D. Woodruff,
297

Water levels; Water policy; Water resources; Water
sources; Well spacing; Ground water; Land use;
Nebraska; State laws
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

Water management (applied); Computerized
simulation; Economic models; Economics; Flooding;
Flood plain studies; Hydrologic models; Models;
Storm water; Urban studies
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, Thomas N. Debo and Gerald N.
Day, 714

Water management (applied); Developing countries;
Farms; Irrigation; Irrigation practices; Project
management; Social needs
Strategies for Program Implementation in
Developing Countries, G. L. Corey and Ernest
T. Smerdon, 804

Water management (applied); Ground water; Legal
factors; Quality control; River basin planning;
Water law
Legal Implications of Ground Water Quality
Control, Otto J. Helweg and Woody Brooks,
327

Water management (applied); Water plans; Water
policy; Economics; Florida; Policies; Water
allocation (policy)
Economic Evaluation of Water Management
Policies, John E. Reynolds, 457

Water management (applied); Water plans; Water
resources; Water supply; California; Institutional
constraints; Legal aspects
Ventura County Project: Laws and Institutions,
W. Martin Roche, 473

Water management (applied); Water policy; Florida;
Land management; Regional planning; Water
allocation (policy)
Interrelating Land and Water Management in
Florida, Frank E. Maloney and Richard G.
Hamann, 150

Water management (applied); Water policy;
Watersheds; Joint operations; Land use; Storm
runoff; Storm water; Water allocation (policy)
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Water management (applied); Water pollution;
Water quality; Agricultural wastes; Irrigation
systems; Return flow; Water law
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow,
George E. Radosevich and Gaylord V.
Skogerboe, 108







SUBJECT INDEX


Water management (applied); Water pollution
control; Water pollution sources; Water quality;
Federal laws; Land use zoning; Legal aspects;
Performance; Storm water; Water law
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Water management (applied); Water quality; Water
rights; Water use; Water users; Engineering
services; Ground water; State laws; Water law
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

Water management (applied); Water resources;
Water supply; Flood damage; Predictions; Riparian
rights; Water law
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast
U.S., Ncil S. Grigg, David H. Howells, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 21
Water management (applied); Water resources;
Water use; Well spacing; Appropriation (water
rights); Ground water; Hydrogeology; Maryland;
Regulation
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Water management (applied); Water resources;
Witnesses; Court decisions; Litigation; Technology;
Water law
Water Resources Technology and Water Law,
Robert E. Miller, 197

Water management (applied); Water rights; Water
sources; Appropriation (water rights); Ground
water; Hydrologic cycle; Water law
Legal Implications of Increasing the Available
Water, V. Phillip Soice and Ronald K.
Blatchley, 121

Water management (applied); Water supply;
Developing countries; Farms; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation practices;
Irrigation systems; Pakistan; Social needs
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827
Water management (applied); Water use;
Government agencies; Institutional constraints;
Regulation; Water allocation (policy)
Water Management: A Problem of Institutional
Design, David Mulkey and Roy Carriker, 426

Water management (applied); Water users; Benefit
cost analysis; Decision making; Economic
efficiency; Water allocation (policy)
Administrative Allocation and Economic
Efficiency, Clyde F. Kiker, Gary D. Lynne and
Albert Starr, 52

Water permits; Efficiency; Government agencies;
Ground water recharge; Irrigation water; Water
allocation (policy)
Midwest Allocation of Irrigation Water: How
Efficient and Equitable?, Judith A. Maxwell and
John J. Waelti, 366

Water plans; Common law; Drainage; Erosion; Flood
control; Flood plain regulation; Land usage
planning; Law (jurisprudence); Pennsylvania;
Sedimentation; Storm water
Byzantine Drainage Law: Pennsylvania's
Experience, R. Timothy Weston, 637


Water plans; Water policy; Economics; Florida;
Policies; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied)
Economic Evaluation of Water Management
Policies, John E. Reynolds, 457

Water plans; Water policy; Water pollution sources;
Water quality; Federal aid; Federal laws; Land use
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, A.
Hamilton and L. W. Libby, 739

Water plans; Water policy; Water resources; Benefit
cost analysis; Cost sharing; Environmental factors;
Federal aid; Water conservation
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
1

Water plans; Water pollution; Water quality; Water
supply; Water use; Agricultural watersheds;
Ground water; Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Water
allocation (policy); Water conservation
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Water plans; Water resources; Water supply;
California; Institutional constraints; Legal aspects;
Water management (applied)
Ventura County Project: Laws and Institutions,
W. Martin Roche, 473

Water plans; Water resources; Wyoming;
Appropriation (water rights); Decision making;
Groundwater management; Stream flow; Water law
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511

Water plans; Watershed management; Municipal
government; Planning; Regional planning; Social
needs
Planning Matrix-A New Concept in Watershed
Planning, Frederic O. Sargent and Richard F.
Dworsky, 355

Water plans; Water use; Irrigable land; Irrigation;
Pennsylvania; Scheduling; States (geographical);
Water demand
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681

Water policy; Economics; Environmental factors;
Pollution; Pollution control; Research; Social
needs
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights,
Klaus F. Alt and John A. Miranowski, 249

Water policy; Economics; Florida; Policies; Water
allocation (policy); Water management (applied);
Water plans
Economic Evaluation of Water Management
Policies, John E. Reynolds, 457

Water policy; Florida; Land management; Regional
planning; Water allocation (policy); Water
management (applied)
Interrelating Land and Water Management in
Florida, Frank E. Maloney and Richard G.
Hamann, 150

Water policy; Water pollution; Federal aid; Federal
laws; Municipal wastes; Potable water;
Wastewater treatment; Water law
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, Ill,
138







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Water policy; Water pollution sources; Water
quality; Federal aid; Federal laws; Land use; Water
plans
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, A.
Hamilton and L. W. Libby, 739

Water policy; Water resources; Benefit cost analysis;
Cost sharing; Environmental factors; Federal aid;
Water conservation; Water plans
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
1

Water policy; Water resources; Water sources; Well
spacing; Ground water; Land use; Nebraska; State
laws; Water levels
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266
Water policy; Water rights; Decision making;
Federal laws; Indian reservations; Water allocation
(policy); Water law
Indian Water Rights: Law and Reality, Sanford
Smith, 131

Water policy; Watersheds; Joint operations; Land
use; Storm ranof Storm water; Water allocation
(policy); Water management (applied)
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Water pollution; Federal aid; Federal laws;
Municipal wastes; Potable water; Wastewater
treatment; Water law; Water policy
Federal Water Law Policy, Daniel J. Snyder, III,
138

Water pollution; Water quality; Agricultural wastes;
Irrigation systems; Return flow; Water law; Water
management (applied)
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow,
George E. Radosevich and Gaylord V.
Skogerboe, 108

Water pollution; Water quality; Water supply;
Water use; Agricultural watersheds; Ground water;
Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Water allocation (policy);
Water conservation; Water plans
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Water pollution; Water storage; Dam performance;
Dams; Drawdown; Flooding; Landslides;
Performance evaluation
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525

Water pollution; Wetlands; ASCE (Conferences);
ASCE (National Affairs); Coastal engineering;
Coastal marshes; Coastal plains; Land usage
planning; Recreational facilities
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436
Water pollution control; Water pollution sources;
Water quality; Federal laws; Land use zoning;
Legal aspects; Performance; Storm water, Water
law; Water management (applied)
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Water pollution sources; Agricultural wastes;
Federal aid; Federal laws; Institutional constraints;
Land use; Legal aspects; Social participation
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management,
Lee E. Koppelman, 750


Water pollution sources; Water quality; Drainage;
Florida; Management; Nutrients; Plant nutrition;
Pollution control; Sedimentation
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766

Water pollution sources; Water quality; Federal aid;
Federal laws; Land use; Water plans; Water policy
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, A.
Hamilton and L. W. Libby, 739

Water pollution sources; Water quality; Federal
laws; Land use zoning; Legal aspects; Performance;
Storm water; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water pollution control
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661
Water quality; Agricultural wastes; Irrigation
systems; Return flow; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water pollution
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow,
George E. Radosevich and Gaylord V.
Skogerboe, 108

Water quality; Air quality standards; Drainage;
Environmental factors; Irrigation; Law
(jurisprudence); Pesticides; Social impact
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, James W. Kirby, 647
Water quality; Drainage; Florida; Management;
Nutrients; Plant nutrition; Pollution control;
Sedimentation; Water pollution sources
Nonpoint Pollution Control Strategies in Florida,
Sheldon Kelman and Armando I. Perez, 766

Water quality; Federal aid; Federal laws; Land use;
Water plans; Water policy; Water pollution
sources
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, A.
Hamilton and L. W. Libby, 739

Water quality; Federal laws; Land use zoning; Legal
aspects; Performance; Storm water; Water law;
Water management (applied); Water pollution
control; Water pollution sources
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution
Abatement, Bram D.E. Canter, 661

Water quality; Water resources; Water rights;
Appropriation (water rights); Beneficial use;
Esthetics; Recreational facilities; Streamfow
regulation
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Water quality; Water rights; Water use; Water
users; Engineering services; Ground water; State
laws; Water law; Water management (applied)
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

Water quality; Water supply; Water use;
Agricultural watersheds; Ground water; Irrigation;
Pennsylvania; Water allocation (policy); Water
conservation; Water plans; Water pollution
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Water resources; Benefit cost analysis; Cost sharing;
Environmental factors; Federal aid; Water
conservation; Water plans; Water policy
The National Water Policy, Warren Viessman, Jr.,
1







SUBJECT INDEX


Water resources; Water rights; Appropriation (water
rights); Beneficial use; Esthetics; Recreational
facilities; Streamflow regulation; Water quality
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Water resources; Water rights; Economics; Ground
water; Irrigation; Legislation; Management;
Nebraska; Regulations
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Water resources; Water sources; Well spacing;
Ground water; Land use; Nebraska; State laws;
Water levels; Water policy
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

Water resources; Water supply; California;
Institutional constraints; Legal aspects; Water
management (applied); Water plans
Ventura County Project: Laws and Institutions,
W. Martin Roche, 473

Water resources; Water supply; Canals; Contracts;
Fnasing; Government agencies; Institutional
constraints; Irrigation; Project feasibility
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Harden, 393

Water resources; Water supply; Compacts; Delaware
Basin; Federal-state cooperation; Institutional
constraints; River basins
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
Robert E. Fish and Francis T. Schaefer, 541

Water resources; Water supply; Crop response;
Institutional constraints; Water allocation (policy);
Water demand; Water law
Crop Response Information for Water
Institutions, Gary D. Lynne and Roy R.
Carriker, 582

Water resources; Water supply; Flood damage;
Predictions; Riparian rights; Water law, Water
management (applied)
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast
U.S., Neil S. Grigg, David H. Howells, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 21

Water resources; Water use; Agricultural watersheds;
Droughts; Economics; Groundwater elevation;
Irrigation water; Social values
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Water resources; Water use; Well spacing;
Appropriation (water rights); Ground water,
Hydrogeology; Maryland; Regulation; Water
management (applied)
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Water resources; Witnesses; Court decisions;
Litigation; Technology; Water law; Water
management (applied)
Water Resources Technology and Water Law,
Robert E. Miller, 197

Water resources; Wyoming; Appropriation (water
rights); Decision making; Groundwater
management; Stream flow; Water law; Water plans
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511


Water resources management; Computer
applications; Computer models; Environmental
factors; Models; Research management
Computer Models as Viable Management Tools,
Brian W. Mar, 697

Water resources management; Decision making;
Florida; Institutional constraints; Simulation;
Social aspects
Social Choice in the Upper St. Johns River Basin,
Roy C. Burke, III and James P. Heaney, 409

Water rights; Appropriation (water rights);
Beneficial use; Esthetics; Recreational facilities;
Streamflow regulation; Water quality; Water
resources
Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection,
Michael J. Mocek, 88

Water rights; Appropriation (water rights); Common
law; State laws; Water law
The Appropriative Right as Common Law, John
W. Bird, 81

Water rights; Conjunctive use; Ground water;
Groundwater management; Land subsidence;
Overdraft; Saline water intrusion
Groundwater Management at the Local Level -
Theoretical Factors and Practical Experience,
Verne H. Scott and Joseph C. Scalmanini, 340

Water rights; Decision making; Federal laws; Indian
reservations; Water allocation (policy); Water law;
Water policy
Indian Water Rights: Law and Reality, Sanford
Smith, 131

Water rights; Economics; Ground water; Irrigation;
Legislation; Management; Nebraska; Regulations;
Water resources
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, J.
David Aiken and Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Water rights; Federal laws; Forest management;
Legislation; Rivers; State laws; Water law
Reserved Rights and Federal Claims to Water,
Norman Wengert, 93

Water rights; Water sources; Appropriation (water
rights); Ground water; Hydrologic cycle; Water
law; Water management (applied)
Legal Implications of Increasing the Available
Water, V. Phillip Soice and Ronald K.
Blatchley, 121

Water rights; Water supply; Appropriation (water
rights); Droughts; History; Hydrology; Riparian
rights; Routing; Water demand
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

Water rights; Water supply; Water use;
Appropriation (water rights); Efficiency;
Wastewater
Water Rights and Water Use Efficiency, J. Ernest
Flack, 143

Water rights; Water transfer; Water use; Beneficial
use; Economics; Hawaii; Properties; Water
conservation
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499







IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES


Water rights; Water use; Water users; Engineering
services; Ground water; State laws; Water law,
Water management (applied); Water quality
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

Water rights; Waterways (watercourses); Bridge
construction; Navigable waters; New Hampshire;
Recreational facilities; Social needs
Navigable Waterways: The New Hampshire
Experience, Mark J. Schiffman, 179

Watershed management; Municipal government;
Planning; Regional planning; Social needs; Water
plans
Planning Matrix-A New Concept in Watershed
Planning, Frederic 0. Sargent and Richard F.
Dworsky, 355

Watersheds; Joint operations; Land use; Storm
runoff Storm water; Water allocation (policy);
Water management (applied); Water policy
Joint Exercise of Powers: A Tool for Stormwater
Management in a Multijurisdictional Setting,
John P. Hartigan and Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 442

Water sources; Appropriation (water rights); Ground
water; Hydrologic cycle; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water rights
Legal Implications of Increasing the Available
Water, V. Phillip Soice and Ronald K.
Blatchley, 121

Water sources; Well spacing; Ground water; Land
use; Nebraska; State laws; Water levels; Water
policy; Water resources
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

Water storage; Dam performance; Dams; Drawdown;
Flooding; Landslides; Performance evaluation;
Water pollution
Operating Procedures for Storage Dams, John V.
Walker and Max E. Van Den Berg, 525

Water storage; Water yield; California; Conjunctive
use; Court decisions; Ground water; Institutional
constraints
Ground Water Storage for California Water
Project, Jack J. Coe, 311

Water supply; Afforestation; Canals; Employment;
India; Irrigation; Natural resources; Population
migrations; Potable water
Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project,
G. P. Malhotra, 795

Water supply; Appropriation (water rights);
Droughts; History; Hydrology; Riparian rights;
Routing; Water demand; Water rights
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, Om P. Gulati, Shige
Okada, Murt K. Lininger and Lawrence C.
Spencer, 219

Water supply; California; Institutional constraints;
Legal aspects; Water management (applied); Water
plans; Water resources
Ventura County Project: Laws and Institutions,
W. Martin Roche, 473


Water supply; Canals; Contracts; Financing;
Government agencies; Institutional constraints;
Irrigation; Project feasibility; Water resources
The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of
Project Implementation by Local Agency Joint
Venture, Thomas S. Maddock and David L.
Hardan, 393

Water supply; Compacts; Delaware Basin; Federal-
state cooperation; Institutional constraints; River
basins; Water resources
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
Robert E. Fish and Francis T. Schaefer, 541

Water supply; Conjunctive use; Droughts; Ground
water; Institutional constraints; San Francisco;
Stream flow; Urban studies
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience,
Don Finlayson, 282

Water supply; Crop response; Institutional
constraints; Water allocation (policy); Water
demand; Water law; Water resources
Crop Response Information for Water
Institutions, Gary D. Lynne and Roy R.
Carriker, 582

Water supply; Developing countries; Farms;
Institutional constraints; Irrigation; Irrigation
practices; Irrigation systems; Pakistan; Social
needs; Water management (applied)
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of
Irrigation in Pakistan, Max Lowdermilk, Wayne
Clyma and Alan C. Early, 827

Water supply; Flood damage; Predictions; Riparian
rights; Water law; Water management (applied);
Water resources
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast
U.S., Neil S. Grigg, David H. Howells, William
E. Cox and William R. Walker, 21

Water supply; Water supply systems; Weather;
Weather data; Conjunctive use; Droughts; Floods;
Testing
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555

Water supply; Water use; Agricultural watersheds;
Ground water; Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Water
allocation (policy); Water conservation; Water
plans; Water pollution; Water quality
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Water supply; Water use; Appropriation (water
rights); Efficiency; Wastewater; Water rights
Water Rights and Water Use Efficiency, J. Ernest
Flack, 143

Water supply systems; Weather; Weather data;
Conjunctive use; Droughts; Floods; Testing; Water
supply
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555

Water transfer; Water use; Beneficial use;
Economics; Hawaii; Properties; Water
conservation; Water rights
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499







SUBJECT INDEX


Water treatment; Agricultural wastes; Institutional
constraints; Irrigated land; Management methods;
Pollution control; Soil conservation
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, W.
Tom Pitts and F. A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Water treatment; Effluents; Hydrologic models;
Storm runoff; Storm water; Wastewater disposal;
Water demand
Hydrologic Models as Planning Tools, Harry C.
Torno, 730

Water use; Agricultural watersheds; Droughts;
Economics; Groundwater elevation; Irrigation
water; Social values; Water resources
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, Bruce R. Beattie,
Michael D. Frank and Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Water use; Agricultural watersheds; Ground water;
Irrigation; Pennsylvania; Water allocation (policy);
Water conservation; Water plans; Water pollution;
Water quality; Water supply
Pennsylvania Water Law Reform in Progress,
R. Timothy Weston, 41

Water use; Appropriation (water rights); Effciency;
Wastewater; Water rights; Water supply
Water Rights and Water Use Efficiency, J. Ernest
Flack, 143

Water use; Beneficial use; Economics; Hawaii;
Properties; Water conservation; Water rights;
Water transfer
Conservation Economics of Hawaii's System of
Water Rights, Hiroshi Yamauchi, 499

Water use; Delaware; Ground water; Law
(jurisprudence); Water allocation (policy); Water
law
Delaware Ground Water Use Policy: Some
Problems and Conflicts, Kenneth D. Woodruff,
297

Water use; Government agencies; Institutional
constraints; Regulation; Water allocation (policy);
Water management (applied)
Water Management: A Problem of Institutional
Design, David Mulkey and Roy Carriker, 426

Water use; Irrigable land; Irrigation; Pennsylvania;
Scheduling; States (geographical); Water demand;
Water plans
Use of Irrigation Demands in State Water
Planning, David F. Kibler, John E. McSparran
and Robert J. Trotter, 681

Water use; Water users; Engineering services;
Ground water; State laws; Water law; Water
management (applied); Water quality; Water rights
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

Water use; Well spacing; Appropriation (water
rights); Ground water; Hydrogeology; Maryland;
Regulation; Water management (applied); Water
resources
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Water users; Benefit cost analysis; Decision making;
Economic efficiency; Water allocation (policy);
Water management (applied)


Administrative Allocation and Economic
Efficiency, Clyde F. Kiker, Gary D. Lynne and
Albert Starr, 52
Water users; Engineering services; Ground water;
State laws; Water law; Water management
(applied); Water quality; Water rights; Water use
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering
Solutions, Cecil Eugene Reinke and Richard C.
Allison, 204

Waterways (watercourses); Bridge construction;
Navigable waters; New Hampshire; Recreational
facilities; Social needs; Water rights
Navigable Waterways: The New Hampshire
Experience, Mark J. Schiffman, 179

Water yield; California; Conjunctive use; Court
decisions; Ground water; Institutional constraints;
Water storage
Ground Water Storage for California Water
Project, Jack J. Coe, 311

Weather; Weather data; Conjunctive use; Droughts;
Floods; Testing; Water supply; Water supply
systems
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555

Weather data; Conjunctive use; Droughts; Floods;
Testing; Water supply; Water supply systems;
Weather
Stresses on Water Supply Systems and
Management Due to Adverse Weather
Conditions, Richard A. Smith, 555

Weather modification; Cloud seeding; Federal laws;
Federal-state cooperation; Law (jurisprudence);
Legislation; Research projects; State laws
Research and Law Requirements in Weather
Modification, Conrad G. Keyes, Jr., 235

Well spacing; Appropriation (water rights); Ground
water; Hydrogeology; Maryland; Regulation;
Water management (applied); Water resources;
Water use
Management of Maryland's Hydrogeologic
Information, David A. Schultz and Ernest C.
Rebuck, 561

Well spacing; Ground water; Land use; Nebraska;
State laws; Water levels; Water policy; Water
resources; Water sources
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts,
Ralph R. Marlette and Craig L. Williams, 266

Wetlands; ASCE (Conferences); ASCE (National
Affairs); Coastal engineering; Coastal marshes;
Coastal plains; Land usage planning; Recreational
facilities; Water pollution
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, Billy L. Edge, 436

Witnesses; Court decisions; Litigation; Technology;
Water law; Water management (applied); Water
resources
Water Resources Technology and Water Law,
Robert E. Miller, 197

Wyoming; Appropriation (water rights); Decision
making; Groundwater management; Stream flow;
Water law; Water plans; Water resources
Decision Making in Water Resource Systems,
Frank J. Trelease, III, 511














Author Index


Adams, Nancy
Peasant Involvement in On-Farm Irrigation
Development, with Jack Keller and Bonnie M.
Spillman, 813

Aiken, J. David
Ground Water Management in Nebraska, with
Raymond J. Supalla, 484

Allee, David J.
See James F. Dunne, 598

Allison, Richard C.
See Cecil Eugene Reinke, 204

Alt, Klaus F.
Theory and Practice of Water-Polluting Rights, with
John A. Miranowski, 249

Ayars, James E.
See Gary T. Fisher, 256

Beattie, Bruce R.
The Economic Value of Irrigation Water in the
Western United States, with Michael D. Frank and
Ronald D. Lacewell, 572

Bird, John W.
The Appropriative Right as Common Law, 81

Blatchley, Ronald K.
See V. Phillip Soice, 121

Bonuccelli, Hugo A.
See John P. Hartigan, 442

Brooks, Woody
See Otto J. Helweg, 327

Burke, Roy C, III
Social Choice in the Upper St. Johns River Basin,
with James P. Heaney, 409

Canter, Brain D.E.
Legal Problems of Stormwater Pollution Abatement,
661

Carriker, Roy
See David Mulkey, 426

Carriker, Roy R.
See Gary D. Lynne, 582

Clyma, Wayne
See Max Lowdermilk, 827

Coe, Jack J.
Ground Water Storage for California Water Project,
311

Corey, G. L
Strategies for Program Implementation in Developing
Countries, with Ernest T. Smerdon, 804

Cox, William E.
Development of Water Law in Virginia, with William
R. Walker, 28
See Neil S. Grigg, 21

Day, Gerald N.
See Thomas N. Debo, 714


Debo, Thomas N.
A Hydrologic Model: The Key to Storm Water
Management, with Gerald N. Day, 714

Dexter, James R.
Social Aspects of Flood Proofing, with Gene E.
Willeke and L. Douglas James, 65

Dunne, James F.
Cost Sharing for Farm Drainage in New York State,
with David J. Allee, 598

Dworsky, Richard F.
See Frederic 0. Sargent, 355

Early, Alan C.
See Max Lowdermilk, 827

Edge, Billy L.
Coastal Zone Management: A Guide for Civil
Engineers, 436

Eldsness, F. A, Jr.
See W. Tom Pitts, 784

Felton, Gary K.
See Gary T. Fisher, 256

Finlayson, Don
Conjunctive Use: San Francisco Bay Experience, 282

Fish, Robert E.
Institutional Concerns: The Delaware Experience,
with Francis T. Schaefer, 541

Fisher, Gary T.
Projecting Hydrologic Impact of a Land Use Plan
Using USDAHL-74, with James E. Ayars and Gary
K. Felton, 256

Flack, J. Ernest
Water Rights and Water Use Efficiency, 143

Frank, Michael D.
See Bruce R. Beattie, 572

Greenhalgh, Richard
Shadow Prices: An Evaluation Technique, with Fred
Stewart, 609

Grigg, Neil S.
Evolving Water Law Needs for the Southeast U.S.,
with David H. Howells, William E. Cox and
William R. Walker, 21

Gulati, Om P.
Hydrologic Routing: An Aid in Water Rights
Enforcement in California, with Shige Okada, Murt
K. Lininger and Lawrence C. Spencer, 219

Hamann, Richard G.
See Frank E. Maloney, 150

Hamilton, A.
208 Planning: The Economics of Choice, with L. W.
Libby, 739

Hardan, David L.
See Thomas S. Maddock, 393







894

Hartigan, John P.
Joint Exercise of Power
Management in a Mul
Hugo A. Bonuccelli, 4

Heaney, James P.
See Roy C. Burke, III,

Helweg, Otto J.
Legal Implications of G
with Woody Brooks, 3

Hoggan, Daniel H.
Expanding Non-Federal
Financing, with Kirk

Howells, David H.
See Neil S. Grigg, 21

James, L. Douglas
See James R. Dexter, 65

Johnston, John
Drainage Law in Ontari

Keller, Jack
See Nancy Adams, 813
See Hameed Rasheed, 8

Kelman, Sheldon
Nonpoint Pollution Con
with Armando I. Perez

Keyes, Conrad G., Jr.
Research and Law Requ
Modification, 235

Kibler, David F.
Use of Irrigation Deman
with John E. McSpar

Kiker, Clyde F.
Administrative Allocatio
with Gary D. Lynne a
Kimhall Kirlr D


IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE & WATER RESOURCES

Maddock, Thomas S.
s: A Tool for Stormwater The Cross Valley Canal A Case Study of Project
tijurisdictional Setting, with Implementation by Local Agency Joint Venture,
42 with David L. Hardan, 393

Malhotra, G. P.
409 Special Changes: Impact of Siwani Canal Project, 795

Maloney, Frank E.
round Water Quality Control, Interrelating Land and Water Management in
27round Water Quality Conol, Florida, with Richard G. Hamann, 150
27
Mar, Brian W.
Water Development Computer Models as Viable Management Tools, 697
Water Development
R. Kimball, 668 Marlette, Ralph R.
Nebraska Multi-Purpose Resources Districts, with
Craig L. Williams, 266

Massie, Leonard R.
See Richard A. Schoney, 382

Maxwell, Judith A.
Midwest Allocation of Irrigation Water How
o, 632 Efficient and Equitable?, with John J. Waelti, 366

McSparran, John E.
See David F. Kibler, 681
44 Miller, Robert E.
Water Resources Technology and Water Law, 197
trol Strategies in Florida, Miranowski, John A.
z, 766 See Klaus F. Alt, 249

Mocek, Michael J.
irements in Weather Water Rights: Impact on Streamflow Protection, 88

Mulkey, David
Water Management: A Problem of Institutional
ds in State Water Planning, Design, with Roy Carriker, 426
an and Robert J. Trotter, 681
Okada, Shige
See Om P. Gulati, 219
n and Economic Efficiency,
nd Albert Starr, 52 Overton, Donald E.
Effective Communication in Modeling Endeavors,
705


See Daniel H. Hoggan, 668

Kirby, James W.
Irrigation and Drainage: Social and Legal
Constraints, 647

Koppelman, Lee E.
Legal/Institutional Issues in 208 Management, 750

Lacewell, Ronald D.
See Bruce R. Beattie, 572

Libby, L. W.
See A. Hamilton, 739

Lininger, Murt K.
See Om P. Gulati, 219

Lowdermilk, Max
Physical and Socio-Economic Dynamics of Irrigation
in Pakistan, with Wayne Clyma and Alan C. Early,
827

Lynne, Gary D.
Crop Response Information for Water-Institutions,
with Roy R. Carriker, 582
See Clyde F. Kiker, 52


Perez, Armando I.
See Sheldon Kelman, 766

Pitts, W. Tom
Planning for Agricultural Pollution Control, with F.
A. Eidsness, Jr., 784

Radosevich, George E.
Western Water Law and Irrigation Return Flow, with
Gaylord V. Skogerboe, 108

Rasheed, Hameed
Mechanized Irrigation in the Developing Countries,
with Jack Keller, 844
Rebuck, Ernest C.
See David A. Schultz, 561

Reinke, Cecil Eugene
State Water Laws: Effect on Engineering Solutions,
with Richard C. Allison, 204

Reynolds, John E.
Economic Evaluation of Water Management Policies,
457

Roche, W. Martin
Ventura County Project: Laws and Institutions, 473


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