Title: Climate and Meteorology
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00003016/00001
 Material Information
Title: Climate and Meteorology
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Golden Gates Estates Study Committee
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - Climate and Meteorology
General Note: Box 12, Folder 4 ( Golden Gate Estates Redevelopment Study - Phase I - 1975 ), Item 10
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00003016
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text






CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY


According to Hela (1952) the climate of most of
South Florida can be classified as "tropical savannah" on
the basis of temperature and rainfall. Such regions have
a relatively long dry season and not enough rain during
the rainy season to compensate for water lost each year
through evapotranspiration. Such regions undergo a recur-
ring water shortage during normal 6-month dry seasons and
"depend on sources from outside the area to offset the
scarcity". This aspect of the water supply problem has
usually been overlooked or ignored by drainage engineers
who are assigned the task of developing lowlands and preventing
flooding there.
Gleason et al. (1974, p. 309) described physical
aspects of the climate of South Florida which are related
to the definition by Hela (1952).

"Peninsular Florida is in a precarious position
relative to rainfall. Being a narrow low-
land peninsula situated between 250 and 31
north and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and
the Gulf of Mexico, it is highly dependent on
seawater surface temperature. -For example,
Bryson (personal communication to Brooks,
1971) has determined that a sea surface temp-
erature '20C warmer (than present) increases
hurricanes four-fold, and 20C colder practi-
cally eliminates them.' South Florida occurs
at latitudes that in most other areas of the
world are arid."


Those meteorological conditions which result from
the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico,
absence of physical relief, presence of southeasterly trade
winds in summer and passage of polar air masses in winter
produce a marked bimodality of rainfall (Thomas, 1974).
While the usual summer rains come from thunderstorms (i.e.


T 20










convectional rainfall) this main supply may be augmented by
hurricanes, easterly waves, northeasters of late fall and
winter, and widespread rains of short duration which accompany
passing winter cold fronts. Prolonged storms, particularly
those from the northeast, have been observed to move large
quantities of water from place to place in the Everglades
and have been seen to push brackish and fresh water from
coastal marshes (Tabb and Moore, 1971) only to have the low
salinity water in coastal marshes replaced a few days later
by saline, offshore water. There are no additional pub-
lished data, to our knowledge, on this phenomenon, but we
believe this is a vital aspect of surface water hydrology
in coastal areas of South Florida which may affect ground-
water levels more than is now thought.
The-pattern of wet and dry seasons which has prevailed
during this century has apparently prevailed for a very long
time. Gleason, et al. (1974) speak of this subject as follows:

"There is no faunal, floral or other strati-
graphic evidence for significant overall
temperature change in peninsular Florida
during the past 28,000 years. The changes
have been in seasonality and in pattern and
frequency of precipitation from hurricanes,
thunderstorms and frontal systems (Brooks,
1971)."


These changes have included periods of extremely dry as well as
extremely wet conditions. Parker (1974, p. 19) had the
following comment about early historical conditions:

"Numerous early reports by land developers,
promoters, their hired surveyors and engineers,
and by early settlers preserve additional
observed data. They all add up to the
judgment that, in pre-drainage days, the
Everglades were generally either wet or
flooded most of the time but that occasion-
ally a drought of two or more years'
duration would occur and the glades would
then become dried out."



ST 21










Parker went on to point out that in digging test
pits in the Everglades peats further evidence of periodic
drought was found.

"It was in the walls of at least two of these
pits, ... that we found ash layers up to
about 2 inches thick. These buried ash
layers indicate ancient, pre-historic times
when there were severe droughts that dried
the organic soils of the normally wet glades
sufficiently to allow the soils themselves
to burn as deep as the existing water table."

From the above we can judge that South Florida has
long undergone climatic conditions very much like the condi-
tions now experienced. What are those conditions in southwestern
Florida?
A 6-month (May through October) rainy season and a
6-month dry season (November through April) are the rule.
Naples rainfall records going back to 1940 show that for 33
years of record the average annual rain amounted to 52.3
inches. Nearly 80 percent, or 41 inches, of the yearly rain
falls during the rainy season (Black, Crow and Eidsness, 1974),
while about 11 inches fall in dry months.
Fort Myers, which is said by Duever (1975) to have
climatic conditions resembling higher, interior Collier County
sites, has an average temperature of about 740 with monthly
averages ranging from the low 60's in January to the low 80's
in summer. Rainfall there averages 53.68 inches annually with
the rainy season months producing more than 8 inches per month
while the dry season months produce less than 2 inches per
month on the average.
Thunderstorms seldom occur during the winter dry
season but occur in 2 out of 3 days, on the average, during
the rainy season, and usually occur in the afternoons and
evenings. Pressure changes associated with these storms
cause fluctuations in groundwater levels (Meyboom, 1967).




T 22


__ ~____~~_:ij___~










During 1972, Carter et al. (1973) reported that
rainfall in the Fahkahatchee Strand averaged 55.75 inches
(142 cm) ranging between 47.25 inches (120 cm) and 76.30
inches (194 cm). Relative humidity ranged from 30 to 100
percent with an average of 83 percent. The variability from
station to station in the Fahkahatchee illustrates clearly
the difficulty in predicting runoff where only a few rain
gauges are available. On the other hand, U. S. Department
of Commerce, NOAA Environmental Data Service records shown
below for highest and lowest monthly precipitation during.
the period of record for Fort Myers (Table 1) show how
variable those quantities may be over a long time span,
and quickly illustrate the spectrum of conditions faced
by planners.
Wind conditions also play an important role, not
only in determining what kind of rain pattern one may expect,
but also in evapotranspiration, cold penetration and damage,
and fire hazard calculations. Turning once again to Fort
Myers (Department of Commerce, National Weather Service,
1970-1973) we can obtain some idea of the months of highest
wind velocity and judge, by the direction indicated, whether
these might be moisture-laden southeasterlies or dry winds
associated with polar air masses (Table 2).
Most of the meteorological data collected have been
designed to assist engineers in determining flood frequency
and severity. The most recent analysis of flood frequency
was that by Black, Crow and Eidsness (1974) who made the
following statement.

"This analysis indicates a trend toward
increasing flood magnitude, with time,
for the Golden Gate Canal at State Road
31. It should be noted that the data
base on which this analysis is founded
is not sufficient to actually prove, in
a statistical sense, that such a trend
actually exists. However, it is highly




T 23


__~ --~1 I I I













Table 1: Monthly precipitation summary (inches) for
Fort Myers.



Least Most
Month Average Inches Year Inches- Year

Jan 1.56 0.00 1950 6.04 1958

Feb 2.12 0.07 1949 5.93 1934

Mar 2.60 0.00 1935 18.98 1970

Apr 2.07 0.01 1946 8.42 1939

May 4.13 0.34 1962 10.32 1968

Jun 8.96 3.73 1944 20.25 1936\

Jul 8.68 2.28 1964 15.28 1941

Aug 7.91 3.55 1934 15.86 1967

Sept 8.58 2.33 1972 16.60 1969

Oct 4.42 0.05 1963 12.04 1959

Nov 1.34 0.03 1945 3.85 1972

Dec 1.31 0.10 1956 5.42 1940

Annual 53.68 32.83 1964 80.17 1947


T 24


__ __^_












Table 2: Average velocity and predominant wind direction,
Ft. Myers (U. S. Dept. of Commerce, National
Weather Service, 1970-1973).



1973 1972 1971 1970 Ave
Month Vel D ir Vel Dir Vel Dir Vel Dir Vel

Jan 8.3 NE 7.8 NE 7.8 WNW 9.0 N 8.16

Feb 8.9 N 9.3 SW 10.0 SE 9.8 NNE 9.50

Mar 9.0 SE 9.0 NE 9.8 SW 9.9 SE 9.50

Apr 10.8 E 9.0 ENE 9.2 SW 7.9 NW 9.40

May 8.3 W 8.6 NW 8.6 WNW 9.0 E 8.60

Jun 7.0 W L0.3 WSW 6.5 E 7.4 NE 7.80

Jul 6.1 SE 7.2 NE 6.8 ESE 6.8 E 6.80

Aug 7.7 SE 5.8 ESE 6.8 ESE 7.3 SE 6.90

Sept 6.5 NE 7.2 ENE 7.7 E 7.10

Oct 7.5 NW 6.6 E 7.9 ENE 7.30

Nov 7.4 N 8.7 NE 7.2 ENE 7.80

Dec 8.5 ENE 8.9 E 7.4 NE 8.1


T 25


ill












probable that the trend illustrated in
Figure 4-5 is occurring. Aside from the
statistical indications, there are
physical reasons why such a trend may
exist.

"During the period of record, from 1965
to 1973, the watershed has been under-
going various types of development. Both
urban uses, such as within the City of
Golden Gate, and agricultural uses have
been increasing. Both types of land use
generally incorporate internal drainage
improvements, which tend to increase the
effective drainage density of the water-
shed, thus decreasing the hydrologic
response time and increasing flood peaks.
Also, the volume of runoff from developed
lands tends to be greater than from undeve-
loped lands. These physical factors lend
support to the results obtained in the
statistical analysis and lead to the con-
clusion that the magnitude of flood peaks
within the Golden Gate watershed are
increasing with time."

Another factor, not mentioned by Black, Crow and
Eidsness, which may cause severe flooding with relatively
little rainfall is the difficulty of wetting very dry sand
following drought. This is especially true of fine sand,
mixed with carbon particles originating from fires. Such
sands can repel water for considerable periods of time and
cause runoff with minimal infiltration. This phenomenon is
compounded by physical properties of water-free sand which
tends to limit soaking, at least temporarily, as described
to us (Weeks, Mar. 29, 1976, Personal Communication) as
follows:

"As water infiltrates the surface layer,
it will indeed, under some circumstances,
trap air and exert an additional downward
pressure on the underlying water table,
resulting in a water table rise. However,
the trapped air will also exert an upward


T 26









pressure on the water in the surface layer
that will tend to limit the depth of infil-
tration."

This statement seems to have extraordinary signi-
ficance to the Golden Gate problem for it suggests that early
rains following severe drought may cause an immediate ground
water rise which is largely an illusion due to over-lying
weight of rainwater while, at the same time, creating an
artificial "saturation effect" where subsequent rainfall
will run off rapidly to nearby canals as though groundwater
were actually at the surface.
All the evidence, then, points to increasing
severity of flooding as development proceeds, and that
water-repellent physical properties of over-drained sandy
soils will aggravate the problems caused by creation of
artificial impermeable surfaces and sub-drainage systems.
In view of these eventualities one must ask how often can
one expect not only severe floods but also how frequent
will severe droughts be?
We have examined the literature on cyclical phenomena
in meteorology and could find only two references which attempted
to predict dry periods. The first of these (Perry, 1948)
postulated a cyclic behavior of rainfall in the Miami area.
He remarked as follows:

"1. An annual rainfall of over 80 inches
(was observed) in 1878, 1908, and 1929;
about once in twenty-five years, plus
or minus five years.
"2. A very low annual rainfall in 1907,
1927, and 1944; about once in twenty
years, plus or minus three years.
"3. That years of very low rainfall are
not nearly midway between years of
very high rainfall and not always
in a group of low rainfall years.


T 27











"4. This indicates that the next year
of extremely high rainfall may be
expected between 1948 and 1958.
"5. That the next year of extremely
low rainfall may be expected
between 1961 and 1967."

A number of people, including Thomas (1974) have
been impressed with the need to predict dry as well as wet
periods and Thomas, acting on the base initiated by Perry,
concluded that there were signs of 5 and 20 year wet-dry
cycles in statistical analysis of rainfall data, but only
in the area very near the southeast Florida coast near Miami.
More recently, F. D. R. Park and Harry Stern of the
Office of Environmental Resources Management, Metropolitan
Dade County (Personal Communication of March 15, 1976)
informed us that they consider Colonel Perry's prediction
method as unreliable for the following reasons:

"Since moving averages tend to smooth out
irregularities and since rainfall has been
observed to fluctuate, it is not surprising
that a brief interval could be correlated
to a sine curve.
"Due to incomplete early records, the 1st
5-year moving average (in Col. Perry's figure)
is that for the period ending in 1909 and
since Colonel Perry prepared his graphs in
1947, he had only 38 data points from which
to construct a sine curve having a cycle of
24.5 years. In other words, he drew his
conclusions by virtue of 1.5 cycles of
correlation.
"As a matter of fact, the correspondence
behaves reasonably well through 1951
(still less than 2 cycles) but begins to
deteriorate rapidly thereafter. The sug-
gested curve is about 4 years out of phase
by 1961 and 1800 = one-half cycle out of
phase in 1969-70.
"There is so little basis for the sug-
gested hypothesis that further investigation
is not believed warranted."


T 28


~___~____P











If this is true and there is, in fact, no possibility
for predicting drought periods statistically, it becomes
important to seek ways in which the Golden Gate system might
be managed to minimize the impact of drought.
There is a suggestion (Carter et al., 1973, p. I-2)
that the system has within itself a built-in safeguard, in the
form of stored water sufficient to minimize effects of drought
of at least two years duration.

"Based on historical rainfall information,
calendar years 1970 and 1971 were sub-
stantially below normal, but fresh-water
export from the Strand (i.e. Fahkahatchee)
to its dependent estuary continued at near-
normal rates. Calendar year 1972 was above
normal in rainfall, but surface water export
from the Strand virtually ceased. This lack
of water export in itself is no cause for
alarm and may represent a natural cycle in
which the upland ecosystem functions as a
reservoir to maintain brackish water condi-
tions in the estuarine zone. Wet-dry
conditions are essential to full productivity
of the estuarine ecosystem. However, contrary
to expectation, groundwater tables in the
upland zone failed to recover from the depressed
levels present at the end of the 1970-71 dry
period, despite rainfall inputs in 1972 well
above the long-term mean values. Drainage
canals prevented recovery of groundwater
levels. These canals had a catastrophic
effect on groundwater levels -- lowering
natural levels as much as 122 cm (48 inches).
Maximum recessionn rates in the vicinity of
canals was measured at 9.1 to 10.4 cm/day
compared with 2.1 to 4.0 cm/day in areas
unaffected by the canals."

While the above comparison of drawdown does not strike
us as illustrating "catastrophic effect" we believe that the
system of drainage canals throughout the County, not just the
Golden Gate canals, do aggravate the drought situation greatly
by offsetting recharge. Their flow rates, coupled with the
dry sand water-shedding characteristic mentioned above and
"False water table" effect described by Weeks (1976) tend


T 29


__I










to hasten runoff and prevent early rainy season infiltration
and retention of rainwater. The only tenable solution seems
to lie in a system which prevents over-drainage in the first
case but is flexible enough to permit discharge and prevent
flooding of development lands. Fixed weirs set at levels
which permit development of the lowest lands in the system
cannot perform this double duty.
Finally, how often may we reasonably expect
drought of 1, 2 and more year's duration? To be meaningful,
the answer to these questions must come from long-term
weather records. The longest set of records available at
L this writing for a West Florida location having rainfall
Totals resembling that of Collier County is the record for
Tampa, Florida, beginning in 1891 and ending in 1940 (Fla.
St. Bd. Conserv., 1954). During that 50 year period there
were six one-year droughts (1901, 1904, 1923, 1932, 1938,
1940) when rainfall fell 2 or more inches below the long-term
mean of 49.02 inches. Only in 1891-92 and 1926-27 do we see
an indication of a 2-year drought. Droughts of 3-year or
greater duration were recorded in 1907-1911, and 1913-1918.
Drought periods of a minor character were recorded in 1893,
1922, 1928 and 1931. Thus during that 50-year period
rainfall was well below average in 21 years (42 percent of
the time), as shown below (Table 3).
If we accept the statement of Carter et al., that
once full, the system can continue to provide runoff for
2 years, then the system would have maintained at least some
surface flow during the two 2-year droughts,, but would have
probably undergone serious over-draw of groundwater and some
significant saline intrusion during the periods 1891-93,
1907-11 and again during the period 1913-18, or 14 out of
50 years.



T 30






I













Table 3: Annual rainfall at Tampa, Florida (Lat. 27057'N-Long. 82027'W) for the
period 1891-1940. Fla. Bd. Conserv., Div. of Water Surv. and Res. Water
Survey and Research Paper 11, Aug. 31, 1954.


Departure Departure Departure
Annual from Annual from Annual from
total mean total mean total mean
Year ( n.) (in..) .. Year. .(.in..) .... .(.in...) . Year .. .(in..). ... .(in..)

1891 44.46 4.56 1911 44.13 4.89 1931 48.05 0.97
92 46.66 2.36 12 67.19 +18.17 32 44.72 4.30
93 48.96 0.06 13 44.37 4.65 33 50.07 + 1.05
94 66.93 +17.91 14 46.76 2.26 34 56.48 + 7.46
.9.5. 5.0...6.4 .+. 1 ..6.2. .......... 15. 4.5...7.6 .-. .3..2.6. .. . 5 .. 5.3...71 +. .4..69 ...

1896 59.63 +10.61 1916 40.02 0.90 1936 49.35 + 0.33
97 54.41 + 5.39 17 37.54 -11.48 37 55.00 + 5.98
98 50.53 + 1.51 18 35.81 -13.21 38 41.93 7.09
99 63.82 +14.80 19 53.68 + 4.66 39 51.71 + 2.69
00 5.5.4.5 + 6.43 .20 .... 49.. 2. +.. 0. .0.. .... 40. 2...9.8 ....-. 6...0.4. ....


42.06
50.38
56.68
44.80
50.87


6.96
1.36
7.66
4.22
1.85.


1921
22
23
24
25


49.65
47.93
37.08
55.40
61.20


+ 0.63
- 1.09
-11.94
+ 6.38
+12.18


1906 51.83 + 2.81 1926 45.10 3.92
07 43.45 5.57 27 37.77 -14.25
08 32.25 -16.77 28 48.20 0.82
09 47.18 1.84 29 53.93 + 4.91
S 10 .41.64 .. .. 7...38...... 30....30. .5.6..45 .. ...+ 4 7..4 .


Mean


49.02"


S. Dev. 7.72"
Variance 59.60"
95% CL + 2"


1901
02
03
04
05.











Another aspect of the problem, not often discussed,
is the character of rainfall if we were to ignore the
Abnormal rainfall amounts that accompany tropical depressions.
SWe turn to records of precipitation from Fort Myersiin Lee
County for a record of monthly rainfall amounts (Table 4).
Assuming that rainfall in the Golden Gate and
tributary areas will show similar variation, it would appear
that there are at least three ways to evaluate the water
Management problem. The first is to design the drainage
System to prevent the 1 in 5, 1 in 10, 1 in 25, or 1 in 100
year "design" storm. Presumably the developer of the present
layout would choose to give maximum protection against
flooding by further enlarging the existing canal system.
The second alternative would be that chosen by management
willing for development to be re-planned, or suffer the
consequences in an attempt to maximize retention on the
upland to achieve full recharge and a semi-natural hydro-
Speriod in all areas, The third alternative, if neither
of the others is legally possible, would be for the County
Qto begin to zone agricultural and swamp lands in drainage
.basins tributary to Golden Gate for the purpose of water
storage and human activities compatible with long-term
-flooding as is now done in the Everglades Conservation
;Areas. A logical extension of the third alternative would
be to begin legal processes which would eventually enable
Collier County to assert its rights to water from lakes
Trafford and Okeechobee, a process which is bound to be
prolonged and costly.


T 32


___ ^










Table 4: Monthly rainfall amounts at Fort Myers, Florida, 1933-1972. U. S. Dept. of
Commerce, NOAA.Environmental Data Service.


Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sept. Oct Nov Dec Ann.


1933
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65


0.25
0.76
0.24
3.33
0.52
2.20
0.45
3.79
3.02
1.60
0.74
1.20
2,19
0.35
0.83
4.16
0.01
0.00
0.38
1.28
1.71
0.30
2.68
0.57
0.78
6.04
1.48
0.46
3.31
0.43
0.81
2.88
1.24


2.60
5.93
1.81
5.50
3.68
0.34
0.87
4.00
3.82
3.35
0.71
T
0.68
2.24
2.92
0.06
0.07
0.08
1.76
4.34
2.01
2.53
1.16
1.06
3.68
1.26
1.72
3.66
1.88
0.54
4.65
3.30
2.99


3.93
0.75
0.00
1.69
3.74
0.70
0.04
4.41
6.88
2.31
1.61
3.76
0.10
0.19
8.94
0.83
0.13
0.49
1.13
2.05
0 .68
2.13
0.32
0.05
4.73
10.31
6.33
1.87
3.58
2.65
0.59
2.12
2.91


- a- -


'I


6.06 6.86 5.02 9.20 4.51 4.63
0.92 5.78 11.56 6.09 3.55 8.30
3.50 2.30 6.42 9.30 9.38 14.49
1.14 6.11 20.25 8.54 7.50 3.56
1.38 0.94 10.75 5.13 7.00 3.04
0.-33 2.91 8.24 12.71 5.28 5.12
8.42 3.01 16.43 7.69 6.97 12.83
1.73 0.73 10.52 3.50 8.69 13.02
7.66 1.16 7.12 15.28 7.46 6.09
4.54 3.38 11.15 10.66 9.18 5.37
4.45 5.96 16.06 12.24 8.59 5.68
0.85 4.00 3.73 5.09 5.89 3.56
0.21 1.58 11.97 12.41 11.06 5.71
0.01 6.71 10.19 5.78 6.47 5.21
2.82 6.47 12.84 11.17 9.40 16.32
1.57 2.19 5.06 10.08 4.99 13.90
5.50 4.03 7.53 13.32 7.60 12.70
0.08 4.14 4.84 6.83 5.93 8.32
2.71 2.14 9.19 11.44 10.30 3.48
0.78 1.75 7.95 5.74 8.39 12.35
2.28 0.41 12.81 9.34 4.32 15.58
3.49 4.08 4.78 9.19 6.84 10.31
0.97 3.23 8.53 8.76 4.29 10.50
3.50 4.76 4.67 5.34 8.03 6.00
2.69 7.97 4.85 12.52 9.39 8.77
2.18 6.22 7.37 10.92 4.12 8.89
1.75 4.74 16.10 6.17 5.75 6.89
3.83 2.20 5.20 13.76 5.65 11.93
0.46 4.92 9.75 9.82 13.41 2.80
1.37 0.34 12.08 6.01 10.89 14.54
0.27 7.58 7.70 4.06 3.98 7.49
0.80 0.50 4.58 2.28 4.26 9.45
2.39 4.70 7.78 12.05 6.57 4.35


2.08
1.59
0.30
5.39
5.88
3.57
5.81
0.61
0.96
0.50
3.56
5.77
5.19
1.34
4.97
3.90
3.60
3.26
11.91
8.34
6.68
1.82
2.15
4.42
3.19
4.57
12.04
3.01
3.16
5.44
0.05
1.38
4.42


1.09
0.66
0.83
2.78
1.44
0.39
1.80
0.13
2.48
0.08
2.37
T
0.03
3.39
2.05
0.45
1.27
0.02
1.14
0.75
1.07
2.33
0.52
1.35
1.52
1.43
1.92
2.02
1.12
3.01
3.45
0.22
0.58


0.13
0.31
1.58
1.34
0.72
0.21
1.01
5.42
0.99
1.80
0.48 62.45
0.32 34.17
1.45 52.58
0.57 42.45
1.44 80.17
0.63 47.81
1.62 57.38
2.20 36.19
0.14 55.92
0.71 54.43
1.16 58.07
1.93 49.73
0.85 43.96
0.10 39.85
3.55 63.64
3.36 66.67
1.79 66.68
0.73 54.33
0.53 54.74
0.85 58.15
2.27 42.90
1.06 32.83
0.85 50.83










Table 4: Continued


Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Ann.

1966 3.39 1.06 0.37 3,03 1.61 12.42 8.22 8.10 4.18 2.14 0.18 0.29 44,99
67 1.15 2.15 0.72.' T 1.66 7.41 6.69 15.86 7.04 3.08, 0.92 2.91 49.39
68 0.40 2.08 0.65 0.57 10.32 -15.03 9.85 11.44 8.92 7.99 2.88 0.16 70.29
69 1.44 2.87 4.74 0.15 4.71 10.63 7.11 8.49 16.60 11.03 0.22 3.95 71.94
70 4.36 2.20 18.58 T 6.36 7.47 4.74 4.82 8.29 1.19 0.46 0.37 58.84
71 0.85 1.55 0.55 0.70 3.77 6.18 9.50 8.06 9.21 6.49 0.16 0.30 47.32
72 0.77 2.14 4.72 0'.27 5.20 7.86 9.72 16.22 2.33 2.20 3.85 1.43 56.71

Record
mean 1.56 2.12 2.60 2.07 4.13 8.96 8.68 7.91 8.58 4.42 1.34 1.31 53.68




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