Title: Twelfth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida Proceedings of October 29-30, 1987
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002980/00001
 Material Information
Title: Twelfth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida Proceedings of October 29-30, 1987
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: NWFWMD
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: NWFWMD Collection - Twelfth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida
General Note: Box 13, Folder 17 ( Twelfth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida - 1987 ), Item 1
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00002980
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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Full Text




October 29 & 30, 1987
- Tallahassee Hilton
Tallahassee, Florida

Publication Number 89-2







Tallahassee Hilton
Tallahassee, Florida

October 29 & 30, 1987

This document was published at a cost of $1.87 a copy.

_ ~_ __

Sponsored By

Governing Board Members

Tom S. Coldewey, Chairman
Port St. Joe

Fred Bond, Vice Chairman

Candis Harbison, Secretary-Treasurer
Panama City

John M. Creel

Andre' Dyar
Panama City

Clifford W. Barnhart

Kenneth F. Hoffman

L. E. McMullian, Jr.

Lloyd E. Weeks
Laurel Hill


J. William McCartney
Lytha P. Simoneaux
Stay Fay
Sheik Ann Parker
Diane Sterling
Diane Sterling
Sheila Ann Parker

For additional copies of this publi-
cation, write to:
Public Information Office
Northwest Florida Water
Management District
Route 1, Box 3100
Havana, Florida 32333

L .

Twelfth Annual Conference on Water Management in Florida


Table of Contents

Agenda 4

Main Addresses
Governor's Coffee Address 6
Governor Bob Martinez

Keynote Luncheon Address 7
Hon. Peter Wallace, Florida House of Representatives

Banquet Address (Transcripts unavailable)
Hon. John W. Vogt, President, Florida Senate

Panel Discussions
The Water Supply Puzzle: Fitting the Pieces Together for Florida's Future 10

Water Resources Information and Education: Exploring New Partnerships 13

Alternatives to Traditional Water Supply 17

One-Stop Permitting: The Wave of the Future? 19

Information Sessions
Regional Utility Authority: An Institutional Response to 22
Water Resource Needs and Planning

Where the Rubber Meets the Road: Alternative Approaches 26
to Legislative Mandates

Environmental Education Through Art: The Green Swamp Artist Series 28

Computerized Aids to Decision Making: GIS 30
and Artificial Intelligence

Into Marine Environments: Our New Challenge 32

Flood Forecasting on a Shoestring 36

Xeriscape: Water Conservation Through Creative Landscaping 38

Tampa Bay: Meeting the Challenge of SWIM 40

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Governor's Coffee Address by Governor Bob Martinez
The Water Supply Puzzle: Fitting the Pieces Together for Florida's Future
(Panel Discussion Sponsor: South Florida WaterManagement District)
Water Resources Information and Education: Exploring New Partnerships
(Panel Discussion Sponsor: Northwest Florida Water Management District)
Keynote Luncheon Address by Hon. Peter Wallace, Florida House of Representatives
(Host: St. Johns River Water Management District)
Concurrent Information Sessions:

A. Regional Utility Authority: An Institutional Response to Water Resource Needs and
Planning. (NWFWMD)
B. Where the Rubber Meets the Road: Alternative Approaches to Legislative Mandates.
C. Environmental Education Through Art: The Green Swamp Artist Series. (SWFWMD)
D. Computerized Aids to Decision Making: GIS and Artificial Intelligence. (SFWMD)
Alternatives to Traditional Water Supply
(Panel Discussion Sponsor: Suwannee River Water Management District)

Hospitality Hour, cash bar
Banquet Address by Hon. John W. Vogt, President, Florida Senate
(Host: Southwest Florida Water Management District)

Concurrent Information Sessions:

A. Into Marine Environments: Our New Challenge. (NWFWMD)
B. Flood Forecasting on a Shoestring. (SRWMD)
C. Xeriscape: Water Conservation Through Creative Landscaping.
D. Tampa Bay: Meeting the Challenge of SWIM. (SWFWMD)


One Stop Permitting: The Wave of the Future?
(Panel Discussion Sponsor: St. Johns River Water Management District)

_____________________________________ 4 _____________________________________


Main Addresses

Governor's Coffee Address
Governor Bob Martinez

Keynote Luncheon Address
Hon. Peter Wallace,
Florida House of Representatives


Governor's Coffee Address

Governor Bob Martinez

I had the opportunity to communi-
cate directly with each water manage-
ment district some weeks ago as I went
before the Governing Boards to discuss
some thoughts and to visit your facili-
ties. I might add that I was very im-
pressed with each facility. Of course,
our staff and the Department of Envi-
ronmental Regulation are here to have
continuing participation with the water
management districts. One good benefit
I did get as a result of going to each of
your districts is caps with logos from
each of you. I've been wanting those
and it took me a lot of hours to get them.
I might add that on my office wall now
hangs a plaque from the Southwest Flor-
ida Water Management District sur-
rounded by those special caps.
If my memory serves me right, I
believe I first attended one of these meet-
ings in 1975 or 1976 which takes me
back in time a bit. I consider my years in
water management very meaningful and
important. I do not know of a Govern-
ing Board that has a finer purpose. In
the case of the water management dis-
tricts, you have credible issues. You are
in the limelight not only on a day-to-day
basis, but obviously you become well
known when there are critical issues or
there is a water shortage or moratoriums
are called or there is flooding. Then,
suddenly, people who live in condomini-
ums ask what you are all about!
Obviously, those in agricultue, those
in mining, those in environmental areas
know you well. Those who turn on the
spigots get very concerned about you
when there is no pressure or there is no
water. That is how, probably, you are
perceived by many urban dwellers. But
the key to Florida's future, quite frankly,
rests to a great degree with your ability

to cope with the whole water resource
issue. Not only quantity but quality. It
is not an easy balance but there is grow-
ing knowledge of the resource, better
monitoring of the resource, greater dedi-
cation by those who serve, more finan-
cial resources to get the work done. It
can be done so that those who want to
join us in Florida will not be taking the
last drop of water we've got
I know that you've got a very busy
agenda. I just wanted to say to you as
an aggregate group that I do appreciate
the time you gave me some weeks ago
and that we look forward to working
with you every year to solve some of the
most complex problems the state has:
how to manage our water resources. I




Keynote Luncheon Address

Rep. Peter Wallace

There can be little doubt that 1988
will be the most important year in the
history of WMDs since 1972 when the
WaterResourcesActbecame law. There
are at least three obvious reasons why
that would be true: First, the legislature
will be conducting the first Sundown
review of the WMDs and their basins.
The legislature must enact the legisla-
tion in oder to preserve the governing
boards and basin boards because the
statutes creating the governing boards
and basin boards will be repealed effec-
tive October 1,1988. Discussionduring
the review of this legislation during the
sessionwill surely include the methodof
selecting governing board members,
whether elected or appointed, and rep-
resentation of various geographical ar-
eas on the board, issues that seem to be
revisited every year during legislative
session anyway. Second, the legislature
will also be considering proposals that
will be made by the EESC, and these
may include a sweeping redistribution of
environmental regulatory authority in
the state. At its most recent meeting, a
commission that I'm a member of ap-
pearedtobe leaning towandrecommend-
ing the immediate transfer ofdredge and
fill duties from DER to WMDs along
with an eventual transfer of most water-
related regulatory programs from DER
and also from other agencies to the dis-
tricts. Third, the House Natural Re-
sources Committee will be looking for a
way to create a permanent funding source
for the SWIM program.
Some events not directly related to
the districts will have great potential for
affecting the districts and the water re-
sources of the state. First, legislation on
solid waste will be introduced and al-

most certainly passed to slow the degra-
dation of water quality in Florida and
therefore preserve more of our water re-
sources for consumptive use. Second,
the districts themselves willbegin during
the next year to review and comment on
revised local comprehensive plans pur-
suant to the 1985 Growth Management
Act. Local governments must adopt as
part of their plans legally binding goals,
policies and objectives relating to land
use planning, conservation of water re-
sources and the adequacy of public fa-
cilities. This will be a great opportunity
for WMDs to help local governments
interpret landregulationswithinthe con-
text of their water resource needs and
concerns. Third,while proposalstotrans-
fer a number of regulatory programs to
the districts have received the most at-
tention, certain issues that are being ad-
dressedby the EESChave not received a
great deal of attention, but may have a
significant impact onthe WMDs.
Ihe following ecommenai are
not final, but they should be interesting
to you. First is a commendation to
equalize district villages by passage of a
constitutional amendment and to insure
that general revenue funds are provided
to fud, at the district level, any pro-
grams that are transferred from DER to
WMDs. Next is a recommendation to al-
low the districts to determine whether to
have basins and what the basins' alloca-
tions offunds shouldbe. Third is arec-
ommenldau that the state Envirommental
Regulatory Commission adopt rules for
nonpoint source programs and review
the districts' implementation of those
programs for consistency with the ERC
requirements. Fourth is a reconnenda-
tion to authorize environtentat agencies
to impose fines on violators subject to
challenge through administrative hear-

We can certainly expect that water
issues will always be a major concern to
public policy in Florida. Florida has a
abundance of surface water resources,
with more than 1,700 streams more ha
four milesinlength and7,700 freshwater
lakes more than one acre in size. Some
hydrologists estimate that the total quan-
tity of fresh ground water in Florida is
more than a quadrillin gallons. That's
"one" with 15 "zeros" after it. About a
fourth of the state is classified as wet-
lands. That is more than eight million
The quantity and quality of Flor-
ida'swateresourcesis certainly affected
by the impact of our population growth.
Sice 1980, almost 900people have been
moving to Florida each day. The growth
is notexpectedtodecline and bythe year
2010 the population in each district is
expected to increase by the following
SFWMD -65%
Each new resident will require ap-
proximately 125 gallons of water each
day and will produce almost 105 gallons
of wastewater each day. Each new
resident will produce almost six pounds
of solid waste daily. Twenty-nine per-
cent of te water used by Florida resi-
dents is not returned to the natural water
Moreover, natural water quality in
Florida is threatened by a number of on-
resolved problems: antiquated stonn-
wateroutfalls, leakingundergrondstor-
age tanks, hazardous waste sites that
haven't been cleaned up, and myriad
other problems.

_*-I-- --~ .~._ I I I I I

Peter Wallace

The conventional wisdom has been
that the DER should manage water qual-
ity and the WMDs should manage water
quantity. It's not clear that that division
makes as much sense today. In making
this distinction, one important goal is ig-
nored: protection of overall natural sys-
tems such as wetlands and water re-
charge areas. From a hydrological point
of view, water quality and quantity are
linked. For example, lowering water
levels in a water course may reduce dis-
solved oxygen levels. In an age where
the solution to pollution is dilution, the
amount of water available for dilution
makes a big difference in water quality.
Also, excessive withdrawal of water in
coastal areas leads to saltwater intrusion,
and, if water's polluted, it cannot be
It's sometimes difficult to catego-
rize certain functions as being strictly
water quality or water quantity. One
example is the regulation of the destruc-
tionofwetlands. Wetlandsare extremely
valuable, of course, as natural filters of
waterpollutants and as habitat areas. But
they're usually not important as water
recharge areas. In Florida, however, we
have some very significant exceptions to
that rule, primarily the Green Swamp
and the Big Cypress Swamp.
Putting water quality functions and
water quantity functions in the districts
could result in less confusion as to who's
responsible for water issues, as well as
more accountability on water issues.
Finally, putting both functions into one
agency might be more efficient in terms
of public resources and in terms of con-
venience both for regulated entities and
for the individual citizens involved. It's
interesting to note that Richard Ausness,
who was one of the drafters of the Model
Water Code, recently wrote an article
published in the FSU Journal of Envi-
ronmental Law noting that one of the

major problems in our implementation
of the Water Resources Act is the failure
to integrate consumptive use regulation
with water quality regulation. He sug-
gested that DER should delegate water
quality andpermitting functions to those
districts with the technical and financial
resources to meet those programs, but
that DER should retain sufficient respon-
sibility to ensure that statewide stan-
dards are enforced.
I'm particularly sympathetic to the
districts' concern about overload of pro-
grams at the district level. But I'm also
very concerned about efficiency, effec-
tiveness and accountability in our water
management programs and recognize there
are goals that need to be met within the
context of our Sunset review process. I
am confident that we can design a water
management system that will carry us
into the 21st century in Florida.

To bolster that resolve, let me men-
tion a poll. The one that stuck out re-
flected the greatest willingness of the
public to spend money on water quality.
Ninety-one percent of individuals polled
saidthe state shouldbe spending more on
water quality in Florida.
You know what happened the next
spring after Governor Askew's speech:
the Florida legislature passed the Florida
Water Resources Act and it established
the present system of water management
districts in Florida. I also don't have to
tell you what the system has meant in a
very beneficial and positive way to the
people of the State of Florida since 1972,
because so many of you have been a part
of the great success. In the year ahead I
hope that we can all work together to
find solutions as successful. I

More than 15 years ago, one of Flor-
ida's greatest governors addressed the
Governor's Conference on Water Man-
agement in South Florida. It was a time
of concern about water management prac-
tices because of recent droughts through-
out Florida, but particularly South Flor-
ida. Those of you who were there may
remember Governor Askew saying that
we must build peace between the people
and their place, between the natural envi-
ronment and the man-made settlement,
between the creek and the canal, be-
tween the works and needs of men and
women and the life of mankind itself.
That it was time that we stopped viewing
our environment through prisms of profit,
politics, geography or local and personal
pride. That it was time to work together
to accept the truth about our water prob-
lems and to set about solving them. The
alternative, he said, would be disastrous
to our economy as well as to our environ-



Panel Discussions

The Water Supply Puzzle:
Fitting the Pieces Together for Florida's Future

Water Resources Information and Education:
Exploring New Partnerships

Alternatives to Traditional Water Supply

One-Stop Permitting: The Wave of the Future?


I I -- -

Panel Discussion

The Water Supply Puzzle:

Fitting the Pieces Together for Florida's Future

Sponsored by South Florida Water Management District

John Wodraska, Executive
Director, South Florida Water
Management District

Lewis de la Parte, Jr.
West Coast Regional Water

Jim Chisholm, City of
St. Cloud, Florida

Arsenio Milian, Governing
Board, SFWMD; President,
Deltona Utilities

Howard Osterman, Diversified
Utility Services (DUS, INC.)

John Wodraska

One of the major new issues that has
developed out of the 1987 legislative
session is the question of the role of
water management districts in service
delivery as purveyors of water supply.
This issue is forcing us to look beyond
the matters relating to service delivery
and also question how we can operate as
both regulator and water supplier and
successfully function in both roles si-
A specific case involving an inter-
district transfer of water from Osceola
County to Brevard County has raisedthe
much broader public policy issue of how
Florida will deal with tremendous growth
and what institution will provide for water

delivery service when Florida is the sec-
ond or third largest state in the nation.
In the case of Osceola-Brevard, we
tried for several years through regulation
to find solutions for Brevard's chronic
water shortage problem. Butthisproved
unsuccessful. So, with the passage of SB
624, the Florida Legislature decided to
put water management districts in the
service delivery business and named the
South Florida Water Management Dis-
trict as being responsible for developing
and supplying water to South Brevard.
Our panel discussion this morning
will address this new role for water man-
agement districts, their inter-relation-
ships and what this means for the future
of our state. There are a variety of
perspectives and opinions on this issue.
While everyone agrees that Florida's citi-
zens need a dependable supply of water,
the controversial question is who should
provide it. The answer to that question
will undoubtedly shape future growth
patterns in this state.

Lewis de la Parte, Jr.

There is no greater challenge or dan-
ger to Florida than growth. Growth has
the potential to desecrate our aquifers
and permanently damage our environ-
ment. To avoid such disaster, there is no
better solution than to deal with the envi-
ronment -- in this case, water supply --
within the framework of a region.
There are many local areas in Flor-
ida where sufficient water simply is not

available due to poor reserves, salt water
intrusion and competing uses. In many
instances, we cannot deal with these
problems by limiting their applications
to a limited geographical unit. Nor can
local governments plan for the future in
such cases.
The purpose and application of SB
624 is to insist that local governments get
together to plan for the needs of their
communities in a manner that will pro-
tect the resource and provide future gen-
erations with high quality, economic water.
In order for this to occur, two things must
take place: 1) water management dis-
tricts must not abuse the power and proc-
ess granted through this legislation; and
2) ifwatermanagement districts use their
new authority modestly and moderately,
they have the capacity and ability to
bring local governments together to re-
solve waterresource problems. This will
be a godsend for the state.

Jim Chishobn

From the perspective of local and
municipal governments, a fundamental
concern is how water management dis-
tricts can stay out of competition with us
if they enter the water supply business.
There is an undeniable conflict between
the regulatory/permitting role and the
new water purveyor role of the districts.
This conflict should not exist and it
may well require that the legislature fur-
ther define the water supplier role in
order to resolve concerns of local gov-

_ __~ ~

_Water Supply Puale

S eminent. Cities and counties are in the
service delivery business. We provide
water, sewer, electricity and other basic
community services. This is the tradi-
tional and reasonable way for such serv-
ices to be handled. The issue of an
interdistrict transfer of ground water and
the role ofthe water management district
in that process give us cause for concern
and suggest an inconsistency with the
original concept behind the institution of
water management.
The state has evolved a fair and
effective means for managing water re-
sources. The Department of Environ-
mental Regulation and the water man-
agement districts provide oversight
through their regulatory powers while
public and private utilities supply water.
Local governments have the tools
and the ability to be water purveyors. If
ieabin tmraisfe are to occur effidendy,
they must rely on the existing resources
of local governments the experience,
personnel, facilities and equipment. An
agency taking this on as a new responsi-
bility would not have such resources
readily available, and that would trans-
late into higher costs for customers.
It has been said that local govern-
ments ae incapable of addressing re-
gional problems. But I think he opposite
is true: local governments can and do
work together to solve problems effec-
tively and efficiently. So, instead of
pursuing a complex and costly situation
such as the interdistrict transfer, why not
keep things simple? Interocal programs
are economic and expedient, without
adding costs and burdensome new layers
of bureaucracy. Pursuing a solution
through local governments will allow the
regulators to remain as egulators, and
Me water supplies to act as watersuppli-
I to at.a

Arsenio Milian

Florida is a water-rich state, but our
resources are not evenly distributed.
Coastal areas, where 75-80% of the
population is located, often endure lim-
itedsupply and poorquality water. Con-
versely, inland areas which are sparsely
populated usually enjoy plentiful water
resources. Such areas often exhibit a
proprietary attitude toward water supply
and we must respect their understand-
able concern over future needs and future
growth. When we are dealing with
ground water, these concems are magni-
fied. We can't see or easily quantify
ground water, and so there is naturally
more uncertainty over its protection.
It is essential that we recognize the
doctrine that water knows no political
boundaries. Water resources of the state
exist to equitably benefit all citizens.
But in accepting this doctrine, we must
also consider the unique circumstances
and needs ofeach region. We cannot de-
velop water resources at the expense of
one area for the benefit of another.
Yet we cannot be parochial when it
comes towatersupply. Wehaveseenthe
water wars of the past and we believe
there are ways to resolve the inequities
of nature. Here is where water manage-
ment districts have an important role to
play. The technical merits, regulatory
authority, and apolitical posture of the
districts will allow them to resolve water
supply problems while keeping protec-
tion of the resource as the top priority.
T'is approach not only safeguards our
water, but is ultimately in the best inter-
est of the citizenry.

Howard Osterman

In discussing water supply delivery,
we must bear in mind that the crux of the
problem is the difficulty utilities have in

obtainingraw water. Small utilities,even
within the same water basins, often have
unequal retail rates because they have
unequal costs in obtaining raw water
If we imagine abig water company
that would act as a wholesaler instead of
a retailer, we can see that such an entity
would not compete with local suppliers
who ae concerned with water treatment
and distribution to consumers. When we
talk about water management districts as
water suppliers, the role we see for them
is the bulk business. In order to evaluate
the desirability of an interdistrict trans-
fer, we must identify three points:
1) Need, which will be defined by
an exhaustive inquiry into other alterna-
tives that exist for water supply,
2) Interests in the transfer, which
parties will benefit by the transfer,
3) Puture needs andpotential future
Economic considerations which must
be taken into account are several: any
water supply system that is developed
shouldbe self-sustaining; taxes collected
by dthe water management district should
not go to underwrite the tre cots of the
operation; costs should be supported by
the customers both present and future;
and revenues should provide for cost
recovery of the initial capital investment
of the system.
Interdistrict transfer is not an at-
tempt to compete with those who are
already in the retail business. Rather, it
is an attempt to solve problems that are
beyond the scope of individual utilities.
In this respect, water management dis-
tricts will probably not remain as perma-
nent players in the water delivery busi-
ness. Their role will involve the devel-
opmentofinfrastructure andcommence-
ment of operations. But once revenues
have stabilized, bond support should be

I' ,

Water Supply Puzzle

over to an appropriate level of govern-
ment for ongoing operation.
SB 624 did not place water manage-
ment districts in the water supply busi-
ness, but it wisely recognized that there
are complex problems that only water
management districts can solve on the
broadest regional basis. In short, this is
the wave ofthe future andwe shouldlook
upon it positively. I

I ----. ~I.---

Panel Discussion

Water Resources Information and Education:

Exploring New Partnerships

Sponsored by Northwest Florida Water Management District

Mr. Jacob Varn, Attorney

Mr. Steve Metz,
General Counsel for the Florida
Chamber of Commerce.

Ms. Sue Dudley, Florida League
of Women Voters.

Ms. Deborah Dugger, Junior
Leagues of Florida.

Ms. Jean Villareal, Florida
Federation of Garden Clubs.

Ms. Ellen Fournier, Bureau of
Economic Analysis with the
Florida Department of

Mr. Doug Mann, Florida Farm
Bureau Federation.

Steve Metz

Each year, the Florida Chamber of
Commerce puts together an environmental
permitting course. We talk specifically
about all of the programs that the water
management districts are involved in from
a regulations standpoint, but we probably
do not talk about some of the educational
things that you are involved in and maybe
that's something the Chamber can im-
prove upon. The reason the Chamber is
one of the leaders in environmental and
legislative arenas is twofold.

First we are fortunate that in Florida
our business community generally be-
lieves in the concept that good environ-
mental programs make good economic
sense. Because Florida is so environ-
mentally regulated (we regulate more
things at more levels), we put more money,
time, effort and manpower into our envi-
ronment than probably any other state in
the country. There are tremendous prob-
lems with business compliance and with
the multitudes of permits that exist.
Therefore, the second reason the Cham-
ber is involved in it is that business
demands our involvement. For instance,
the Chamber was a prime mover behind
the 1985 Growth Management Act. The
Florida Chamber and local Chambers
were able to get a consensus of people in
the business community and in the regu-
lating community to form what I con-
sider the most significant land use legis-
lation of any state at the present time.
The Chamber is consensus-oriented
and holds a series of conferences once a
year prior to the legislative sessions. Any-
body can attend those conferences. We
have had environmentalists attend those
meetings, as well as lay people. The
Chamber encourages fact-finding and
trying to make an informed decision.
As panelists today, we were given a
series of questions.
One question we were asked was:
"How can water managers do abetterjob
of informing and involving the citizens
of Florida in the management of our most
valuable resource?"
Most polls that are taken year in and

year out consistently show that you do a
very good job. When I say you, I mean
water management districts, DER and
other regulating groups. You do a really
good job of telling people out there how
important our resource is. A recent poll
done by the FSU School of Business tied
in the question "Would you be willing to
pay extra taxes for more enforcement
procedures' The answer was overwhelm-
ingly "yes." Apparently word is getting
Now, one component that I think is
missing is more educational opportuni-
ties with the regulated interests them-
selves. My suggestion is that there be
more joint task forces and advisory
committees of the water management
districts made up of board members,
staff people, developers, home builders
and those with different interests. We
can arrive at pretty good solutions if we
all sit down and work together. What
happens though, many times, is that staff
have the scientific knowledge but not the
input from the business community. The
business community is forced to come in
and try to draw people back to a more
realistic position. I think that some good
fundamental working together helps al-
leviatethatproblem. Ihavebeenamazed
at the number of times controversies arise
and there was never a meeting of the
minds before a document is released or a
decision is made.
Another question was: "What are
the major goals of your organization as
they relate to water resource manage-
ment?" You hear it every time you come

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ida Water Mnagiment District I'm
hIma keu toyu apesaoan view-
po ireI taw aM ofteinvolved
as a lay paen watching a dsrict ad
laming abt a dd ict. Trme years
ago we grsia d We hope by the end
of de are have every water maage-
meat dimict covered and we hope to
pINepe a iends intis proue.
Sowest Plorida has been super.
TIeygotu alBlee amdwe hadaneatre
day of goig over wha the staff did,
looking at project and beginning to
leam. Itteokf about thee years to get
whe weaeoaow andi'sbeenaneduca-
iona process. I hope aB the water
management district give lasses.
I would seriously like to see wodk-
shops at the county level, given maybe
every two years. It should be required
attend=ne for de commissioner, die
zoners, the planes, the newspaper edi-
ton, and the public should be invited.
They must understand why decisoa are
being made and tey mast work with
each other. They won't be able to do it
mauil ey understand the system.
Also, Iwouldlike tosee the pros and

sonshf e issues. Iwoudliketosee the
economics, not only from the develop-
ment viewpoint, but fro the pubbc's
viewpoint, of the costs in cleaning and
the future cots. I wat that viewpoint
involved in this process, because I have
not seen it there.
We was to help Md amd we ln
you ought to u a lille it slim
TMkrvkletmspesa Nd 0k**M ad*&
3spakso, and dank of de sommary
agenda and the wrekabops. Theae uae
some sugstions you can n wh and
as somn as we get some m ideas we
will be me to let you kmw.

Deosh s Dagr

Hello, I'm Deborah Dugger, fom
the Jnor leagues of lorida. Te Jun-
ior League is a voluaeer arganizaon
thatpromoes chdaite andeducational
purposes. We became involvedwithe
water management district though our
statepublicafaircommia ee. growth
management, I atned working withthe
Nothwest Florid Water Management
District and was introduced to ie "Wa-
terWays" program, an excellent educa-
iona program for middle school chil-
dmn. Andit'ssomedhng that we took to
our sate ubc affairs comitee this
fall. It h written materials an mdio-
visualpresentatiomad a wokbookte
chbld t homue. We fed very srogly
that education is the way to deal with
watr prbems. "WatrWays" is the
epitome of ou involvement. We ae
now in the process of working with the
school districts and the water manage-
meat districts, in getting it rolling. It will
take us until the next year to get it in the
schools, but te reception sofarbasbeen
We have some ideas of what we feel
would help our involvement with the

water managumat diAsc Oe ding
we would Wke to ae is fth estli ent
of cdineR panels that de layperson can
be involved in. We feel s would
eamtruawourposae. hwouailewater
maugwrh .m.mra; etk.nOwhsgoing
on with e po bic and it would let the
public kaow wht is going on wih the
waer m t W oirti l W t would
lke tso esteis a key counact system
with dte waor uminageamt dierit so
that one district, Bpreantatove would
deal with oa ip norsalive farom o
organization. We would N to gear
education todtae verge cita And we
would like to paticipat in mi e coali-
tions to use the ntwors that already
exist because have die manpower.
We just eed to reach out in the right

Je1w Vlermw

Hello, I'm Jean Villareal, from the
14 -R ', &-- ^ -ffc f bil I Ibm
ae a kids of people in the lorida
Federation of O n ClOubs. We work
withyoungste, we a ammer camp,
andwe're the reciplea of aU thoe inci-
dental odm who drive cas ithe border
in Florida and decide to stay.
As her theme for this two-year ad-
ministration, the president of the Na-
tional Cousel of Garden Clubs chose
ground water. The Garde Cubs have
been to a Sell Oil Company-sponsored
week in Washgton, finding out more
about ground water dn we ever thought
we wamedtoknow. Ourchrgehasbeen
this kind of educaron. We know that
there ae tremendous educational mate-
4rils coming out of te NWPWMD. The
"WalerWays" booklet is something ev-
ery loridian who wos with youngsters
should have at hand. I'm jealous of the



Informalion and Eduwation

fact thatit'sbeing provided forthe school
system alone. How about all thosepeople
like us, like the Scouts, like all the others
who are working with young people and
unaware adults? How about giving it to
us at cost?
As a matter of fact, how about let-
ting us out there know what you're doing?
You need to get the directories of our
organizations, and those are available.
Most organizations have a state direc-
Xeriscape has been something we
have taken to our national conferences.
We need to get it out to everybody. You
need to teach people about landscaping
for water conservation because we all
depend on each other. You, as a group,
need to be out there with the people. My
challenge to you is push and find us out
there, whoever we are.

ERten Fourier

Good morning. My name is Ellen
Founier, with the Florida Department
of Commerce. I want to thank the
NWFWMD for inviting the Department
to participate in this discussion. I'm
speaking on behalfofthe Department of
Commerce and on behalf of the local
economic deveopent proessionls. The
general purpose of the Department of
SCommerce isto guide andpromote bene-
ficial development of the state in accor-
dance with available resources and the
general welfare of the people of Florida.
Our agency's mission is clearly tied to
Florida's water resources on several lev-
els. All human endeavor is water de-
pendent. Therefore, we all need to be
concerned about water resources. On a
moe prosaic level, all economic devel-
opment turns to the water management
districts since you are the people who
give the approval for the coiumnptive
use of water, and plan for managing

surface water.
Our experience with the water man-
agement districts has been very good.
The prossioam d responsiveness
have really supported our efforts. We
have a few suggestions and comments
though about how the water manage-
ment districts can do even more to pro-
mote our common goal in improving the
general welfare of all Floridians.
Our first comment is aboutthe water
management districts' permitting respo-
sibility. It's the hope of the Department
of Commerce that environmental per-
mitting will be streamlined and simpli-
fied. And that the water management
districts will be vested greater responsi-
bility for water permitting. Since the
districts are charged with managing this
resource, they should play a bigger role
in regulating its use. And as regional
agencies, they can better respond to re-
gional needs and conditions. Related to
permitting regulation, we want the water
management districts to remember who
bears the cost of any regulation. The
people who live and work in the districts
will be harmed by slow and costly per-
mitting procedures, even if the costs are
initially borne by business or local gov-
ernment. These costs wil be passed on
by business through higher prices and
fewer jobs. Local government will pass
them on through higher taxes or fewer
public services. It's your family and
neighbors who are going tobe paying the
costs for any inefficiency in your pro-
grams. And we hope you will do all that
you can to make your regulatory proce-
dures as efficient as possible.
My next two suggestions are ad-
dressed more to the water management
districts' management role. We would
like to see the districts become more
involvedin local economic development
eor. This can take many foams: by
participating in economic development

initiatives at local and regional levels, by
putting economic development profes-
sionals on your mailing lists and most
importantly, having people available to
visit sites and answer questions. When I
talk to local economic development pro-
fessionals about the water management
districts, they are generally very pos-
tive, but they do say to tell them to visit
the sites and answer questions. Another
suggestion is that the water management
districts could provide local economic
development professionals a kind of guide
to water management districts, with a
few names, telephone numbers, people
to call when you do have questions and
abe some basc infonatin about what
the water management districts do, what
their regulation are, and what the vari-
ous thresholds for certain activities are.
The water mangemnt dtrict have
the opportunity to go beyond just being
-per-iting agencies. his will enhance
their visibility. If yo get out ad work
with ccaomic deveopm nt profession-
als, you will become moe visible and
you'll become known and familiar to an
important part of the public and they'll
become mon familiar with your own
programs and policies.
Another important part of resource
management is the districts' research.
We encourage the water management
districtswhendesigningresearch tokeep
the needs of economic development in-
formation in mind. If we know where
water is available, we can help prospects
when they are looking for a site. On a
more general level, if your research
addresses issues of availability and pro-
tection, this can help businesses and lo-
cal governments with their long-term
pla ng. Mor information can help all
ofthepeople inyourditricts makebeter
decisions about water ue and water

Iaformaioea and Educadton -

beneficial to both the districts and eco-
nomic development efforts, providing
visility to the foaer and enhanced
decision maig to the latter. The De-
pamen't of Comerce recognizes tie
erios need for adeqai finding for the
water-a-ageme districts andsupports
the efforts to eusme its provision.

DoSg Mmh

also get together and put out a monthly
newsletr on what activities they're doing.
I would love to have a calendar of events
and a discussion of the diffent water
ma em district programs, or an-
nounments of what rules are being
drafted. Have different sections of the
newsletter for each of the water manage-
mentdistricts. Letus know what's going
oo. You cn build the kind of trust in
IlationshI dthatis so bly needed. I

I an the Director of legislative Afis
for the lorida arm Bureau. TheFlorida
Fatn Bureau is lorida's largest and
oldest agricultural group. It has 6700
members statewide. We're in 64 of the
67 counties in Florida. We're a grass
roots organization and we depend on our
members for our policies. We ae very
invested in water. We know how im-
poant water is for agriculture and how
imptant water management districts
ae fok getting us use that water.
We're basicaly trying to deal with
communication. How could the water
management districts better communi-
cate with the public? I think a very
important sepis to set up a agricultural
advisory committee. Some water man-
agement districetbsve these. They pro-
vide the agricural community an op-
portm ty to wok with water manage-
met district staff and board members.
For diatric that don't have agricultural
advisorygoups, we recommend strongly
that this be a step in helping to establish
commlunicatien. I think Steve Metz's
idea of having a advisory group made
up of difrent interests is an excellent
Rules drafted with the whole idea of
starting way ove he so that through the
negotiate process we end up here me
manoher p-oblem. I think that will ruin
some of the trast and confidence, too.
IThe wair mamwpuMn d i*sr could

_ _Ir ___ ___ ____


Panel Discussion

Alternatives to Traditional Water Supply

Sponsored by Suwanne River Water Management District

Dr. Earl Starnes, Chairman,
SRWMD Governing Board

Mr. Jeff Schussler, President,
Syfo Water Company, Inc.

Mr. Jack Teague,
Enviromnental Specialist,
Department of Health and
Rehabilitative Services

Mr. David Pyne, Director of
Water Resources, CH2M Hill

Mr. Howard Rhodes,
Director, Environmental
Programs Division, DER

Jeff Schusler

The State of Florida is one of the
leading states in the country as far as
bottled water regulation and testing its
parameters ae concemd Vaios agen-
cies are seeing that plants are in compli-
ance. Weshouldalsobeconcemedabout
water recharge areas, since they are es-
sential to our wellbeing. The future of
water use in Florida seems to be tied to
increased use of bottled water and it
appears that reuse of wastewater will
play an important role. We must con-
serve our water and apply a proper ra-
tionale to the use of water. Most of the
water that is consumed by humans in
drinking and cooking makes up about
two percent of what is provided to the
public. The rest is used for famning,
flushing the toilet, washing the dog and
taking showers.

Jack Teague

Each public water supply system
must test for all kinds of parameters that
canbe directly related to health threaten-
ing situations or health threatening con-
taminants. However, other substances
can lend undesirable qualities to drink-
ing water which may not be directly
health threatening-odor, color, or iron.
Furthermore, there are some public wa-
ter supplies that, while technically
meeting the regulations, are not desir-
able to drink. That, in conjunction with
the media exposure that contamination
incidents scattered around this state are
receiving, is what is driving this demand
for bottled water.
Community public water system
lines need to be extended whoever pos-
sible and as far as possible so that the
water they receive will not harm them.
Testing of bottled water is exactly
what is expected of a community water
system. This is done for the plant's
source water and for product water, an-
nually. The bottledwater industryseeks
to do what's right andis doing a goodjob
for the most part. Out-of-state bottlers
now also fal under the statute. Any
water sold in this state must be pack-
aged, processed, so labeled and handled
under the same standards for in-state
Protecting recharge areas is abso-
lutelyimperative. Wedon'thaveenough
bottlers using spring water to tel whether
or not consumptive regulations are too
lenient or too stringent.
Water reuse is practical. However,

we need to look at the manner in which
the water is transportedtot Bonsumer
I think we do not want to consider highly
treated wastewater potable. The poten-
tial for cross-connections between this
nonpotable-quality water and potable-
quality water is dangerous.

As the cost of water goes up, new
concepts for solving water supply prob-
lems come to mind. The role of the
engineer is to provide data on the feasi-
bility, reliability, and cost of water sup-
ply alternatives. Water prices are going
up and it is getting harder to find clean
supplies. Because of this, more interest
will be seen in some other ways to obtain
water, such as wastewater reuse.
As the costs of wastewater disposal
goes up, te biggestissue is w e t et
sid of effluent. Some areas ae using
costlygrey-watersystems. Aquiferstor-
ag recovery uses nature's underground
storage capacity to stoe treated drinking
water. Water plants are run at capacity
all yea and the excess water is stored in
the Floidda Aquifer for use during peak
demand times. Water supplies are pro-
tected fom salt water intrusion by stor-
ing the water ergrou along the cot
between the well field and salt water.
User fees ae another alternative.
Since the cost of water is going up, a
service charge or utility tax could be
added. This money could go into a gowth
management trust fund and be used for
well eadprotection, researchnddevel-
opment on reuse, and identifying and

Aranafdva Ma T ui"oual Watr Supply

buying foae wel field aeas.
B gineer plyakeyrole inprovid-
ig infornatinon feasibility, reliabil-
ity and cost. Th fact should be
obtained before decisions are made, not

Bowmef I des

One reason that our bottled water
indstty has grown so fast is because of
news eia coverage. I don't think
Florida is ever going to be without a
water so e. Florida may be without a
source of cheap, fresh water, but there is
water on three sides and there re aqui-
There are health concems about
reuse. Through treatment and proper
operation, wastewater plants can run
and produce a safe water product. Dr-
ing wet weather, however, wastewater
cannot be used for many of the applica-
tios, so there needs to be a back-up
system such as deep well injection. If
there are regulatory traints on sur-
facewaterdischarges, that tends to affect
the name of a nmse program. Another
thing that affects rse is absence of
available cheap, freshwater which tends
to forepeoplelo lookor fr eshwater. If
cosam get high enug, people are going
to look for ahanatves. Ifbe cheapest
alernative is ~es then that is where
they'll turn. Though if solutions are not
found for Mdibar piedd of wet weater,
then most rse systems are not going to
be feasible Howver, I think under
certain coditios we can find reuse and
dchrg otin through rives, seams,
eImms d pedup even wed ank .'The
are things we have to look at if we are
going to promote options. I


Panel Discussion

One-Stop Permitting : The Wave of the Future?

Sponsored by St. Johns River Water Management District

Robert Mandell, Greater
Construction Company

Dale Twachtmann, Secretary,

Jim Swann, Governing Board
Member, SJRWMD

John Wodraska, Executive
Director, SFWMD

Jay Landers, Chairman,
Environmental Efficiency
Study Commission

They have the most trouble with the
WMDs, DER, DCA and the RPC.
Everybody's comment was "do
something, do anything. Anything is
better than what we've got." There are
six different mitigation policies, so there's
nothing that's very clear about wetlands
in Florida.
The EESC received many recom-
mendations. There was talk about hav-
ing a superagency, disbanding all the
WMDs. There was a recommendation to
only have WMDs and disband the DER,
and make the WMDs the almighty per-

Dale Twachtmann

Robert Mandell

The Environmental Efficiency Act
was passed in 1986 in response to devel-
opers' concerns about serious waste in
government and that the latest reorgani-
zation of environmental agencies, in
1975, was incomplete. The Act estab-
lished a 15-member committee to return
a report to the Legislature which clearly
identifies duplication of the administra-
tion of environmental laws and makes
specific recommendations on ways to
eliminate the duplication and inefficien-
We spent a year traveling through-
out the state getting input (complaints)
from people ranging from environmen-
talists, developers, etc., regarding all
agencies--DER, the WMDs, Game and
Fish, DNR, etc. The interesting thing
was that the counties and cities are the
biggest developers in the state of Florida.

One of the problems is that we're
making rules. Everybody's making
rules. ERC makes rules on behalf of the
state, the WMDs make rules on behalf of
their regions, the counties make rules in
the counties and the cities make rules in
the cities. We're all out there trying to
out-environmental one another. Who-
ever passes the first rule is dam sure lost,
because the next rule will be more diffi-
cult and the one after that will be more
difficult. We all want to see whose hat
can be the whitest.
Through the ERC we could write
rules that are more applicable statewide
and then perhaps those of you at the
WMDs and those folks at the counties
could look at what the ERC had done and
say, "This rule is good enough for me. I
like this rule; we'll apply it here." Rules
would not have to be written five or six

The message I get is, "Dale, tell me
what the rules are, treat my competitor
the same as me, and don't change the
damn rules in the middle of the game."
We're trying to do that at DER, as well
as treat all our permit applicants civilly
and professionally and try to help them
as much as we can. We believe the whole
business of rules in Florida, necessary as
they are, can be a lot more palatable.

John Wodraska

I've been with the water manage-
ment district for 15 years trying to ex-
plain and defend the system we're living
with today. It needs fine tuning; no one
can argue about the problems of duplica-
tion and inefficiencies of government.
But I contend it isn't quite as bad as it
has been made out to be.
My job as a manger is to allocate
resources. If this state would spend as
much time fine tuning some of the other
responsibilities we have, we'd have a
much more effective state.
Regulation is one tool we have to
solve our problems and accomplish our
mission. It represents less than 10 per-
cent of our operating budget. We run
land management and land acquisition.
We operate amajorpublic works system.
We do a lot of things other than regula-
tion. If some of the EESC recommenda-
tions make us more of a regulatory
agency, I think we're going to lose that
balance of effective problem solving that
hopefully we've captured right now.
Let me tell you what I think should
be done and should be changed.


One-Stop Permitting

Rather than having a dredge and fill
permit and a surface water management
permit for somebody who wants to de-
velop a tract of land, let's go back to the
law and ask, "What do we want to ac-
complish?" We'd do a lot better than
saying quality's more important than
quantity. Fold Chapter403 with Chapter
373 and bring them together.
We should try to delegate as muchto
local government as possible. There should
be standard setting and I'm prepared to
let the ERC be the standard setter.
Rather than making major revisions
to the system, Iwoulddefendthe existing
system and fine-tune it. It has some
flaws, but let's save it and let's make it
more effective.

Jim Swann

I think water should be managed by
water management districts. It takes a
tremendous effort not to let regulations
become your sole focus, but water man-
agement districts are up to it. We have
an effective and efficient regulatory pro-
gram. We know how to regulate. We've
accepted mandates from the Legislature
and have done pretty well. We have a
continuing and ample funding source.
There's no reason why the regulation
side of our agencies can't be paid for
through fees charged to those people
being regulated.
Let's get a straight line of responsi-
bility and authority into water manage-
ment. The environmental community in
Florida would like to see alayer of super-
vising bureaucracy. I'd like somebody
watching me to make sure I'm doing a
proper job. I'd like to have consistency
where we can have consistency.
As we gather more and more infor-
mation, we have to have basin-specific
rules because it's not fair to other places

to have higher standards statewide be-
cause you have a particular problem in a
basin. We're going to have to have more
consistency or we're going to die in our
own paperwork. Wherever we can have
consistency, whether it's mitigation or
evaluation of wetlands or other things,
certain things must remain consistent
statewide and DER has got to play that
role, in my opinion, through their com-
mission and through their staff, of help-
ing us to make decisions that we can all
agree to.
It's important to realize you can't do
this overnight. The time frames that I've
read and heard about are much too short.
We need to do these things one at a time
and over a longer period of time. But we
need to know the schedule so we can
prepare a budget.
I'm the guy who wants to manage
water at the water management district.

Jay Landers
You can look at Chapters 403, 253,
373 and 380 and find general language in
all of the statutes which enables those
agencies to do about the same thing.
That's what's happened through the years.
There's been a gradual intertwining among
all these agencies.
The primary charge of the EESC is
to eliminate duplication. It's not neces-
sarily one-stop permitting. The most im-
portant issue is that you go to one place
for one issue. If you have a project
involving several different types ofjuris-
diction, you may end up going to two or
three agencies. But at least those agen-
cies won't be doing the same thing. They
won't have a staff analyzing the same
thing, they won't be second-guessing.
They won't be bouncing the applicant
back and forth on the same issue.
In 1975, we tried to separate water
quality and water quantity and it didn't

work. You cannot separate it. It's got to
be managed together. I think the feeling
of the EESC was the water management
districts were better equipped to get into
that business.
We want to encourage the delega-
tion of these regulatory responsibilities
all the way down to local programs if
they have the capability, if they've got
the resources, if they've got the man-
power and appropriate rules and regula-
tions, so they can really handle it. I


Information Sessions

Regional Utility Authority:
An Institutional Response to Water Resource Needs
and Planning

Where the Rubber Meets the Road:
Alternative Approaches to Legislative Mandates

Environmental Education Through Art: The Green
Swamp Artist Series

Computerized Aids to Decision Making:
GIS and Artificial Intelligence

Into Marine Environments:
Our New Challenge

Flood Forecasting on a Shoestring

Water Conservation Through Creative Landscaping

Tampa Bay: Meeting the Challenge of SWIM

Information Session

Regional Utility Authority:

An Institutional Response to Water Resource

Needs and Planning

Sponsored by Northwest Florida Water Management District

Rich McWfiams, Director,
Program Development
Division, NWFWMD

Pat Blackier,
Intergov mental Coordinator,

SG Heath, Director, West
Coast Regional Water Supply

Sm Vergara, Contract
Administrator, Withlacoochee
Water Supply Authority

Do Barr, Director, Water
Resoues Division, NWFWMD

Deug Barr

Bay, Walton, Okaloosa and Santa
Rosa Counties are facing some difficult
decisions regarding water supply, waste
waterdisposal, and solidwastedisposal.
Most of the growth is down in the imme-
diate coastal area. Throughout much of
this area we have layer of saline water
that lies fairly cose to the bottom of the
upper limestone unit. As a result, water
levels have declined in the coastal strip
and theresources ae very, very limited.
The local supply just isn't going to sat-
isfy the needs if this area continues to

The water management district, back
in about 1977, recognized tat this area
wassomething we needed to focus on. In
1977, we initiated some technical studies
to try to identify alternatives for meeting
the water supply needs of Waton County,
Okaoosa County and Santa Rosa Couny.
It was necessary then to evaluate those
alternatives in terms of cost, engineering'
feasiaiiya, ng ocifanI addhCce ty. lIn
this area, the preferred ateative for
meeting the needs in smi Wat.
County was a well field located oth of
h's a little different in Okaloosa
County. Previously all the pumping had
been concentrated in te more southern
area, where the hydraulic characteris-
tics of the aquifer were not terribly good.
What was recommended was that as
pumping demand and stress be tans-
ferred to other areas that were better in
terms of hydraulic characteristics of the
aquifer. The we field could be located
on Egin Air Force Base.
Let me touch upon two other prob-
lems we have in this area. First is solid
waste. I appears hatthe available
landfilling area is not going to last in this
area for more hanprobly other seven
or eight years.
We also have some wastewater prob-
lems which are mostly confied to the
soathm coastal fringe. There may not
be enough land available to dispose of all
watewte properly.

Rich McWifams

The problems that Doug mentioned
are notnew to us. In 1979, based on the
problems and on the fact that local
Chambers of Commerce were going af-
ter the Souh Flda toiss with a venge-
, anoanddpingtuosuccessfully, growth
wasOrdited. We decided to do a sur-
vey of he coastal areas from Panama
City to the Alabmaline to seewhat was
going on with dt public water supply
system. A lot of the systems needed
backup capabilities they didn'thave and
probablycouldnotafford. Someofthem
didn'tknow the locations ofall the water
lines. Some of them had ines very close
to main trun lines of other systems. A
number of these systems had stated to
realize that these were going to be some
limits on water sources.
These were county systems, city
systems, nongovenmental-typesystems
and cooperative systems. We decided
that the best service we could give was to
develop a regional water supply devel-
opment plan.
We stated out by dividing the area
into planning units. We tried to divide it
up by political boundaries and the water
supply systems that were in effect. We
came up with about 11 areas, including
Pensacola, Gulf Breeze, the Southern
Santa Rosa County area, Fort Walton
Beach, the twotownsof: Valparaisoand
Niceville, what we call the Freeport
planning area, Destin, Southern Walton

I ....~.~..... ... ..~_~.. ......~~. ... : .. __ -- ;;:-7-;-=;,-~----- ~ic -7


RegwiWal Uliy Aulkw*i

County, and Panama City Beach. We
looked at all these areas and developed
population projections and water demands
for as far in the future as we felt was
justifiable. We looked again at the water
resource limits in the planing units.
We were looking to see when the
demand curve was going to cross the
supply curve in all these planning units.
S We ran into a problem because of the
touristpopulationandit's till apoblem.
Tourists can double the water use in the
summer time. We developed a maxi-
mum day demand. We compared it
against the supply curve and we found
that some cases within five yeas those
curvescrossed. SoutherWaltonCounty
was a good example of where we knew
within five years, they were going to
need a new supply.
We concentrated on the Fort Walton
Beach, Destin, south WaltonCounty area
because they didn't have anyplace they
couldgoforadditionalwater. Welooked
at the entire range of supply options.
Our first conclusion was that Eglin
Air Force base sat on a reservoir of ground
water that was, for our purposes, almost
limitless. Eglin had decided not to deal
with the local governments for one rea-
son or another, but that was a given we
chose to ignore for a little while.
The final part of the plan in this area
was the interconnection of local water
systems with two well fields, one on
Eglin Air Force Base and one near Free-
port, withiere sections topickup the
coastal communities. These werephased
well fields but that's kind of where we
ended up. By looking at the timing for
these phases we figured that that would
work to provide the water needed for the
coast for the foreseeable future.
We went back and designed smte
mechanisms to put all this together. If
Eglin said "no" to everybody, maybe

they would say "yes" to one. Wethought
the ideawould be to put together a mecha-
nism whereby water supply for this whole
area could be arranged by having Eglin
deal with one unit that could represent
everybody. Wehadmetwithrepresenta-
tives of the water supply systems, city
and county governments, and state and
federal agencies at work in the area.
Wepublished our plan and sent it to
everybody in the area. It sat for about
four years before anything happened
with it. It concerned us all that nothing
moved forward with it. I think there's
one or two reasons for that. One is that
we didn't have a very firm commitment
from the Air Force base that they would
go ahead and deal with a single entity in
an undeveloped well field. The other
was that we didn't have one of those
mechanisms that we had recommended
like the regional water supply authority
or a group of counties or lead agency to
receive this plan and proceed.
One of the governor's Resource
Planning and Management Committees
grabbed hold of the concept and by the
time they finished, we ended up with
some very positive results.

Pat Blackshear

With the unprecedented growth in
Southern Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa,
and Escambia counties, Governor Gra-
ham in late 1983 appointed a Resource
Management and Planing Committee, a
two phase committee. Okaoosa and Wal-
ton counties comprised the first phase,
and the secondphase was Santa Rosa and
Escambia counties. After 16 months,
the committee adopted a plan and sub-
mitted it to the Governor and Cabinet in
March of 1985. The Governor and Cabi-
net approved the plan and at that point it
was put back into the hands of local gov-

emments forimplementation. There's a
scheduled implementation that local
governments had to meet.
After the plan was adopted and sent
back to the local governments for their
impenldia~nduring the fiat yew, they
implemented several of the recommen-
dations. However, they kept dancing
around the recommendation to create a
regional authority for water supply, wale
water, and solid waste transportation.
An intergovenmental subcomamltee was
charged with monitoring this implemen-
tation. That itergoveramental sbcom-

mittee met after the first year and a half,
and told local governments that qve
though they might not like the recon-
mendations, the plan had been adopted
by the committee, the Governor ad he
Cabinet and it was their obligation to
implement the plan.
The local governments saidthey did
not feel the need for a regional water
supply authority. They felt that they
could develop a coordinating authority
that could do the same thing and imple-
meat the plan. So the itergovenmental
subcommittee said, go ahead with your
coordinaing authority (which was only
to plan for water supply, wastewater and
solid waste). Well, another six months
went by and it was time for the local gov-
ernments to bite the bullet. We didn't
want them to see us as anything else but
a technical assistance source they could
call on when they needed it.
The regional planning council and
the District got together. The regional
planning council provided clerical staff,
and the district provided them with tech-
nical, administrative andlegal staff to at
least bring the local governments around
the table.
It took until September 23,1986 to
getalocal agreementsigned. During bis
period, the District suggested including

s~-.~.. ~. ~-------FC' "~ ~~ ~i~' i ---`-C~i`-~";'ii~~-~I'I--`~(~-~`.. -is_~-~L_;-rn-n--~-

Regional Utity Authority

Santa Rosa County in the authority be-
cause they have similar water supply
problems. So we went to the Santa Rosa
Coaty cmaidso and c we pleaded with
them to join the process, even though
they were t the secondphase of the plan.
After about four meetings and dragging
Mr. McCaitney ii Milton and pleading
with tihe, we got them to join the proc-
eas. Sowe adal the local governments,
thee counties and four cities sitting
around a table tallmg about how they
were goingtoiplemeat regional water
supply plan. hen we started talking
about the other issues of solid waste and
waewater. Two mons later, one spe-
cfic city councilan aiggesed going
for a regioal aedority todeal with solid
waste ad wastewater ses, not just
water suplyhe.
The local governments wantedit and
the District provided technical infonna-
tion and assistance. They decided to go
forta `aedo utility. Wegot
our legal oso l ind v ed and he helped
usout We came up with the idea under
163.01 that the local governments had
the authority to plan together for solid
waste and water disposal They decided
to implement the water supply plan and
get involvedin the waste water and solid
waste issues.
Their local agreement was under
163.01 and 373.1962 and it is called the
Okaloosa, Wahon, Santa Rosa Regional
Utility Authoity. At ta point, we leaked
that we had to go through a 120 process
of rdes adoption. After the rile adop-
tionprocess, we asked what are we going
to do about solid waste and wastewater?
The District, during the 380 Com-
mittee'sdevelopment ofthe plan, made a
presentation to that full committee on the
wastewater ad the solid waste problems
in the area as they relate to ground water
contamination. Currently, the District is

supplying technical staff in developing a
proposal forthse studies. Thosestudies
are in their first year. At the same time,
our program development people are
working on updating the regional water
supply plain conjunction with the local
officials as they're updating or develop-
ing their comprehensive plan under the
1985 Legislation. We're communicat-
ing with te local onthe population
projection because that's the guiding
We suggested joint financial contri-
butions in the project to all the local
utilities. Okaloosa and Walton Counties
put in $,000 each over a two year
period. Santa Rosa County came in as a
utility because, at that time, they had an
ongoing solid waste station. They only
wantedto articipatein the water and the
wastewater parts ofthe project. They
came in a utility company and put in
money. All major utility companies in
this area ae participating. Al the utili-
ties are paying, the couies that were
forcedtoimplenmsatheplan armpaying,
DCA ispaying adthe District ispaying.
It woaed out to be a real ice bnding
package and I don't know of body
that's not happy with our funding for-
mula at this point
The study is in its first year and
we've got the update ofthe water supply
plan going on mutaneouly. The util-
ity companies at are putting in the
money sit as the technical advisory
committee to mthaority and they ave
made some eally outstanding recon-

Gene Heath

I guess the thing we have going for
us is that there is a vehicle capable of
solving problems. You have to have the
right people in the right place and you

have to be ready to mve when the right
people re on y4u bo ida d in the
various coamisiodlhat V&ib repre-
sen aedondie it e be1fond that
a tecuaicl 19i'cM bic lb there
can be a ipodlital .lo Sbtetimes
it's the reveme: A-illLs amount of
flAkiity is -q1ed on ftd pat of an
intilm eIm c ar iaad lo awioy in
oner to mahe it moobP L Pow years
wet by before we got o operating our
first facility. Ten years ago, when I first
joined the auhoty, we had a budget of
$300,000 and we wee just stating to
save ou first cstooer. Today our
budgetisover$50million adweenrow
serving over 800,000 people.
As things stared t move, problem
grew but our ability to find solutions also
increased. There is a grater relation-
ship of trust between boad members
ad slff. Now when you come inoone
ofourbod meetings, there me millions
of dollars in deciamo da atre aade.
Togibr, we have eov ome prmbleo
m-e easily as time moved on.

SOmMy Vmeyw

I'm supposed to tak about implem-
entation. I am th contract administrator
for the Withacoodee Regional Water
Supply Aautmlty. My fa has the con-
tract to provide adm itive services
for two waer spply auutities: the
Wihacoochee and the Peace River-
Manasta which conssts of Sarasota,
Manaee, Deob and Chlltte coun-
The first thing that happens is an
acknowledgement of the needs. It is
govermes against governments. It is
politicians trying to serve their constitu-
entm and having to he somewhat paro-
chial but recogniing overall the is a
common problem at needs to be re-

I I I I~- I.-


r I --`~ ...,1..~~ ~ ~ I~lsl~sM

Then there is an assessment of the
extent of the need, where all the parties
that are exposed to this need and con-
fronting the problem come to an agree-
ment. This can happen right away or it
can happen toward the end. The closer
the agreement occurs toward the actual
creation of the water supply authority,
the closer to absolute disaster you get,
because then the need is critical and the
sociopolitical conflicts are beginning a
At some point there has to be a
technical assessment of the need. You
look at the projected growths, the types
of water uses and what types of uses are
going to be confrontedin the future. And
then you assess the alternative sources.
You look at all the sources that are avail-
able. Those alternatives are becoming
more than just a ground water assess-
ment these days. And that's the vision of
Bill McCartney and his regional utility
The problem's gone beyond water.
Water has become mixed with solid waste
disposal and those kind of problems. So,
as regional water supply authorities be-
come implemented from this point for-
ward, they become less water supply
authorities and more regional utility sys-
tems. Gene was instrumental in con-
fronting the Legislature with a request
for giving water supply authorities the
opportunity or the authority to become
involved in waste water disposal because
then you can reuse that water. That is a
new source of water, because with every
drop you reuse, you've got a drop that
you didn't have before. Anyway, you
have this social recognition of a need,
you have a technical assessment of the
extent of the need, then you have a tech-
nical assessment of the alternative sources,
and then you're thrown back into the

sociopolitical situation again. At this
point, you must have agreement. You've
got to create the vehicle that is actually
going to resolve that water supply prob-
And then comes funding. You've
got to identify your sources. Bill Mc-
Cartney is the consummate fund raiser.
He is a genius at being able to overcome
lack of funding.
The last technical step is construc-
tion. Then there is a nurturing of the
political versus the technical versus the
funding and the whole thing comes to-
gether. I think that every water supply
authority the Withlacoochee, Peace
River, South Brevard, West Coast, North-
west-is going through those stages and
each of them is in a different stage. I


- I

Information Session

Where the Rubber Meets the Road:

Alternative Approaches to Legislative Mandates

Sponsored by Suwannee River Water Management District

Nolan Col,
Program Administer, SRWMD

Bob Heeke, Land Manager,

The Water Quality Assurance Act of
1983 mandated DER to establish a state-
wide ground water quality monitoring
network. Through a series of agree-
ments, the department enlisted the aid of
the water management districts to work
under common guidelines and compat-
ible methodologies to set up their
respective local networks.
Forthe Suwannee River WaterMan-
agement District, the legislative man-
date to develop an assurance program
represented a challenge: wewouldhave
to view the mandate not as a separate
charge, but as one to be merged with ex-
isting district goals and objectives.
The way to get the most mileage
while carrying the weight of the program
would be to share the wealth and respon-
sibility. This meant recognizing what
others had to offer and would involve,
where possible, the help of other state
agencies and the private sector in carry-
ing out the program. We looked for a
mutually beneficial exchange. In the
course of this program, we have worked
with DER, DNR, FGS, HRS, IFAS, Board
of Trustees, DOF, USGS, timber compa-
nies, private landholders, well drilling
contractors, engineering firms, and a water
quality lab.

This district also has a very plain di-
rective on what is expected for land ac-
quisition and management which are
funded through the Save Our Rivers (SOR)
program. Chapter 373.59, FS, states that
these SOR lands will be managed in an
"environmentally acceptable manner, and,
to the extent practicable, in such a way as
to restore and protect their natural state
and condition." These lands "shall also
be used for general public recreational
At the federal level, the District pur-
sued a buy-back arrangement with the
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
(USFWS) on the 9,300-acre Brunswick
Tract. This tract was sold to the USFWS
for inclusion in the Lower Suwannee
River National Wildlife Refuge. The
land management programs were then
turned over to the USFWS.
At the state level, the District is
using several alternatives. However, all
management activities and/or develop-
ment plans must be in accordance with
FS 373.59 and meet the approval of the
District. One option is a basic manage-
ment agreement. An example of this
option is to assist in acquisition of river-
front parcels that are inside or adjacent to
state acquisition projects (CARL pro-
The District has entered into a tract-
specific management agreement with the
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission (FGFWFC) on the 5,400-acre
Santa Fe Swamp Tract. The FGFWFC
lends its expertise by reviewing tract
management plan drafts to ensure that

wildlife considerations are adequate to
protect the resource.
Another important arrangement the
district has with the FGFWFC is the
policy of leasing 1-acre homesites on
district lands to law enforcement person-
nel. In these leases, the District pays the
costs of capital improvements such as
wells and septic tanks. These sites are
leased for one dollar a month to the game
officer so that there will be alaw enforce-
ment presence on the site.
The District has entered into a
"memorandum of agreement" with the
Division of Forestry (DOF) and the Divi-
sion of Parks and Recreation of the De-
partment of Natural Resources (DNR).
In this agreement, the District assumes
the role of the land owner and reserves
the right to approve all management
projects and their associated costs. The
DNR manages tracts with high or poten-
tially highpublicrecreational use. These
lands are leased to the DNR for a 20-year
term. The DNR must submit a manage-
ment plan with a 5-yearplanning horizon
within 90 days of acquisition. Once this
plan is approvedby the District, it may be
implemented. The DNR assumes all
future management costs and responsi-
bilities on these lands.
As mentionedearlier, the bulk of the
District's lands is forested. The DOF is
the agency charged with managing and
protecting forest lands in Florida. At the
present time, most of the District's lands
are being managed by the DOF. In the
agreement, the district agrees to pay all
"out of pocket" costs incurred by the

I I Bka

______________________________Altrae Approaces to Lqegisalve MaIs

DOFduring ladmamagemen activities.
Te DOF must smbi managemtplans
within 90 days of acquisWon for the
trcts under their controL Aaalplama
ofwok andbdgetsfor thesetacts mst
be approved by the dis tct pdri to my
commencement of wok Quarterly in-
voices from d.i DOF for ependitures
am also mbect o district pprovaL

couatygovenment. Thecolmuy assumes
al managemet costs and reposibili-
ties. I


Information Session

Environmental Education Through Art:

The Green Swamp Artist Series

Sponsored by Southwest Florida Water Management District

Susan Kessel

When you want people to re-
member an important message, some-
times it helps if you paint them a
picture. That's exactly what the Green
Swamp Artist Series (GSAS) is all
The Southem Association of Habi-
tat Artists, in cooperation with the
Southwest Florida Water Manage-
ment District, is preparing a collec-
tion of original artwork to showcase
district-owned lands in the Green
The 600,000-acre Green Swamp
is the dominant hydrologic feature in
the District's 16-county region and
probably ranks second only to the
Florida Everglades in terms of envi-
ronmental and hydrologic significance
to the state. It forms the headwaters
of four major rivers: the Hillsbor-
ough, the Peace, the Withlacoochee
and the Oklawaha. It provides vital
recharge to the Floridan Aquifer.
Its forests and swamps provide
cover and shelter for many game and
wildlife species, including several,
such as the wood stork, that are con-
sidered endangered or of special
concern. A mosaic of habitats rang-
ing from cypress stand to long-leaf
pine, the Green Swamp weaves arich
tapestry of diverse habitat shelters. It
nourishes ibis and other waterfowl,
plus upland game birds and animals.

We have acquired more than 46,000
acres of recharge area and river corridor
in the swamp to help protect the water
The area is dotted with archaeo-
logical and historical sites. It has been
inhabited by humans since 12,000 -
6,500 B.C. ItwashometotheSeminole
Indians during the First and Second
Seminole Wars. The swamp was heav-
ily logged from the early 1800's to 1940
and we still use the logging roads that
were cut through the swamps and the
old railroad beds that were built by the
Cummer company to haul out timber.
I have lived next to the Green Swamp
for 15 years, and yet I never knew its
value until I came to the District two
years ago. I've now had a crash course
in "heightened awareness" and I have
been searching for ways to get our
message of the Green Swamp's signifi-
cance out to the public. After working
on this project for the past five months,
I am convinced that this art collection
will be the most successful public edu-
cation project our district has ever under-
Ironically, the project came about
from a casual conversation at the open-
ing of Robert Butlers gallery in Lakeland.
Knowing that he had previously been
commissioned to do a painting of the
Green Swamp, I asked him if he had
ever been on District land. He said no,
so I told him I would be happy to ar-
range a tour for him. A few weeks later,
he phoned and said that he and six other
artists had formed a group called the

Southern Association of Habitat Artists.
Their goal was to record the beauty of
natural areas and draw public attention to
the needto preserve these areas. Andthey
wanted to start with the Green Swamp.
Earlyplans for the GSAS centered on
a collection of paintings to be displayed in
a cooperative exhibit with the District.
But it was readily apparent that, with the
help of a corporate sponsor, the collection
could be exhibited statewide and have a
much broader impact. Enter...First Flor-
ida Banks.
Bronson Thayer, Chairman of the
Board of First Florida Banks, was very
receptive to my proposal. After all, since
"Florida is their middle name," they were
the obvious choice to sponsor this exhibit.
Discussions with senior bank officials
quickly led to a larger, more comprehen-
sive program.
The collection will debut at the Tampa
Museum of Art, which is located next to
the Hillsborough River (which has its
headwaters in the swamp). After this, the
collection will travel around the state for
temporary exhibits in First Florida of-
fices. Some of the works will be repro-
duced over the next few years in a series of
wildlife and resource protection theme
calendars produced by the bank for its
customers. First Florida distributes more
than 120,000 of these calendars each year.
Additionally, we are developing plans
for a five-year effort to improve environ-
mental awareness and education. Local
input will help tailor the project to differ-
ent regions of the state which have differ-


- i

Greex Swam., Artiat Serk

ent environmental and hydrologic char-
acteristics. We willbe seeking the coop-
eration of other agencies in this effort as
We are pleased to receive such a
strong commitment of time and money
from a prominent corporate citizen like
First Florida Banks who wants to help
protectFlorida'squalityoflife. Such co-
operation and commitment between
bin and movement is an idea whose
time has come. Believe we are going to
see more and more of these partnersips.
This project is one of those rare oc-
casions when everyone involved bene-
fits from the experience. The artists gain
widerexposure for theirwoak, which can
bring Floridians a better understanding
of why natural treasures like the Geen
Swamp should be prottecd. The bank
benefits from the enhancement of its
corporate image. The public gains a
broader awareness and a free education
abouttheenvironmentaroundthem. And
the District has an excellent opportunity
to spread its message about the impor-
tance of the Green Swamp in protecting
and preserving Florida's water re-
sources. I

Information Session

Computerized Aids to Decision Making:

GIS and Artificial Intelligence

Sponsored by South Florida Water Management District

Steve Reel, Senior Staff
Analyst, SFWMD

Brent Mel, GIS Coordinator,

Gary Gerth, Senior Water
Resources Engineer, SFWMD

Geograpic Ifmationa System

Ten yea ago, the South Florida
WaterManageme Districtinvestedina
Compuervisio CAD system in der to
develop a geographic dta base. That
system, which has been integrated with
60 AutoCad wok stations thughout
the District, is now reaching its limits.
As the need for enhanced geo-databas
codotues to grow, the District has taken
two steps to meet that need:
1) we have contracted with the five
Regional Planning Councils that inter-
sect our boundaries to provide a up-
dated land se data base; and 2) we are
embakng on the development of a
Geographic information System (OIS)
that will enable us to integrate the many
data bases that exist in terms of land and
water use.
The basic GIS system involves both
inputs such as consumptive use and sur-
face water management peritting, geo-
graphic data remote sesin dt, land-
sat tapes and visual summary data. Es-
sentially, the system enables the digitiz-
ing of graphic data.

An AutoCad system demonstrates
many of the same capabilities for data
storage as does the GIS. For example,
land use pattems, boundaries, informa-
tion on transportation, census tracts and
water use canbestoredinAutoCadpoly-
gons. However, the value of GIS is that it
allows as to merge this information -
over several qadran even--and create
a mosaic of land and water use informa-
tion that will be crucial for future deci-
Presently, the Sout Florida Water
Management District is in the process of
conducting a needs aessment tht will
determine which District data bases (i.e.
pemining water qualy manriring ood
control operations, etc.) as well as which
external bases of information, for ex-
ample, infonation provided by local
government and Regional Planni
Coucils, should be incorporated into
OIS. Thisknowledge willdetem the
type of hardware and software in which
we wil need to invest A second deter-
minantiscompatibilty. Theultimatese-
lection and implementation of GIS must
be accomplished to allow for conversion
of existing District AutoCad files and to
maintain compatibility with other agen-
cies such as the U.S. Geological Survey,
IFAS, county governments and the other
water manageme districts which e
liesedeve ming AutoatedReason-
ing Tools.

Artifme l dt eigence

The South Florida Water Manage-
met District is curntly developing a

real-time decision support system to
enhance the efficiency of structural op-
erations. The District operates the Cen-
tal Soute Florida FloodControl Proj-
ect (C&F system) a system of over
1,400 miles of canals and levees and
approximately 300 water control struc-
tres ranging from weis to elaborate
pump stations. The general operating
strategy -how waterismovedandstored
andteleasedthroughthe project- allows
the District to provide flood protection
and water apply. Writ the sea
operating strategy, guidelines exist to
promost wtr nft po-tctin and

In addition to a general strategy, the
project is also operated o the basis of
operational rules pertaining to structural
design, regulation schedules and hydro-
logic conditions. Additional guidelines
have been developed over the years in
responsetospedfccoustui needs. A
set of "super operating condition" also
apply in the event of a huaicane or se-
vere drought. These spercede nominal
operating idelins. Fnally, the system
must also be responsive to Special Oper-
ating Rules that derive from specific
environmental concerns or site-specific
legal constraints. Combined these four
levels of operational guidelines account
fortauee tofurth sndoperatingrules.
The operation of e C&Fsystem re-
quires that many factors be taken into
account: hydrologiccnditions,weather
paItter and forecast, structural capa-
biliies water quality concern, tidal
cycles. Coection of tis data is accom-
plished at several levels. A microwave

GIS and Artificial InAlligence

telemetry network developed in the early
1970's collects data from 650 sensors
that can generate up to 300,000 informa-
tion records during a storm event. Other
data acquisition sources include telephone-
based sensing units, manual readings,
and ties to weather radar installations
and satellites.
Traditionally, the District has relied
on the experience and background of
staff experts to assimilate incoming in-
formation and make decisions about struc-
tural operations within the context of op-
erational guidelines. However, we are
developing an artificial intelligence de-
cision support system to encompass all
decision making algorithms while in-
creasing the efficiency of its supervisory
control system.
That support system, known as
OASIS, or Operations Assistance and
Simulated Intelligence System, consists
of two elements: 1) a set of tools that
allows access to all available data, and 2)
an Operators Advisor, known as an ex-
pert system that assists an operator's de-
cision making by providing all the op-
tions available for operating structures
and by suggesting a set of actions for
The process of developing the OASIS
system involves an exhaustive interroga-
tion of the expert staff so that theirknowl-
edge can be extracted and extrapolated
into the Artificial Intelligence system. In
addition to knowledge extrapolation, the
process also requires verification to en-
sure that the knowledge transmitted to
the computer conforms to what the ex-
pert actually intended.
Currently, the District has devel-
oped a prototype of OASIS over a se-
lected subset of District structures in the
Everglades Agricultural Area south of
Lake Okeechobee. The prototype con-
tains four features:

1) an Operations Status Element that
provides the operator with a snapshot of
existing conditions; 2) an Operations
Assistant that provides a trend analysis
feature; 3) an Operators Advisor, or the
expert system; and 4) an Alarm System
that will alert the operator to three levels
of warning. An evaluation will deter-
mine if OASIS should be expanded
throughout the entire District
While Artificial Intelligence is still
in the testing stages, it is evident that
many benefits can accrue from the pro-
gram. Daily operations will gain an
improved data base. Ongoing trend analy-
sis will enable more timely responses to
critical conditions. OASIS will make
improved coordination with local water
management districts possible and allow
for evaluation of different operational
strategies. On a final note, it will serve as
an exceptional training tool for opera-
tions staff. I


Information Session

Into Marine Environments: Our New Challenge

Sponsored by Northwest Florida Water Management District

Ed Lowe, Director of
Environmental Permitting
Division, SJRWMD

Pete Hubbell, Assistant
Executive Director, SWFWMD

Pete Rhoades Director of
Resource Planning, SFWMD

Cynthia Drew SWIM
Project Manager, SFWMD

Doug Barr Director, Water
Resources Division,

Pete HubbeU

The Southwest Florida Water Man-
agement District has served on several
technical advisory committees, such as
the Charlotte Harbor Committee. Many
of the recommendations that came out
of that committee had a lot to do with
how we permit our consumptive use
program in the southern part of the
district, specifically on the Peace River,
probably the major contributor of fresh
water to the Charlotte Harbor system.
We also sit on an advisory committee
on Tampa Bay called the Agency on
Better Management. So our past in-
volvement includes planning, coordi-
nation, research and permitting but we
lack the experience in restoration, con-
servation and preservation as spelled
out in the SWIM Act.
SWIM is currently being budgeted

on a district-wide basis. As many of you
know, Tampa Bay was identified as a
priority for our district and our district's
20 percent match comes out to $2.5 mil-
lion. Of that, $850,000 is to be spent on the
data compilation effort and water quality
Over the years, numerous agencies,
municipalities, and environmental con-
servation groups have done an awful lot of
work on the Bay. There have been studies,
projects and public awareness programs.
There's been a lot of permitting done but
there really hasn't been a focus. I think
this will help reduce duplication of efforts
and help fill gaps in the restoration of
Tampa Bay. It will help us develop more
cost effective programs. The SWIM trust
fund has $15 million appropriated to it this
We really have to make the best, most
efficient, most effective use of those dol-
Like many of the districts, I think
we're all hustling to tryto get ourpriorities
together. We're going to write the number
of projects that we feel we can handle in
any one year, which are Tampa Bay and
three other projects. We'll base that number
on staff available and the projectedbudget.
Other water bodies that make our list will
be in an alphabetizedpool. As we address
our priorities, or as the future fiscal year's
budget expands and we're able to hire
more people, we'll bring more of those
waterbodies up to address them during the
fiscal year. We're working currently with
the Ad Hoc Committee made up of DNR,
DER, and the Game Commission. When-
everwe develop that priority list, it's going
to be a consensus from these four major
environmental agencies.

As I mentioned, one of the big work
efforts is data compilation. The problem
with Tampa Bay is that all the informa-
tion that's been generated has been in
different locations and different formats.
The way we're headedis to get acompre-
hensive database for Tampa Bay. We
have divided this up into three phases.
The University of South Florida's center
for marine science is involved in the
actual data compilation, trying to find
out what the data is, where it's at, and
what format it's in. The second phase of
the project is the actual database con-
struction. The third phase will be an
online database easily accessible by
water management district scientists and
planners to make sound planning deci-
sions in that area.
An important element in any project
involved with SWIM is a public aware-
ness program. We had a SWIM confer-
ence in Tampa at the end of September.
It was an opportunity forthe local people,
municipalities and local scientific com-
munity to voice their concerns. It was
well attended and well received. An-
other activity we're involvedin is talking
with major newspapers and homeowners
in the Tampa Bay area. We're hoping to
get an insert in the paper which would be
a homeowner's guide to Tampa Bay about
the SWIM program. The insert would
cover the impact of certain homeowner
activities on water quality in Tampa Bay.
The District is really viewing SWIM
as an opportunity to have some positive
impacts on Tampa Bay.

- T- ~~

Into Marine Environments

Pete Rhoades

The South Florida Water Manage-
ment District ended up with three key
legislative priorities. First and foremost
is Lake Okeechobee. Biscayne Bay and
Indian RiverLagoon also were identified
in the SWIM legislation.
Let me talk to you a little bit about
where we've been in recent years. The
estuarine area is one that we were forced
into in the early 1970s. The reason is that
one of Lake Okeechobee's major outlays
discharges to the St. Lucie estuary. When
Lake Okeechobee gets too high, the Corps
of Engineers has no option but to dis-
charge large quantities of water into the
St. Lucie Estuary. This happened a num-
ber of times in the early 1970s, and our
biologistsbecameinvolved. In 1977, we
felt we had a basic understanding ofhow
that fresh water was disrupting the St.
Lucie estuary. We started doing some
experimental discharges and tried to pin
down various levels of fresh water dis-
charge. We got to the point earlier this
year where we had a specific solution
recommendation on the St. Lucie estu-
ary. We had what we felt was a scientifi-
cally sound, low flow discharge to better
minimize salinity fluctuations in that
The cornerstone of our St. Lucie
work has been modeling that relates fresh-
water inflows to salinity response within
the estuary. Earlier this year, our key bi-
ologists on the St. Lucie estuary came up
with a method for determining how to
put low flow fresh water discharges into
the system to maintain the salinity range
in order to preserve and maintain its
function as a nursery for a number of
sports and commercial fisheries.
Where we now need to target our
efforts is on water quality. After we cut
our teeth on the St. Lucie, we initiated a

similar program over on the Caloo-
sahatchee estuary. The questions are:
How is the fresh water impacting the
biota of that system? In the Indian River
Lagoon, we've had a successful joint
effort with the St. Johns River Water
Management District. I think it sets a
good base for where we go with our
SWIM efforts.
Finally, back to the Biscayne Bay
and to the Indian River Lagoon. We've
been working hard on Biscayne Bay for
the past couple of months. The Depart-
ment of Environmental Resources Man-
agement (DERM), Dade County, has been
intensively studying the Bay for the past
six or seven years. Our approach was to
build on what they've done. In recent
discussions, we concurred with DERM
that there's a need for additional water
quality monitoring in tributaries. So
where we think we're going is towards a
water quality monitoring program con-
tracted with DERM and an expanded en-
forcement program contracted with
DERM. A big portion of our money is
currently earmarkedforretrofitting some
stormwater connections to the wastewa-
ter system. We feel we can target our
funds to have the best initial impact by
doing some retrofitting on stormwater
With the Indian River Lagoon, we
have a totally different situation and a
long way to go. We basically want to
work with the St. Johns District to de-
velop a coordinated approach, with DER
involvement and Rain Resources Coun-
sel involvement. In that regard, I asked
our project manager on the Indian River
Lagoon, Cynthia Drew, to take the last
minute and talk about where we think
we're going on the Indian River Lagoon.

Cynthia Drew

There's alot more that's known now
about Biscayne Bay than Indian River
Lagoon. We want to fill in the exact
pieces of data we need to go forward. In
interagency meetings with DNR, DER
and MRC, ourinitial plan would focus on
laying our projects on the table. We've
got a wide range of projects, like DER's
suggestion of retrofitting the City of Fort
Pierce. Our governing board passed a
memorandum of understanding that will
set up how we work with St. Johns and
will allow St. Johns to contract with
MRC for $178,000. That will include
some hydrodynamic monitoring, a ground
water study, completion of a bibliogra-
phy on the Indian River Lagoon, some
land use developing, and some overall
planned development. We look toward a
program that fills in some of these sig-
nificant data deficiencies Pete talked about
but we're also looking toward some-
thing practical for St Lucie County, Maitin
County, and the other counties that can
help with the problems they have. We
also see a public awareness program as
part of the implementation phase.

Doug Barr

Working in marine environments is
not really a new challenge for the
NWFWMD. We've been working in
estuarine systems in our district for at
least the last 10 years. I'd like to discuss
a restoration program that we've been
working on the last few years over in the
western panhandle.
Old Pass Lagoon, also known as
Destin Harbor, is located in Okaloosa
County. It's a relatively small water
body, oriented east to west, adjoining
Choctawhatchee Bay. East Pass con-
nects the Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.

Into Marine Environments

There is only one small outlet to the Gulf.
There is heavy development in this area,
particularly along the southern shore.
You don't have to be a hydrologist to
very quickly recognize that this water
bodyhas got some problems The lagoon
has had a history of fish kills, very low
oxygen levels, and high nutrient loads,
particularly phosphorus and nitrogen.
Along the northern area of Old Pass,
we have a series of waste water percola-
tion ponds that we suspected might be
impacting the lagoon. We put in a number
of monitor wells and measured the nutri-
ent concentrations and water levels...and
found, in fact, that we had an elongated
plume running from the wastewater per-
culation ponds. We found that the phos-
phorus concentrations tenuated quickly
in the immediate vicinity of the percola-
tion ponds and were not impacting the
lagoon but nitrogen was different. If you
motor around this lagoon, you'll see a lot
of green lawns. Obviously, people are
loading up on fertilizers. As stormwater
discharges, we have percolation pond
wastewater entering into the system along
with fertilizers. These are average condi-
tions. We also have some brown water
loaded with nitrogen and phosphorus.
The system, Old Pass Lagoon, is to a
large degree dominated by Choc-
tawhatchee Bay and the bay itself con-
tributes large amounts of nitrogen and
phosphorus into the system. Moving
from the mouth back, we're seeing pro-
gressively worse water quality condi-
tions. Most of the organic sediments are
being deposited back in the more remote
portions of the lagoon.
We began a restoration program.
What we found was that we almost hadto
start from scratch in our systematic water
quality program. No water quality pro-
gram had ever been run on this lagoon.
We had almost no information on the
flushing circulation characteristics on the

water body. We felt that a three-dimen-
sional model was absolutely essential to
understand the hydraulics, the circula-
tion, and the flushing characteristics of
this water body.
All of the marine systems that we've
worked on so far exhibited a counterflow
from salt water moving through to the
bottom, and the fresher water sliding up
over the top. We have a model some-
thing like this for Choctawhatchee Bay,
just north of Old Pass Lagoon. We found
the same thing: fresh water sliding over
the top of the more saline water. These
counter currents demonstrate the need to
have a three-dimensional hydraulic model.
We're dealing here with a very poordy
flushed water body, at least in the more
remote sections. These remote areas in
Sandpiper Cove are also the ones that are
receiving most of the nutrients from the
stormwater and the perculation ponds.
What would happen if we took all the
organic sediments out? What would
happen if we eliminated the wastewater
being discharged? What would happen
if we eliminated the stormwater discharg-
ing into the water body? Wetriedtolook
at different regulatory programs that could
be used to help resolve the problem.
Whatwe foundwas they didn'twork. No
matter what we did, during the summer
conditions we were going to have almost
no dissolved oxygen in the back half of
the lagoon. Even in winter, we were also
going to have problems, even if we elimi-
nated the stormwater, even if we elimi-
nated the wastewater, even if we dredged
out the organic sediments. Those actions
by themselves were not going to be enough.
In this case it was this three-dimen-
sional hydraulic model that allowed us to
draw that conclusion. It was obvious to
us on the basis of the model that it was
necessary to improve circulation in this
water body. The design we arrived at is
an intake structure feeding into the Gulf

of Mexico with a pump station. What
we'd be doing is drawing clean, high
oxygen water from the Gulf of Mexico
and discharging it into Sandpiper Cove,
the most degraded portion of the water
body. The model shows how the circula-
tion facility could be used to improve
water quality and flush the entire system.
After two days of flushing, Sandpiper
Cove is completely flushed. After seven
days, most of the back half of the lagoon
is completely flushed. After 17 days of
pumping, we have completely flushed
the system.
The Old Pass Lagoon project is an
example of restoration programs that the
districts will be getting into more.

Ed Lowe

The nature of an estuary is largely
determinedby the quantity and quality of
the freshwater discharge into the estuary.
The St. Johns District is literally perme-
ated with the influence of the marine en-
vironment. Of our eight major surface
water and drainage basins, five of them
show this influence. In fact, that marine
influence extends beyond the area of
tidal influence. In Lake George, there is
an industry for blue crabs. We have
some other interesting marine features in
the St. Johns. We find nearly-salt marsh
communities that are surroundedby fresh
water marshes. We also have some high
saline springs throughout one stretch of
the river. So many marine species of fish
and birds can be found clear down to
Lake Point Seth. Most of the St. Johns is
really influenced by the marine environ-
What's been the history of our in-
volvement in the estuarine environment?
In 1982, we started working in estuaries.
The idea was to begin discerning where
the freshwater/saltwater interface was in


-- 11119

s--)W ..**:n**

.-.,-- .. ....- .- -- IWn wk Re9 9waiuMne ut

A1&NasauRiver. AbMlUatP tWe
had a pemaent water quality monitor-
ing network amd begai to add some sta-
tions up in the St. May's, the Nassau,
amd some of the coastal basins. In 1985,
we really began to address this susbect in
eamnstwith a cooperiveeffortbetween
dieSt. Jons, South, ad te Southwest
Fklk Dia lctls. T study i slated to
be completed this year. We have a fin-
iahed document which contains a wealth
ofinfonadon on what is now known
about Indman River Lagoon. Unfortu-
nately, we don't know enough yet to
know what it is that we need to do.
We intend to crease the number of
stations in our SWIM Program for the
Indian River Lagoon. We're continuing
the Nassau River Study which should be
completed this year. There will be a
SWIM Program for the lower St. Johns,
and a SWIM Proam for the lower comsal
basin, which is the India River Lagoon.
We recognize that in both of these sys-
tems the amount of infomaion that we
hae and how they function ecologically
is insfidcent to develop a complete
estoration program. So we anicipate
ut there will be data collection. We
will beefip our regulatory program and
coopnae wih other agencies to enforce
So what has this done in terms of our
funding for estuary work? Obviously,
we're going to have to increase our pro-
gram to a certain extent. We're possibly
in the $6 million neighborhood for re-
search and restoration efforts in these
two largeestuarnesystems. Clearly, our
marine program has escalated signifi-
canty. So it looks like the estuaries are
bere to stay for the St. Johns Disict. I


Iforown Session

Flood Forecasting on a Shoestring

Sponsored by Suwannee River Water Management District

ak tRuppmrberger, Water
Resource Plamer, SRWMD

Demd Merwe, Water
Rescue Specilist, SRWMD

Jak SeeSdmA
National Weater Service

Caroy Mobbey, Public
mInfo ation Diector,SRWMD

Chapter 373, F.S., provides for te
coervan p mon, manage-ment
andcoutrol ofthe wars of the state by
the wal r aaulenwe districts. It also
di- s atPedisaitopDrmoe thehealth,
afty, ad gaeral were of de people
by prvengwb dae cwum by food
isg, souilooem ao cemivedraim e.
In 1979, the oveming Board ofthe
Suwame River Waer Mmaemont Dis-
trict (SRWMD) adoptedapolcyofoon-
structural floodplini management In
qp3nt mg ths policy, the District
has placed a greater emphasis on regula-
tion, acquisition, river monitoring and
public educaon to protect those poten-
tially affected by a disastrous occurrence.
In 1985, the District adopted the
Aucia, Alapaha, Suwannee, Santa Fe
and Withlacoochee rivers as "Works of
the District" as described in Chapter 40B-
4, FAC. This designation provides the
District with the permitting authority to
enrea development standards which
consider natural flooding events.
In 1981, the Florida Legislature es-
tablished the Water Management Lands

Trust FPnd to provide funding for the
purchase of lads. Since 1981, the
SRWMD bas padmed -e then 11,000
aces offlodway rad uplam areas ad,
in 1986, adopted 10-yer LandAcqi-
sition Management Pla which ideti-
fed an additional 79,045 acres to be ac-
quired over the next 10 years.
In addition to these prgams, the
ongoing emergency response capidli-
ties of te SRWMD include de celec-
tion, ver moaitodn puMic infodma-
don, andpartcltdon with de National
Weaaer Service to foecat rvercoadi-
doMe. Most of t sovoem oodbingi tsh
disictisiOm u*dwioaiMyste- s
which prod-ce wiadspe e diHori ais
of di fUlIwo- al-Iddys'daio. Hood-
bg occo most freqoudy rom Febao-
ary tdogh April andithe latter partof
the fal
The SRWMD in cooperation with
the Mahodd Weaber Semvie ime u tab
ished a rainira meoeaing network
coisting of 79 smaul locad aoh-
out the district. Iere is dso a smrfce
water monitoring etw ik compared of
24gagingstatios. Ourpriauymethod
for collecting data during a floodiscom-
munication wih vdseerobserveo. Dur-
ing times of above average rainfaB and
high surface water levels, daily readings
are obtained to assi the National Oce-
anic Atmospheric Association in their
flood forecasting. Ifemaion is proc-
eased by the National Weather Service
River Forecast Center and consists of
predicted castdae andbeight which ae
approximate ad become more accurate
as the crest date nears.

When initial notice is given that
thee is to be alooda information
swrcowntct dba szalme goveacy mpoes
aFenci a well a local Iaw sen ce-
meat agencies. Special ma- where
ihassmaybealab eevacatoenofsickor
eldedy people, also comrscad. Cor -
tact with te iews medial u intallyac-
complibddbyp one. Newsreleasere
sn ot on at least a biweekly basis -
daily, if necessa y iowver fithere is
a significant change in the forecast, all
news media are called.
A 24-bourecoading machine which
is atached4to 4addicated mat District
Headeptas-t is updtd seven 4dys a
wpek a soao as possible awer dnew
vupdto s gid Although te Dis tt
provides so up4ordalt stocqding, over
100 calls a day for several wees ae re-
ceived when tbe river is eextfeely high.
Most people lve betwmea &aM Ita-
ti ne and bad JA in estimating dhe
heigh of athe exeow46E,. t; n their
psopesty. Odthea p Abpeeoladmow-
es from other pars of the state eawe
co-ern t c on homes.
.LumiwoRal teurpedto
make a note of the height of the water on
meir popert during ea blood and to
eome t written record. By
coparing ts information with the pre-
dictions of the next flood event, they will
be better Ple tq decide if they need to
leave their homes.
SP istrist has a public flood edi-
cation program. Talks are presented to
civic groups and schools. An informa-
tionalbrodure is being developed. Flood
totemrs to be installed along the river
showing specific flood heights and dates

._;_ : 1 5


-------FhwiFw IND an a SkMslrwpi HS

wE gPw flood xafimemimi fe modt.iu
po-mts OacONDl to putBi
Ahough dealg with oodaig takes
up much of the staffs time during the
late winter and spring months, it also
brings much positive public rWponse.
The public has come to count on the
District to issue this information and aid
during these times of crisis. I


-- ----1Fr I-- i, i

Information Session

Xeriscape: Water Conservation

Through Creative Landscaping

Sponsored by South Florida Water Management District

Dr. Carl Woeehcke, Director,
Water Use Planning Division,

Bruce Adams, Senior
Professional, SFWMD

In 1981, South Florida suffered its
worst drought in 10 years. Water short-
ages were declared and methods to re-
due water se inum ara wee deemed
necessary. The focs taned to land-
scape irrigation practices after studies of
lower east coast water utilities showed
that pumping levelsincreasedrather than
decreased during the drought. It wasde-
termined that the increase was attribut-
able to outside irrigation demands. Not
only did this create capacity problems
but it also created water resource prob-
When the drought was relieved in
the beginning of 1982, we developed our
water shortage plan focusing on those
areas where we believed the most people
could effectively cut back with the least
damages. The water shortage rule con-
centrated on urban water conservation
and landscape conservation in the initial
phases. In 1985, under direction from
the governing board andthe executive di-
rector, the South Florida Water Manage-
ment District set up a comprehensive de-
mand management program.
This comprehensive program incor-
porates urban landscape conservation as
well as indoor water use with utilities.
We focus on what utilities cando through

leak detection and agricultural conser-
vation and the appropriate use of low
volume irrigation systems Program evalu-
ation methods were incorporated to as-
certain the cost effectiveness of our pro-
grams. A regulatory program and a
public education program known as the
Water Conservation Season were insti-
We set out to learn the best that had
been done in water conservation around
the country. We wanted to pick up on
successful efforts thathad been achieved
mainlyinthe western states. Finally, we
wanted to make sure that we picked up
on the top programs within the state of
We conducted a survey on water
use and conservation attitudes. Eighty-
seven percent of respondents said it
was the responsibility of the people to
conservethe waterresouces. Seventy-
nine percent said that they thought water
should be conserved year-round. One-
third of the people responsible for their
own lawn watering and maintenance
responded that they practiced maximum
water conservation currently and one-
quarter said they conserve in a shortage.
Over 90 percent of respondents indi-
cated that they did not know how much
water it took to make their lawn green.
Only 54 percent of respondents were re-
sponsible for their own lawn care. This
indicated a strong need to educate and
work with the green industry and the
general public in water conservation areas.
Having learned about water use and
people's attitudes towards conservation

efforts, we wanted to move in the direc-
tion oflooking at what hadbeen achieved
in the rest of the country.
In trips to California and Arizona,
we learned that major efforts had been
directed toward indoor water conserva-
tion without the backing of the water
utilities. The effects in conservation
were minimal and alienation of the utili-
ties was hard to overcome. We also
discovered a successful program of wa-
ter conservation through creative land-
scaping Xericape. It was determined
that, with certain revisions, Xeriscape
could also be implemented in South
Florida. We found that established Xer-
iscape landscapes were producing 30 to
80 percent reductions in water consump-
tion over standard landscaping.
When researching the efforts to date
in water conservation in Fodda, we found
many professionals within the green
industry alreadyincorporatingXeriscape
principles into their plans. There was no
unity or rally word, however, until Xer-
iscape and its structured principles were
introduced. It was then decided to pro-
mote an aggressive Xeriscape program
targeted at both the general public and
the green industry.
To support the program several things
have been done by the District. A model
landscape code has been developed and
work is being done to encourage com-
munity adoption of the code. A video
that illustrates the seven Xeriscape prin-
ciples has been produced and distributed

_ _I__~jl


cial interest groups. A plant guide with
over 50. listed plants and a "how to"
Xeriscape brochure have been printed
anddistributed. TheDistrictisalsowork-
ing with IFAS in researching drought-
tolerant turf grasses and several papers
have been written and published n varn-
ous scientific and trade journals. Dem-
onsmion sites and leading grdens have .
been stared at Exemsion Offices trough-
out the district and a Xeriscape confer-
ence was held to promote the concept.
Xedcape is hee and Flrida is going
to be looking to the water management
districts for guidance, for materials and
forexpettadviceonXeriscape. Wehave
found that Xeriscape is more popular
with peoplewe thoughtwewouldhaveto
convince the green industry-- than we
hadanticipated. It's catching on every-
where in Florida and coordination with
the other water management districts is
essential in creating a Xeriscape lorida.
Xeriscape is going to become a signifi-
cant help in reducing water demands. J


Information Session

Tampa Bay: Meeting the Challenge of SWIM

Sponsored by Southwest Florida Water Management District

Michael J. Perry

The Southwest Florida Water Man-
agement District's new Surface Water
Improvement and Management (SWIM)
program has received considerable atten-
tion recently. Briefly, the legislature
passed the SWIM Act as a way to begin
the process of restoring and preserving
surface waters on a statewide basis.
The legislature named. Tampa Bay
as a priority water body within the
SWFWMD. To begin the work ofrestor-
ing, enhancing and protecting Tampa Bay,
the legislature appropriated $2 million
from general revenue funds with a re-
quired 20 percent match from the Dis-
The District has already begun work
on tasks outlined in the legislation and is
initiating several enhancement projects
to begin the restoration process. We are
becoming involved in marine and estuar-
ine waters in the cleanup of Tampa Bay,
and, while thisis new tous, itisalogical
extension of our work. In addition, we
are currently working to develop a SWIM
plan which will outline long-range goals,
strategies and work efforts for Tampa
Bay and its tributaries.
In addition to the legislatively man-
dated Tampa Bay priority, the District is
required to develop a ranked priority list
of other surface water bodies in need of
restoration and protection. Because of a
short time frame, the District has re-
questednominations andsuppoting data
for degraded or threatened water bodies
from local governments, basin boards,

state agencies and the public.
Concurrently, DER has developed
and adopted by rule the criteria to assess
the waterbodies and generate the ranked
priority list. The District has received
more than 60 nominations for considera-
tion. An ad hoc committee consisting of
representatives from SWFWMD, DER,
the Department of Natural Resources
and the Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission, has been organized
and has begun the evaluation process.
Surface water bodies that meet the
criteria will be included on the priority
list. However, the District will only rank
as many water bodies as it will be able to
address during any one fiscal year. As
the ranked water bodies are identified,
the next step is to prepare a restoration
and management plan for the particular
water body. Once the restoration/man-
agementplan hasbeenacceptedbyDER,
work can be initiated to implement those
Some concern has been expressed
for the long-term funding of this pro-
gram. The state has taken a progressive
step toward improving surface waters,
particularly in light of Florida's other
needs. Presently, the SWIM program is
funded through a general revenue appro-
priation to the SWIM Trust Fundcreated
by the legislation. The water manage-
ment districts must request an appropria-
tion during the 1988 legislative session
to actually begin wok on the water bodies
during FY 88-89. As the funding be-
comes available, the District will con-
tinue to rank and address the remainder
of the priority list. It is important to

realize that presetlythe fding is based
on a yearly general revenc apprpia-
tin and here is no guamee that the
sae will comie to make a allocation
to the SWIM trust and.
For the SWIM program to succeed,
there must be cooperation adcoordina-
tion on all levels of government as well
Acceptance of and sppot for the
program among he cidaeas of the Dis-
trict. That is why the District willbe em-
bakinug on hBigh waenes. -campaigns
and edWcatispaproVgrms about Tampa
Bay, it problems and bow SWIM will
help. .. is important to remember that
the solution for Tampa Bay is going to
take time, money and all of us working
together. I


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