Title: Seventh Annuall Conference on Water Management in Florida - Havanah, Florida -October 28-29, 1992
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002971/00001
 Material Information
Title: Seventh Annuall Conference on Water Management in Florida - Havanah, Florida -October 28-29, 1992
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: NWFWMD
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: NWFWMD Collection - Seventh Annuall Conference on Water Management in Florida
General Note: Box 13, Folder 8 ( Seventh Annuall Conference on Water Management in Florida - 1992 ), Item 1
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00002971
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text



edited by

jeorge Fisher
public Information Officer
northwest Florida
Vater Management District

Illustrated by

,obert Mills
Public Information Specialist
Northwest Florida
Iater Management District

For Additional Copies Write:

Public Information Office
Northwest Florida
Water Management District
Route 1, Box 3100
Havana, FL 32333


Public Quarterly Meeting .............................................3

Governor's Luncheon Address by Representative
James Harold Thompson ...........................................9

Informational Sessions .............................................13
The Chief Information Officer....................................... 14
Developing and Implementing Water Shortage Plans .................... 17
Rainfall Monitoring: The State of the Art.............................22
Remote Sensing in Water Management .............................. .26
Marketing Water Conservation ...................................... 27
Application of Geophysics to Water Resource Investigations ............. 31
Current Legislation, Rules, and Litigation ............................. 35
Floodplain Mapping and Modeling ..................................39
Lake Management Techniques and Considerations ......................42
Recycling Wastewater through Land Spreading ..........................46

Banquet Address by Dr. Mel Anderson .................................49

Panel Sessions ...................................................... 55
Newsmakers Meeting the Press: Florida's Water Managers
in a Question and Answer Forum.................................... 56
Can the Regional Planning Councils and the Water Management
Districts Live Together? ..........................................62

The costs for printing and distributing this public document were included in
the registration fee charged for the Seventh Annual Conference on Water
Management in Florida.


JiSWtIT *L% k Uo-iweUuj/ TEda

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Route 1, Box 3100, Havana, Florida 32333 'ODWE
J. William McCartney (904) 487-1770
Executive Director

C^A AS-^f-9 f4-
Editor's Note and Credits:

By all accounts, this was the most successful and comprehensive Annual Conference to date. In addition to the usual format
featuring panel discussions and the banquet and luncheon addresses, this year's conference included a Public Quarterly
Meeting plus ten informational sessions focused on current technical topics and policy issues of special interest to water
managers. The Northwest Florida Water Management District wishes to express its deepest appreciation to everyone on the
long list of participants who donated so willingly of both time and expertise to make this conference a success. It never fails to
amaze and to please us greatly to discover each year that we can have the most knowledgeable and experienced of water
resource experts participate, without remuneration, in this conference.

A large number of very busy people from Florida's water management districts also contributed greatly to this Seventh An-
nual Conference. The efforts of all who helped are greatly appreciated, but special recognition must be made of Sandra Close
and Jan Horvath from the South Florida Water Management District, and of Governing Board Chairman Bruce Samson and
Dorothea Cole from the Southwest Florida Water Management District, of Chairwoman Frances Pignone, Connie Philips and
Mildred Horton from the St. Johns River Water Management District, and of Governing Board member Earl Starnes and Kirk
Webster from the Suwannee River Water Management District. Each took a very active interest in this conference, and helped
immeasurably toward making it work.

A final credit concerns the remarkable facility we have available for the conference. Florida State University's brand new
Center for Professional Development building opened its doors just in time for our use, and no better accommodations, or a
staff to manage them, exists anywhere for a meeting of this nature.

We hope you will enjoy reading this summary. It contains the comments and conclusions of many of the experts who have
been working with Florida's resource issues, and is intended to provide a comprehensive record of our management situation
at this time.

George Fisher

Chairman Port St. Joe

Vice Chairman Destin

Sec./Treas. Tallahasee

Chumuckla Panama City Graceville Blountstown

Public Quarterly Meeting


---- -

Public Quarterly Meeting

Sponsored by the Northwest Florida

Water Management District

Hon. Tom Coldeway, Chairman
Northwest Florida Water
Management District
We want to welcome all of you to
the first Public Quarterly Meeting of
the water management districts and
the Department of Environmental
I hope this will be a productive ses-
sion. This is the first public meeting of
this kind. In the past, the executive
directors, legal counsels, and the
chairmen of the Governing Boards
have regularly met with the Depart-
ment of Environmental Regulation to
discuss common issues and to coor-
dinate water management activities.
We worked at keeping these meetings
small to encourage discussion and
We did feel, however, that there
should also be a public meeting once a
year during which anyone who was in-
terested could address all of the water
management districts and the DER at
one time.
For this meeting, we sent out two
dozen invitations to speak. Nine of
them responded, indicating they had
programs or concerns of statewide
significance. Our first speaker is Mr.
Mike Green.

Mr. Mike Green, State Director
The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy is an
organization of national scope which
is in the business of identifying,
through scientific inventories, and of
acquiring land of ecological
The good news for members of The
Nature Conservancy across the coun-
try and in Florida is that water
management and the conservation of
unique natural areas are not necessari-
ly in conflict. In fact, many times they
are compatible. This was brought to
the attention of our Board of Gover-
nors when we were asked by the St.
Johns River Water Management
District to assist them in the acquisi-
tion of the Seminole Ranch. When our
Board of Governors considered ac-
quisition and the commitment of
$4,000,000 of our funds to the
Seminole Ranch, the representatives
from Colorado and California sat in
stunned amazement to learn that a
water management district would want
to be conserving wetlands. They were
very pleased, and I want to transmit
that to you on behalf of our 6,000
members in Florida, and our 140,000

members nationwide.
We've done about 2,800 projects in
30 years, and the Seminole Ranch ac-
quisition was the first one ever in
cooperation with a water management
district. The ability of the St. Johns
River Water Management District to
levy ad valorem taxes to implement a
plan to save the St. Johns River
through non-structural management is
something we're very supportive of.
This commitment to non-structural
water management is really a testa-
ment to the leadership of the water
management districts, the Secretary of
the Department, Governor Graham,
and the Legislature. The"Save Our
Rivers" act was a monumental piece
of legislation, and there has already
been significant progress in acquiring
land. A part of Seminole Ranch was
transferred to the St. Johns District six
months early and it's now totally in
their ownership and management.
There are already recreation areas set
up and it is being used by the people of
The water districts have proven that
conservation lands can be bought ex-
peditiously. The East Everglades pur-
chase, which is of major national
significance, is about to happen, and

- ____ -n i.r-~~"a

St. Johns is about to add several more
tracts of land within its project boun-
The Northwest Florida Water
Management District and the Suwan-
nee River District have also asked The
Nature Conservancy for assistance,
and we're very pleased to be providing

Mr. Peter Mott, President
Florida Audubon Society
I feel honored to have been invited
to speak at this first annual public
quarterly meeting. It presents us all
with a very unusual opportunity to
have you all in one place at one time.
Ten minutes is not very much time to
deal with your role in our problems.
Instead, I will try to leave you with
some impressions and hopes.
A long time ago as an
undergraduate I took a course in en-
tomology. The star specimen among
all the insects we gathered was a
magnificent dragonfly called Anax
junius, commonly known as the Green
Darner. It was magnificent and the
biggest of the insects we encounter in
the eastern United States. I discover
now some 30 years later that it reminds
me of Florida. Everything about it
seemed fabulous, save one thing. The
instructor said that this is one of the
most efficient predators you will ever
see, and he approached the rear end of
Anax junius with the head and the
creature proceeded to devour itself.
That's not unlike Florida.
Another small anecdote: Two small
boys on Halloween go up on the porch
and one boy puts his finger on the
doorbell and the other pushes the
finger. The irate neighbor storms out
the door and says, "Who's responsible
for ringing my doorbell?" One says,"I
didn't push it;" and the other says,"I
never touched it;" both are safe tem-
porarily. It may be some of that
nonsense is coming to an end. An
amendment to 373 emerged quietly
from 1982's modest legislative session.
The amendment directs water manage-
ment districts to develop a ground-
water basin resource availability in-
ventory and provides legislative intent
that future growth and development
planning will reflect limitations of
available water supply. That has great
promise for all of us and the sharing of
responsibility for ringing the doorbell.

In 1973 Florida entered a new era
and had the model for environmental
protection programs. In the 10 years
since, the program has been
dissipated, circumvented, ignored,
and compromised. Perhaps we are
about to start again in 1983. I hope
you all join us in trying to make this
new law work. There seems to be some
room for optimism offered by the St.
Johns District and its decision to
utilize ad valorem taxes for purchasing
land for water management. We con-
gratulate them on that decision.
I was a psychology major, and we
studied deviant behavior and some
ways to try to deal with it. Fashionable
way back then was a thing called
"Rogers Nondirective Therapy." The
situation is the patient comes in and
says, "I feel terrible." Being nondirec-
tive, Rogers says, "You feel terrible."
The patient says, "I feel like commit-
ting suicide." The therapist says,
"Committing suicide." The patient
says, "I'm going to the window." The
therapist says, "You're going to the
window." The patient opens the win-
dow, and says, "I'm going to jump
out." The therapist says, "You're go-
ing to jump out." The patient says,
"Here I go." The therapist says,
"There you go." I hope we're never in
the situation of saying to
Florida,"There you go."
Ms. Vicki Tschinkel, Secretary
Department of Environmental
Peter, what are your organization's
priorities for the next year?
Mr. Peter Mott
I would guess that our first priority
would be to get eminent domain
enacted. We think that is the most im-
portant of all. The next one, in the
legislative session, would be the
Wildlife Coordination Act. We'll be
meeting with the rest of the conserva-
tion groups in January to determine
our collective priorities, and I hope we
can get together with a good set.

Mr. David Boozer, Executive Director
Florida Water Well Association
We are a trade organization com-
posed of water well contractors. Our
organization represents the substantial
drillers in the State of Florida. It was
founded approximately 20 years ago
and has grown to be a viable force in

the ground-water industry. There are
approximately 850 licensed water well
contractors in the State, and although
our organization is composed of only
160 members, we realize by our
calculations that our members drill ap-
proximately 80 percent of the wells in
the State of Florida. When considering
only the wells drilled in municipal and
irrigation fields, our members are
responsible for about 90 percent of the
wells constructed.
During the past couple of years, our
organization has made great strides in
communicating with the districts and
the Department, and we are very
pleased with the doors that we have
opened between our industry and the
regulatory bodies.

Hon. Wilbur Langley, President
Florida Water Well Association
I have been in the well drilling
business for about 26 years. I was in
the business before regulations came
into effect. We have worked diligently
with the districts to get regulations we
can live with and to save the water
resources in the State.
There's five points we would like to
1) The industry would like to see
more uniformity in all district rules.
2) There should be uniformity of
rules among all districts pertaining
especially to the suspension or revoca-
tion of water well contractor licenses
as well as to the testing and issuing of
licenses by each district.
3) We would like to see expanded
use of the well drillers advisory boards
to foster communications within the
industry. We would like to have the
districts without advisory boards to
form them so that we might have
uniformity throughout the State.
4) Adopt written guidelines for the
use of district-owned equipment so as
not to impose upon private enterprise.
5) We need stricter enforcement of
unlicensed well drillers. There are
many drillers in the State of Florida
that still do not have licenses, and we
can't compete with people who are not
licensed, and especially with those who
don't get permits.
As a member of the Withlacoochee
Water Supply Authority, I would like
to thank the Southwest Florida
District for their cooperative attitude
and a good working relationship. As a
member of the Board of County Com-


missioners of Citrus County and as a
Director of the State of Florida
Association of County Commis-
sioners, I am asking for your con-
tinued support in regulating our
precious water resources in Florida.
I hope we can continue licensing and
regulating our well drillers at the
district level rather than having each
county involved in licensing. We'd
rather see it stay at the district level so
that we won't have to pass more ex-
penses on to our customer.

Mr. Ed Hobin, Executive Director
Florida Rural Water Association
The Florida Rural Water Associa-
tion is new in the State of Florida.
We're a non-profit association govern-
ed by a Board of Directors that is
elected by our membership and which
provides good representation around
the state.
The purpose of the Association is to
assist small water systems in comply-
ing with the Safe Drinking Water Act.
We're not a regulatory association;
we're there to help small systems in
any way we can to bring them up to
the standards prescribed by the State.
We put on workshops for the
operators and bring together the water
management districts, the U.S.
Geological Survey folks, and the coun-
ty health departments.
We bring technical programs to the
small system operators, and we're very
proud of our record in that regard. As
an example, a small city about 50 miles
east of here got a call telling them that
they had to boil their water. We found
their samples to be very heavy with
coliform bacteria; we analyzed the
situation and in less than a week had
them back drinking their water.
Another type of assistance that we
provided was to the City of Belleview
when they discovered gasoline in their
wells. We put them in touch with the
people who could help them with a
$305,000 grant to drill two wells. They
should be off their boiled water very
We don't pretend to have all the
answers. Our background is mostly in
plant operations and drinking water
systems, but we can put our members
in touch with the people that can help.
We haven't had a problem yet that we
haven't solved.
Our membership is growing. When I
took over, we had four members.

We're approaching 100 at this time.
There is no charge to our members for
our services. Our members are non-
profit cities and towns, water districts
or water associations with populations
of 10,000 people or less. The big cities
can handle their own problems.

Mr. John Bethea, Executive Director
Florida Division of Forestry
Your goals and ours are somewhat
the same. Your detailed objectives are
somewhat different, but I would hope
that at some future point your goals
can expand and become more involved
with our goals.
Your major goal in land manage-
ment is the quality and quantity of
water. Our responsibility in land
management is to manage land to pro-
vide as many benefits to the general
public as possible without doing any
environmental damage to the proper-
ty. There are many thousands of acres
of land in Florida now that are owned
by the water management districts. In
the years ahead, there will be substan-
tially more acreage acquired by the
water management districts because it
is essential that we maintain an ade-
quate water supply. But there is con-
siderable opposition to the acquisition
of additional lands by the water
management districts. Many people
say, "Is it really needed?" You can at
least placate some of that opposition
by expanding the management goals to
include the multiple-use concept in
those areas where it is applicable and
without doing any harm to the water-
holding and water-storage capacities
of the land that you acquire.
Some of you are old enough to
remember back in the 1930's when the
federal government and the State ac-
quired lands that were considered
worthless. We have two of the parcels
acquired by the Federal government,
the Blackwater River and the
Withlacoochee State Forest, that are
managed under the multi-use concept.
We provide 600,000 to 700,000 visits a
year to the public and we also harvest
Many of your areas can also be open
for recreation. Too many public agen-
cies acquire land and lock it up. We
have some problems with visitors
messing up the state forests, but we've
been coping with that for years. You
manage it as best you can.
And timber can be harvested in

many areas. Many of the marsh areas
won't be suitable to that and many
areas don't have trees. They should be
reforested. Last year we sold more
timber and took in more revenue from
the state forests than we have since
we've managed them. We take in some
$4.5 million from that 300,000 acres of
land. All the activities and manage-
ment cost between $2.5 and $3 million
and the rest is profit.
Look at your land and see how it
can best serve the public in addition to
its primary function for water
management. There are many, many
opportunities available to you, and
we'll be glad to work and counsel with
you. We don't have the staff to
manage your property, but we'll be
glad to work with you any way we can.
This is a way you can serve the people
of Florida.

Dr. Elton Gissendanner,
Executive Director
Department of Natural Resources
The Department of Natural
Resources is very broad-based and in
the time allowed, I'll just touch on two
or three of the high spots that I think
would be of the greatest interest to
One is that the Department is very
much concerned about the delivery of
freshwater to our estuarine systems.
Saltwater encroachment in the
estuarine system does as much damage
as it does when it encroaches into the
freshwater system underground. It
brings a change in the environment,
and it totally disrupts the life cycles of
many saltwater fishes that the com-
merical and recreational industries de-
pend upon. We are not only concerned
about the quantity of water that comes
into the estuarine systems; we're con-
cerned about how it gets there, its
quality, and the hydro-period for
reaching the estuarine system. We're
also concerned about the nearly half-
a-billion gallons of freshwater daily
that is bypassing the estuarine systems
either through ocean outfalls or deep
well injection. That is a major prob-
lem that should be addressed by state
government and your districts.
We're also concerned about the
drop in levels in the rivers and lakes of
the State. This creates a land owner-
ship problem that we have to solve as
trustees for State lands. In Lake
Kissimmee, for example, we're having



a major problem with people trying to
develop land that we believe is below
the ordinary high water mark. In every
freshwater lake and in some rivers of
the State, we have these boundary
problems. The law is not clear, but we
are hoping on Lake Kissimmee and
Lake Jackson to be able to make a
couple of landmark surveys.
I'd like also to give you a brief
report on what the Division of State
Lands has been doing since it was
created and charged with the respon-
sibility of managing, surveying, and
acquiring state land. The Department
deals with all land acquisitions that the
State makes, except those acquired by
the Department of Transportation and
the Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission. In the three-year period that
this Division has been in effect, we
have closed on 89 different parcels.
We have ready to be closed, already
approved and agreed upon, another 11
projects worth $16,000,000. Our pur-
chased projects in the three-year
period total some $77,000,000. We
also have 12 outstanding offers that
add up to $3.1 million plus another 12
project offers that the owners have re-
jected for $2,600,000. In addition, the
Department has received by donation
13 parcels of land, and there are five
major donations being processed at
this time. We are also actively working
on and processing 35 major projects,
22 of which are coastal projects in the
"Save Our Coasts" Program.
In the Department, we feel the most
important two-word amendment that
could be made to the state lands ac-
quisition program is "eminent do-
main." We urge you to help us receive
that authority.

Mr. Charles Russ, Past President
Florida Association of Soil and
Water Conservation Districts
Nearly all of the conservation
districts were created in the State in the
early 1940's and have pretty well held
their identity, while never receiving a
dollar of funds from the State of
Florida. The districts each have five
locally elected supervisors. They are
primarily agricultural, and district
programs are primarily ag-oriented.
Our makeup allows us to go to our
fellow farmers, citrus growers, cat-
tlemen, etc., and talk to them across
the fence or over in the corner of the
social hall at the church and say,

"Have you thought about filling that
gully? Have you considered how much
water you're using?" And because we
have that kind of rapport with our
local constituency, we've been able to
accomplish some things with very little
money and no regulations.
Some of our projects in South
Florida are Taylor Creek and Oven
Slough where we're working with
animal wastes. In Southwest Florida,
we're very much involved with the
Little Manatee River. In St. Johns,
we're involved with the stormwater
rule. We have our eye on erosion in the
Northwest Florida, and we are pursu-
ing a project for the upcoming year for
which we will, we hope, get some
funds from the Legislature to pursue a
very high erosion area in the Perdido
River area.
The Lake Soil and Water Conserva-
tion District three or four years ago
looked at how much water was being
used by citrus growers in our county.
We developed a program for our
agricultural people to come to us and
voluntarily request that we review
their irrigation management plan. We
evaluate their soil types and irrigation
systems and then we run a study of the
efficiency of their water distribution
and advise them about the appropriate
amount of time to run the irrigation
system. It sounds very elementary, but
we have bridged a gap. We have not
yet had any ag-person leave our office
in a furor. They are eager to go back
to their properties and to implement
the plans. We feel that we've saved
about enough irrigation water to sup-
ply the City of Clermont on a year-
round basis.
Our conservation districts have for
years taken a non-regulatory posture.
We have not accomplished what we
could have with a great tax base, but I
think we've accomplished an awful
In the mid 1970's, it was my
pleasure to work with DER in the
development of the 208 Program for
agriculture. It was a milestone in that
they recognized the Soil and Water
Conservation Districts and designated
us to implement a non-regulatory pro-
gram to address 208 in Florida
agriculture. Since that time, the con-
servation districts have remained ac-
tive. Most of them are developing
plans currently for 208 concerns in
their counties. We have seen our con-
servation plans go through both the

tests of big city lawyers in Tampa and
the actions by several agencies to
designate the Little Manatee River an
Outstanding Florida Water.
I'm very pleased to report the con-
servation plan went through that
designation as being the exempting
factor for agriculture. At the same
time, the agricultural segment in that
watershed accepted it to the extent that
before the designation was made, over
half the ag-people had come to the
district and had asked that plans be
developed for their properties. I ap-
plaud the designation process in that it
made an awful lot of ag-people come
to us and seek plans, and I think it is
applicable all around the State.
I would ask that you ask your staff
people to give us an opportunity to
make a presentation to your technical
people about what a conservation plan
is, what a district can do and what it
can't do. I think our programs mesh
very closely with yours.

Mr. Lawton Langford
Element Analysis Corporation
Our process is called "PIXE," and
contrary to popular belief, it's not per-
formed by elves. It's an acronym for
Proton Induced X-ray Ignition. It was
developed at Florida State University
over the past 10 to 15 years; it is widely
accepted in Europe and is gaining ac-
ceptance in Asia.
PIXE is unique in several different
ways, the first of which is the ability to
simultaneously analyze and report 50
different elements in water within five
to ten minutes. Additionally, PIXE
has the ability to expand its reported
output to include 82 elements of the
periodic table. Another unique aspect
of PIXE is its ability to analyze a wide
variety of materials, including tree and
soil borings, aerosol filters, and water
Many of you are familiar with tradi-
tional methods of atomic absorption,
neutron activations, etc. PIXE is
based on physics, not chemistry. In
physics, there's a theory that when an
accelerated proton strikes the atom of
any given element, there's an atomic
reaction that occurs and from that
atomic reaction an X-ray is given off.
That X-ray is unique to the element
that was bombarded by the accelerated
proton. We count the X-rays that are
coming off and with our equipment we
have the ability to see on a screen a


complete spectral analysis of 50
elements. At the same time, we get a
computer printout that gives you
detection limits and a wealth of other
information that is not currently
available through atomic absorption
and other methods.
Water poses a different problem to
us because the concentrations in water
are so minute that we had to find some
way to prepare samples for analysis.
Purdue University has patented a very
unique reverse osmosis technique that
keeps the filter and throws away the
clean water. About 30 milliliters of
filter water are placed on a small piece
of cellophane that becomes our target.
Any element in the water is trapped on
the cellophane, and we can give you a
total analysis in a very short time
Ms. Vicki Tschinkel, Secretary
Department of Environmental
How expensive is this process?
Mr. Langford
We provide a total characterization,
including all 50 elements, for $120.

Ms. Ane Merriam
Florida Resources and Environmental
Analysis Center
Within the next two to three months
you can expect to get back from us
some sort of inked-in and colored-in
dummy of each of your Water Atlas
chapters. You can review the layout
and the way we've organized your
material, and we will have at that
point an accurate count of your text
and how big your illustrations will be.
To give you some notion of how we
feel the Florida Water Atlas is pro-
gressing, I have put together a little
poem in which you and the other
authors are the stars. It's entitled
"Water Atlas Ragtime Blues."
'Twas a day in the Legislature
and most were asleep
Through the halls and the offices
Fast Eddie did creep.

No hokum or snake oil today would
he sell.
But a vision, a dream, and a story
he'd tell.
Of picture and flowgraphs to please
and delight.
Of aquifers and sinkholes and
underwater sights.

Oh, such a story they tell to all
wanting to know.
But first, he must finance this
wonder water show.
He made all the rounds seeing who
he must see,
From Morgan to Thomas, Dean
Dempsey and W.D.
No bull did he pull-just facts and
Yet, some still do wonder how he got

Never mind, that was but easy,
compared to the rest.
Bringing the Districts, DER,
Game & Fish to the test.
Of writing up their version for
others to read.
Of meeting with cheesecake would
soon plant the seed.

Then began the great battles for
status and control.
For extra pages and authors,
whatever could be stole.
But then, in short order, even this
did work out.
And the brillance of the authors
ensued, hope to shout.

It became quite clear early on who
would claim.
The legal wizard slot, who else, but
Buddy Blain.
Not to worry, however, said Varn
and Jay Landers.
We'll cut up his writing like chicken
by Col. Sanders.

The groundwater folks are as fluent
as can be.
From Parker and Dan Spangler to
Conover and Geraghty.
They present a fine picture of many
years training.
No question of their espoused

DER has truly had their share of
Yet Hinkley and Swihart ripped
through them with flurry.
To make their chapters flow in
quaint agency fashion.
While Willson and Merriam
continued their clashing.

Yet looking a bit closer, we're able
to see.
Some of George's problems are
h-e-a-v-y d-u-t-y.
While Wehle gets credit for portions

of writing.
It's overworked Willson who's
burning the night lighting.

Now the Districts have also had
their ups and downs.
For awhile all we got from Sonny
was a long, restless frown.
But Parker and Munch pulled some
double-edged duty.
And the chapter has now become a
real beauty.

From Southwest we got mixed
signals, and yet,
If we ever get it right, Cannon will
see to it,
That between the storm waters and
droughts and their rules,
Most readers will find water crop

From Suwannee, we got a chapter
that's a winner.
After all, Terry Burnson is hardly
a beginner.
And Morgan, of course, rules with
an iron hand.
And that is all evident from the
Suwannee River Land Plan.

Now SoftMud has really and truly
been humping.
It seems that the press fire is
forever pumping.
Yet between all the hunter, ego
freaks, and deer drownd,
They'll make sure their chapter is
on time, sexy and bound.

Some have said that Northwest may
have had a slight edge.
And some preference in artwork and
timing is alleged.
But the work of George Fisher
is simply just great.
And to that end from McCartney we
get no debate.

So I leave you today on a positive
And from what I've seen, you all
deserve to gloat.
For because of this group, Florida's
water machine,
Will be to us all forever, more than
just a wet dream.


SGovernor's Luncheon Address

Governor's Luncheon Address

Sponsored by the St. John's River

Water Management District

Hon. Fran Pignone, Chairman
St. John's River Water Management
Representative James Harold
Thompson is a native of Gadsden
County, where his family has resided
for five generations. He graduated
from the Florida State University Col-
lege of Law and practices in Quincy
where he's a Sunday School
Superintendent, teacher, and elder in
the Presbyterian Church.
James Harold was elected to the
Florida House of Representatives in
1974 and is Chairman of the House
Natural Resources Committee. He
also serves as a member of the Ap-
propriations, Rules and Calendar,
Commerce, and Juvenile Justice com-
mittees. Representative Thompson,
for the past three years, has been the
recipient of the Alan Morris Award
for being the most effective represen-
tative in debate. This is a very
prestigious award bestowed by his col-
leagues and peers in the House. On a
very direct note for us in water
resource management, the "Save Our
Rivers" bill would not have moved
through the Legislature nearly so
swiftly or effectively without his able

We are indeed very honored to have
Representative Thompson with us to-
day as the featured speaker at the
Governor's Luncheon.

James Harold Thompson

I appreciate your saying what a
great person I am. I wish my wife was
here so she could have heard that. It's
a real pleasure to be with you today. I
don't know exactly why I'm speaking
at the Governor's Luncheon, but I do
wish I could win my elections by the
majority that he wins his. At least he
scares himself up a little opposition so
he can become more popular every
four years. I've been unable to do
I would be in the wrong pew if I
were to try to tell you anything
technical about water management or
what's going to happen in Florida.
Many of you have far more technical
expertise that I do.
In the Legislature, we don't have the
continuity that you have in the water
management districts. Neither are we
blessed with the continuity of the ex-

ecutive agencies. Those of us,
however, who have been here awhile,
and who hope to stay awhile, have a
special burden. That burden is to sit
back every now and then and try to
figure out what might happen to
Florida in the future. You have been
hearing a lot of speeches and reading a
lot of articles about Florida's growth
because we just had a census and the
big issue of reapportionment in the
Legislature. These brought to light the
fact that Florida has grown tremen-
dously and that it is outgrowing most
of the rest of the country. They tell us
that Florida has about ten million peo-
ple and that by the end of this century
we may have another half million.
When we are dealing with budget
figures and somebody mentions ten
million dollars to me, it doesn't
register too well with a country boy. I
know what a thousand dollars is, but a
million dollars is something that I real-
ly can't conceive of in my mind. The
way I explain Florida's growth to peo-
ple is in a way that I can understand it
myself, and this is to say that
somewhere between 4,000 and 7,000
people are coming to Florida to live on
a permanent basis each week. I see
Board member Blucher Lines, and he

L -- -I.

knows that in Gadsden County where
he and I practice law, there are about
41,000 people; it wouldn't take but
about ten weeks before we'd have a
new county population up our way.
That impresses me.
What I wanted to talk with you
about today was, from a legislative
point of view, how we can look at the
growth particularly in relation to
water. The Legislature has a hard
time, just as some local governments
and local authorities have, in facing
water issues head-on. In addition to all
the great environmental questions,
there is also a great political question.
The whole question of growth for the
Legislature and for all of us is primari-
ly a political question.
The Legislature in 1972 had some
genuine discussions about the growth
the State was experiencing. I imagine
ten years ago it came to their attention
because they had just had a reappor-
tionment session and realized what
tremendous growth had come to the
State. Speaker Terrell Sessums decided
to charge each committee of substance
to look at growth as it affected its
jurisdiction. The Agriculture Commit-
tee, for example, was to look at
growth and pressure on the environ-
ment and on the water systems from
an agricultural point of view to deter-
mine how it would affect that in-
dustry. By the end of that session, they
got a joint resolution passed. To in-
dicate to you how direct, hardhitting,
forceful, and important that resolu-
tion was, let me say that I've never
read it. Through the political process,

"I've noticed that the good people in
the Legislature sit back and think and
discuss what the future is going to be
in regard to growth and pressures on
the environment and on everything we
do in state government."

it was diffused, abused, amended, and
changed to the extent that it probably
didn't say too much. What we can
learn from it is that, from a legislative
point of view, to take on the issue of
growth directly is a collision course.
I've noticed that the good people in
the Legislature sit back and think and
discuss what the future is going to be
in regard to growth and pressures on
the environment and on everything we
do in state government. They try to

react to these, but it's very difficult to
have a definite policy. Neither can you
just ignore them. I suspect that it is in-
evitable that Florida is going to grow.
Whatever we do in the legislature and
whatever you do on the local level is
not going to have much effect on the
numbers of people that come here to
live. What we have to do is figure out
if we can't react head-on and if we
can't ignore it, then what do we do?
I think it's unfair to Florida and our
Chief Executive to say that definite
steps have not been taken to manage
growth. One of the first bills that pass-
ed when I was in the Legislature was
the Comprehensive Planning Bill, and
that has been a continuing task by
local governments with the coopera-
tion of state government. Another
thing that we did was expand the water
management district concept of
regional management to the entire
state. We never said we were going to
take the politics completely out of
water management. You can't take the
politics out of your family and you
certainly can't take the politics out of
something that is as politically hot as
water. But through a regional system
of management, you can carry for-
ward a concept of what should be, and
with the continuity we have in the Ex-
ecutive and legislative branches of
government and at the local level, you
can channel the ideas and the actions
toward the ultimate goal of proper
management. It's unfair when we are
criticized for lacking a specific
management plan by somebody
writing a news article who wants to say
"this" is the policy of Florida. It's un-
fair to all of us to say that there is no
policy or that the policy is not being
Along with water management,
there are many other considerations
that we in the Legislature have to take

into account in discussing what to do
about the future and the growth of
Florida. And all those things affect the
environment. One that will be a big
issue in the coming sessions is
transportation. A prime consideration
in determining transportation funding
should be not only the immediate en-
vironment that's affected by the road
bed, but the pressure on the environ-
ment and water resources in the entire
area that the transportation system
serves. Funding education facilities
has the same kind of effect on an
area's resources.

One of the prime concerns in the
Legislature, and the Governor's office
has worked diligently with us, has
been economic development. We
would like to have-instead of just
tourism or new construction, or
agriculture, which are all hit hard and
early by recession-some industries
that would be compatible with our en-
vironment and would employ large
numbers of people. But when you do
that, it brings more people to the state.
Everybody that works in those new in-
dustries are not Floridians that were
out of work. We've been very suc-
cessful with that program and have
helped attract some of these 4,000 to
7,000 people a week to Florida.

Somebody needs to be concerned
with the environmental impacts at the
outset. It will be difficult, and it won't
come in a hurry. But on behalf of the
Florida House of Representatives, I
can say that we are very interested in
how all of those things intertwine with
that great big question of growth. And
we're going to need some help from
those of you who are interested in
growth and the pressure it will put on
our water supply and on the quality of
life in this State. The questions we
need answers to are, for example,
what will an area support? What uses

are compatible in an area? Do you
have to establish priorities in an area?
What are the various expenses of the
technological advances? Should there
be a requirement that, if people are go-
ing to move within ten miles of the
coast, those coastal areas should start
producing their own water? Is moving
to the coast when you come to Florida
going to cost you more because you
will have to pay some of the
technological costs to change saltwater
into fresh? We don't know if impact
fees are the way for us to get at that
problem. We don't know if we should
delve into the management of water
more. My personal feeling is that we
have a good system and that we ought
to strengthen it. But we do know that
will take financial support and we, in
the legislature, using that general
revenue money, are going to have to
bite that hard bullet and try to get the
kind of information that we need from
the various sources that you all repre-
We don't know what the future of
Florida will be as far as our water
resources are concerned, but in the
Florida House of Represenatives, I
can assure you every time a few of us
get together, we're talking about it.
With your help, and help from our Ex-
ecutive Branch, we will be able to do
what is necessary to manage our
growth and to handle the water prob-
lems of Florida. They're not going to
be easy issues. We're going to have to
make some hard votes, and we're go-
ing to have to do some sacrificing in
order to handle the growth in Florida.

~_~ 1_

SInformational Sessions

Hosted by David Covington,
Administrative Services Division
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

The Chief

Information Officer

Dr. J.H. Poore, Assistant to the
Georgia Institute of Technology

Don McEwen, General Manager
QUAD Corporation

Dr. J.H. Poore
What I'll do today is show you,
from existing literature, the general
situation with respect to using infor-
mation technology. In those institu-
tions that are finding happiness with
their computing activities, you will see
that there has to be executive leader-
ship, and a very close relationship be-
tween the fundamental mission of the
organization and the way information
technology is integrated into the
organization. I'll also give you an ex-
ample of the chief information officer.
My colleague, Pete Jensen, and I are
in regular communication with either
the chief executive officer or the chief
information officer of several com-
panies. These ideas are ours, but we
didn't come to them in a vacuum. The
person who is the chief information
officer of IBM is a Georgia Tech
graduate and a member of the Na-
tional Advisory Board of Georgia
Tech, and he does more to shape my
ideas than I will ever do to shape his
ideas. Pete Jensen has been working
with the U.S. General Accounting Of-
fice toward a 1990 goal of absolutely
no paper flowing internally in that of-
fice. He works with the Auditor
General and with the second echelon
of executives. I am the chief informa-
tion officer of Georgia Tech. We also
work with Lanier Business products in
Atlanta providing them with tech-
nology assessments. We deal directly

with the president of the corporation.
I'm on the scientific computing ad-
visory panel of the U.S. Bureau of
Standards. The panel gives the Direc-
tor advice on how to integrate infor-
mation technology into the basic mis-
sion of the Bureau. Mr. Jensen is also
on a panel with the executives of John
Wiley Publishing Company to help
them see the way to electronic
publishing. These are mentioned to
convey the setting in which we for-
mulated the concept of the chief infor-
mation officer.
One author for whom I have a great
deal of respect is John Garrity. In
1963, Garrity found that at the very
beginnings of computer technology
people understood the right way from
the wrong way. The fact that most
companies are way off the path today
is not because they did not have proper
advice from the very beginning. Garri-
ty surveyed 15 percent of the com-
puterized industry at the time and
found there was no middle ground,
that people either were or were not get-
ting a good return on their investment.
The high achievers were doing a good
job because they were concentrating
on a critical area of the business. A
university was getting a good return
because it was applying computer
technology to research and instruc-
tional programs, not just to registering
students. Water management organi-
zations would be using it to help
manage water, not to do the payroll.
The high payoff still comes when you
apply the technology to the main pur-
pose of your organization.
We have found the factors that de-
termine success. Executive leadership
is the most important. The guy at the
top knows what the business is all
about, where it is going, and how to
concentrate the resources on the fun-
damental problems to get a better
return on the investment. Least impor-
tant of all is the equipment strategy.
People often start off asking what
machine to get. That is the very last
thing they should be concerned with.
Garrity summarized by saying that,
in the lead companies, top manage-
ment assessed computer potential and
gave it the continuing management
direction it deserved. Without that
guidance, people did not get a good
return on their investment and were
unhappy with their expenditures on
Garrity published another report in

1968. In it he indicated that technical
achievement was outrunning every-
one's expectations, but that economic
payoffs weren't there. The machines
were getting better and better, but
return on the investment was getting
worse and worse. He found that
satisfaction with the computer effort
had a very high correlation with what
the man at the very top thought. If
he's happy with the computer effort,
then the company gets the economic
payoff. The thing that tended to go
wrong, then, was failing to adapt to
the new environment, letting the gap
between what was possible and what
actually happened get too wide and
out of control. People never got
around to implementing the things
they knew how to do because they
were constantly trying to make things
better. The practical achievement of
getting something in place that can do
something useful fell by the wayside
because the plans kept getting grander
in an attempt to keep up with the con-
stantly improving technology. They
were chasing technology instead of the
mission of the organization. Garrity
noted that the computer staffs did not
have the training, economic sense, or
anything else associated with the main
function of the organization. It's not
that they were not capable, but that
they were simply not positioned or
trained to worry about the bottom line
of the organization. The chief ex-
ecutive officer sets the central policies,
the organizations and the arrangement
to carry out assigned responsibility,
demands that the computer systems
and plans be entered into the mission
plans of the organization, and follows
through to see that the results are
Pete Jensen published an article in
1968 on a language he called
"FOGCOM". The acronym is
"Forget the Organizational Goals and
the Corporate Objectives of Manage-
ment". He claims that FOGCOM is
the language in which many executives
communicate with their computer peo-
ple, and vice-versa. It's a universal
language. The syntax and semantics
aren't defined, but everyone speaks it
and no one understands it. His conclu-
sion was that what we're really after is
the intelligent placement of the com-
puter within the organization.
Richard Nolan, in the Harvard
Business Review, advanced the Stage
Theory of Data Processing. The


characteristics of stage theory are that
you can categorize and experimentally
identify which stage an object is in and
you can predict how the transition
from one stage to another will occur.
It is a concept that always looks
backward. In Nolan's theory, growth
of a data processing organization is
condemned to ride a curve of rising
costs. He contends that data process-
ing is in a continual state of crisis.
You're constantly trying to control the
budget because expenses are going up
fast and you're not getting what you
want out of the expenditure. You put
on the brakes because you've got to
bring expenditures under control.
Then the next part of the crisis
develops: people are not getting the
work done. Things get tense and final-
ly there is a big meeting to decide to
throw more money at it to upgrade
everything, and then you go rolling
again through the high budget cycle.
Nolan's advice is to manage the crisis,
not to get rid of it.
Our advice is that you shouldn't just
manage your misery, you should get
out of it. Go back to the basic points
made by Garrity. Maybe your budget
will go up but that's not the important
point. The important thing is that you
will get a good return on your invest-
ment if you apply the resources,
capital, and technology to the focus of
whatever business you're in. Whether
the budget is growing or not is really
beside the point if you're getting a
good return on your investment.
I want to make a distinction be-
tween managers and leaders. I'm not
down on managers because good
managers are very important. But if
you have excellent management in the
absence of leadership, you end up with
a suffocating organization. The goals
of managers are usually generally bas-
ed on necessities, whereas the goals of
leaders are based on desires-what
they would like to have done rather
than what must be done. You'll
generally find that managers develop
survival skills, while leaders develop
intuitive skills. Leaders are high rollers
who will take risks. Good managers
are a great asset, but a lot of them
need to be developed into good
The chief financial officer is a
relatively new development, historical-
ly coming out of accountancy, comp-
trollership, or treasurership. He is now
most often a vice-president for

finance. The chief financial officer is a
member of the executive structure,
which means he has his hands in
everything that the business is doing.
(Some years ago, he was mostly into
creative accounting, most of which is
now outlawed). Now he is involved
with everything from strategic plan-
ning to the decisionmaking process,
from the bottom to the top of the
There is a similar development with
respect to information technology.
There is a need for a chief information
officer, for someone who can integrate
technology and information process-
ing into decisionmaking and the ex-
ecutive processes.
It's important to rotate your com-
puter people through the operating
positions. Get them out of the
machine room and let them go slosh
around in a swamp or something. Let
them figure out what the organization
is really doing. They will have a much
better understanding of what the
organization is all about and how they
can apply their technology.

"There is a need for a chief informa-
tion officer, for someone who can
integrate technology and information
processing into decisionmaking and
the executive process."

We're not proposing a "Computer
Czar" who is the central approval
authority who says you can or cannot
do this or that, or that you can have a
micro or you have to use the central
machine. Such matters are utter
nonsense and not a part of anything
that approaches executive leadership.
The chief information officer must be
a member of the executive structure.
He must be in the meetings when the
budget is decided for the whole
organization. He must know where the
organization is going and how to stay
in step with it. He must help shape cor-
porate objectives and understand the
importance of the technology. This is
not often the case with computer peo-
ple today. They come into too many
organizations laterally and don't know
anything about the nature of the
organization. The chief information
officer must also be structurally un-
biased in regard to organizational
units and technology. He shouldn't be
concerned whether "Central Com-

putting" lives or dies or whether it's
centralized or distributed or analog or
digital. He must be technologically
"snow proof" as well.
The chief information officer can't
do everything. His most important job
is to cause everyone to appropriate the
right technology unto themselves. He
shouldn't make them come to some
computing center or make them go to
some collection of programmers to try
to plead a case to get something done.
This technology is nothing more than
tools for professionals who should be
expected and required to use them. He
has to cause a continual assessment of
new technologies. He must cause the
integration of the technology into the
corporate plans, budgets, and opera-
tions. If the chief information officer
doesn't get the technology into the
plans, he won't get it into the budget.
If he doesn't get it in the budget, he
won't get it into the operation.
The chief information officer
should see that everytime someone ex-
periences change, it is handled in such
a way that it is made easier to make the
next change. This cannot be done with
the mind set that "We've done it, so
now let's let this thing go away for the
next five years before we change
again." Everytime he makes a change,
he had better make that change so that
he can make the next change in an
even shorter time.
I can walk through an organization
and, hearing the coffee room chatter,
basically tell you whether or not the
organization has a measure of leader-
ship. If they are talking about keypun-
ches, printouts, upgrading, conver-
ting, time sharing, and writing code,
they're not paying attention to the
world. If they're talking about
evaluating or installing existing soft-
ware packages, data acquisition in
general, displaying and com-
municating information, augmenting
facilities, or facilitating professionals,
then they know what is going on.
Whether they're doing anything about
it is quite another matter.

Don McEwen
Every project Quad does, we start it
out in this way. We explore these lofty
ideas to come up with concepts and
strategies. It is my job to make it hap-
pen, to translate ideas into concrete
The Suwannee River Water
Management Disitrict is a relatively


small organization with a high percen-
tage of professionals who are highly
information intensive. The pace of
business was slow at Suwannee, but
they read the political climate and
perceived that they only had a few
years before they were going to be in a
crisis mode of management. They an-
ticipated a number of hot political
issues and an intense demand for in-
formation and data. If they didn't
have it, they were going to get
slaughtered in court. They decided to
look at information technology to see
what it had to offer for managing
relatively large amounts of data and
for synthesizing it into a dispensable
form. They went to Pete Jensen, who
did the preliminary information study,
and, when that was completed, I took
it from there.
I will lay out the chain of events and
the types of procedures we went
through to put Suwannee where they
are today. These are the kind of pro-
cedures that anyone has to go through
for any major technology acquisition.
There were four phases. The first
was an analysis of the institutional
organization. We tried to find out
what they really needed. We wanted to
know what informational needs they
had and what they would do with the
information. The second phase was
translating these nebulous needs into a
concrete set of specifications so we
could go into the market and get ven-
dor proposals to be evaluated. The
third phase was contractual and finan-
cial planning so Suwannee could fund,
replace, and maintain the systems. We
involved a lot of people in the District.
They created a team of influential ad-
visors. Throughout the whole pro-
cedure, Quad Corporation only made
recommendations. We discussed the
pros and cons but left the decisions to
them. We researched this together. We
had every area of the organization
represented, except clerical. In phase
four, we faced the moment of truth.
After all of this dreaming, planning,
and talking, the Governing Board ac-
tually voted on it. The big questions
then were, "What do we do first?"
and "How do we go about achieving
all of those goals that we said we could
do if we had the right tools?"
Let me now elaborate on some of
the important aspects of this whole
process. In essence, we were trying to
help the District manage their prob-
lems better but we didn't want to set

up a computing center. Out goal was
to support the fulfillment of the
District's mission. To do that, we had
to develop a system to transfer the raw
data they collected into information to
support the mission. We had to build a
system to provide the information
needed by management in sufficient
time to take effective action. We
wanted to integrate information
technology into every aspect of the
organization. So many of the tools in
this generation are friendly and easy to
use, it's almost to the point that pro-
fessionals can't afford not to use

"We wanted to integrate information
technology into every aspect of the

We intended to integrate office
automation, communications, and the
geographical data base management
tools with the usual data base manage-
ment system. We wanted all of these to
communicate so that once you got
anything into one machine, you would
never have to enter it again. We didn't
know whether we could find a single
system that would do everything or a
collection of components that could
communicate with each other.
We also tried to focus on the fact
that Suwannee was investing heavily in
data and that they were going to live
with their data for a long time. They
wouldn't be able to come back in five
years, and say, "Gee, we wish we had
monitored certain data during that
period." They had to think it through
and make sure they were collecting the
right data to support the mission.
We focused as well on the tools that
Suwannee would need to transform
this raw data into useful information.
We tried to stay away from a focus on
the hardware because it is going to be
obsolete very soon. In five years, there
will be better tools that are so much
more cost effective that you're going
to want to replace what you've got.
We attempted to de-emphasize hard-
ware and the other things computer
types like to talk about because we
considered them the first things that
would die.
The other thing worth mentioning
here is the friendliness of the tools. We
were looking for tools professionals

could use directly and didn't require a
lot of experience as a programmer. We
looked for a data management
language, for example, that was in
English, with simple phraseology to
extract data from a complicated
grouping and to put it in the form
needed. We didn't fully succeed in this
objective on the graphics system
because the tradeoff there was to be
sure to get the analytical tools they
needed. None of the graphics tools
were easy to use because they were
functionally too complex.

k1 -l


Hosted by Blucher Lines, Governing
Board Member
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Developing and

Implementing Water

Shortage Plans

Dr. William R. Walker, Director
Virginia Water Resources Research

Stephen A. Walker, Attorney
South Florida Water Management

Dr. William R. Walker
In a study we did on water shortage
plans, we brought together represen-
tatives from seven southeastern states
to look at legal and institutional prob-
lems. We found there are seven or
eight major problems that needed to
be addressed in detail. One of these
was how to deal with water shortages
and emergencies. We then looked at 45
states to see how they addressed shor-
tages, and we found a wide variety of
The western states follow the prior
appropriation doctrine, which basical-
ly means that, "the first in time is the
first in right." Many of these states
deal with water shortages that are ac-
centuated by droughts by following
the appropriation doctrine. Arizona,
for example, allots water to its various
water management districts based on
seniority. It has decided, however,
that the water distributed within a
district should be done equally. The
best thing that can be said about this
system is that it's easy to administer.
Under the Riparian Doctrine, the
general idea is to share. In some states,
such as Arkansas, authority has been
assigned to one of the management
agencies to allocate water. Some states
like Florida have a permit system to
which is tied an emergency water shor-
tage plan. You grant a permit only if

the applicant indicates he has a plan to
cut back use during water shortages.
There are a large number of states
which use the governor's emergency
powers. In effect, they wait until the
situation gets so bad that the Executive
has to do something. The Governor
declares an emergency that allows
things like suspending the rules and
making allocations. Usually the state
laws say the Governor can declare an
emergency in disasters. Sometimes a
drought is considered to be a disaster,
and sometimes the laws say it is not.
Since 1977, when many of us in the
east experienced two droughts, there
has been a great deal more interest.
More states are establishing drought
tasks forces or committees. Some of
them are formed and actually do
something, but some drop by the
wayside when the rains come. We are
trying very hard now to revamp the
laws of Virginia, but I've concluded
that until we again get two severe
droughts back to back, we'll never ac-
complish it. Droughts come and go
before we manage to get anything
through our General Assembly.
The responsibility for emergency
plans also varies from state to state. In
many, the primary responsibility for
water is with the localities but they
usually find that problems and solu-
tions for water problems transcend the
local political boundaries. There is,
however, a general feeling throughout
the country that the best decisions are
made at the local level. But when you
talk about what is in the public in-
terest, you must realize there are a lot
of small publics at the local level.
There are a lot of special interest
groups that can be dominating at a
local level. Local governments are well
suited to curtail use, prevent waste,
and encourage reuse, but they're ill
equipped to manage surface and
ground water that transcends their
boundaries. In an emergency then,
there should be joint responsibility
between the state and the locality
because there are circumstances that
need to be addressed at the local level.
You must have a certain amount of
public involvement. Unless you've in-
cluded the public from the very begin-
ning, you'll find that some basic
changes may be needed in your laws.
When you talk about water, people
just come out of the woodwork. The
public needs to be educated. It's a
great opportunity that we don't always

use. One further consideration is that
there are not enough policemen to en-
force any kind of emergency provi-
sions. We must depend on the public
to rise to the occasion and the public
generally will favor a situation where
there is equity. They must perceive
that we're not going to favor any par-
ticular group, or if one is favored,
there's a reason for it. For example, if
a citrus orchard is deprived of water,
15 to 20 years of growth may be lost.
The public, if it is fully informed, will
concur with the need for giving this
person some sort of preference. Public
support is also important if you have
to make some changes in your basic
water laws.
The second major item you need to
consider when you're developing an
emergency plan is how to treat in-
stream flows. In my survey of the
states, I found that some had
established minimum levels which
precluded further withdrawals. Some
states suggested that under emergency
conditions it was possible to go below
the desirable minimum flow.
There is also the possibility of let-
ting market forces act. If you listen to
the economists, they would have you
believe that the market can do the
allocation and uses will arrive at the
highest and best form. They even sug-
gest forming a "water bank" in which
someone who has a right to water can
sell his allocation.
In trying to allocate water under any
system, you must establish priorities.
There is general agreement that
domestic uses have the highest priori-
ty. Under drought conditions, you
might need another kind of classifica-
tion. It is important, in these plans,
that industries and other water users
know in advance how much water they
will be receiving during a shortage.
You should also consider your options
to deal with interconnections, or even
to mandate interconnections between
cities during an emergency. It is feasi-
ble when dealing with emergencies.
Let's now look at implementing
water shortage plans, starting with do-
ing it at the Governor's level. In this
system, the authority is centered, and
the triggering mechanism is the Gover-
nor deciding there is an emergency.
The difficulty is predicting when the
Governor is going to act. You have to
be concerned about when the situation
is going to get out of the "ordinary"

If you lodge this power in local
government, it also has advantages
and disadvantages. Local government
certainly has the local information on
which to act. The biggest problem is
that it doesn't involve a large
geographic area and it's very difficult
to get coordination. You risk the
possibility that decisions made by two
units of government, both in what
they consider to be in their own best
interests, will be counter-productive.
Under certain circumstances, an in-
terstate agency has application. When
several states are involved, there are
problems which can't be dealt with ef-
fectively at the local or the state level.
The difficulty with an interstate agen-
cy is that it lacks flexibility to deal with
local governments, and interstate
jealousies and administration costs
can be pretty high.
For implementation, there must be a
triggering mechanism to enter into and
to get out of an emergency plan. The
triggering mechanism minimizes ad-
ministrative discretion. It should be in
some quantitative terms upon which
we can agree. You might use several
factors, such as how many days supply
in a reservoir, or the level of stream
flows. You must also develop a quan-
titative term to determine when you're
out of the drought.
Under the implementation plan, you
must also have an appropriate set of
classes to which allocations are going
to be made. People should know that
they're going to be excluded. Class
preferences are treated very differently
from state to state.
In the implementation plan, there
must be some form of sanction to help
reduce wastes. But when you rely
strictly on a set of sanctions, you en-
counter the problem of trying to make
it severe enough to get people's atten-
tion while not making it so severe that
a judge won't enforce it.
Since droughts are a certainty, and
shortages are likely to be with us for a
long time, we must attempt to manage
them. Our goal will be to provide for
public health and to minimize the in-
conveniences to economic develop-
ment at a minimum cost. The criteria
should be to allow for user expecta-
tions, to try to reduce waste, to keep
internal costs down, to provide some
flexibility to protect for instream flow
uses, to accommodate competing uses,
to allow water to be used efficiently,
and to be sure that it meets constitu-

tional requirements.

Stephen A. Walker

I have been asked to share with you
our experiences in developing a water
shortage plan for the South Florida
Water Management District. Develop-.
ing a program like this is really a mat-
ter of fortuitous opportunity. During
a drought, you can gather public, local
government, State, and media support
to solve the problem. If you haven't
got a potential disaster, the chance of
accomplishing it in a reasonable time
frame is very poor. We finished our
water shortage plan and got it adopted
two weeks before the rains started. I
was actually a little disappointed
because we never got to implement it.
Laws are designed to solve prob-
lems, but we really know that people
solve problems. In the implementa-
tion, and in the fleshing out of the
goals and objectives that the law is
designed to meet, is where the prob-
lems occur.
Chapter 373 of Florida's water law
provides goals and objectives for
water shortage planning. Some are
very explicit and some can be inferred.
The statute says we can declare a water
shortage to protect the water resources
from serious harm. The statute also
says we can declare a water shortage to
insure the integrity of the permitting
system in order to protect permitted
users. We looked back at Dean
Maloney's Model Water Code to see
what he said concerning the objectives
he was trying to achieve in wording the
statute in this fashion. The inferred
objectives are valid, concrete, and can
be achieved. For example, people
should be able to plan their activities
around the water shortage plan. If a
water shortage comes, the water user
can make plans, in advance, to make
his system more efficient to avoid
restrictions on uses. Certainty is
definitely another quality that a water
shortage plan should try to promote.
Because the goals and objectives are
very general, we developed some
guiding principles to use for keeping
us on track as we went through the
process. In the heat of the moment, we
didn't want to make a change in the
rule that undid something somewhere
else in the rule. That often happens in
rule making and in the Legislature. If
you've got guidelines for what you're

trying to achieve, you can always
review what you've done to make sure
that you haven't inadvertently
subverted the process.
The first guiding principle we
developed was that the plan should be
applicable to all users regardless of the
water source. The fact that an in-
dividual industry happens to be getting
water from a public water supply
system doesn't reduce the need to cut
the use back. It still has an impact on
the resource.
The second guiding principle was
that the plan should be resource based.
The purpose of the plan is to minimize
economic and social dislocations and
to protect public health and safety.
You shouldn't declare a water short-
age unless there is a water shortage.
You determine there's a water short-
age when you find the available supply
is not sufficient to meet present and
anticipated demands and you won't
know that unless you have a good
hand on what resources are available
from a particular source. If you have a
sound resource-based plan, you will be
on much firmer footing in case of a
challenge because you have the data to
back it up.
User classifications should not be
drawn so narrowly that you're making
distinctions without a difference. You
can get into equal protection problems
with that. Neither do you want them

"You're trying to minimize economic
impact and you don't want to make
people cutback if there's no resource
reason for making them do so."

so broad that you're lumping together
people that don't belong together. In
order to be able to treat uses different-
ly, you need to classify them separate-
ly. You also need to classify the water
sources. If you have several aquifers in
an area, the implementation of a plan
should not affect users of the sources
that are not in short supply. You're
trying to minimize economic impact
and you don't want to make people
cutback if there's no resource reason
for making them do so.
The goal is to protect public health
and safety. Once you've accomplished
that, the plan should lean toward
minimizing the economic and social
dislocations and impacts. Our plan did
that by incorporating four levels of


r -- ---

cutbacks. The first two phases remove
the inefficiencies many people have in
their water systems. People don't need
to irrigate their lawn five days a week,
but they do it anyway. Some people
would rather have green grass than
children. The first two phases make
you get up early in the morning to
water your lawn and limit the number
of days you can water it. These levels
of cutbacks generally cause inconve-
nience rather than economic hardship.
Phases three and four start cutting in-
to people's livelihoods. It's one thing
to have your lawn dry up and another
not to be able to bring a pay check
home because your industry is highly
water dependent and was unable to
obtain the necessary water.
The plan should also be graduated
so that you can declare a water shor-
tage in anticipation of problems. In
short, implement the "inconvenience"
stages before there is a direct threat to
the resource. Anticipated demands
and supplies, at some point in the
future, is what you're planning for.
Restrictions in a water shortage plan
need to be easily understood. If you
tell the average homeowners to cut-
back 15 percent on use, they won't be
able to because they don't even know
how much they are using now. Our
plan gives the user specific guidelines.
It says, "Water you lawn only on
Monday, Wednesday and Saturday
between the hours of 4:00 and 8:00
a.m.". Any user can understand and
accomplish these without misinter-
pretation. That sort of restriction also
eases the burden on enforcement per-
sonnel. It is hard to determine if some-
one has cutback 15 percent but it is
simple and quick to see somebody
watering on a Tuesday at 2:00 p.m.
A plan should provide for unusual
circumstances. There are going to be
valid exceptions that need to be treated
separately. We have taken this into ac-
count by establishing a procedure for
variances. For example, people who
can achieve the same amount of reduc-
tion through different means than we
suggest may be able to get a variance.
Likewise, there may be circumstances
when you need a firmer hand than you
would be able to exercise following the
plan. We use the water shortage
emergency provisions in the rule to go
into specific areas where there are
specific problems not affecting the rest
of the area. We can impose more
severe restrictions in that area. An ex-

ample would be a utility which is ex-
periencing saltwater intrusion primari-
ly because of the poor location of its
well field. It's not fair to cutback
everybody in that area. With your
emergency powers, you can restrict
specific uses as needed.
Enforcement should be fair,
uniform, and easily implemented.
Since we didn't have to implement our
plan, I'm not sure we achieved that.
There is a problem of communicating
with local law enforcement officials,
who will probably be doing the actual
implementation. It's difficult because
there is a great deal of information to
absorb and apply in the field and they
have a whole lot of other statutes to
enforce in addition to the water shor-
tage plan. You have to work with local
law enforcement officials to develop
something that's meaningful and
useful for the man in the field who is
going to do the enforcement.
The last guideline is that you need to
recognize the limitations of the water
management district as well as the
legal and fiscal limitations on local
and state government. You can have
the greatest plan in the world, but if no
one has the money to make it work,
it's not worth anything.
After our guiding principles were
developed, we proceeded to identify
the key participants. We tried to iden-
tify what each interest group's
strengths and weaknesses were related
to water shortage. We asked if they
could help us with the implementa-
tion, be self-enforcing, or provide us
with information about their uses.
Once we knew what each organization
was like, we tried to identify the role
each should play in implementing a
water shortage plan. At that point, we
attempted to explain the program to
various groups and to solicit their sup-
port. I believe this was the key to get-
ting the plan adopted. We adopted a
plan that affected every water user in
south Florida and did it at a time when
people were convinced that we were
going to have water shortage restric-
tions in a matter of months. There was
not one objection to the plan. We
worked with the groups and the public
in advance and they felt we had ad-
dressed their concerns in an agreeable
fashion. We took advantage of the no-
tion that, "We're all in this together."
People respond to that, and rise to the
occasion when needed.

The key participants you have to
identify first are the main staff
members at your water management
district. If you develop a wonderful
rule and haven't got the staff capabili-
ty or the staff mechanisms to imple-
ment it, then you'll lose credibility
during implementation. We called on
professionals from all of our district
operations to develop the plan and
provide input.
Water users are of two basic types:
the general public and the special in-
terest groups. The general public has a
great deal of strength and a strong
community spirit-- provided they see
there's a problem and that they'll be
treated fairly. The public also has a
very strong sense of fair play. It's not
always what you might see as fair play,
but they have very definite opinions
concerning the priorities of letting a
golf course burn up as opposed to let-
ting front lawns burn up. These opin-
ions need to be listened to and dealt
with. The major weakness of the
general public is a lack of awareness of
water resource issues. Farmers often
complain that most people think food
comes from grocery stores, and many
people feel that water comes from
their spigots. Public education can

"The major weakness of the general
public is a lack of awareness of water
resource issues."

help solve that problem. We establish-
ed a series of handouts to help educate
the general public. One described the
water shortage plan and another was a
question and answer sheet that helps
identify individual water habits. Most
people don't know how much water
they use. We had a handout on how to
detect leaks and deal with them. That
kind of information will go a long way
in helping solve your problem. We
found several utilities willing to
distribute this kind of information in
their monthly billings.
For every type of special interest
water use, there is a trade association
looking after its interests. There are a
lot of them and they have different
strengths and weaknesses. They're
unified and they do a pretty good job,
through peer pressure, of upgrading
the quality and consistency of the peo-
ple in their industry. They are also
generally very knowledgeable about
water uses presently being practiced in


their industry, and about the leading
edge of technology for that particular
industry. You should tap that source,
and get their support for your pro-
gram. These folks are very willing to
cooperate and they will be knocking
on your door very quickly. Their ma-
jor weakness is that they tend to be
overly protective of their particular in-
terest group. You must watch for anti-
competitive notions in the things they
suggest to you. Someone will suggest
using water restrictions in a certain
way, and you find out later that it may
totally wipe out a segment of the in-
dustry that they don't represent. In
general, however, these user groups
were extremely helpful in developing
our program and in bringing their own
membership into line to agree with it.
The next key participant is the
media, your voice to the world. You
can't contact as many people in a year
as they can in five minutes on the even-
ing news. Make use of that when it's
appropriate, but don't try for overkill.
Make use of it only when you get
ready to implement the water shortage
plan. The media can provide a
valuable educational service as well as
informing the public about what
restrictions are being imposed at what
time in what areas. The weakness of
the media is that they tend to be over-
zealous in trying to help you. At one
point, we had water shortage restric-
tions for Broward County going by on
the television in the same manner daily
temperatures from around the country
are presented. We set up meetings with
the editorial boards of all the major
papers, T.V., and radio stations in our
district. We met with them and ex-
plained the problem and what we were
trying to accomplish. We got 100 per-
cent support plus very accurate and
helpful reporting. Many of us ap-
peared on the various talk shows in
local areas. Governor Graham also
helped us by filming a public service
announcement concerning water shor-
tages, which we have never had to use.
The amount of media coverage you
can get is only limited by your imagi-
nation. We had a plumber "spot" that
showed how to put a water saving
device in a toilet and a low volume jet
on a shower head.
Florida has a disaster emergency
statute, Chapter 258 of the Florida
Statutes. It provides extremely broad
executive powers. All kinds of permit-
ting requirements are suspended if the

Governor declares a water shortage
emergency. We used a water shortage
emergency declaration in 1980 to get
$400,000 from the state to help imple-
ment our cloud seeding program. It's
available if you have a specific prob-
lem in an area that you must address
quickly and with money.
Local government is one of the most
important keys to this whole process.
The major strength is that they have
all kinds of police power. Their
authority is unlike that of the water
management district, which is limited
to that delegated to it by the
Legislature. Municipalities and coun-
ties generally have the scope of the
State's police power. There are some
circumstances in which you can use
that broad authority to enforce and
implement a water shortage plan.
They also have enforcement person-
nel. Sheriffs, policerhen, building in-
spectors, and meter readers can be
utilized to enforce a water shortage
plan. Local governments have an
obligation and a duty to help you en-
force a water shortage plan if you ask
them. Every water shortage order we
enter has a paragraph asking them to
help us.
The weaknesses of local government
are that cities and counties have fiscal
limitations and the political boun-
daries of cities and counties never
coincide with hydrologic boundaries.
A resource plan should be based on
the resource and not on arbritrary
political boundaries. We solved that
problem by developing uniform
restrictions that apply regardless of
political boundaries and that could be
enforced by local law enforcement of-
ficials. This is especially important in
highly urbanized areas like Palm
Beach County, which has over 30
municipalities plus the county. Last
year, each municipality and the county
adopted different water shortage or-
dinances. There were seven or eight
television stations and three or four
newspapers trying to explain all of this
to people who didn't know what city
they lived in to begin with. We got
around that by creating a uniform
restriction regardless of the political
Coordination and assimilation of
information is also an important role
that local governments fill. We asked
each government to appoint a coor-
dination person for us to contact
directly about when a water shortage is

going to be declared. The coordination
person also provides feedback from
the local level.
One of the things that needed to be
addressed is that local governments
often have ordinances which in-
advertently conflict with water short-
age planning. We have one town that
prohibited watering lawns from 7:00
to 9:00 in the morning because
children going to school go out into
the street to avoid sprinklers and get
run over. That conflicted with our re-
quirement for watering between 4:00
and 8:00 in the morning. You must
eliminate these potential conflicts to
the extent possible.
Local governments can also help by
enacting building codes that can be
used to make homes water efficient.
Our water shortage plan doesn't ad-
dress in-home use very well because
you can't expect a policeman to go in-
to a house to see if they have a bottle
in the toilet. Subdivision regulations
and building codes can be set up to re-
quire low volume toilets and shower
heads, however.
There are some remaining problems
in water shortage planning in our area.
Enforcement is one. Each sheriff's of-
fice and police department had its own
priorities to administer. We cannot ex-
pect policemen to go after people who
are watering their lawns at the wrong
time when there are more serious
crimes to deal with. That can only be
solved by dollars. The penalty for
violating a water shortage rule, a sec-
ond degree misdemeanor, is 60 days in

"We cannot expect policemen to go
after people who are watering their
lawns at the wrong time when there are
more serious crimes to deal with."

jail and a $500 fine. That seems a bit
harsh for the little lady who had her
hearing aid turned off that morning
when the local newscaster announced
the restrictions. We would like to see
the penalty decriminalized for the first
couple of infractions. This can be
done in a piecemeal way through the
county attorneys. It can be made a
violation of the local codes and en-
forced like trafficc ticket. You must
work that out with each particular
county administrationn involved and
you may aoL get uniformity.
A second problem is instream uses
and miin lm flows and levels. We



don't have those developed yet and we
question how applicable it is to some
areas. Our plan has been criticized by
one reviewer because we did not in-
clude quantitative triggering
mechanisms. Ideally, quantitative trig-
gering mechanisms are the answer but
they don't work in south Florida
because of our ability to move water
around throughout the system and
because we have mixed sources for the
same use.
We have never had a chance to im-
plement this plan, and I hope we don't
anytime soon. But we do have a plan
in place, and I hope that our ex-
perience will benefit you as you
develop your own.


Hosted by Rich McWilliams,
Program Development Division
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Rainfall Monitoring:

The State of the Art

C.D. Helms, Hydrologist in Charge
Southeast River Forecast Center
Atlanta, Georgia

David T. Smith, Assistant Regional
National Weather Service
Ft. Worth, Texas

C.D. Helms
Man has been vitally interested in
water since the beginning of time. He
has attempted to control and explain
its occurrence since before the advent
of written history. Ancient Orientals
were known to have designed and built
water control structures, and early
Greeks and Romans believed that rain-
fall was insufficient to explain the
volume of water observed to be flow-
ing in rivers and from springs. They
held many strange beliefs as to the
origin of flowing water. A commonly
held view was that seawater passed
through underground conduits to the
mountain and drained back to the sea.
In the 1600's, two French scientists
discovered there was indeed a suffi-
cient volume of rainfall to account for
the observed volume of water in rivers,
springs and wells. Pierre Perrault
measured rainfall over the Seine River
basin during a three-year period. From
his estimation of the streamflow, he
determined that less than one-third of
the total volume of rainfall flowed
past his point of observation. Mariotte
took advantage of a leaky cellar in the
Paris Observatory to infer that since
the volume of water in the cellar varied
with the amount of rainfall that was

observed, then the presence of water in
springs and wells was the result of in-
filtrating rainwater. Several years
later, Edmund Halley, the noted
British astronomer, concluded from
his studies of evaporation in the
Mediterranean Sea that evaporated
water was sufficient to explain the
volume of water which flowed in the
rivers. Understanding of the
hydrologic cycle thus began to take
definitive shape. A century and a half
later, Darcy successfully applied a
mathematical formula to the move-
ment of ground water, and hydrology
shifted a little more from the
philosophical arena toward the scien-
These scientists could not have
known that in the latter part of the
20th century man would begin to
mathematically simulate streamflow
by use of numerical hydrologic models
in high speed computers and that one
of the problems confronting him
would be the same problem that con-
fronted Perrault and Mariotte-the
accurate measurement of rainfall.
Once man had a reasonably com-
plete knowledge of the hydrologic cy-
cle, his primary hindrance to a more
complete understanding of the process
became that of communications. One
hundred years ago the definition of
real-time hydrometeorological data
might have been: the collection of four
or five rainfall measurements sent by
telegraph from an area the size of a
state. Fifty years later the telephone
began to make its presence felt in data
collection. Not long after this came
radio, and "real-time" data began to
take a completely different form.
Now, in the 1980's following the
breakthrough in electronic
miniaturization in the 1960's and 70's,
we stand on the threshold of a new era
in hydrologic data acquisition. Our
tools today include radio, telephone,
satellite, microwave, computer-to-
computer links, automatic dial-up,
event reporting systems, radar and
In the 1960's and 1970's, computers
became available that allowed
hydrologists to numerically simulate
hydrologic processes in greater depth
than ever before. Although several dif-
ferent hydrologic models are in use in
the National Weather Service today,
we are moving toward standardization
in our River Forecast Centers across
the country. The standardized system

is called the National Weather Service
River Forecast System and is a com-
plex and sophisticated software system
that attempts to simulate the
hydrologic cycle.
The Southeast River Forecast
Center in Atlanta is responsible for
forecasting all the main-stem rivers in
the Southeast United States, an area of
about 250,000 square miles. Our ter-
ritory extends from the Roanoke River
in southern Virginia, south and
southwestward to include the Tom-
bigbee River in northeast Mississippi
and western Alabama. Using rainfall
data from 758 rain gages, we prepare
and issue forecasts for 208 points
along these rivers. Dividing the total
drainage area by the number of gages
tells us that we have an average of one
rain gage for each 330 square miles.
When one considers that a standard
eight-inch rain gage is one eighty-
millionth of a square mile, the data
sampling seems very sparse indeed.
The need for real-time precipitation
data is certainly not unique to the Na-
tional Weather Service. Workers in all
segments of the water resources com-
munity are being provided with access
to high speed computers. Numerical
models that apply to every facet of
water resources management and con-
trol are being developed. All of these
models are ravenous users of
precipitation data. In every case, the
final product of any real-time water
management or prediction system is
only as good as the quality of the input
data. When real-time systems are
operated with less than real-time data,
the resulting product must be of lesser
quality than it could have been with
real-time data.
What is being done to improve the
system? What steps are being taken to
improve the timeliness of data ex-
change? Obviously, these are ques-
tions that cannot be answered by the
National Weather Service alone.
However, the National Weather Ser-
vice is deeply involved in programs
that are designed to speed the move-
ment of data and to make additional
data available to the users of
hydrometeorological data.
Within the past year, the twelve Na-
tional Weather Service River Forecast
Centers in the mainland U.S. have
been equipped with Data General
S-140 minicomputers. The mission of
these computer systems, known as
Gateway computers, is to expedite


I Mono"

data collection and exchange in our
River Forecast Centers. It is planned
that this system, with its peripheral
components, will automatically dial
into other computer systems and
retrieve data for use in the National
Weather Service River Forecast
Center. Cooperators in this effort will
be able to tap the data base in the
Gateway computer for hydrometeoro-
logical data to help fulfill their needs.
In order to expedite data exchanges
between users, a standard hydrologic
exchange format has been developed.
The need for standardization in data
exchange has been evident for some
time. The standard hydrologic ex-
change format is a straightforward
system in which data are organized in-
to a format that computers can handle
and that can be easily decoded by
visual inspection. It seems so obvious
that a standard format is needed that
its late arrival is hard to explain. In-
teragency cooperation in data ex-
change will be greatly facilitated by the
universal acceptance of the exchange
Increasing numbers of local data
collection and storage systems are be-
ing commissioned across the country.
Generally, these systems consist of
several telemetered rain and/or river
gages that are interrogated by a local
microprocessor. The data that is ac-
quired from the gage network is stored
in the microprocessor to be retrieved
by interested users. Potential users for
this type of system are numerous and
include: civil defense units, public
works agencies, National Weather Ser-
vice, Corps of Engineers, U.S.
Geological Survey, water management
agencies and others. Systems of this
kind are usually locally financed, with
the National Weather Service pro-
viding technical support.
The Corps of Engineers and the
U.S. Geological Survey are continual-
ly upgrading their system of Data Col-
lection Platforms which are inter-
rogated by satellite. A number of addi-
tional sites have been brought on-line
in recent months and more are plan-
ned for the near future. Although the
National Weather Service does not
own Data Collection Platforms, we
have access to the data through the
satellite receiving station at Wallops
Island, Virginia. Data from this net-
work have been a part of our system
for the past several years.
The National Weather Service is in

the process of upgrading its Data
Distribution System. At the present
time, the data is directly available,
within the National Weather Service,
only to River Forecast Centers. In the
very near future, this data will be
available to any weather office where
it is needed. The data will be transmit-
ted in standard hydrologic exchange
format code by means of our primary
communications system. Cooperators
will also have access to the data
through the Gateway computer
Remote Observing System Automa-
tion (ROSA) is an effort to expedite
the flow of data from cooperative
observers to the River Forecast
Centers. For many years, cooperative
observers have manually reported by
telephone or by mail to weather of-
fices. The data was handwritten at the
weather office and then manually
entered on the teletype circuits. The
hydrologists in the River Forecast
Centers then manually entered the in-
formation on another form for card
punching before it made its way to the
computer. The span of time from the
observation to entry in the computer
system could be one to three hours. It
is anticipated that ROSA will reduce
this lag time to less than 30 minutes. In
the ROSA system, the cooperative
observer is provided with a hand-held
touchtone device into which he will
enter observed data. The device will
have memory and read-out capability,
allowing the observer to verify the
coded data is correct. After the data
has been stored and displayed in the
touchtone device, the observer will
place a telephone call to a microcom-
puter, where the data will be entered.
The actual transmission of the coded
data will be accomplished in
milliseconds. The data will be
transferred from the microcomputer to
the Gateway computer in the River
Forecast Center, where it will be
stored until it is used in the forecast
The hardware and software for the
ROSA project will be ready for testing
by the summer of 1983. Testing and
the initial operation of the system will
take place in the Central Region of the
National Weather Service.
The systems we have discussed thus
far are "point measurement" systems,
that is, measurements of precipitation
are made at discrete points. If the user
needs a mean value for a specific area,

then he must make assumptions as to
how much precipitation occurred be-
tween the gages. Let us now turn our
attention to two methods of estimating
mean areal precipitation.
Manually Digitized Radar (MDR) is
the process whereby echo intensities
on radar scopes are assigned a
numerical value ranging from one
(weak) to six (extreme). A statistical
relationship has been developed to
convert the MDR values to precipita-
tion amounts. The precipitation
amount can only be estimated to be
within a certain range and can vary
with stratiform versus convective rain-
fall types.
MDR values are widely used when
an approximation is sufficient to
satisfy the user's needs. Rainfall
Forecast Centers make good use of
these values during prolonged rainfall
events and at night when actual obser-
vations are sparse. This process is in its
infancy and will be refined and
developed to a greater degree in the
Schemes for estimating convective
rainfall have been developed by R. A.
Scofield and V. J. Oliver of NOAA's
National Environmental Satellite Ser-
vice. It is beyond the scope of this
discussion to present an analysis of
this complex subject. However, you
should be aware that such methods
have been developed and are being

"In the economic and political envi-
ronment in which we operate today,
interagency exchange of basic data is
becoming more and more important."

Estimations of rainfall amounts
made from satellite imagery provide
the hydrologist with a means to deter-
mine mean areal values rather than
point values. As is the case with
Manually Digitized Radar values,
these estimates are particularly useful
at times when observed point
measurements are sparse.
In the economic and political en-
vironment in which we operate today,
interagency exchange of basic data is
becoming more and more important.
The relatively recent development of
computer hardware and software pro-
vide us with the vehicle to accomplish
this task in a much more efficient and
timely manner than ever before.
Resources must be pooled by those


agencies which have need for basic
hydrometeorological data to make the
most of dollars that are available to be
used in this effort. When resources are
shared, all those concerned reap the
benefit. In most cases, agencies that
invest in cooperative systems receive a
far larger return in the form of addi-
tional data than would have been the
case in a unilateral program. The Na-
tional Weather Service is actively pro-
moting the idea of pooling resources
and is anxious to cooperate within the
limits of our resources in programs of
this kind. We believe that the Gateway
computers are a step in this direction
and we look forward to the
cooperative improvement and expan-
sion of this program.

David T. Smith

Getting enough rainfall reports is a
real struggle for us. The tried and
proven method of rainfall data collec-
tion by observers reading a gage and
phoning it in is the surest and most
definite way of finding out what's
happening. As long as the phone lines
are up, we will know exactly how
much rain we actually had. At the
same time, there's a great deal of
pressure to move on to new
technology. People ask, "Why don't
we gather data with radar and
satellites?" We're caught between two
worlds: the old way which gives us
firm information and the new way,
which does not give us direct
The Hydrologic Rainfall Analyses
Project is an accelerating effort within
the Weather Service. It is designed to
merge all of the different types of rain-
fall measuring techniques. It includes
the manually digitized radar and the
automatically digitized radar. In the
latter, the reflective signals come back
to the radar site and are digested by a
digitizer, with much finer resolution
than a human can achieve. The
weather service has designed an
automatic digitizer capable of examin-
ing every two degrees of azimuth as
the radar signal goes out. As the
reflective signal comes back, it ex-
amines the strength of the signal at
every nautical mile on the azimuth. It
is digitized automatically on a zero
through six scale.
We have stationary satellites that

send back images every 30 minutes.
Techniques have been developed
whereby both the visual and infrared
returns from the satellite help us to
make rainfall estimates. It's a research
project, but it's approaching the
operational phase.
Radar has been with us for about 18
years, and while progress has been
agonizingly slow, we are learning to
use it. In our earlier experiments, we
had to check it with ground truth data.
It still has to be constantly calibrated
against ground truth. But now the
satellites give us another way to index
rain, and if we can combine that data
with what we get from radar and
ground truth information, maybe we
can get an integrated picture of rain-
One advantage of these new systems
is that they are fast. For example,
automatic digitized radar can be
available a minute after the radar scan
has been made. The inhibiting feature
right now is the storage and com-
munication of this tremendous
amount of data. We are making some
break-throughs and are reaching the
point where we can try some opera-
tional work with this processed rain-
fall data, especially as it relates to
hydrologic forecasting of rivers and
streamflow. But you won't see this
right away in the Southeast. We're set-
ting up a test area in the Arkansas
River drainage basin. We're going to
have seven of our radars, each with
automatic digitizers, assimilating both
the intensity readouts and this great
mass of digitized data. The collecting
sites will be polled by a computer at
our River Forecast Center in Tulsa.
About 18,000 discrete digits from each
site will be collected every seven or
eight hours. This will be put into our
large control computer facility in
Maryland. We will then process this
data through a multi-objective
analysis program. That, coupled with
the satellite data and our fine ground
truth observations, will be used to
calibrate those "suckers" and come
up with integrated rainfall.
We're trying to develop this process-
ed rainfall data base over the
midwestern part of the country during
the mid 1980's. Hopefully, we will be
able to show that we can do it and that
we can take these rainfall estimates
and feed them through our streamflow
prediction models and come out with
the streamflow predictions in real

time. In theory, it's possible, and
we're getting ready to give it a try.
We've had aborted attempts in the
past because we had communications
and storage problems.
We've been in the river forecasting
business for years and years, and it's
very frustrating. One rain gage every
300 square miles is insufficient for the
synoptic pattern of rainfall, par-
ticularly during the summer. Our
sampling falls far short. Our present
data base cannot handle convective
rainfall for extreme flow forecasting.
It never will, because the patterns are
too chaotic in nature. With the digitiz-
ed techniques, and particularly with
the radar, we will really be able to get
it down to a fine resolution. There will
be a lot of problems, but it will work.

On commercial T.V. stations, they
show a radar synopsis in color. What
are the colors relating to?
They relate to the Video In-
tegrator Processor values that deter-
mine the intensity of the returns and
separates them into categories.
Do you expect more interaction at a
local scale external to the agency?
We're reluctant to turn our process-
ed rainfall data loose. There are some
pressures from outside people to get it
right now. They hear it's coming and
that it's better than anything else
available, but we're not sure that's
right or not. We've set up pilot pro-
jects and sort of stamped "experimen-
tal" on them. If the data is good, then
we'll make it available. We're not
geared up to communicate that data
yet. The goal is to apply it to as many
uses as possible, whether it's external
to the agency or not. When we get to
the point where we feel good about it,
it will be available.
How good do you think it will be,
percentage wise?
That's tough to answer because we
don't know how good the observed
rainfall data is. We will probably be
able to get the answer to plus or minus
25 percent of what rain gages would
indicate, but we're not that good yet.
Experiments since 1965 have been
good; they averaged two to one. You
might have twice as much rainfall
from the estimates as you actually gag-
ed or half as much estimated as you
gaged. We can do better than that. We
didn't have objective error routines

U -

I ----

that would examine all of those digits
and eliminate the anomalies. Once we
get those out of it, then our accuracy
will improve. There's too much
volume for somebody to manually in-
tercede and do it.
Is ROSA going to be available on
the open market? Would dollars in-
fluence implementation in this area?
The idea came up in our River
Forecast Center in Kansas City, and
we've experimented with it for a
number of years. Originally, the
observer had to call up on the phone
and hear the beep, then punch in the
numbers. It was as slow as calling in
the rain amount. The new process is
instantaneous and there is a lot more
accuracy. The equipment needed for
the reporter is going to be made for
about $100. You will need a
microprocessor on the other end of the
telephone. Each processor will service
about 200 observation reporters.
If funding were available from a
local source, would there be something
that could be introduced in the
Southeastern Region quicker?
The Weather Service headquarters
has put a moratorium on other regions
trying this now. It is done entirely with
Weather Service money, but I don't
know what would happen if somebody
came in with a pot of money. The idea
is to learn about it in the Central
Region and then put it in other


Hosted by James Cason, Director
Technical Support Division
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Remote Sensing in

Water Management

David W. Baraniak, Remote Sensing
Donohue and Associates
Wankesha, Wisconsin

David W. Baraniak
In a nutshell, remote sensing is
registering data from afar. You take
that data and use it in a professional
manner to come up with some mean-
ingful results.
In some applications of remote sens-
ing we use ground penetrating radar
that puts electro-magnetic energy into
the ground to read signatures of
targets below the surface. We can also
use electronic"boring rigs" called
resistivity meters that allow us to drill
a hole in the ground electronically and
read the results.
Our company, among others, has
been involved with a number of
remote sensing projects. You can use
remote sensing in agriculture, forestry,
geography, geology, hydrology,
oceanography, and many others. It is
a fairly simple system that starts with
the analysis of a client's request. Once
we define the interest, we come up
with some ideas on how to collect, in-
terpret, and present the data to the
client. We can gather data in a number
of ways, including satellites, airplanes,
and ground base systems.
I will focus on collecting data from
the air because that's where the ma-
jority of it is collected. It has been
coming from space since 1972 with the
LANDSAT Satellites and from high
altitude aircraft like the U-2 that con-
tain very sophisticated instrumenta-
tion for imaging the surface of the
earth. Closer to the earth, we use fixed
wing aircraft and even vans and cars.
In 1972, we launched the first
remote sensing satellite called LAND-

SAT 1. The most current one, LAND-
SAT 4, was launched a few months
ago from the west coast. The amount
of area covered on the earth by the
satellite is approximately 185
kilometers wide. One picture element,
called a"pixel", represents 80 meters
square. Resolution is 30 meters by 30
meters (approximately the size of a
baseball field). This satellite imagery
covers the same spot on the earth every
16 days. From a data collection or
management point of view, that means
you can monitor a particular site
repetitively and cost effectively.
Our firm is doing some work on the
Island of Jamaica. We have been
monitoring from approximately 906
kilometers the progress of the bauxite
mining areas and, incidentally, of the
high priority marijuana areas. Some
of the analysis we do there and
elsewhere is in high altitude colored in-
frared. The colors in these are not life
like; what is really green, like lush
vegetation, turns to varying shades of
red. Very clear water in infrared
photography is almost black. As water
accepts sediments, it shifts color from
black to varying shades of gray. We
employ this infrared photography to
determine, among other things, stress
on large areas of crops or natural
vegetation, and instances of water
pollution as a result of sedimentation.
We can also use another part of the
spectrum to produce pictures
associated with heat patterns. In ther-
mal imagery, the lighter the areas ap-
pear, the warmer the surfaces, and
dark areas are cold. This can be used
to monitor power plant sites and the
discharges of hot water. We also use it
in Florida to locate and inventory
fresh water wells that are uncapped
and flowing. We might be able to
locate all of these areas using a line
There are a number of other ways to
use LANDSAT and remote sensing
techniques in water related projects.
There's a way for LANDSAT and the
computer to plot center-pivot irriga-
tion systems by programming the com-
puter to look for those circles and
associated vegetation. From LAND-
SAT, you can do basin and land use
maps, and have each use in a different
color. We have plotted corn, soy-
beans, forests, water and land with
limited vegetation cover. This is all
done from space, very cost effectively,
and quickly. You can also ask the

computer to throw out all the colors
but one to get the areal distribution of
a single activity or element.


You said LANDSA T 4 has been up
a few months. When will this data be
There are only a few scenes
available even though LANDSAT 4
became operational in August.
What advantages does this new
satellite have over the other ones?
LANDSAT 1 and 2 are dead and
LANDSAT 3 is only partially opera-
tional. LANDSAT 4 has a new ther-
mal band which will allow us to see
thermal patterns, such as flowing
wells. The other advantage is that
LANDSAT 4 has a smaller pixel size
and we will be able to distinguish a lot
more detail.
You said LANDSA T 4 will not be
operational until 1984. Is that simply
because of data processing capability?
It is operational as far as collecting
data. The problem is that the govern-
ment can't process it fast enough. The
government wants to sell it and get out
of the business. Maybe that is why
they are not gearing up as fast as we'd

Hosted by Davage Runnels
Governing Board
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Marketing Water


David M. Farrell, Chief
Illinois Office of Resource
Springfield, Illinois

David M. Farrell
George Will, a native son of Illinois,
once said that, "We've come to that
point in the history of the English
language when the three least credible
phrases one can use are: I will love you
as much in the morning as I do to-
night; The check is in the mail; and
Hello, I'm from the government, and
I'm here to help you."
The Illinois approach to water con-
cerns is captured by Mark Twain, who
said, "Everybody talks about the
weather, but nobody does anything
about it." In the case of water,
"Nobody talks about it, but
everybody does something to it." It's
a great salute to water planners
throughout the country that the provi-
sion of water, the adequacy of it, the
quantity, quality, are simply taken for
granted. It's America's great buried
treasure. It's out of sight; it's out of
In speaking to the public water sup-
ply chiefs of Illinois, we were talking
about water systems and local govern-
ments, and building up money reserves
necessary to take care of the system.
One said, "They run it really tight,
and they get a surplus of money, and
what are they going to do with it?" I
said, "I'm not sure, but I presume
they would put it in a surplus account
to take care of the system." He said,
"No, they go out and buy a fire truck,
because you see, you can't bring
anything from the water works down
the main street in the American Legion
Parade on the Fourth of July. But the

mayor looks real gbod on a fire
Water is always there. A child cuts
his finger and you go to the faucet and
put the finger under it. At least, it
won't do harm and you think it will do
a lot of good. We take clean and abun-
dant water for granted.
In Illinois, we don't have water
shortage problems, although we -have
been involved in water conservation
because of a drought in '76-'77. We
decided then that we didn't want to
talk drought. We wanted to talk about
getting the most out of your communi-
ty water supply and the most out of
the Illinois water resources. We center
on four basic ideas: energy, eco-
nomics, the environment, and the con-
servation ethic. On energy, the fastest
rising cost element in most municipal
budgets today is the energy to pump
water. On economics, the capital cost
for construction of conveyance
systems, purification and treatment
systems of one sort or another is huge-
ly expensive. On the environment, we
say, "Why do you want to withdraw
from a lake, a stream, or any place if
you don't have to? Why use up more
environmental areas, such as prime
agricultural land, in the State of Il-
linois for a reservoir if you don't have
to do it?" On the conservation ethic,
we define water conservation as doing
with ten gallons what any fool can do
with a hundred.
The reason we have the four dif-
ferent ideas is that you can address dif-
ferent audiences in different ways. If
I'm with a group of mayors, I'm going
to talk about the cost of building
systems and of borrowing money. If I
go to a wildlife sanctuary, and there
are a lot of people there wearing
Pendleton shirts and Buck knives, and
driving Volvos, we'll talk about the
environmental movement and how im-
portant it is in their lives. It allows us
to vary the approach to bring it to the
attention of the decisionmakers, which
include individual householders.
We have been trying to avoid the
mistakes of the energy conservation
effort. I have said, in a number of
public presentations, that we have
squandered a lot of money for the
results that we've gotten in energy con-
servation. Many of the persons in-
volved in the very beginning assumed
that within two years we could have it
over with. President Nixon said that
by 1982 we'd be self-sufficient; in

other words, the quick fix. We were
also shrill about it. A number of per-
sons who got involved in the move-
ment said if you ever talk to anybody
from a power company again, you're
obviously a Nazi, or if you don't put a
solar collector on top of your house,
you're a fascist. And they were trying
to get people to save energy.
We had a meeting in Washington a
few months ago to talk about how to
approach this conservation stuff
around the country. One of the points
we agreed on is the difficulty of bring-
ing it to the attention of the public at
large; to get them to think or talk
about it, at a time when our systems
are generally adequate. We were com-
paring ourselves to a group of people
who might be sitting in that same
room in 1962 instead of '82, talking
about an Arab oil embargo that would
happen in 1973. There were people
talking about energy shortages back
then, but nobody listened. What I
hope we don't do when we talk about
water conservation is to hope we can
have a quick fix or that everything's
going to change overnight, and that
America's going to go back to buckets
and living off hand-carried water from
little wells. Rather, I'd like to see an
approach that makes water conserva-
tion fit into our lives almost to the
point that we don't even think about
I'd like to illustrate government's
normal approach in this way:
Twinkies are America's greatest non-
food. You could probably go in the
men's or women's room and buy
them. You go to the bus stop, or a cab,
anywhere, they're almost handing
them out on the street. The govern-
ment, for years, has been saying that,
"Twinkies are not good food, and we
need to have an alternative to give peo-
ple". So the Federal government
would go on radio and say, "Do you
want to know more about good food
and nutrition for your entire family
and much more than that? Write to
Box 4671302, Pueblo, Colorado,
6270932." If you can remember to
write that down, then you have to go
get another piece of paper, an
envelope, and a 20 cent stamp, come
back to the kitchen table and write
everything out and send it in. Six
weeks later, you get something back
on recycled paper, written in purple
ink that says, "Brussel sprouts are
good for your bowels." In the mean-


time, your family has finished off at
least a trailer-truck full of Twinkies.
We're trying to avoid that approach.
The thing we try to stress in residen-
tial conservation is that the single
largest user of water is the five-gallon
American flush toilet. It is estimated
that the average American, using a
five-gallon flush toilet, contaminates
about 13,000 gallons of potable water
a year to dispose of 165 gallons of
body waste. This is an elephant gun
killing a flea. Years ago, Americans
used the old chain pull toilets which
used about 2.5 gallons. When you
yanked on that chain, it could suck
down the New York Times Sunday
Edition. Then the people who make
facial tissues and ash trays said,
"Where are we going to put the facial
tissues and the ash trays in the
bathroom?" The plumbing industry
rose to the challenge, and said they'd
help by putting the toilet down on the
floor. That way, the people who make
doilies and macrame to cover up toilet
tissue rolls and tissue boxes will have a
place to display them. To do that,
though, we had to develop a five
gallon flush toilet.
The toilet is one of the greatest sex-
ist symbols in America. We let women
clean them, but we never let them look
inside. There's that macho world of
machinery in there. The toilet breaks
down; wife calls husband; husband
says, "Don't touch the toilet, I'll be
home from Duluth in the morning."
We want to let women see what's in-
side it, so they can become more self
sufficient in indoor plumbing.
The first issue you have to deal with
is leaks in the toilet. You can lose
several thousand gallons of water a
year from a silent leak. One way to test
for this is to put a blue food coloring
tablet into the tank. If this shows up in
the bowl, then you have a silent leak.
You can also use normal household
food color. Most commonly, the cause
of this leak is the flapper valve. These
last for about seven years, at the most.
They get rigid and need replacing.
Even before you check your toilet,
you might want to check the water
meter coming into the house. Before
you go to work in the morning, see
what the numbers are, and check it
when you come back. If it's moved,
you've either got a leak, or you've got
a burglar that came in and took a
One of the main problems we have.

in dealing with the ordinary citizen is
that so many of the water bills are
measured in cubic feet. When was the
last time that you went to the grocery
store and bought a cubic foot of milk?
It doesn't relate to our lives. Gallons
do. It's very important that our water
bills have a conversion table, saying
7.44 gallons per cubic foot.
Many persons over the years have
recommended that you put a brick in
your toilet. We say, "NO WAY."
Most persons would use a soft brick,
which begins to disintegrate and plug
up the flushing system. And in this day
of literalism, if you tell people to put a
brick in their toilet, they put it in the
bowl and wonder why they have wet
A one gallon milk jug with a little
sand, rocks, or something to keep it
from floating around will save you one
gallon of water per flush. There are all
kinds of water dams to put in the tank
that you can buy. They create a reser-
voir in the toilet tank. It saves a gallon
to a gallon and half, depending on the
shape of the toilet. We're working
with the hardware industry to make
sure that they carry these things.
All of the major manufacturers of
toilets manufacture a three and one-
half gallon flush toilet. When the con-
servation movement got going in the
'70's, they tried to come out with the
three and one-half gallon tank but
never changed the bowl, and ended up
with double flushing and all kinds of
problems with negative consumer
reaction. All the major manufacturers
now have designs that are better.

"If I come along and say the Governor
thinks you shouldn't flush the toilet,
I'm not going to have a job very

I've had people tell me that there's
an easier way to do this; just tell the
kids not to flush the toilet every time.
There are parents in this country who
have almost gone to jail for child
abuse trying to get their kids to flush
the toilet. If I come along and say the
Governor thinks you shouldn't flush
the toilet, I'm not going to have a job
very long. What we're saying is, if you
have a certain lifestyle and like to flush
the toilet, that's fine. It shouldn't be a
waste, though. You shouldn't use five
gallons to get rid of a facial tissue or a

Most people like to help. If most
people find a leak in their toilet, they
know to do something about it, even if
water is relatively cheap. But the
Arabs argue that we'll be more depen-
dent on water than we are on gasoline
by the year 2000.
People in Illinois don't wake up
when it's snowing outside, the car's
not going to start, and they may be
unemployed tomorrow, and say
"Honey, I wonder how the water
resources of Illinois are doing today."
What we have to do, if we're going to
make conservation a part of life, is to
sell water conservation. It doesn't
have to be disruptive. You have a 67
percent reduction in water consump-
tion during a drought period, but what
about normal, everyday circum-
stances? Can't we build them into the
The second highest use of water in a
home is for bathing. It is estimated
that bathing uses about 30 percent of
the water. There's the old folk tale
that in times of water shortage, shower
with a friend. We say no and it's not a
moral position. Scientific reports in-
dicate that when two or more people
get into the shower, they tend to forget
the purpose of the exercise, and end up
draining the tank. We stand very
strongly against that. The average
shower head can use anywhere from
five to 12 gallons a minute. The
shower head is also believed to be one
of those God-given things that
somehow or another God asked a
disciple to deliver to your home when
it was built, and it will never wear out.
That's not true. The old shower heads
pump out a lot of water. Many per-
sons argue the relative merits of
showering versus a bath. They
automatically say that showering is
much more efficient than bathing in
the tub, but that's not necessarily true.
Very few people in our work-a-day
world live like Zsa Zsa Gabor, sitting
in a tub with 185 gallons of water, and
with some little waif serving wine or
bringing a magazine. Most people, if
they take a tub bath, jump in ten, 15,
or 25 gallons; rub-a-dub-dub, and
they're finished. A five minute
shower, at eight gallons a minute, is 40
gallons of water. This is compared to
25 or 30 gallons for a tub bath.
We suggest buying a low-flow
shower head. It's an easy, effective
and inexpensive way to do something
about saving water and energy. Twen-


----- 7

ty percent of household energy is con-
sumed in the heating of water. The
largest part goes for bathing. You only
have to buy one once, and it's done.
Three gallons or less a minute is what
they deliver. I used one of the water
savers here this morning, and it works.
The difference is that it's almost a
mist. It's very satisfying. If the spray
pattern can hit your body, it's comfor-
table. Showers have moved beyond be-
ing a sanitary activity into therapy. In
commercials, where somebody comes
home dragging and uses this new soap
in the shower, life takes on new mean-
ing. It can still happen with a new
shower head. You feel satisfied and
you won't have to beat your children
to get them out of the water.
Merchants can't believe a govern-
mental body would be interested in
helping promote products they sell.
The State of Illinois doesn't manufac-
ture, distribute, or sell them. There's
employment created because we have a
lot of major manufacturers of plumb-
ing equipment in Illinois. The Plumb-
ing Manufacturers' Institute has work-
ed on its members to come up with a
national standard for shower heads at
only 2.75 gallons per minute.
Ultimately, that's all you're going to
be able to buy in this country. The
reason they did it was they were fear-
ful that Florida was going to pass one
law, California another, until they
were bankrupt trying to keep up with
all the different states' statutes and or-
dinances pertaining to how much
water you can put out of a shower
head. They can be expensive, or inex-
pensive, depending on what you want.
The third area is aerators on all the
faucets. A simple aerator will bring the
water down to about three gallons of
water a minute. Three gallons does the
job and it's simple to replace.
All main manufacturers are making
low-flow shower heads, toilets, and
faucets, and many places are passing
ordinances on new construction. You
can go to the existing hardware market
for water conservation items. It
doesn't have to be the end of the
world; the sky is not falling and
Florida is not going to be out of water
Another possibility in marketing is
with realtors. Suppose you were selling
a home, and the local realtor said to
you, "If you want to sell your home,
why don't we test it for a leak in your
toilet, put a couple of water dams in,

change the shower heads, and then
we'll advertise it as being water effi-
cient?" It only takes one realtor to get
it started. That relates to our lives and
cuts across the needs of Florida. It's
going to be with us, so let's begin to
market it in ways that people can live
with it.
A few years ago, we sent some water
conservation information to Illinois
Bell to put in their newsletter. The
telephone company, like a number of
different institutions and organiza-
tions, is looking for information and
new ideas. Serve as a newsletter editor
some year and see how desperate you
get for information. Several months
went by before they called us and ask-
ed if it was still good. They ran half a
page of water conservation that went
into three million households. People
read it, because I heard about it. Try
to find ways to make it a part of life,
not threatening. Have you seen
Gregory Peck on your screen in the
last year in ads for the Alliance to Save
Energy? He implies that we're going to
die tomorrow because we're going to
run out of energy. That has not yet
made me jump out of my easy chair,
and run to the basement and blow the
pilot light out on my water heater. We
need non-threatening messages that
people can do something about and
which can fit into their homes. For ex-
ample, the South Florida Water
Management District worked with the
Girl Scouts on developing little stick-
ons for hotel mirrors. Hotels and
motels throughout the country are
very concerned because the single
largest nonlabor cost is hot water.
Even a person who takes short
showers at home is somehow
transformed into another person when
he goes into a motel. At home, he is a
five-minute shower person, but
becomes a half an hour, six towel per-
son. One of the main arguments for
these shower heads is that if you can't
change behavior, change the cir-
cumstances in which the behavior oc-
curs. You're not going to remember to
take a one or two minute shower but if
you have this new shower head on and
take a ten minute shower, you're only
going to use 30 gallons.
How many schools in Florida have
outfitted their athletic showers with
low flow heads? It's not uncommon in
this country to spend more to heat
water for showers than to get the water
and to pay the sewage treatment.

Think of the schools in your com-
munity. It's in their budgetary interest
to reduce the amount of water they
Public housing authorities can be a
very useful group to deal with. They're
on tight budgets but are they aware?
It's easy to take for granted that
everybody knows all of these different
gadgets or that they've done
something. I've talked to many profes-
sional people, keenly interested in
their utility bills, who wanted to do
something and have never seen some

"America's number one recreational
activity is consumption."

of the gadgets that are available.
One other element that people bring
out is this issue of pay-back. Stand
outside a Woolco store and ask people
a week after they bought something
what they bought. They won't
remember. America's number one
recreational activity is consumption.
We like to throw our plastic down, our
green down, and we like to consume.
In retailing, you used to stock the
shelves and the cash register would be
bare. Now, we bribe store managers to
get products near the cash register
where the impulse items are. The main
thing is to convince Mr. Smith or Mrs.
Jones that they need something. You
find T-shirts, ties, Korean shoes hang-
ing off the food racks. Any retailer
with a half-decent sales display in a
sundry store, hardware store, or
whatever, could move a shower head
that would save you money, make an
environmental change, be good for
your family, and give yourself mean-
ing on Saturday night. People are not
going to say, "What's the pay-back on
my shower head?" They don't care.
Your items could be sold as novelties.
You could probably even sell them at
the airport as something to take home
from Florida. On an impulse item, the
manufacturer makes money, you save
water in your district, the consumer
saves money, it becomes a part of life,
and you've got an entry point.
By taking water conservation into a
residential setting, you're able to relate
water resources to a person's life. It's
an introduction to the whole area of
water resources. Ask people where
their water comes from. It may be a
little oblique, but it's a way to get peo-
ple to think about water resources. It's


II, '-

the first step, and you've got their at-
We put out a film called "Water
Follies". It shows the extremes of
water wasted in the home. It is seven
minutes long, an animated cartoon
with no narration, and with nice
music. You can show it to adults and
they begin to see themselves. And in
Springfield, we had a nice situation
where we were boiling water for about
a month. It turned out to be a problem
with the laboratory, but I talked to a
number of people after that, and they
said they never realized they could
brush their teeth with a quarter cup of
water. You can use a catastrophe to
get their attention or you can use our
approach. At any event, perseverence
and patience are the order of the day.
You have to pound it in over and over
again. We've got to do the same thing
as everyone who is in competition for
the consumers. It's got to go on radio,
T.V., and in the newspaper. Perhaps
you can get the local churches to have
a Stewardship Sunday to talk about
the water resources of your communi-
ty. You can have bag stuffers in the
grocery store. You get the hardware
stores and the plumbers to back you.
It's not just a blitz. You have to begin
to build.
For example, if a fire happened on
the street here, we'd all go out to see
the flames and then watch it on the
local news and in the newspaper. If
tonight on the national news Dan
Rather says, "Today in Tallahassee,
Florida, there was a huge fire." You
say to yourself, "Man, now that was a
fire." It confirms the reality; Dan
Rather and television made it real. In
water conservation, you're not going
to go to the Dan Rather level first.
You must build it up over time and
then confirm it on television or other
You need to say more about
Florida's story. You've done a tremen-
dous job. You've got a lot of problems
you work with and I'd like to see you
tell the world about the things that you
are doing. You should be very proud
of them.
In summary, what we're trying to
do is make water something more than
an object which comes when I want it,
and goes away when I don't want it,
and for those of you who say that
there's no more good literature, I
would recommend for your reading
"Goodbye to the Flush Toilet."

Questions and Answers
When we start putting out literature
about mechanisms to put in your
toilet, we start getting information
back that almost anything you put in
the toilet is going to end up producing
back-flow problem with the sewage.
I have never seen it confirmed but
we heard it denied. I spoke to about
1,000 people in the plumbing field,
and they said they had never heard of
a problem with it.
Do you push for these type of
mechanisms, even if you have a low
flow toilet?
No, if you put in a low flow toilet,
you don't need them.
What about restrictors?
It is an easy, cheap way to save
water, but the restrictors are not a
universal answer.
Are there any numbers that you've
developed for a water efficient home?
In an intensive research project in
Elmhurst, Illinois, they spent $55,000
to hire high school students to install
flow restrictors, dams and other water
savers. The estimated savings was
$400,000 for a new deep well they
didn't have to drill.
Do you have an organized program
for school children?
We put together a curriculum sup-
plement along the line of the one
California did. It's a beautiful presen-
tation, but it presumes that the school
teacher has the time to get deeply in-
volved in it. The school teacher will
tell you that between making sure that
kids are getting on the bus, taking up
lunch money, changing diapers, and
taking head counts, the last thing they
need is a curriculum that they can't use
in bite-size portions. We circulated our
curriculum but have not cracked the
schools the way we want to. I hope to
get some money from some founda-
tion that will give us the opportunity
to do more.



Hosted by James A. Stidham,
Water Resources Division
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Application of

Geophysics to

Water Resource


Dr. Mark Stewart,
Associate Professor
University of South Florida

Dr. Thomas Kwader, Hydrogeologist
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Dr. Mark Stewart
Surface geophysical methods can be
effectively applied to ground-water
problems in Florida. Some examples
of problems which can be addressed
are determining shallow stratigraphy,
thickness and continuity of low
permeability units, tracing ground-
water contaminants, and determining
the depth and configuration of the
saltwater interface. In general,
geophysical methods are best used to
supplement other types of geologic
and hydrologic data. These methods
are particularly suited to either initial
reconnaissance or to extend the results
of other methods. The principal sur-
face geophysical methods which can
be applied in Florida are seismic, elec-
trical, and potential methods.
The two seismic methods are seismic
refraction and seismic reflection. In
refraction surveys, sound energy is in-
troduced into the ground by a weight
drop or explosives. The travel-time of
the sound energy to a sensor on the
ground surface is recorded by
seismograph. A plot of travel-time
versus source to detector distance
allows determination of subsurface

geologic conditions. Interpretation
provides information on the depth,
configuration, and lithology of sub-
surface layers. The method is relative-
ly easy to use, and approximate solu-
tions can be obtained quickly.
However, the method assumes an in-
creasing seismic velocity with depth.
Low-velocity layers at depth cannot be
detected. Also, the maximum source-
detector distance must be three to five
times the desired depth of investiga-
Seismic refraction is good for map-
ping the top of the clay units over the
Floridan aquifer, or the top of rock
where the clay is absent. The depth to
limestone is often difficult to deter-
mine because the actual top of rock is
often highly weathered and has a low
seismic velocity. The depth to the
water table can often be determined
with reasonable accuracy when the
water table is in sandy soils.
Seismic reflection is the principal ex-
ploration method of oil companies.
However, oil company seismic reflec-
tion surveys are too expensive for most
ground-water work. Also, seismic
reflection works best at intermediate
depths, starting at several hundred feet
and extending down several thousand
feet. Shallow reflection data (less than
500 feet) is difficult to obtain on land.
Shallow seismic reflection data can
be effectively and inexpensively ob-
tained over water. Where waterways
permit access with water depths of five
to ten feet or deeper, shallow reflec-
tion surveys can be run from small
boats. The reflection data obtained
show velocity differences between sub-
surface layers. Depths of several hun-
dred feet can be explored with a
resolution measured in feet. Deeper
exploration depths are possible at
greater cost and lower resolution.
Water-borne reflection surveys could
be quite good for mapping shallow
stratigraphy. Extensive access is
available in the form of lakes and
canals, especially in central and south
Electrical methods measure the elec-
trical properties of the earth. The most
useful property for ground-water
work is earth resistivity or its inverse,
conductivity. The bulk resistivity of
the earth is a function of both pore
fluid resistivity and lithologic effects,
primarily porosity. Clearly, electrical
methods offer the possibility of
measuring both water quality (TDS)

and lithology.
The most flexible electrical method
is direct current (DC) resistivity. A
direct current or very low frequency
alternating current is introduced into
the ground through metal electrodes
driven into the soil, allowing bulk
resistivity to be measured. Interpreta-
tion can yield two types of informa-
tion. Horizontal changes in resistivity
such as sinkhole fillings, saltwater in-
terfaces, contaminant plumes, or
significant lateral changes in
geological units can be derived from
horizontal electrical soundings. Such
vertical changes yield information
about stratigraphy or water quality.
Direct current resistivity methods
are very useful for determining
shallow hydrostratigraphy because
aquifers usually have higher
resistivities than lower permeability
units. The resolution of DC soundings
decreases with depth. Resolution is ap-
proximately ten percent of depth.
Electrical soundings require that data
be taken along straight survey lines
five to six times the desired depth of
investigation. Despite these technical
shortcomings, DC methods represent
the most flexible and cost-effective
geophysical methods for Florida
hydrogeologic problems.
Several types of instruments are
commercially available. They can be
grouped into two types, profiling in-
struments and sounding instruments.
Electromagnetic (EM) profiling is
similar to DC profiling. However,
because no electrodes need to be
driven into the ground, surveys pro-
ceed much more quickly and require
smaller crews. The instruments are
reliable and easy to use. As in DC pro-
filing, horizontal changes in resistivity
are appropriate targets for EM profil-
ing. A very successful application in
west-central and southwest Florida has
been in outlining the configuration of
the saltwater interface at the seaward
margins of coastal aquifers.
Electromagnetic sounding in-
struments provide information about
variations of resistivity with depth.
The principal advantage of EM soun-
dings over DC soundings is in the
receiver-transmitter separation of EM
methods. EM methods can "see" to a
depth several times the receiver-
transmitter spacing. This is in contrast
to the very long survey lines and wires
required in DC soundings to achieve
equal sounding depths. EM soundings



have been used successfully to deter-
mine the depth to the saltwater inter-
face in west-central Florida to depths
in excess of 300 feet.
Potential methods measure the
strength of the earth's potential fields.
The two most commonly used
methods are gravity and magnetic
methods. Gravity surveys measure
variations in the density of earth
materials. Gravity measurements have
been used successfully to locate ver-
tical fracture zones in a major
municipal wellfield. Magnetic surveys
locate materials rich in iron-bearing
minerals or ferrous metals. An ob-
vious application is in locating buried
metal containers.
In summary, geophysical methods
can effectively and economically ex-
tend hydrogeologic data. Several
methods have been documented for
application by hydrogeologic prob-
lems in Florida. Several water manage-
ment districts and a number of con-
sulting firms have acquired
geophysical instruments. It is likely
that surface geophysical surveys will
become a common part of most
hydrogeologic surveys in Florida in the

Dr. Thomas Kwader
Borehole geophysical logs provide
an accurate means of obtaining
hydrogeologic information relating to
lithology, formation water quality,
and water transmitting properties of
hydrogeologic units. Although none
of these characteristics are directly
measured by any particular log, strong
inferences can be made provided some
knowledge of the local geology is
available, cuttings and/or cores are
collected to supplement log interpreta-
tions, and extraneous effects affecting
log responses are minimized.
Quality log interpretations in
freshwater carbonate environments
are based upon numerous assumptions
and principles different than those
employed in deep well petroleum log
interpretation. Near-surface
freshwater carbonate formations are
characteristically less compact, less
cemented, lower in temperature,
higher in porosity and permeability,
and at least two orders of magnitude
greater in saturated formation
resistivity than their more deeply
buried counterparts. These physical
differences affect every type of log

currently run and in some cases, do so
to such a degree that certain probes
cannot be utilized in both types of en-
A major portion of my research was
devoted to the interpretation of
geophysical logs in freshwater car-
bonate environments. Many of the
traditional log interpretation prin-
ciples are based on the assumption
that the formations evaluated are of a
plastic (or granular) nature. Very little
research has documented the response
of porosity logs (neutron, density, and
acoustic velocity), or electric logs in
near-surface carbonates. Results from
my research, developed by empirical
methods, strongly indicate that un-
compacted tertiary carbonates re-
spond very similarly to unconsolidated
and moderately cemented granular
materials. Exceptions include
dolomites with fracture type porosity
and crystalline dolomites of extremely
low porosity. Most limestones appear
to have high porosity (commonly 25 to
45 percent) and respond on most logs
as homogeneous, porous granular
material. Sucrosic dolomites have in-
tercrystalline type porosity and also
appear to yield valid results for porosi-
ty, lithology, and water quality deter-
minations. Formations dominated by
fracture porosity and a high degree of
secondary porosity (vugs, channels,
etc.) are often highly permeable but
are difficult to detect or quantify from
any logs currently available. Acoustic
velocity logs are sensitive to secondary
porosity effects. The percentage of
secondary porosity effects may be
quantified by obtaining the porosity
difference recorded on neutron or den-
sity logs.
In near-surface environments, it is
assumed that all of the pore spaces in
saturated zones are occupied by fresh
water and never by hydrocarbons.
Most logs run in the vadose or un-
saturated zone require water satura-
tion percent (Sw%) correction factors
for proper interpretation. Unsaturated
formations will directly affect the
response of natural gamma, neutron,
density, acoustic velocity, and electric
logs. The effect of under-saturated
zones on various logs has not been
determined, and these zones should
not be used for quantitative analyses.
Clays and argillaceous formations
also affect quantitative analyses of
neutron, acoustic velocity, and electric
logs. Non-effective clays, (clay with
low cation exchange capacities such as

kaolinite and chlorite) chalk, and
dolosilts respond as very fine granular
material and may be interpreted
without correction factors. Effective
clays (clays incorporating water in
their lattice structure, such as mont-
morillonite, illite and palygorskite)
have an extremely variable effect on
porosity and electric logs and should
not be used in quantitative analyses.
Fortunately, the producing zones of
hydrogeologic interest are predomi-
nantly composed of relatively pure
limestone, dolomite, or quartz sands
and rarely need to be corrected for
clay content. Clay mineral content
may also be quantified by cross plot-
ting density log porosity versus porosi-
ty from neutron or acoustic velocity
logs. The latter two logs tend to ignore
the water incorporated in the mineral
structure of the clays. The apparent
porosity differences between density,
neutron log, or acoustic velocity logs
can be used to determine the clay con-
tent in percent by volume.
Carbonates often exhibit an ex-
tremely diverse range of textures and
composition in very short vertical
distances. "Clean" carbonates
(limestones or dolomites without clay)
may act hydrologically as extremely
productive zones or as aquicludes.
Thin alternating beds exhibiting ex-
treme hydrologic variations over very
short distances should be used for
quantitative analysis only with ex-
treme caution. In many cases, a log
will reflect properties of adjacent
zones depending upon the probe's
radius of investigation and bed
thickness. Smooth boreholes, uniform
in gage, are desirable for all types of
log interpretation because most probes
are influenced by the material closest
to the probe's sensor. Cavities and
washouts appear on many logs as
"clays" and should be identified and
eliminated from interpretation with
the aid of caliper logs.
Lithology can be accurately deter-
mined by cross plotting data obtained
from neutron, density, and acoustic
velocity logs. This technique yields the
percentage of each lithology and pro-
vides a relatively accurate means for
determining porosity. If a third
lithologic type is suspected, all three
porosity logs may be used
simultaneously in an M and N plot to
determine the percent of each mineral
present. M and N plots also reveal in-
formation relating to the secondary
porosity and clay content of forma-


Electric logs are rarely used for
determining lithology since the main
producing lithologies (quartz sand,
limestone and dolomite) all exhibit
similar and extremely high resistivities.
Saturated formation resistivity is in-
fluenced to a much greater degree by
pore water resistivity, porosity, and
pore geometry than by lithology.
Lithologic determinations by gam-
ma spectrometric techniques have fail-
ed to reveal any significant affinity for
potassium, uranium, or thorium to
any particular type of lithology. The
percentage of gamma rays emitted
from each naturally occurring isotope
for sand, clay, limestone, and
dolomite was relatively constant and
calculated at approximately 61, 30 and
9 percent of uranium, thorium, and
potassium, respectively. Further
analyses of clay minerals directly
overlying and within carbonate units
revealed their composition to be highly
calcareous and thus they are probably
not "true" clays but a residium from
weathered primary carbonate forma-
tions. Small percentages of clay
minerals were often deposited with the
dissolved carbonate fraction and they
often yield characteristic clay mineral
patterns on X-ray diffractograms.
These calcareous clays appear to be
composed of the resistant fraction of
the dissolved carbonates. They contain
a high proportion of impurities and
gamma emitting isotopes but are
similar in isotopic ratio to the present
carbonates. Although usually very
thin but really extensive, these
"clays" often serve as excellent
stratigraphic marker beds on natural
gamma logs.
Water quality within prospective
producing zones is a prime concern to
hydrogeologists evaluating ground-
water resources. Water quality is often
directly related to the resistivity of the
formation water. Water resistivity
(Rw) can be derived from deep
penetrating electric logs which
measure true saturated formation
resistivity (Ro) and from porosity logs
used to determine the parameters in
the following relationship:

Rw = +tRo
Where; m is the cementa-
tion factor (approximately
1.3 for unconsolidated Ter-
tiary granular materials and
1.6 for non-compacted Ter-
tiary carbonates).

Once Rw is determined, water quali-
ty can be derived from water
resistivity-ion cross plots. This rela-
tionship between the ion concentra-
tions is normally established from
water quality analyses collected from
neighboring wells tapping the same
water mass. In most instances, the ions
influencing water resistivity are usual-
ly present in the highest concentra-
tions. Frequently these ions are the
first ions to render the water un-
potable. For example, chloride is nor-
mally the first ion to exceed concentra-
tions recommended for public water
supplies in the Floridan aquifer.
Ground water is generally not potable
if the product of porosity and Ro
measurements combined are less than
7.21 ohm-meters, when substituted in-
to the following equation:

Chlorides exceed potable
limits (250 ppm) if:
+1.6(Ro)<7.21 ohm-meters
from +m(Ro) = Rw
Precise water quality determinations
rely upon accurately determining the
formation cementation factor (m).
Cementation factors cannot be deter-
mined in the laboratory and can only
be calculated from porosity-resistivity
cross plots. The cementation factor is
obtained by plotting formation porosi-
ty versus saturated formation resistivi-
ty on log-log paper. The value for m is
equal to the slope of the line fitted
through the data points. A wide range
of porosity and saturated formation
resistivity values are necessary for a
proper line fit and to observe if m re-
mains constant throughout the inter-
val plotted. An aquifer system with ex-
treme ranges of porosity may exhibit a
slight variation in the cementation fac-
tor. Lithologically thick and homoge-
neous aquifers of uniform water quali-
ty may be difficult to analyze since the
resistivity and porosity range will be
narrow. This makes it difficult to
analyze since the resistivity and poros-
ity range will be narrow, rendering it
difficult to properly fit a line through
the data. In many wells open to multi-
ple aquifer systems, or in aquifers hav-
ing an extreme range of porosity,
various units may have various m
values which must be fitted to the
proper zone.
Once m is accurately determined,
water resistivity for the entire interval
can be analyzed using resistivity-
porosity cross plot (RPCP) paper with
the proper m spacing. Zones with frac-

ture porosity, large vugs, or with a
porosity of less than seven percent
should be avoided for the determina-
tion of Rw.
In order to penetrate deep into the
formation, saturated formation
resistivity should be obtained using
multiple electrode resistivity probes.
Electric logs with varying depths of in-
vestigation also aid in determining the
depth of mud flushing. Normal elec-
tric logs (16 and 64 inch) are adequate
for most freshwater environments but
are adversely affected in carbonate
formations saturated with highly
resistive waters (Rw>100 ohm-
meters). Under these conditions,
focused resistivity logs, such as
laterologs or guard logs, may be used
to penetrate highly resistive forma-
The water producing characteristics
of wells tapping carbonate formations
are highly dependent upon the type
and development of secondary porosi-
ty distributed throughout the aquifer
system. Solution type porosity is great-
ly influenced by the chemical com-
patability of the ground water in con-
tact with the carbonate, the volume of
ground water flowing through the
aquifer system, and the original tex-
ture and mineralogy of the carbonate
matrix. For example, carbonates com-
posed chiefly of unstable bryozoan re-
mains tend to form "better intercon-
nections", or higher permeability,
than small mollusk shells in a fine
grained carbonate mud matrix.
Dissolution of the original fossil
material in the former case favors in-
terconnection of pore spaces but does
not enhance permeability in the latter.
Carbonates containing even small
proportions of clay rarely develop into
highly productive aquifers. This may
be accounted for by the inability of
percolating ground water to dissolve
the clay, and the clay "plugging" any
secondary porosity channels that begin
to develop. The clay will also tend to
lower the ductility of carbonates, thus
reducing the susceptibility to fracture
The most significant difference be-
tween log response in fresh water ver-
sus brine saturated formations is the
means by which electrical current is
conducted through the formation. In
brine saturated formations, elec-
trolytic conductance is primarily
through the saturating fluid.
Therefore, formation resistivity in
brine saturated formations is primarily
a function of water resistivity and the


degree of matrix cementation. In
freshwater environments, the electrical
current is more readily conducted
along the fluid-matrix interface. This
phenomenon has important hydro-
logic implications relating to
permeability that are not applicable in
the oil industry. Formation resistivity
(F) in freshwater environments in-
creases with grain size and sorting
because the current is forced to travel
a more tortuous path between elec-
trodes. All of the factors increasing
tortuosity (i.e., formation resistivity)
tend to increase permeability. In
freshwater environments, producing
zones correlative with zones of high
resistivity are characteristic of forma-
tions having low clay content and high
surface conductance.
Fractured dolomites often have very
high formation resistivity but low
porosity. Fortunately, the low porosi-
ty is offset by extremely high
permeability and will still appear as
"good" productive zones on electric
As noted, the presence of clay tends
to reduce permeability. In aquifer
systems where clays are the primary
gamma emitter, the natural gamma
log may be used to approximate
permeability. High gamma activity ap-
pears to be a good indicator of "low"
permeability throughout the area
Conclusions and findings presented
in this research are intended to aid in
the interpretation of borehole
geophysical logs. This information is
urgently needed by hydrogeologists
and will aid in:
1) determining the optimum water
bearing zones using small diameter test
holes that do not require casing,
developing, or pumping
2) determining the suitability of pro-
posed sites for landfills, industrial pits
and ponds, and for lagoons used for
storing hazardous wastes;
3) assessing the permeability and
confinement of prospective receiving
zones for deep well injection of wastes
4) recognizing facies changes,
depositional environments, and
sedimentological features essential for
a good understanding of regional
aquifer flow systems; and
5) determining the type of numerical
flow model to use in evaluating dif-
ferent aquifer systems.
In addition to supplying basic
hydrogeologic information concerning
the aquifer system, many of the input
parameters such as vertical leakance,

storage coefficients, boundary effects,
etc. can be obtained from geophysical
logs. Geophysical logs also aid in
refining relative vertical permeability
variations obtained from aquifer
pumping tests.


I ~

Hosted by Doug Stowell,
Legal Counsel
Governing Board
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Current Legislation,

Rules, and


Fred Breeze, Staff Director
Florida House of Represenatives
Natural Resources Committee
Nancy Stephens
Florida Senate
Natural Resources Committee
Terry Cole, Assistant Secretary
Department of Environmental
Buddy Blain, Legal Counsel
Southwest Florida Water
Management District

Fred Breeze
It's difficult to predict what the
legislature is going to be doing in the
coming year. It is far easier to talk
about what happened last year because
there was a bill passed that amended
various sections of Chapter 373. It
dealt with tightening closed system ex-
emptions and provided for emergency
back-pump situations. It also removed
the heat pump exemptions in con-
sumptive use permitting, eliminated
water management district perfor-
mance audits, and mandated that
water shortage plans be submitted by
October of 1983.
The real guts of the bill were in two
sections. The first was that it man-
dated consumptive use permitting in
every district. The people who worked
hard on this bill viewed consumptive
use permitting as the primary
regulatory tool the districts have to get
a handle on water supply in the State.
The reasons are obvious: consumptive

use permitting is a good data-
gathering mechanism and the applica-
tion process allows the districts to
determine how much water is being
used, and as Representative Thomp-
son indicated at lunch, the legislature
and the districts are very interested in
having the information needed to
make intelligent decisions for the
future. The second important part of
the bill was the directive that each
district prepare a ground-water
availability inventory. Essentially, we
need to know where the water and the
recharge areas are and where you can
put wastewater and where the problem
spots are. There was also a directive to
send the inventory to the cities, coun-
ties, and regional planning councils
for review and for updating their com-
prehensive plans. There is one
sentence that really empitomizes the
guts of the bill: "It is the intent of the
legislature that future growth and
development planning reflect the
limitations of the available ground
water or other available water sup-
Perhaps the important thing is not
what was in the bill, but what was not
in it. It did not attempt to revise the
regional water management system or
to set up another entity or to
reorganize the water management
districts. It did not attempt to
drastically restructure the present
system. After the legislature had taken
a hard and thorough look at the water
management districts and the DER
water quality procedures, the bill
which resulted might be taken as con-
cluding that, all in all, the Water
Resources Act of 1972 was operating
pretty well, especially given the varied
hydrologic conditions and the very
diverse economic and political situa-
tions with which each of those districts
has had to deal.
It's very difficult to predict what
will happen in the legislature next year
since, at this point, no bills have even
been filed. But there are some things
which might provide us some clues.
You heard the remarks of Represen-
tative Thompson at today's luncheon
as to the interest of the legislature in
water issues. Speaker Designate Mof-
fitt has identified three major issues
for the coming 1983-84 term: educa-
tion, transportation, and water. At a
Democratic retreat held by Represen-
tative Moffitt in the Withlacoochee
State Forest prior to the last session,

all the legislators in attendance were
broken into six independent groups
and asked to come up with a list of
urgent issues facing Florida during the
next decade. All six of those groups,
working independently, ranked water
and growth at the top of the lists.
When all six groups got together in a
joint final session, water emerged as
the number one priority issue which
needed to be addressed. Based on the
consensus reached at that retreat,
Representative Moffitt has appointed
a Task Force on Water Issues that is
chaired by Bill Sadowski from Miami.
It has held three meetings and will
probably hold three more prior to the
end of the year. Mr. Moffitt's man-
date to that Task Force was very
broad. He charged them to take a look
at the overall management of our
water resources and in particular to ex-
amine the state's approach to water
quality and to give some thought to
the development of a statewide
ground-water protection strategy.
The Task Force has held long ses-
sions and the members appear ex-
tremely involved in the issues. It seems
to me there are two primary questions
emerging from their discussion thus
far. The first is, "Can we handle
growth?" The second is, "How can
we protect ground-water quality and
prevent contamination?"
So it appears fairly clear that there is
legislative concern about water. Some
people tell me they get awfully nervous
when the Legislature starts dealing
with an issue that affects them. But
when an issue becomes as important
and controversial as water, it is usually
going to find its way to the legislative
arena sooner or later. If that's the
case, isn't it better to be sooner than
later? The Legislature has a real need
for reliable data and information
when making decisions. And it would
seem preferable to have that informa-
tion and to make those decisions
which are needed before a crisis oc-
curs. After all, isn't that what resource
managers have been asking for all
along: planning and policy decisions
before the crisis hits, with the water
managers and legislative policymakers
sitting down together and trying to ar-
rive at sound long-term policies to pre-
vent the crisis in the first place. Under
the leadership of Speaker Designate
Moffitt, I believe the House will be
trying to do just that during the next
two years. It is a healthy trend for the


protection of our water resources, and
not one to fear. And I think that you,
as water managers, can play an impor-
tant role in providing the necessary
data and information on which the
legislature must depend in making in-
telligent policy decisions for the

Nancy Stephens
I'll start by answering a question
I'm often asked that I feel compelled
to answer: "Is the Senate really in-
terested in water?" The answer is
"Yes." Last year there were no in-
terim projects directly related to
water, but, in December, the Natural
Resources Committee devoted its
whole meeting to water. It had the
three southernmost water manage-
ment districts in to talk about the
drought. It is quite a feat to devote a
whole meeting to one subject.
Fred Breeze told you about the bill
that did pass; now let me tell you
about the bills that were proposed in
the Senate last year that did not pass.
There was a bill requiring water
management districts to submit their
budgets to the Legislature for ap-
proval 60 days prior to the session.
This made all of the district budget
directors go wild. There was also a bill
requiring local governments that plan-
ned to exercise eminent domain out-
side territorial boundaries for water to
obtain a consumptive use permit from
the water management district exercis-
ing authority over the property that
was to be condemned.
There was one directing the Depart-
ment of Community Affairs to study
the recharge areas in the State and to
make recommendations to the Gover-
nor as to whether or not they should
be areas of critical state concern. That
bill made it all the way through the
Senate and the House but died on the
House calendar. There was also a bill
creating a joint legislative task force to
make a study of water resource alloca-
tion laws and their enforcement.
To bring you up to date on legisla-
tion for next year, I will mention our
interim projects. We are coordinating
very closely with the House Task
Force. While the House and we in the
Senate will have our own special con-
cerns, we will also have some common
concerns. During the interim, we pro-
posed three projects relating to water.

The first was a consumptive use per-
mitting review. We have had to
postpone that one, but we plan to look
at that next year after more districts
have adopted the regulations and have
seen how they are working. I just com-
pleted a report on ground-water
research investigations. In it, I
surveyed everyone in the State who
had ground-water research going on. I
got a very good response that in-
dicated the water management
districts and the USGS are con-
tributing the most. I also got responses
from 61 out of 67 counties, which
reflects the concern local governments
have for ground-water resources. In
the report, we looked at the nature of
the investigations and concentrated on
research and technical assistance pro-
grams that related to regulatory pro-
grams. We also tried to separate the
studies into quality and quantity, but
found that was very difficult to do.
We also looked at who was
cooperating with whom, how much
money had been expended on these
projects, and where the studies were
occurring. The report has been com-
pleted, and we hope to publish it in
November. However, it won't be
brought up before the Committee until
December and then it will be ready for
The other project we have been
working on deals with ground-water
contamination. We call it "A Review
of Capabilities of State Agencies to
Monitor and Respond to Drinking
Water Contamination." We didn't
start out considering the Florida Safe
Drinking Water Act, but we had to go
back into the history of that. We also
looked at how agencies have respond-
ed to complaints received about con-
tamination, at the lab capabilities of
each of the different agencies who had
the technical expertise, and which
agencies had the facilities to respond.
We will, hopefully, formulate a plan,
whether it be recommendations to the
agencies involved, appropriations of
money, or legislation, as to how we
can correct the situation.
There is another interim report on
"Issuance of Variances and Tem-
porary Operating Permits by DER."
The purpose of this project is to com-
pile the numbers and types of tem-
porary operating permits and
variances issued by DER over the past
several years, and to show any trends.

In addition to the interim reports,
we will also have individual bills on
water. We do expect the Senate again
this year to be very concerned with
water, and we look forward to work-
ing closely with the House to produce
a bill that has some common interests.
We realize that a lot of these recom-
mendations will have absolutely no ef-
fect if there's no money to make them
work. We will do the best we can to
write recommendations that we can all
live with and to help us find a system
to reorganize our priorities to protect
ground water.

Terry Cole
I will be covering primarily the
rulemaking the Department has been
doing since the last Annual Con-
ference. A number of these rules have
come out of this "rule mill" people ac-
cuse us of having and will be adopted
in the next six to eight months.
It has been a very busy year. There
have been a number of rules under
consideration and either adopted or
amended. Many of them are im-
provements in terms of reducing im-
pact on applicants or trying to make
the process work better, and in terms
of better protection for our environ-
ment. We're trying to make the per-
mitting process easier for people and
to provide maximum protection for
the environment for the minimum
amount of money.
The ground-water rule was a very
controversial one. We had a task force
working on it for over two years, and
it was very difficult to arrive at a con-
sensus between all the environmental
and industrial viewpoints. In January
of this year, we produced a draft and
provided all parties with a chance to
respond to it before taking it to the
Environmental Regulation Commis-
sion. We knew it would be controver-
sial and would not be a consensus rule.
The Commission had to make a deci-
sion using the best judgment it could
after hearing all parties in this debate.
There were three sides to almost every
issue: environmental groups, the
Department, and industry groups. We
did get the rule adopted, but it was
subject to challenges by several in-
dustry groups. We have been meeting
with them about their concerns, and I
think we have been able to resolve
most of them. We're hopeful that the


L _~_

rule will go into effect on January 1,
1983, as scheduled.
This rule has several features that
the previous ground-water rule did
not. Among other things, it adopted
both the primary and secondary drink-
ing water standards as the ambient
ground-water standards. The previous
rule included only the primary stan-
dards. The reason for increasing pro-
tection is that about 92 percent of our
drinking water comes from ground
water and about 20 percent is used
without any treatment. It's not very
cost effective to try to treat wells on an
individual basis, once an aquifer has
become contaminated. In fact, it's
very expensive even for large systems
to decontaminate it.
Another problem we had with the
previous rule was that we had mixing
zones that extended over property
lines. There was a possibility of a great
deal of contamination occurring on a
single large property. We saw a need
to tighten up on the mixing zone.
The "free-froms" still apply. When
I use the term "free-from", I'm
speaking of a requirement that has
been in water quality standards for
many years: carcinogens and some
other substances cannot go into the
water in any concentrations. We've
continued that protection, and this
rule provides for monitoring those
substances either in the treatment
system or right outside the percolation
pond. There would be no zone of
discharge or mixing zone for the items
on the "free-from" list.
The rule also classifies waters. Class
one is a single source aquifer and gets
the maximum protection. None were
designated in the rule and we must ad-
dress that later. Class two is the basic
drinking water zone. The ambient
standards mentioned above would ap-
ply in a class two area.
One other new feature is that a great
deal of monitoring is required. We do
not have a lot of monitoring of the
many sources of ground-water con-
tamination in the State. This rule re-
quires the possible sources of con-
tamination to monitor where the
pollutants are going and to submit that
information to us. This data will be
the basis for many of the decisions we
will be making in ground-water pro-
tection. This provision is one of the
very important elements in the rule.
We will be putting these ground-
water considerations into our existing

permitting process. When something
like a sewage treatment plant that's
discharging to a percolation pond
comes in for a permit, we will consider
its impact on the ground water as we
look at the permit.
In addition to the ground-water
rule, we've also adopted some very ex-
tensive hazardous waste rules concern-
ing the transportation and disposal of
hazardous waste. For the most part,
these have been adopted from the En-
vironmental Protection Agency. In
order to adopt a good program as
economically as possible, we used
much of the EPA work and adapted it
to the state level and Florida condi-
If we're more stringent than the
Federal Government, we have a par-
ticular rulemaking process we have to
go through. We have done this several
times in the past, and we will do it on a
portion of the hazardous waste rules.
These hazardous waste rules are very
important in trying to correct and pre-
vent ground-water contamination
around the state. We hope we will not
have many sources around the state
that have contaminated the ground
water, and we are trying to figure how
to fix the ones we know about. Within
the coming year, you're going to see a
change in the way hazardous waste is
handled within the state.
The stormwater rule was adopted
almost exactly a year ago. We already
had a stormwater rule on the book,
but it was too broad. It covered more
sources than we wanted and created
expenses for the taxpayers and the
private sector without providing the
environmental protection we wanted.
We got a lot of help from many sec-
tors, including the Florida Engineering
Society and a lot of other groups.
There wasn't much controversy, and
we adopted rules that govern non-
point sources of storm water.

"Within the coming year, you're
going to see a change in the way haz-
ardous waste is handled within the

The stormwater rule is novel in a
number of respects. One is that it pro-
vides for delegation to the water
management district for two storm-
water rules. One is to South Florida,
who received delegation in February
1982. Their rules have been adopted
by the Environmental Regulation

Commission for the entire district. As
they process management and storage
of surface waters permits, they're con-
sidering water quality and quantity
aspects. That delegation has been very
well received by the private sector, and
I have heard many compliments as to
how it's working. We have been work-
ing with St. Johns and Southwest
Florida and have schedules for their
assumption of stormwater permitting
in the near future. In the rest of the
state, we have a situation where about
60 percent of the pollution comes from
non-point sources. Until about three
years ago, we had no permit program
regulating that. Our point sources
were being regulated, but they were
getting very impatient because we were
not dealing with two-thirds of the
The new rule sets up a three-stage
process to determine whether or not a
permit was required. We established
general exemptions for certain types of
activities. We have another category
of exemptions which require a notice
to the Department prior to undertak-
ing an activity but require no affir-
mative action by the Department. A
professional engineer has to certify
that it meets our standards, and we
can make sure we agree with their pro-
fessional engineer. We have the
obligation of notifying them if we do
not agree with their engineer. We're
pleased with the way it has been work-
ing and with all the ideas that went in-
to improving the rule over the past
We're working currently on rules
for discharges to land-locked lakes,
sludge management and disposal re-
quirements for sewage treatment
plants, power plant siting procedural
changes, and hazardous waste ground-
water requirements. We'll be glad to
work with you on those.

Buddy Blain
It was suggested that I talk about
task forces, but when there's a task
force in being, I'm reluctant to have
anything to say about it if it includes
members of the Legislature. Some task
forces or select committees or joint
committees have produced some very
significant legislation.
In 1971, water was becoming very
important. Hal Scott and some others
had laid the legislature low with 70 or



80 pieces of legislation. Everyone
wanted to get involved. The Speaker
of the House appointed a chairman of
the House Natural Resources Commit-
tee and a chairman of the House En-
vironmental Protection Committee.
Because they were not sure what the
jurisdictions would be, they appointed
a Joint Committee on Water Manage-
ment. It started out as a witch hunt
trying to run down Operation
Wethook but found that it was really a
pretty good program. Dean Frank
Maloney had a Model Water Code
that they took as a starting draft but
they marked and scratched it up so
many times that he disclaimed any
knowledge of it at all. From it, the
Water Resources Act of 1972 was
passed. About five years later, after it
began to work, Maloney began to say
again that it was really his "child",
and that he just didn't understand
what the legislature had been doing for
We had some legislation from 1949,
when Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control District was created,
until 1957, but there was really no
significant legislation in water. In 1957
the first Water Resources Act was
passed. In 1961, Southwest Florida
Water Management District was
created and from then until 1971 there
was another dry spell with little legisla-
tion passed, although there was a lot
of money. In 1972, the Water
Resources Act passed and we started
talking about water, but we quit fund-
ing water. That's the way it has been
ever since. We've had an average of
four bills per year passed since them.
We've had over 40 bills of a water
management nature since 1972, and of
those, there are probably ten signifi-
cant pieces of legislation.
The 1972 act, which rewrote the
Water Resources Act, and the En-
vironmental Land and Water Manage-
ment Act were passed on the same
day. We also split water quality and
quantity at that time. In 1973, we set
the water management boundaries. In
1974, we authorized regional water
supply authorities. In 1975, we
discovered we were screwing
everything up, but if we changed these
boundaries, we were going to lose the
taxing authority. We then went to the
people with a constitutional amend-
ment that passed and granted authori-
ty to levy ad valorem taxes for water
management purposes. This is the only

tax the people of Florida have placed
on themselves. In 1976, the districts
were transferred. In 1982, the Save
Our Rivers Bill passed, providing a
source of funding over a ten-year
period for land acquisition. In 1982,
Chuck Smith's bill educated a lot of
House members to water problems. It
is a very substantial piece of legislation
that selectively picked problem areas
that had not been addressed, and it
cured a good many of them.
There has been very little litigation
involved. I suspect that we will have
more. The most recent suit wasn't in
the Appellate, but it frightened me
that they were suing Jack Maloy and
the Governor all in the same breath!
There are over a hundred defendants
and about a hundred plaintiffs and
claims of billions of dollars. The suit is
Redlands and Homestead Water
Management Improvement Associa-
tion versus Graham, et al.
We need to look at the interface be-
tween Chapters 120 and 373. Chapter
120, the Administrative Procedures
Act, doesn't mesh completely with
Chapter 373. We need to readdress
what the responsibilities of a hearing
officer are. Should the hearing officer
make a determination concerning
what is consistent with the public in-
terest after we've already gone to the
trouble of having nine Board
members, from selected residency
areas, come together to make a joint
finding as to what's consistent with the
public interest? That's just not
We should look at a law on artesian
wells that was passed in 1953. We real-
ly haven't looked at it because we
don't want to make a decision about
who should pay for fixing a flowing,
abandoned artesian well. We really
should take a look at multi-county tax-
ing authorities. We run ads in all the
counties, hoping we're covering all the
bases. So far, no taxpayer has decided
to challenge that. We might also con-
sider mandating that the Floodplain
Management Provisions be a part of
local comprehensive planning.
I think we'll see "Wetbelt" legisla-
tion very shortly. We've had Greenbelt
legislation and talked about buying
half the state or buying up the
development rights, but we haven't
considered Wetbelt legislation. It
would be similar to Greenbelt so that
you'd get some tax incentives to main-

tain wet areas and recharge zones. We
have an open space outdoor recreation
law that was great until we
emasculated it by putting in a little
provision that all public land must be
open to the public.
It seems ridiculous that we can go to
the people to have the Constitution
amended to allow up to one mill for
water management purposes and then
to have the legislature restrict different
districts as to the amount of tax they
can levy. The Northwest limitation of
.05 is a rather ridiculous provision. At
the time it was put in, we were told
there were no water problems in north-
west Florida and the legislature
wanted something that would produce
about $385,000. It's time we looked at

"The Northwest limitation of .05 is a
rather ridiculous provision."

it again. Suwannee River can only levy
.75 of a mill. They ought to be allowed
to go to one mill, especially because
they do have a small tax base. St.
Johns is limited to .375 and is talking
about how to get the extra money to
match the Save Our Rivers. South
Florida is limited to .8 mill. Southwest
Florida can go up to one mill but you
must realize that when it was changed
to one mill, it came down from 1.3.
Ten years ago, we were levying more
millage than we are today. I'm not
sure that we haven't gotten things out
of perspective.
Some of you that have long express-
ed a concern for the water and en-
vironment really don't know much
about what the water management
districts are doing. The members of
Chuck Smith's Select Committee last
year had a pretty good grasp on it. The
Task Force on Water Issues and the
Governor's Resource Management
Task Force will soon. But many agen-
cies and groups don't and it's not their
fault. The water management districts
need to be sharing with the other
districts some of the projects they have
done. They're not the things that are
keeping us in hot water.


r __

Hosted by Marion Tidwell
Governing Board Member
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Floodplain Mapping

and Modeling

Wallace E. Smith, Partner
Woolpert Consultants
Dayton, Ohio

Wallace E. Smith
The Suwannee River is one of the
longest unstructured rivers in the
United States. By unstructured, we
mean there are no dams, locks or other
large man-made structures to spoil the
natural beauty of the river. The
Suwannee River Water Management
District and a great many other people
are very interested in preserving that
rare natural phenomenon.
For most rivers, the situation usual-
ly is that development takes place in
the floodplain, and then dams and
reservoirs are constructed to protect
the existing development. It is obvious
that if development in the Suwannee
River floodplain could be properly
regulated, then structured flood con-
trol would never be necessary. A
unified effort by all the regulatory
bodies along the Suwannee River,
however, is necessary if the "no-
structures objective" is to be realized.
In December 1981, the Suwannee
River Water Management District
decided that it needed a data base of
geographically related information,
including contours and positions of all
roads, buildings, and development, as
a basis for writing a model ordinance
to be adopted by all the regulatory
bodies along the river.
After gathering information about
mapping systems from other agencies,
such as the Southwest Florida Water
Management District, the Suwannee
River District is now employing the
latest state-of-the-art, computer-

assisted mapping techniques in all
phases from data capture to data base
management. Computer assisted
stereocompilation is being used to pro-
duce a 1-inch to 400-foot map, and a
digital terrain model that spans the en-
tire floodplain. These results are load-
ed into the District's own computer
and used for analytical processes and
the development of resource manage-
ment policies.
In the last decade, several aspects of
digital mapping have evolved from
electronic possibility to productive ef-
ficiency. Techniques such as direct
digital stereocompilation, by which we
put a pair of overlapping aerial
photographs into a stereo plotter,
record the vertical differentials within
the overlapping areas of those two
aerial photographs, and record them
as digital information in a computer,
are now a reality. It is also possible to
delineate a 100-year floodplain by hav-
ing the computer interact elevation in-
formation with the digital terrain
model and thus come up with the ac-
tual limits of the 100-year flood. The
Suwannee River floodplain mapping
project is unique in that, for the first
time, these techniques are all being
brought to bear in the same applica-
The District decided it required a
data base of geographically related in-
formation in order to meet the follow-
ing objectives: to predict and delineate
the 100-year floodplain; to monitor
the development of land in the
100-year floodplain; to develop a
model of the floodplain; to develop a
model of the floodway and predict
changes in the floodplain due to pro-
posed development; and to recom-
mend permit policies to counties in the
area that they could adopt. I under-
stand that the latter has been 100 per-
cent effective. Each county affected by
the Suwannee River Water Manage-
ment District has agreed to the model
The data base creation project was
begun in January 1982 by Woolpert
Consultants, Dayton, Ohio, and by
Denny Associates of Ft. Myers who
were the surveyors. We felt that if we
were going to do an adequate job of
surveying, we'd better get us some
good Florida surveyors.
The Suwannee River Aerial Map-
ping Project is large. The river
tributaries influence land use in an
area of 1,080 square miles and touch

11 counties. The materials being pro-
duced under this contract include
3,500 photographs at one-inch to 600
feet, 700 photographs at one-inch to
2,400 feet, 350 topographic maps at
one-inch to 400 feet with two-foot
contours, 350 ortho maps at one-inch
to 400 feet, and 950 line miles of
horizontal control, 450 hydrographic
survey cross-sections that include the
underwater portions, and 2,500 line
miles of vertical control. The project is
expected to require two or three years
to complete.
Experience has shown that accurate
ground control is a fundamental re-
quirement for digital sampling ap-
plications. We could have elected to
use the process called "analytic
triangulation" to develop the vertical
control. It would have been somewhat
less expensive to have done that but
the analytic triangulation technique is
not adequate for developing two-foot
contours. We felt that a better job
could be done by running photo-
control to fit every aerial model that
was set in the aerial plotter. We ap-
plied conservative techniques to the
project to develop a reference system
which registers with the State Plane
Coordinate System. Control points for
photogrammetric compilation in the
hydrographic survey are tied to the
control network by closed traverses.
Since elevation information is of the
upmost importance, sufficient vertical
control for each aerial model of one-
inch to 600 feet is obtained by actual
ground survey. Permanent bench-
marks will be established on a one-
mile spacing. We will run approx-
imately 2,500 line miles of vertical
control. The one-inch to 400 scale or-
tho photos are being produced with
State Plane Coordinate grid markings
and control points identified.
Mapping in an area as flat as
Florida can frequently be accomplished
very easily by simply rectifying
photographs. One of the reasons we
turned to ortho photographs for this
project was because the information
was going into a computer that could
not recognize small differences on rec-
tified photographs. Ortho photo-
graphs are produced from the 1-inch
to 2,400 photographs on a stereo plot-
ter with an ortho photoscope attach-
ment. The one-inch to 400-foot
topograph maps are being produced
using an INFORMAP system with an
integrated on-line stereo-compilation

r a

system. We have a stereo plotter at-
tached directly to the computer, and
we read cross-sections across the
stereo photographs. These points are
entered into the computer, and it com-
putes the contours.
A series of cross-sections along
designated lines parallel to and across
the river will also be obtained
stereoscopically for doing floodplain
studies. Depths of the river bottoms
are being read along the cross-sections
using recording depth-sounders. These
results are also delivered in digital
form for processing in the river model
program. Suwannee has a computer
system capable of generating polygons
from random information relative to
any set of given criteria. Once the con-
tours have been delivered to Suwan-
nee's computer, they are able to enter
criteria for the development of land
use relative to floodplain, or land use
relative to elevation, and the computer
will generate polygons based on those
parameters. This system permits
graphic and analytic results to be pro-
duced directly from the digital data
The classical approach to topo-
graphic maps involves contouring by
selecting an elevation and tracing that
elevation with a floating mark. In this
project, contouring is being done with
a computer system. The reason for the
computer assistance is so the informa-
tion can be delivered digitally to the
Suwannee's computer. The one-inch
to 600 feet photograph is set in a
stereo-plotter and the floating mark is
moved across the stereo model along
straight lines. The X, Y, and Z coor-
dinates of significant points along
each profile are stored in the car-
tographic data base for subsequent
contour processing. A digital terrain
model is then created from the infor-
mation in the data base. This includes
the profiles obtained from each stereo
model, the control network, and our
"reinforcement lines." The latter are
digitized profiles of terrain features,
such as ridge lines, drains, or other
break lines which should receive
special processing. We insure that the
computer has information about sud-
den changes, such as the top of a cliff,
the edges of a road, or the center line
of a stream so that the contours ac-
tually represent the true ground. The
contouring system computes the loca-
tion of lines of constant elevation by
interpolating the digital terrain model.

Before we started doing contours by
this method, we did a lot of testing.
First we contoured over 100 models by
classical methods, putting them in the
stereo-plotter and running the con-
tours by keeping the floating mark in
contact with the ground. We then
regenerated the same stereo models by
the computer process and found a high
degree of correlation. We did,
however, see some differences in the
way the computer saw it, and the way
a human might see it. So we tried an
experiment. We got two of our best
stereo plotter operators that have
worked in the business for many years.
Their work has been field-checked and
found to be consistently good. We
asked each of them to draw a stereo-
scopic model, without telling them
they were each doing the same model.
Then we compared the results because
we knew there would be some dif-
ferences in the interpretation. The
greatest discrepencies occurred be-
tween the plotter operators and the
computer where there were trees.
Looking at the contours, it appeared
there were fairly large differences be-
tween them. At one-inch to 600 scale
photography, the accuracy of an or-
dinary stereo plotter operator is within
about a foot. One operator will "dig"
a little bit in the ground, and another
"floats" a little bit, and the difference
between them adds up to about one
foot. We got our greatest differences
where there were trees. We then took
plotter operator one and read the same
stereo model by the cross-sectioning
method and gave it to the computer to
generate the contours. We found that,
in general, there was less than a foot's
difference between the stereo plotter
operator and the computer.
We profiled the models at various
spaces and found that a basic spacing
of 160 feet, with 50 feet spacing along
the profile, and reading the high and
low points between cross-sections,
produced contours which agreed more
closely with the classical method. We
think the reason for this is that we
could read so many points, in one case
about 6,000 in one sheet, that it was
impossible for the computer to digest
all of this information properly. The
automatically produced contour lines
are stored in the cartographic data
base, where they are further processed
by the INFORMAP system to produce
deliverable results.
The project also required that the

contour lines from each stereo model
be joined to overlay the orthophoto
maps. There were approximately 100
stereo models required, but because
the floodplain limits did not cover the
entire orthophoto in every case, it
averaged about ten models to the or-
thophoto. We had to have further
computer programs written which
would insure that all of the contour
lines on the various stereo models
would join each other. All the con-
tours in the entire project have to be
connected because the computer pro-
cess used by Suwannee requires con-
nectivity between all the cross-sections
in order to generate polygons.
Planametric mapping at one-inch to
400 feet was performed from the one-
inch to 2,400 stereo photography, us-
ing the same ground control and
models used for the one-inch to 400
foot orthophotos. As we scanned the
orthophotos, we drew the planametric
details. Computer assisted compila-
tion techniques were used there, too.
Once we put the planametric detail in-
formation in the computer, we were
able to transmit this information from
our computer to Suwannee's com-
puter. They have infinite control over
how to portray the features. It pro-
duced a neat result with little manual
The Suwannee River floodplain
mapping project is a major undertak-
ing that will permit the storage and
management of large amounts of
quantitative information and it will
support the management of the re-
sources of the area. The use of a digi-
tal mapping technique in both data
base creation and in analysis is what
makes a project of this scope practical.

Questions and Answers

How much is this all costing?
The cost is in the neighborhood of
two million dollars for the mapping
Are you mapping the whole district?
We're only mapping the 100-year
How are you treating, as far as the
floodplain ordinances are concerned,
areas that are floodprone beyond the
river floodplain. Does your model or-
dinance address that?
They basically are all under the
model ordinance. It is specific to the
main stem of the Suwannee and its
tributaries. Levy County has protected


the Withlachoochee by putting it
under its county commissioners.
I have a problem with the Federal
government's manner of regulating
these floodprone areas. These are local
county ordinances regulating the
floodplain area and each county pre-
pares its own ordinance. We felt it
more appropriate that the control stay
with the local county governments.
Obviously, a great deal more informa-
tion is being obtained than the Federal
government would in its floodplain
studies. This is what our problem was
in "selling" the ordinance to the coun-
ties. They've been promised a map for
20 years. Not only are we mapping, we
are providing the benchmarks so that
it's much cheaper to do the ground
survey required by the ordinance. We
have the one to 400 map with two-foot
contours which a consumer can use
when he is considering buying. Even
though those orthos are a by-product
of the mapping period, they are a ma-
jor tool for use in consumer educa-
Are you going to distribute those to
the public?
They will be available to the county
building officials when approved. We
are editing the maps after the com-
puter generates the contours. We're
trying to be sure that the contour is be-
ing presented by the computer in some
cartographically correct way so that a
user of the map will be able to read the



Hosted by Fred Bond
Governing Board Member
Northwest Florida Water
Management District

Lake Management

Techniques and


Dr. William Wegener, Fisheries
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Dr. Patricia M. Dooris,
Environmental Manager
Southwest Florida Water
Management District
Peter B. Rhoads, Director of
South Florida Water Management

Dr. William Wegener
A basic problem facing fishery
biologists today, especially in large
lake management, is that we have the
responsibility and knowledge to
manage the fishery, but we don't have
control over water, the most impor-
tant ingredient.
All lakes are different. The major
characteristics which make them dif-
ferent in Florida are water depth, bot-
tom contour, vegetation, water quali-
ty, watershed, and water level fluctua-
tion. As far as I'm concerned, the lat-
ter is the most important factor. Water
level fluctuation not only benefits
maintaining wetlands, but inundation
improves vegetation composition,
creates new aquatic habitat, and
stimulates organism expansion.
Receding water levels increase
predator growth, stimulate plant ger-
mination, and as drying occurs, im-
prove the oxidation of organic
There are three basic ways to
manage a fishery: by regulation (rules
and laws), by species (specific techni-

ques to introduce, decrease, or
enhance selected species), or by
habitat (managing the aquatic
habitat). In the latter, lake manage-
ment and fisheries management
become very similar. What you do to a
lake physically, biologically, or
chemically will have a direct effect on
that fishery sooner or later.
It is my task in this session to discuss
various lake management techniques
and philosophies. For example, while
pollution abatement continues to be a
top priority, we must look to other
solutions because it's practically im-
possible to eliminate all pollution
within a system. We must learn how to
manage that system for benefits in
spite of pollution. We've had successes
with that during extreme drawdowns.
Noxious vegetation control is a
function of the lake system. Chemical
control is necessary, but must be
employed as part of a well-managed
maintenance program. Maintenance
should be implemented before prob-
lems become acute and should not to
any great extent interfere with native
aquatics. Mechanical and biological
controls can be used, but we have to be
careful about affecting native species.
While vegetation may not be popular
with people who use the lake, it can be
very beneficial to the fishery. To cite
an example, on Lake Kissimmee we
checked the harvesting efforts of
fishermen. Some 98 percent of all of
the largemouth bass were caught
within or near the aquatic vegetation.
The panfish species are almost iden-
tical. A few years ago I placed a
monetary value on the fish that were
present within that vegetated area. I
put a $1,300 value on the fish present
within the vegetated area, and a $300
value on those present in the open
water. Even exotic plants can be
beneficial from a fishery standpoint.
Lake Parker and Lake Hunter in the
Lakeland area only supported a rem-
nant population until hydrilla was in-
troduced into the system. Those sport
fishing populations now rival some of
the best we have in the State.
Dredge and fill is recognized as a
very destructive aspect. The filling of
lake bottoms amounts to complete
destruction. Private access canals are
nothing more than organic traps and
break the zone of vegetation which
acts as a sponge for nutrient input. In
one lake, we've seen a permanent loss
of 420 fish food organisms per square

meter of vegetation as a result of small
access channel construction.
Vegetation transplanting provides a
method to establish a new species
within a lake area. It can be utilitzed as
a fish attractor or to increase the total
production within a system. Within
two years of planting 25 stems of, for
example, bullrush, you will have a fish
attractor that is self-sustaining and
economically feasible.
Eliminating development or actually
removing existing structures on
floodplains may become a necessity. If
floodplain encroachment by develop-
ment continues, little can be done to
cope with the many problems facing
lakes today.
Man's efforts to become dominant
over everything for personal gain, for
selfish reasons, or in ignorance, has set
the stage for much of the lake destruc-
tion that has occurred in this State.
Past practices of flood and drought
control utilized the technique of drain-
ing and of stabilizing at a low level.
The prevailing practice in flood con-
trol was to eliminate the extreme high
and the extreme low in the fluctuation
schedule. Unfortunately, these ex-
tremes, that are produced by periodic
rainfall and drought, sustain desirable
habitats and the fishery within these
systems. An experimental drawdown
technique we regularly use to increase
the range of fluctuation has produced
some very dramatic benefits and is ac-
cepted as a fishery and habitat tool. It
improves the stability of the littoral
substrate and increases the density and
diversity of the aquatic vegetation. It
also stimulates the production of fish
food organisms and increases the
biomasses of game and other fishes.
For best results, an extreme drawdown
should expose at least 40 to 50 percent
of the lake bottom and should occur in
a drought period. Unfortunately, we
can't predict weather patterns but
from the fishery standpoint, that
makes little difference. There is a
recommendation that an extreme
drawdown should be incorporated
into each regulation schedule every six
to ten years.
The annual water fluctuation is
quite important. It is recommended
that seasonal or annual fluctuation be
at least three feet and have a range of
five feet depending on climatic condi-
tions. When it rains a lot, we should
fluctuate the level on the high side and
when it's dry, fluctuate it on the low

I ~F-

side. Two feet of fluctuation amounts
to no fluctuation from a fishery or
aquatic habitat viewpoint.
There are many important reasons
for utilizing historic ordinary high
water marks during flood periods in
controlled lakes. The lake bottom
biologically is located near the or-
dinary high water lines and is capable
of supporting high productivity in
terms of small forage fishes and in-
vertebrates. From a physical stand-
point, the preservation of infrequently
flooded lands in a natural state pro-
vides a buffer between the lake proper
and upland development. It also
decreases the demand for additional
water storage capabilities. The lower
Kissimmee chain of lakes provides an
excellent example of this and one that
we can possibly do something with in
the future. The regulated high
schedule for the lake is 52.5 feet above
mean sea level. For Lake Kissimmee,
that's 40,500 acres. The ordinary high
water line, determined by the DER, is
53.75. The difference is 8,500 acres of
lake bottom which is being claimed as
upland property. The result is that
8,500 acres of land has been classified
as sovereign lake bottom that is being
turned into uplands subject to en-
croachment for development pur-
poses. The combined result on all
three lakes is a loss of 21,000 acres of
sovereign lake bottom and a storage
capacity loss in excess of 100,000 acre
feet. During the fall of 1982, develop-
ment began along a four-mile section
on the west shore in Lake Kissimmee.
This took place in extremely low areas
during extreme low water times. Most
of this was inundated during the con-
trolled high pool stage at 52.5 feet.
Multiple use of our lakes, including
flood and drought control and water
storage, is best achieved by retaining
maximum fluctuation in lake level
control and by retaining high pool
stages which approximate the natural
high water lines. The loss of flood
storage, coupled with development,
will create additional difficulties in
maintaining a multiple use philosophy
towards our aquatic resources. This
situation can only worsen unless steps
are taken to re-establish natural or-
dinary high water lines and to
eliminate development that will re-
quire additional flood controls.
We can't place the blame on ig-
norance any longer. We know what's
happening and the end results. This

Kissimmee chain is an area where we
could do something. It will require
some money and we need some priori-
ty changes, but we could do something
for this whole lake system.
In summary, lakes in Florida are
our most precious asset. They can be
self-sustaining, nearly maintenance
free, and can provide diverse recrea-
tional and economic benefits. But they
are among our most abused and
threatened natural resources. We
pollute them with our waste, alter and
destroy them with our dredging and
filling, drain or decrease the natural
fluctuation, and worst of all, we de-
mand that they satisfy our most
abstract needs and desires. They sur-
vive, but seldom as we remember

Dr. Patricia M. Dooris
Our district supports the Game
Commission's concept of lake level
fluctuation, and it is the basis for our
lake level management program.
Within the Southwest Florida Water
Management District, we have about
1,800 lakes of ten acres or more. In
recognition of the importance of this
resource, our Governing Board has
developed a lake level program for the
district. It was begun informally in the
late 60's and early 70's, and by 1976,
the Governing Board had given the
staff approval to develop the technical
basis and guidelines for an official
lake level program. In 1978, Part 8 of
our rules was adopted, implementing
our lake level program. In 1980, the
first lake levels were adopted in the
Hillsborough basin.
The objective of our program is to
provide guidelines for development
around lakes and to prevent some of
the undesirable effects of encroach-
ment. We also attempt to preserve the
lake's water storage and recharge
We need levels as guidelines for the
operation of district control structures
and for evaluation of consumptive use
and other permits. Our lake level pro-
gram is generally applied to lakes that
are 20 acres or greater in size or that
have a consumptive use permit. We
also include a lake if there's a special
request for us to work on it, or if we
have a structure on it. We have work-
ed on lakes that are less than 20 acres.
In a study of 110 lakes in Florida,

the U.S.G.S. indicated that all lakes
fluctuate at least three to four feet an-
nually. About 50 percent of the lakes
fluctuate about five to six feet, and
there are some that fluctuate as much
as 20 feet. We feel fairly safe in using
lake fluctuation as a basis for our pro-
Because we support a fluctuation of
levels and not a single "desirable"
level, we recommend and establish
four levels. The first one is a ten-year
flood warning level, and the remaining
three are minimum flood level, low
management level, and extreme low
management level. On a diagram,
these four levels stack up on a cross-
section of an undeveloped lake. At the
top, we have the ten-year flood warn-
ing level that is a hydrologically
calculated level based on the water-
shed size and on the inlets and outlets
of the lake. It requires a field study by
our survey and floodplain delineation
people. It's generally associated with
the ten-year frequency flood, and it
warns people that the lake is going to
get up to that level. The first of the
management, or operating levels, is
the "minimum flood level." It's
slightly higher than the ordinary
season high on the lake, and it is not
really a flood level but one that should
occur on a lake in response to above
average conditions of rainfall. This
would occur during years in which
there is a bit more rain than usual. The
next lower level is the "low manage-
ment level." It should be achieved by
the lake at the end of the dry season in
May and June. If the lake has a con-
trol structure, our operations engineer
will take the lake down at that time.
The level below that is our "extreme
low management level," which is just
a little bit lower than normal. It will
occur in those years where there is
slightly less than average rainfall.
So far, I've given you an ideal situa-
tion. Now let's also look at how these
levels stack up on a developed lake.
Many of our lakes have been en-
croached upon, and the District can-
not operate a structure, for example,
that would purposely flood someone.
We have to set our minimum flood
level a foot or so below the lowest
house that is on a lake. We survey
every lake so we know what that is.
The minimum level and the extreme
low management levels are set down as
low as possible within normal range.
However, what you essentially do is

compress the fluctuation range, which
we find highly undesirable but
sometimes necessary. The ten-year
flood warning level stays where it is
because people are still going to be
flooded out unless changes are made
in the watershed or in the outlet of the
lake to enable discharge. We tell peo-
ple that.
We have many lakes on which we
have structures and for which we will
recommend not only the lake levels
but a fluctuation schedule to go along
with it. We like to see the extreme low
management level reached during one
out of every five years. There are two
things that determine if you can do
this. One is the discharge capability of
the control structure. We have some
that let us follow the schedule to the
letter. The other factor is the opera-
tions engineer for the structure.
We try to simulate what nature
would do. We try to find what hap-
pened normally on the lake, and our
levels are established to simulate
natural fluctuations. We seek out
every scrap of information that we can
on these lakes, including U.S.G.S.
reports, U.S.G.S. water resource data
books, hydrologic investigation
reports, data from counties, DER,
defunct water management districts,
and all sorts of information. We also
rely upon staff reports done on par-
ticular lakes.
The next stage of the investigation is
to have our field men make an in-
vestigation of the biological and the
cultural features of the lake. Some of
the vegetation is most useful in deter-
mining past lake levels. Emergents,
such as Pontoderia and some floating
vegetation such as fragrant water lily,
are most useful. We generally think of
the lakeward extent of the emergent
vegetation as the seasonal low water
level, which would be our low manage-
ment level. In looking at this vegeta-
tion, you must use common sense.
Some lakes have been depressed so
badly that there is emergent vegetation
five or six feet below what it should
be. The emergents are one thing that
we find helpful in telling us approx-
imately what low levels we should have
on the lake.
For high water levels, we can use
cypress, wax myrtle, black willow and
primrose willow. The watermarks on
cypress trees will indicate the elevation
water has risen to and stayed for a
long period of time. This is the

seasonal high, which we consider to be
our minimum flood level.
We also look at man-made features.
We get elevations of docks, sea walls,
boat houses, and other important
landmarks. We have to look at docks
and sea walls for two reasons. First,
people will get mad at you if you do
something to destroy their dock or sea
wall, unless you can justify it. Second,
docks can give you an idea of where
the lake was in the past. In Highland
County, you will find a whole series of
docks that are at a very high elevation.
These are the old timers' docks. The
lakes down there have receded, and all
the newcomers have put their docks at
a lower elevation. A complete story of
the lake elevation is sometimes written
in the docks.
Control structures and culverts are
examined and surveyed, and in some
cases, the outflow is profiled. This in-
formation is put on a drainage map
along with crest elevations of control
structures. We give these maps to peo-
ple who come to meetings to let them
know something about their lakes.
When the staff has collected all the
information, it is used to generate ten-
tative lake levels for the lake and we're
ready to go to public meetings. After
appropriate notification is given, we
hold one or more workshops and then
a public hearing during which we give
out the lake levels so they can check
where those levels will be. I can't em-
phasize enough the importance of
public input into this project. Without
it, I don't think our project would be a
success. We feel that people are paying
taxes for this type of work, and they
deserve to be involved as much as
After we go through the public hear-
ing process, a hearing officer will pre-
sent a recommended order to our
Board. If all goes well, the levels will
be accepted and adopted into our
rules. One more step must be taken for
the lake levels to be official. That is
the establishment of an official gage
on the lake which will actually point
out the levels. That essentially is the
work done for each lake.
As of October 1, 1982, we had set
levels on about 160 lakes in the
District. Most of the work has been in
the north Hillsborough basin. We
have done some in the Peace basin and
in the Green Swamp. We have about
400 other lakes that we'll be working
on. That number will be reduced

because some of these lakes are one-
owner lakes which we don't do, and
some are wide places in a river. We
hope to complete these in the next five
or six years.
Let me give you a couple of ex-
amples how our levels are used within
the District. Many of our lakes have
dropped six or seven feet and that's
very disturbing to a lot of people who
have developed lake associations to
augment their lakes. When we get a
permit of this nature, we are able to
regulate the amount of water they put
in. We use the established lake levels
directly in lake augmentation permit
applications. We use our lake levels to
permit demands on the resource. We
also use them in the evaluation of per-
mit applications for large ground-
water withdrawals because, when you
take water out of the ground, you can
lower lake levels in some areas.

Peter B. Rhoads

The upper Kissimmee Lakes are be-
tween Orlando and Lake Okeechobee
in the center of the peninsula. There
are two chains of them, with Kissim-
mee, Cypress, Toho, and East Toho
making up the west chain and a series
of smaller lakes the east chain. Among
the unique features of these lakes is
that they're all interconnected and are
each generally greater than 10,000
acres in size.
Control structures serve most of
these lakes. For example, we have one
at the head waters of the Kissimmee
River that controls the discharge from
all the lakes within this system. The
structures were designed during the
1950's, construction began in the early
1960's, and by about 1967, they were
operational. The time period of con-
struction is important because it
establishes the philosophy that went
into the design of the structures.
You can break down the problems
in the chain during the past 30 years
into four classes: flooding, low water,
water quality, and biological.
Flooding occurred during 1947, 1953,
and 1960. That was when the water
control system was being designed.
Flooding had a substantial effect on
the design criteria used by the Corps of
Engineers. It also had an effect on the
public outcry to the Corps and the
Water Management District during
this period, mainly because substantial


areas were inundated.
When you look at the rainfall chart
from 1915 to 1980, after you pass the
twin peaks of 1959 and 1960, we've
had a relatively dry period during the
last 20 years in the Kissimmee Valley.
The flood years were '47, '53, and '60
and since that time, we haven't had a
flood in the Valley. It's totally incor-
rect to assume that the lack of
flooding is solely the result of the
water management system put in
place. One result of completing that
system was the stabilization of water
levels. There is a narrow range of fluc-
tuations of water levels in Lake
Kissimmee and the other lakes in the
area. In spite of the ecological benefits
of lake drying, many of the residents
insist that low lakes are undesirable.
Some of our people, as well as the
Game & Fish Commission, have done
a good job educating the public about
low lakes being a good thing
ecologically. We still have strong local
sentiment, however, about lakes being
stable, and especially from people who
have docks. Another concern about
low water levels comes from area land-
owners who have used the lakes for
agricultural water supplies.
Water quality has become one of the
more recent concerns. Perhaps the ma-
jor source of quality problems is
wastewater treatment plants serving
Orlando and Orange County. In addi-
tion to these point sources, the sur-
rounding land is used as pasture and
for more intense agricultural opera-
tions. These uses occur in low lying
areas around the lakes. The littoral
zone is where the action is, and that is
Lakeside residents do not want the
lakes too high or too low. Ideally,
from their perspective, the lakes
should be stable. The conflicts this
raises with both ecological and flood
control concerns is apparent. En-
croachment is a problem and is not be-
ing fully addressed at this time. We
still need action by the agencies that
control state-owned lands and enforce
the mean high water line. We're mak-
ing progress, however.
The key factor is how the structures
are operated to determine the water
level. In the upper Kissimmee chain of
lakes, we operate them on a rule-curve
basis that is embodied in a regulation
schedule. If the water level at a given
time is above the regulation schedule,
the structure is operated to bring the

water level down to schedule. How
fast it comes down depends upon how
far above schedule it is. Lakes rise dur-
ing the early part of the wet season but
don't peak until October or
November. The important feature is
that the water level during June, July
and August is critical. If a hurricane
comes during that period, that addi-
tional water is laid on top of the lake
and flooding can occur. In the original
design, it was intended that we keep
the lake low enough during the early
part of the rainy season to have
storage for a hurricane if it came.
When the peak storm period passes,
you would raise the lake to its max-
imum regulatory level. We're doing a
full reassessment of the regulation
schedule. We are collecting the
necessary hydrologic data for a detail-
ed routing on these lakes.
From a water quality viewpoint, we
did an assessment last year based on
available data. We found that
phosphorous and nitrogen loading go-
ing into the lake is far above the
amount allowable to keep the lake in
its existing state. Some factors are
substantial. There is over eight times
the allowable amount of phosphorous
and it's not too surprising that the lake
is showing signs of cultural
eutrophication. To maintain the long-
term viability of the lakes, we've got
crews working on a detailed mass
balance analysis that involves bi-
weekly sampling of inflows and the
open waters of the lake. We are doing
this to provide the detailed informa-
tion needed to prioritize the inflow.
This all adds up to a management
strategy composed of three elements.
The first is lake water levels on which
we've got competing uses and desires.
We don't have the ability now to say
what the effects will be if the regula-
tion schedules were changed. We have
changed it without encroaching any
further upon the flood protection
levels in the lake, and we have our
detailed hydrological investigations
underway. In this coming year, we
hope to complete the calibration on a
period of record routing model which
will permit us to examine a full range
of regulation schedules.
We also have a biological element.
The biologists are asking for greater
fluctuations on these lakes. We need
to determine how high the water is go-
ing to be under various rainfall condi-
tions. We hope to know that by this

time next year.
On the third element, water quality,
DER has made substantial progress in
putting the major wastewater treat-
ment plants under a firm implementa-
tion schedule in an effort to reduce
nutrient loading to the headwater
system. The District has formally
assumed the responsibility of control-
ling nonpoint sources. We're setting
up demonstration projects in the
Kissimmee area to show the benefits of
burning pasture land and how to con-
trol urban runoff. We've also got a
long term study underway to establish
nitrogen and phosphorous loading
targets for the lake system.
We feel relatively comfortable with
what we see for the future. We have an
active and effective regulatory pro-
gram. Our largest problems are in
overcoming misconceptions about
management that have built up over
the past 20 to 30 years. We intend to
continue our surface water manage-
ment permitting program to take care
of new construction. If, at the comple-
tion of our detailed water quality
study, it's necessary to retrofit the ex-
isting system, our regulatory program
will help us implement those systems.


Hosted by Bob Price
Governing Board Member
Northwest Florida Water
Management District


Wastewater through

Land Spreading

J. Nolan Reed, President
Seacoast Utilities, Inc.

J. Nolan Reed
We have a tremendously valuable
resource in sewage that can help con-
serve our water supply and serve our
neighborhoods. We will also be talk-
ing here about a very unique system of
handling sludge. About 80 percent of
the utility companies where we operate
have been taking their liquid sludge by
tanker to a county dump. It's loaded
with viruses and pathogens and we've
been concerned because the dump is
very near our aquifer. I will be presen-
ting what I hope is a convincing argu-
ment about the beneficial use of
We've learned wastewater treatment
can make a profit. Instead of looking
at the extra cost to get a higher degree
of treatment as being a pitfall, we've
learned to see it as a blessing in
disguise. We spend the money to get
the better degree of treatment and
wind up with a product that is valuable
because you can use it. The reason we
have concentrated so much on the
wastewater is to conserve our drinking
water supply.
Utility companies are of two
categories. The "traditionalists" are
the ones who can't break away from
the mold. They use techniques that
everybody else uses, don't show any
imagination, or try any innovative
ideas. Our federal grant system, which
gives money to municipalities and
counties to do their job, has been a
mental arrestor for our utility
managers who have to follow regula-
tions governed by EPA. The money

given to us by the Federal Government
has been a deterrent to imaginative
growth. Utility companies that are free
enterprise or industrially owned don't
get that money. We have to try as hard
as we can to make a profit, or at least
break even, so that our investors will
continue to invest. We have to be in-
novative and to dig into new ideas,
and we're forced to cut costs as much
as possible.
In addition to the traditionalists,
there are also the conservationists,
who try to find what can be done with
the product we're producing. We have
a hyacinth farm, a tree farm, and we
are spray irrigating golf courses. In
our agricultural crop testing, we pick
crops that can be used for something.
We concentrate on crops that are not
edible but are marketable. We chose
the cassava, a Latin American root
crop, because we knew it produced
about 40 percent more alcohol than
corn or sugar cane. When we were in-
vestigating this, our incentive was to
find an alternative source for fuel.
Let me first review the treatment
methods being considered here. Ad-
vanced waste treatment is three times
as expensive as secondary treatment.
Advanced waste treatment includes
not only secondary treatment, but also
a reduction of suspended solids and in-
volves a much higher disinfection rate
with a better virus infection kill. It in-
cludes the removal of phosphates and
nitrates. If we were discharging into
highly sensitive waters, we would have
to use advanced waste treatment. In
Class I waters, I wonder if even ad-
vanced waste treatment is adequate.
The new rules call for us to produce
something about equal to drinking
water. Advanced waste treatment, in
our experience, should be avoided
because it produces so much sludge.
We have to use a chemical process to
remove the phosphate, and that pro-
duces another problem, which is a
sludge that's highly loaded with
phosphates. In secondary treatment,
you've got the same problem with
sludge, and that is what to do with it
when it's loaded with viruses and
In secondary treatment, you don't
use filters, you just treat it to a certain
level of suspended solids. That is what
everybody in the utility business tried
in the 1960's, and they fought the
agencies hard to stay with this because
it was the cheapest route. But the

cheapest route is not the best way.
There's a "secondary-advanced
treatment" catching on that is between
advanced and secondary waste treat-
ment. We're using it at Seacoast. At
the lowest level of secondary treat-
ment, you can only put it into deep
well injections, or in some approved
area away from people. In secondary-
advanced treatment, it is only one step
higher. We add filtration to the pro-
cess and thereby reduce the suspended
solids to get a completely effective
virus and pathogen cure. We've been
testing this for five years and our
water management district and DER
have watched our work and beconre
confident in us. With secondary-
advanced treatment, you have an ef-
fluent that is lower in suspended
solids, is usable immediately, and can
be brought into human contact
because it has killed the viruses,
pathogens, and bacteria.
We considered all of the alternatives
at Seacoast. One of the problems with
spray irrigation, of any type, is what
to do with irrigation water during the
rainy season. We toyed with a lot of
answers and now we're using 60 acres
of dry pond area, which gives us 20
days of storage. But we're getting
ready to bring another of our plants
into the same central plant, and it will
immediately double our capacity and
we can't keep digging ponds. We're
considering deep well injection as a
supplement to both secondary-
advanced treatment and the spray ir-
rigation process so that we can pump
into it during the rainy season.
Water supply preservation is one of
our incentives. Our sewage treatment
plant is located within a mile and a
half of the Turnpike aquifer, and
we're doing everything we can to pro-
tect it. We figure we're taking two and
a half million gallons of our
wastewater a day and putting it on a
golf course and we're thereby saving
the underground water supply two and
a half million gallons a day. As soon
as we bring in our other plant, we'll be
saving five million gallons a day.
The economics of handling
wastewater effluent is something some
of the "elders" have avoided because
they think it's going to break them.
We found the economics are far better
for secondary-advanced. Let's take,
for example, spray irrigation. The
final effluent has to be pumped
somewhere in any case. That cost is

always there. The only extra cost to
send it to a golf course or an
agricultural area is the filtration, and
that is offset many times over by the
fact that you won't have to use ponds.
Land in Palm Beach is incredibly ex-
pensive, even adjacent to our waste
treatment plant. A filter costs us
$350,000, and we can get two filters
and use one for standby for less than it
would take to dig a pond.
Another alternative is deep well in-
jection directly from secondary treat-
ment. Everybody seems to be using
this. The secondarily treated effluent
is loaded with pathogens and viruses.
Even if you considered this solution to
the problem to be right, it costs about
five million dollars to put down an
18-inch injection well. We can do a lot
of things cheaper than that. The big
advantages of spray irrigation are that
your water stays on the surface where
you can monitor it, and it's also pro-
viding a benefit. When you put
wastewater deep into the ground, it's
gone forever and it can't be
withdrawn. There are claims that
when you withdraw it, the change in
pressure kills the bacteria and the
viruses, but I don't think anyone has
proven that yet. It's gambling, and it
might wind up in our drinking water
somewhere. I want to be sure that I
leave with you the impression that
secondary treated wastewater should
be handled with kid gloves.
Seacoast Utilities services 47 square
miles. We have ten golf courses in a
mile and a half radius of our treatment
plant. They can use about 80 or 90
million gallons of water a day for ir-
rigation. At this time, we have a 2.5
million gallon a day plant, which is be-
ing expanded to five million gallons.
We have 80 acres of ponds, some of
which is a hyacinth farm. We started
this because the effluent was so high in
nutrients that it created growth prob-
lems in the golf course ponds. The
hyacinths reduced the nutrients to a
controllable level. It is a natural pro-
cess that is better than chemical
It is desirable to leave some
nutrients in the water that goes on the
golf course or whatever. It levels off
the growing cycle because you are con-
stantly applying nutrients. I think con-
stant growth is probably the biggest
benefit to using the nutrients.
The monitoring we do is not com-
plicated. We don't use monitoring

wells because we have the ponds. The
testing is not so complex that it's going
to break the utility and we do some of
it voluntarily, just to be safe.
Reclaimed water is now considered
to be no different than any other water
supply used for irrigation. Because of
the source of water, health considera-
tions and public acceptance may be
factors. We had a little problem about
public acceptance in the beginning,
but that's no longer true. Slowly, the
public is being educated to the fact
that it is safe.
The possibilities for secondary-
advanced are great. Near Lubbock,
Texas, a farmer has 25,000 acres of
cotton located 16 miles out of town.
Lubbock got a federal grant of six
million dollars to run a pipeline out to
his farm area. After wastewater irriga-
tion was started, his production in-
creased by one bale of cotton per acre.
This gentleman increased his annual,
revenues by $750,000 a year, mostly
from the extra nutrients. He did have a
problem with that effluent during the
winter so he started growing winter
wheat with it. That fellow is going to
make a fortune off the wastewater ef-
I would also like to mention the dual
digestion process. It is nothing more
than two things put together that
we've known about for a long time.
Aerobic and anaerobic digestion are
put in series, and when you put the
sludge in, it gets pure oxygen in the
aerobic process instead of atmospheric
air. We produce our own oxygen from
the methane gas produced at the other
end. When you get a certain size, you
can use the methane to run a couple of
100 horsepower motors to produce
your own oxygen.
There is a great savings in time and
money. The anaerobic stage requires
one day of detention time. The aerobic
stage is eight days. Anybody who has
dealt with retention will know that,
under normal conditions, it's a 20-day
job. Pure oxygen allows the reduction
to nine days from 20. This means the
tankage can be smaller and there is a
tremendous savings in capital outlay.
Energy consumption is also very low.
The process creates high internal
temperatures during the aerobic por-
tion that continue through the
anaerobic. It pasteurizes the sludge at
temperatures of about 145 degrees
Fahrenheit. It does, in effect, get rid
of the viruses and pathogens.

In summary, it produces a stabilized
and reliable sludge solid that has a
market value. There are lower capital
operating investments than for the
conventional digestion process.

I 1

Banquet Address

Hosted by Southwest Florida
Water Management District




Dr. Mel Anderson

Hon. Bruce Samson, Chairman
Southwest Florida Water Manage-
District Governing Board
It's our District's pleasure to chair
the banquet this evening and to thank
the staff here at the center for doing an
absolutely marvelous job, and to
thank Tom Coldewey and Bill Mc-
Cartney for the superb job they have
done on this conference. It is certainly
the best I have attended.
Before we hear from our speaker
this evening, I would like Vicki
Tschinkel to say a few words.

Ms. Vicki Tschinkel, Secretary
Department of Environmental
Last year when we all got together,
there was an awful lot of concern
about water conservation and the
drought, and everybody was actively
involved in drought management
plans. I recall that we worked with
South Florida Water Management
District to get $100,000 for cloud
seeding-with tremendous success. It
took a bit longer than we thought it
would, but it's another triumph of
science, I guess.
This last year has been extremely
rewarding for us in the Department,
and I hope for everybody else involved
in water management around the
State. We had very good support in
the Legislature, particularly on the

House side with Representative Chuck
Smith's Committee. We all enjoyed
working with that Committee very
much, and going around the State to
each of the districts and seeing the
outstanding accomplishments that
everyone in the water management
districts can be proud of. Northwest
can point to the relatively non-
regulatory climate in which they
operate and to some very intelligent
and sensible regulations they are start-
ing. They can also point to some good
working relationships with The Nature
Conservancy and their efforts to
stretch those"Save Our Rivers"
dollars a little bit further.
In the Suwannee District, I don't
know how they did it, but they got
tremendous cooperation out of 11
counties to adopt ordinances to pro-
tect the Suwannee River. That was a
really remarkable achievement.
At St. Johns they have taken some
pretty courageous action to protect
and restore the St. Johns River and
also have some brand new regulatory
programs there. South Florida always
does everything first, and then goes
back and redoes some of them. They
have been the leading recipient of a
major water quality permitting delega-
tion from the Department, and the
other districts are going to be follow-
ing shortly. They also have taken real-
ly courageous stands on their land ac-
quisition program and are trying to
make up some of James Watt's short-
falls on land acquisition. The State
should be very grateful to them for
Southwest Florida has been laboring
long and hard to get some regional
water supply authorities going. Using
their Basin Boards for land acquisition
has really been a wonderful thing too.
From the Department's perspective,
this has been a year of regulation
development. We've adopted numer-
ous regulations to protect our ground-
water supplies from pollution. We've
developed underground injection con-
trol regulations, a cradle-to-grave
hazardous waste program, and most
recently, ground-water quality protec-
tion regulations. This has been a ma-
jor innovation for our agency, and I
hope it's not going to be unduly
burdensome for the regulatory folks
around the State. We all should be
proud of our achievements this year.
From my perspective, I can't ex-
press too strongly the support that I

have had from the water management
districts. I hope the Department has
reciprocated. We have all served the
State well during the last year, and I
feel that it's going to be even better
next year.

Hon. Bruce Samson
It's my pleasure to introduce to you
a particularly well-qualified speaker
this evening. He is currently Chairman
and Professor of the Department of
Civil Engineering and Mechanics at
the University of South Florida in
Tampa. He's also the President-Elect
of the American Water Resources
Association and has recently been
recognized by the Florida Section of
the American Society of Civil
Engineers as the"Civil Engineer of the
Year". I have suggested to Mel Ander-
son that he should feel quite comfor-
table in giving his normal, detailed,
highly technical, written, hour-and-a-
half lecture to us here tonight.

Dr. Mel Anderson, President-Elect
American Water Resources
I haven't come here to talk to you
about Florida's water problems. You
are all well informed and knowl-
edgeable about them, and there's not
much that I could add. But I do get
around a fair amount with the
American Water Resources Associa-
tion, and I talk to other professionals.
There are concerns nationwide that are
quite different from ours. If we look
at them a bit, it might give us a
broader view of the total resource
Earlier this month I was in San
Francisco for the Annual Meeting of
the American Water Resources
Association. I would like to read from
the program the titles of a couple of
talks given by people from different
parts of the United States: "Water
Resources: A Limiting Factor to Tuc-
son's Growth."; "Competition for
Columbia River Water."; "Who
Owns the Missouri River?"; "Con-
tamination of Suffolk County
Groundwater."; "Energy and
Agriculture Responses to Water Short-
ages in Utah."; "Impact of Hazar-
dous Waste Contamination on
Ground-water Quality."; "Waste-
water Reuse in San Diego County."
There obviously is a nationwide con-
cern about population growth, quanti-

ty of water, and the quality of water.
In some local areas, we are definite-
ly running out of water. But if we look
at the amount of water on earth or in
the United States, we are not running
out. In fact, water is abundant and
we're not going to run out. The water
we have sitting on our table this even-
ing might very well have been used by
Will Shakespeare.
If the earth were a perfect sphere, it
would be 800 feet deep in water. There
are 362,000,000 cubic miles of water
on earth, and true, most of this is con-
tained in the oceans or in the at-
mosphere. But there's over a million
cubic miles of water available in our
lakes, streams, and the shallow
In the United States we receive
about 1.5 quadrillion gallons. That's
about as much as an Executive Direc-
tor of a water district makes! That is
about 18,000 gallons per person per
day in the United States. Of course, if
we consumed it, we'd have no rivers,
no lakes or natural vegetation as we
know it. But it does point out the
abundance of water that we have
available to us. The trouble is that
water is not where we want it to be. It
isn't always available where we choose
to live and when it is available where
we choose to live, we misuse it.
We're not alone in our careless
water management practices. It con-
cerns all of you. The three leading
food producers in the world, the
United States, Russia, and China, pro-
duce roughly 50 percent of the world's
food. They all face water shortages by
the end of the century. These three
countries account for about 40 percent
of the irrigation that goes on in the
world and they've got problems.
They're planning major diversion pro-
jects, the consequences of which none
of us know, that are going to cost
multiple billions of dollars. What
other problems they are going to in-
troduce, we are yet to know.
This spring, the Kremlin approved a
plan to reverse several northward
flowing rivers and to pump this water
1,400 miles to irrigate land in the
south. What effects this will have on
the entire world is still not known. But
it will have an effect on temperatures.
In China, the situation is reversed. The
water is in the south and they want to
move it north. They have a program to
build two canals, each 750 miles long.
In the United States, one of the ma-

jor agriculture concerns is the high
plains. In the eight-state region depen-
dent upon irrigation water from the
Ogallala Aquifer, they've got a prob-
lem. Due to heavy pumpage, they've
reduced this vast aquifer 40 percent in
size. The Corps' reaction has been to
design several projects for diverting
the Missouri or the Mississippi to the
high plains (at upwards of
$40,000,000,000 each) to alleviate this
problem. I'm concerned about both
the food reduction and the en-
vironmental consequences.
Studies in all three of these countries
have shown that we lose about 50 per-
cent of the water that we use for irriga-
tion. Through evaporation, water log-
ging, or runoff, we're using twice as
much as we need. Studies have shown
that trillions of gallons of water could
be saved annually by upgrading our ir-
rigation systems. Such simple im-
provements as capturing the excess
water at the end of the fields and
recycling it, lining irrigation canals,
and installing drip irrigation systems
could achieve substantial savings.
We're not doing this nationwide at the
rate that we should be. The ability is
there, but we're not using it.
The reason for this is that farmers in
the United States have had little incen-
tive to improve irrigation efficiency
because water has been drastically
underpriced. Farmers pay about one-
fifth of the cost of the water delivered
through federal projects. Prices are as
low as $2 per acre foot, or one-half
cent per thousand gallons. I think it is
about to change, because we're in a
financially troubled world that has
recognized water as a limiting quantity
and where careful use of water is im-
Another aspect of irrigation that I
feel it's imperative to mention is the
land subsidence problem. There are
areas in Texas, Louisiana, Arizona,
Washington, and California where
land elevation is dropping. Sometimes
it's fractions of an inch, and some-
times it's several feet per year. As a
result of heavy pumping, they've got
broken pipe lines, electrical conduits,
and highways, and misalignment of
train rails.
I do not mean to lay the guilt on
farmers or irrigators alone. We're all
guilty of wasting water. How often do
we each waste water carelessly while
brushing our teeth or shaving? We

continue to allow builders to build
homes with the old toilets and shower
heads that use twice the water that's
necessary. Every major manufacturer
makes a toilet that uses three and a
half gallons, and yet we continue to
allow them to install five and seven
gallon tanks.
In the heavily populated parts of the
world, it's far cheaper to save and
reuse water than to develop new sup-
plies. The New York City Planning
Commission did a study in 1980: if
elementary steps were taken to use fix-
tures that control the flow, they could
save more than 50,000,000 gallons a
day. That is a lot cheaper method of
getting 50,000,000 a day than is put-
ting in a new well field, building a new
dam, or a new water treatment plant.
The conservation of water is feasi-
ble. It could produce immense savings
of water and dollars if it were prac-
ticed on a national level. Water that is
conserved is water that doesn't have to
be mined from the ground, doesn't
have to be shipped in canals, or stored
behind expensive dams. Conserving
water also means spending less on the
energy that is needed to pump it out of
the ground or over the mountains.
And if we save water, we save the
energy that we would use to heat the
water. The California Water
Resources Department recently did a
study on what energy would be saved
by going to the low volume flush com-
modes and things of this fashion. In
1976 they estimated they could save
10,000,000 barrels of oil a year, about
$100,000,000 a year back then.
Conservation is not the answer to all
our water problems. It is, however, a
partial solution that has received only
minimal attention. It should be a cen-
tral part of any water management
plan. When water users come before
water management districts and re-
quest pumpage permits or stream
withdrawals, they should be required
to show they have implemented water
conservation practices. Water conser-
vation, for some reason, has a bad
name and many people feel that it
means "doing without". We've
always had an abundance of inexpen-
sive pure water when and where we
wanted it and, consequently, we have
treated it with total disregard. This
must change. Nationally, we've done a
very poor job on conservation. Local-
ly, we've made some progress, par-
ticularly with South Florida's program


in conservation education.
Education, plus regulation, is also
needed to protect water quality. Pollu-
tion problems are beginning to occur
in the United States and are going to
continue with much more frequency.
It has only been since the 1950's that
we've manufactured and disposed of
so many chemical compounds. We're
adding about 6,000 new compounds a
week in the register that the American
Chemical Society keeps. Over 150,000
firms in the United States either
manufacture or ship something
chemical. True, most of these
chemicals are harmless, but there are
about 100,000,000 tons of hazardous
wastes that we have to dispose of each
year. In the past, we've done this in an
unorganized "Let-the-company-take-
care-of-it" approach. We've dumped
it in or on the ground, or we've put it
in containers and moved away from it.
It is a problem the consequences of
which we're only beginning to feel. It
takes many years for substances to
move through an aquifer system, and
it will be years before we realize the
total damage of our hazardous waste
Water quality problems are not
limited to hazardous wastes. They are
also associated with very beneficial
pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.
We used to think water quality was
only a problem in the northeast, but
recently the EPA found dangerous
chemicals in heavy concentration in
over half the wells they tested in the
San Joaquin Valley. These were
substances that caused sterility in
workers and cancer in animals.
We have been world leaders in
preventing infectious water-borne
diseases. We're foolish not to do the
same with regard to the organic
substances that are appearing in our
drinking water. To say that they are
not a problem is like putting the dirt
under the rug.
Another problem I will mention
briefly is the result of our industrial
and population growth. Acid rain is
corroding bridges and destroying
granite statues. It's a problem we are
detecting all over the world.
One final national water concern is
somewhat different from the others.
Each year we citizens of the United
States spend an increased amount on
flood protection, and each year the
flood damages increase. Education
and regulation are essential. Some of

you have labored to develop model
floodplain ordinances, and then you
are frustrated because political leaders
won't adopt or implement them. Na-
tionwide, we see construction in places
that we know are going to flood.
There's an American attitude that we
are free to live wherever we want to
that is coupled with the thought that if
something goes wrong, Uncle Sam will
bail us out. That's got to change.
I didn't mean to come here this
evening as a prophet of doom. We're
going to see some water crises, but I
sincerely believe we have the ability to
control our future if we're willing to
apply our knowledge. We have the
means to reduce irrigation losses, to
dispose of hazardous wastes in a prop-
er manner, and to practice water con-
servation. It's a question of whether or
not we will elect to do these things.

One of the things we must do na-
tionwide is develop state water
management plans. In that regard,
Florida is ahead of the game. There is
progress in a few states such as Texas
and Florida, but if these problems are
not solved regionally, the federal
government will step in. I don't think
that's the solution we need.
Users must pay the true cost of the
water they use, the cost of proper
disposal of the wastes they discard and
the cost of the flood protection they
enjoy. These costs must include the en-
vironmental costs as well as the con-
struction, operation, and maintenance
costs. We have placed the burden on
future generations for far too long.
It's essential that we get water out of
the pork barrel.
Knowledgeable water resource pro-

fessionals must be willing to inform
and educate our lay people and our
political leaders concerning water con-
servation, water reuse, water resources
development, waste disposal,
floodplain zoning, and other water
problems. We need to learn to care for
water. It is no longer the free good
that falls from the heavens in a pristine
condition and we cannot extract it
from the ground as a perfectly pure
substance. We must be willing to use
water intelligently and we must all be

Hon. Bruce Samson
Thank you for those informative,
most timely remarks. There has been a
request that our own adopted Beach
Boy from the shores of Lake
Michigan, David Farrell, come up
with some brief remarks to close our

David M. Farrell, Chief
Illinois Office of Resource
Let me first propose a toast to the
dedicated professionals in water
resources in Florida. You've done a
great job, and I salute you. I offer my
thanks to you for the hospitality
shown here in Tallahahssee and in
Florida. I was most pleased to arrive at
this wonderful facility, and my com-
pliments go to the Florida State
University. I was pleased also by the
introduction because coming from the
state capital in Illinois, the last in-
troduction I got at home was,"Here's
the latest dope from Springfield."
The state representative at lunch
talked about the influx of tourists and
the pressures they created on the
Florida system. I can appreciate that.
For any of your communities where
you feel you can't handle the pressure,
I would be pleased to send you maps
of Illinois, in bulk.
Mark Twain said,"Everybody talks
about the weather, but nobody does
anything about it." The unfortunate
thing is that nobody's talking about
water but everybody does something
to it, and that's the real challenge we
face. While listening to the previous
speaker, I was thinking of the Ford
Motor Company ad. My version of it
goes something like this: "If you could
see the stuff we're putting in the water
today, you'd say, INCREDIBLE."


I applaud the model you have
developed with the water management
districts dealing with specific needs of
areas. It's a wonderful model for the
United States and if someone from
here can offer some guidance or
assistance nationally, that would be
wonderful. And as you deal with water
conservation or other activities, con-
sider Florida as an entire market. You
have the 4,000 to 7,000 new people
coming in here each week. I don't
think that God meant for the entire
City of New York to live in Florida,
but nonetheless, they are trying. You
might consider a statewide effort to tie
together the generic elements of water
resource planning and conservation
throughout the State. The same ad
should appear in all parts of the state.
I'm quite amazed at the number of
persons I've talked with today and
with their depth of knowledge, con-
cern, and commitment. I think there's
a real commitment in Florida, and I
would say that in dealing with the
water resources of Florida, you're
dealing with the very existence of the
State as you've known it. You might
have all the sunshine in the world, but
if you don't have water, ain't nobody
coming here.


Panel Sessions

------~--- l-e--.-- --r S -
S. -L

- w-

- -l m ..

Organized by the South Florida Water Management District

Representative William E. Sadowski, Chairman of the Task Force on Water

Darrell Hartman
Gainesville Sun
Lee Mainella
West Palm Beach

Mary McLachlin
Daytona Beach News-Journal

Wade Stephens
Tampa Tribune

George Thurston
Freelance Reporter

Jack Maloy
South Florida Water Management District
Bill McCartney
Northwest Florida Water Management District

Don Morgan
Suwannee River Water Management District

Bill Tatum
Southwest Florida Water Management District

Vicki Tschinkel
Department of Environmental Regulation

Sonny Vergara
St. Johns River Water Management District

Water has found its way into the headlines, and fewer people are now taking it for granted. The future of our
water resources and the effectiveness of our water managers will, however, depend to a large degree on how the public
receives information on water concerns. Of particular importance in the future will be activities of the Department of
Environmental Regulation and the Water Management Districts in responding to land use decisions and to water sup-
ply, flood protection, water quality and water shortage problems.
As complex management decisions are being made, will the water managers be able to communicate the issues ac-
curately and effectively, and will the media be able to analyze and present the information in a meaningful manner?
Will the public be given the opportunity to provide input, and to comprehend both the nature of the issues at
hand and the consequences of decisions being made to address those issues?
The large number of people who have found Florida an attractive place to visit or reside are straining the State's
fragile water resources. It is essential that the agencies responsible for managing these resources coordinate their ac-
tivities and continue to foresee and address the problems threatening the waters of Florida.
What mechanisms and arrangements exist to ensure the agencies can work together on common problems and
What do the water managers perceive their role to be in the future?
What are the major resource management issues today, and what will be the most important concerns for Florida
during the next decade?

Representative Bill Sadowski
I've been asked to referee this event.
We have on my right some members of
the media, all of whom have evidenced
expertise with regard to water issues.
To my left is the government side,
composed of the top of the pyramids
which have jurisdiction or respon-
sibility for water.
This panel will provide benefits by
giving a feel for the nature and kinds
of concerns that citizens of this State
have in regard to water. It should also
show the level of understanding or

lack of understanding concerning
water problems.

Lee Mainella
If the future of our water resources
and the effectiveness of water manag-
ers depend to a large degree on how
the public receives information on
water concerns, how can we make
something that's so important to peo-
ple seem important unless there is a
flood or drought?

Jack Maloy
There was quite a bit of discussion
yesterday at the meeting of the water
management districts about the need
for public education in the State. Most
of the commentary was directed to
elementary school children rather than
adults, but the question of education,
as far as water resources is concerned,
is a difficult one. In 1978 we opened a
Water Conservation Center in South
Florida. We were probably a little
ahead of ourselves. We invited the
media and all of the elected officials in

South Florida to attend the Center and
become familiar with water conserva-
tion measures. They came and they
listened, but nothing happened until
the 1981 drought and then suddenly
everybody seemed to recall something
about water conservation.
It's pretty hard to keep water and
water issues on the front page or even
on the editorial page when there is no
water problem. I don't have an answer
as to how to deal with that issue other
than to develop a credible public infor-
mation program and provide a series
of publications, particularly to the
media and local government officials,
on the more subtle water issues as they
develop. As far as a major education
campaign on water resources, I'm not
sure that it's warranted on a full-time

Bill Tatum
One thing we've not done enough is
"toot our own horn". We should let
the press know that we're not only
dealing with drought and flood, but
that we're also dealing with the
development of model floodplain or-
dinances and with multiple uses of
large pieces of property. Often, when
you call the press about those kinds of
things, you don't get a response
because it's not of a crisis nature. But
we need to tell our story in more

Sonny Vergara
I'm glad that Bill and Jack respond-
ed to the question, because in St.
Johns we don't have that problem.
The public is very interested in almost
every issue that we find ourselves in-
volved in!
Don Morgan
Mr. Chairman, floods and droughts
are natural occurrences. When either is
hyped as being something unnatural,
the public then starts looking at us to
do something about it. The media
should recognize that and promote the
fact that these are natural things and
only affect us because we are living in
areas where perhaps we shouldn't.

Darrell Hartman
What are some of the specifics that
you feel the public is most misinform-
ed about? Is this essentially a problem
that we in the press have?

Vicki Tschinkel
For example, an awful lot of land is
being bought. South Florida recently
made a startling announcement. They
said they would like to buy huge tracts
of land to add to Everglades National
Park. It was never treated as though it
was startling. That was carried in
several papers as a small paragraph.
There was a major story in one paper
but it was very dry.
And look at the many articles about
the "devastation" in South Florida.
When there is a major initiative to rec-
tify a very serious situation, we can't
seem to get it across very well
ourselves. Some assistance from you
would be good because we feel this is
an area in which we have failed.

Bill McCartney
The national media has not been
very kind to the State of Florida. Na-
tional Geographic, Sports Illustrated,
60 Minutes, and some others have said
some unkind things. But we need to
remember that we have the best pro-
gram for water management in the
The problem we have is an image
one that is our own responsibility.
There is no mechanism, for example,
for the DER and the five districts to
collectively put out public information
on their respective programs.
The first vehicle that has ever ex-
isted is underway right now as the
Florida Water Resources Atlas. I think
it is going to go a long way in inform-
ing people about our programs and
We put out a lot of newsletters, an-
nual reports, and public information
brochures, but during our budget
meeting every September, somebody
will raise his hand and ask, "What do
you all do?"

Jack Maloy
One of the most difficult things
about defining how we can improve
the process is the fact that the process
is so dynamic. In the last 10 years,
we've gone from a great emphasis on
drainage to a great emphasis on water
supply and, more recently, on water
You cannot define a program and
lay out the necessary steps to educate
the public on the issues because the
issues change too quickly. We have a
challenge similar to that of the

Legislature when it deals with the
problem of growth and water
resources in Florida. We will never get
to the point where we don't have
another problem to deal with that may
be more complicated.
We're going to continue to get the
kinds of media coverage that you
would anticipate only during droughts
and floods. To fill in the blanks in be-
tween is going to continue to be dif-
ficult. People are clamoring now for
more information about water
resources because it's on everybody's
mind. But will it still be the issue two
years from now?
Let's conceive for a minute what the
coverage will be like when we get a
hurricane in the Florida Peninsula. If
the media were to devote the same
kind of enthusiasm to a follow-up
about the water resources, we will
have accomplished a lot.

Sonny Vergara
There is nothing worse that an ad-
ministrative body or an official who
represents a large group of people who
are basically uninformed. It is
dangerous because the citizen makes
his input to the elected or appointed
officials, who then guide the technical
agencies. If there is a crossed wire in
there, or if the communications fail,
the uninformed public winds up
demanding something that isn't ap-
propriate to the responsibility of the
agency, and the elected or appointed
officials go to the agency and force
them to implement a resolution to a
perceived problem that is inap-
propriate. It can be absolutely
disastrous. We must keep the public
informed in order to avoid this kind of

Mary McLachlin
Each of the districts appears to have a
very distinct personality. Some have
very strong traditions of being water
movers and suppliers and others are
more the protectors of their water.
What happens when these different
philosophies meet, especially on the
question of withdrawal or diversion of
water from one district for use in
another? Is anybody doing anything
specific to ease or head off conflict?
Don Morgan
I don't see it as a conflict. I think
the Water Resources Act allows the
structured South Florida system and


the unstructured Suwannee system to
work in a compatible manner. It's
remarkable that we are all able to ac-
complish our programs with that
single piece of legislation.
I am upset, however, when I read
about water being "wasted because it
runs out of the Suwannee and into the
Gulf of Mexico." Mother Nature
doesn't waste anything nor does she
create pollutants that she cannot clean
up. We're looking at water uses now
and recognizing that withdrawals will
be made. We are identifying those
things that will be hurt and making
that information available to the
Governing Board members, who will
ultimately make the decisions.

Vicki Tschinkel
The districts do operate in different
political atmospheres. Compare the
Northwest District, which operates
largely in an "unregulatory" at-
mosphere, with Southwest Florida
which has had regulatory programs
for a long time and also operates in a
much more urban environment.
They're not dealing with the same
situation, but the astonishing thing to
me is that, as water managers, there is
not that much difference in opinion or
policy from district to district. Each
can point to extreme kinds of things
that they're doing to achieve similar

Bill McCartney
It has been said that the water
management districts are going in dif-
ferent directions. I don't think we are.
We're all going in the same direction
but at different speeds.
We're responding to the water
resource needs of northwestern
Florida rather than to those of South
Florida. If you think there are per-
sonality differences between our
districts, you should compare us to
Alabama or Georgia.

Bill Tatum
Ms. McLachlin, your point is well
taken. Interdistrict transfer of water is
going to be an issue. Don Morgan and
I have been talking for a year or so
about the fact that it was inevitable
that the first major conflict would be
between Southwest Florida and
Suwannee River. Our general counsel
and chairman even got put temporari-
ly in jail by the Governor for stealing
some of that water! Interdistrict

transfer is going to happen, and I
think it will be worked out very
positively because we have the
management mechanism to do it, and
because we are communicating with
each other.

Jack Maloy
The single most important element
relating to that question is the fact that
the Water Resources Act superimposes
on these different constituencies,
problems, and parts of the State, a
mechanism to resolve water conflicts.
The concern about transfers from one
district to another will be resolved bas-
ed on the water resource aspects and
not the emotional issues. Without
Chapter 373, that would not occur.
We do probably have some different
ideas about how things ought to be

Representative Sadowski
Another way of framing the state-
ment Jack just made is that the last
place you want those kinds of issues
resolved is in the Florida Legislature
or in the court system.
George Thurston
It doesn't really surprise me that
there's not a lot of front-page or
television coverage of the water
management districts except in certain
crisis situations. Basically, you
develop plans and schemes for manag-
ing or heading off water problems. To
a considerable extent, that has been
accomplished. That is most visible in
pollution. A great deal of public
knowledge about water problems
comes, not from media coverage of
the water management districts, but in
coverage of what happens out in the
community: the houses that get flood-
ed because they were built in the
floodplain or the wells that become
salty because too much water is being
pulled out of the water supply areas.
It's very difficult to write an intelligent
newspaper story about the details of
potentiometric gradients in the Econ-
fina River drainage system, but that is
a legitimate subject that you must be
concerned with.
What does concern me is what ap-
pears to be a great deal of lethargy
about implementation of those
carefully worked-out plans when
violations do occur. We have well-
established water quality laws and
regulations, but two battery plants can

continue dumping heavy metals and
sulfuric acid in the Chipola River.
Another example occurs in Lake
Seminole where I've repeatedly seen
small oil spills from barges or in-
dustrial sources that go unobserved or
unreported. I find it difficult to believe
that with all the public officials on that
lake every day, somebody doesn't
notice the oil spills. I observed one
rather large spill in the Flint and
deliberately did not report it to see
how long it would take the word to
reach Tallahassee. It never did, except
by me.
The question that really concerns me is
why does it take so long to get
anything started when it's apparent
even to casual observers that there
really is a problem that should be ad-
dressed promptly?

Vicki Tschinkel
As you pointed out, we've got a
tremendous number of regulatory
tools on hand to use in enforcement
cases. But a lot of times we don't
know what's going on. In combing the
State for hazardous waste sites, we
had no trouble coming up with 200.
We had never actively tried to look for
them before, but maybe we should
Sometimes there's a delay in gather-
ing information, and we cannot go to
court unless we have the data. We
have, for example, only one ground-
water sampling team for the entire
state. They are scrambling to gather
data on the 200 sites just to get the in-
formation we need.
Sometimes we haven't placed a high
enough priority on keeping the
pressure on the violator. It takes a
long time to get to court and, in the
end, the judge won't always agree with
us. So we often try to negotiate a set-
tlement. Sometimes these negotiations
have dragged on longer than we feel is
desirable. We recently met with our
District Managers and asked them to
continue these informal negotiations
on the routine hazardous waste cases.
We've also found citizens who were
aware of serious contamination prob-
lems where they work but who have
been reluctant to come forward. We
need to make them more responsive.
We've placed a lot higher priority
on toxic substances control in the last
year or so. We still don't have our
house in order, but we're working on

Don Morgan
When the Legislature passes a
statewide program, they generally do
not come even close to recognizing the
enforcement problems and staff re-
quirements. It's just beyond their
comprehension to see what a piece of
legislation is going to require. And the
other terrible part is the 4,000 to 7,000
additional people each week that they
didn't count on in the first place. If
they took an isolated program and
honestly calculated the number of en-
forcement people it required, it would
scare the daylights out of them.
It's an educational problem that we
have at the legislative level, I think.

Vicki Tschinkel
As an example of that, look at our
laboratory facilities. We cannot run
the samples we need to and don't have
contractual monies to even keep up
with that one ground-water sampling
team. We're trying now to take our
people off surface water quality and
protection and to assign them to
ground-water problems. They are
finding contaminants in parts per
billion. You can't go out with a ladle
and come back to the laboratory and
expect to win in court with that. It has
been a terrible problem to deal with
both technically and legally, but we
consider it now to be our toughest and
most important challenge.
People are very anxious for our
agency to go to court. They think
that's going to clean up the problem.
But if you go to court, like we did in
the Sapp Battery case, and get an
$11,000,000 judgment but discover the
guy has the money somewhere where
no one can find it and he's in jail on
income tax evasion, that doesn't do a
thing to help the environment. We
made a big splash and got headlines
over it, but we didn't get a dime. It's
going to cost a couple of million
dollars to clean up that site. But how
did that thing ever get started in the
first place? There are a lot of things
around the State that never should
have been started.

Sonny Vergara
There's another thing that doesn't
prevent, so much as it slows, the op-
portunity for an agency to carry out its
responsibilities. The St. Johns District
and its concern for addressing the
problems in the St. Johns River is kind

of unique in that it has concentrated,
in a short period, a display of all the
kinds of resistance that occur.
We are a brand-new agency in that
part of the state. The problems we in-
herited in '75 were not accompanied
by taxing authority until '77. There
was a strong push for us to resolve the
problems over a very short amount of
time. And the District has embarked
on several fronts to get at those prob-
lems. We are involved, for example, in
developing water use rules. It's a new,
progressive regulatory responsibility
for us. Southwest and South Florida
have pioneered these rules, and we're
trying to learn from them. But it's
tough dealing with a public that has
never had that regulatory umbrella
over them.
We also have a management and
storage of surface waters rule we're
trying to implement. It suggests that
people who want to change the
character of surface water must bear
some responsibility for the impacts.
But it's very difficult to get people
who've never had that kind of
regulatory arm over them to accept
The other area relates to the upper
St. Johns, specifically, and that is the
ability of the District Board to levy an
ad valorem tax for acquisition of St.
Johns River marshlands. Trying to im-
plement a major multi-million dollar
surface water management plan for
the upper St. Johns is new. It impacts
large segments of the public, and those
segments are very nervous about what
this new government is doing. They
react to the slightest perceived imper-
tinence from our agency by going to
their elected representatives and bring-
ing all the pressure they can to insure
their voices are being heard. This is
not inappropriate, but it really slows
down the process. We are doing
something, but because of the society
we live in and the sets of laws we have
to deal with, it is a slow process. You
must take everybody' viewpoints and
be very responsible.

Jack Maloy
The institutions we have created to
safeguard ourselves against this
regulatory takeover are very effective
in slowing down the process. These in-
stitutions establish hoops we have to
jump through in order to implement
these laws.
Another problem is that water

quality concerns are a response to a
federal initiative, while water quantity
is the response to a locally perceived
initiative in Florida. We are not im-
plementing the Water Resources Act
to comply with the federal legislation
but because we have a perceived need
to deal with our issues here in Florida
based on things we feel are important
to us. To safeguard the process, we in-
stituted such things as rulemaking pro-
cedures. People may not be aware that
the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act was passed in 1965, but Florida
just recently adopted a ground-water
rule to deal with the problem. It's not
that we haven't understood the prob-
lem. The institutional means by which
we have had to deal with it has made it
extremely difficult. We're still
developing programs and the tools to
deal with enforcement. We haven't
gone to full implementation and
evaluation of the programs. We do
perceive the need to do that, but it is
not going to occur overnight. We have
enormous staffs and budgets
dedicated to dealing with water quan-
tity problems in Florida while we
perceive that the greatest danger to the
public is the quality aspect of it.
It's almost amazing that a state
which is so concerned about water
devotes so little of its state budget to
dealing with water problems.

George Thurston
What do you folks perceive is the
next step in implementing the quality
and protection programs that you are
in the process of developing?

Vicki Tschinkel
Despite the budgetary situation, we
are asking for significant help for
ground-water in our next budget.
We're going to have to strengthen
those programs in our Department.
We're also trying to see what water
quality programs we can merge with
the water management district pro-
grams. We've delegated some water
quality responsibility to the South
Florida Water Management District,
and we will continue to delegate other
programs partly in order to free our

Wade Stephens
What about the Kissimmee River?
And given the rather naive position of
the Environmental Commission in try-
ing to pass the buck to Washington on


acid rain, and in view of the rather
powerful public utilities lobby in
Florida, and given the re-conversion to
coal by most utilities in Florida, what
do we plan to do next year in the per-
mitting of coal-fired plants, since they
seem to have an effect on acid rain?

Vicki Tschinkel
On the Kissimmee Council, we are
within about two months of com-
pleting our recommendations for the
restoration of the Kissimmee River. It
will be another expensive undertaking.
On coal conversion, the major
scientific question remaining on acid
rain is the relationship between oxide
emissions largely from automobiles
and emissions from power plants. Un-
til the issues are resolved, it's going to
be a gross mistake to require multi-
billion dollar retrofits. We're only go-
ing to have one opportunity to spend a
lot of money to correct the problem.
We're also faced with regulatory deci-
sions which cannot wait, but the price
of oil has gone down so significantly
that a number of plants have slowed
down the conversion to coal.
What we've advised the utilities is
that we will not recommend any in-
creases in sulfur dioxide emissions as a
result of coal conversion. A number of
utilities around the State are licensed
to burn relatively dirty oil as a result of
the sulfur oxide study that was done a
number of years ago. A number of
them are not burning up to their per-
mitted limits of sulfur emissions now
because they're using natural gas or
cleaner oil to keep their particulate
emissions down. But, we also feel that
oil dependency is extremely serious for
the State. That's easy to forget about
when the Arabs are not putting
pressure on us. Our position has been
that we won't tolerate any increases in
actual emissions. The conversions
we've licensed so far have been ac-
complished with extremely low sulfur
coal and sophisticated electrostatic
precipitators, and with no increases in
sulfur emissions.

Don Morgan
In regard to the Kissimmee, I am
amazed at the American public's con-
tinuing habit of throwing huge chunks
of money at things that have already
been done. When we're out trying to
get a few dollars to maintain
something, it's tough. But if you turn

Lake Apopka green, everybody
throws great chunks of money at it to
restore it. That's stupid.

Wade Stephens
How are we going to re-invent Lake
Okeechobee if it atrophies?

Jack Maloy
We're dealing with a perception
problem. In 1972, the Central and
Southern Florida Flood Control
District made a recommendation to
the Governor and Cabinet about what
to do on the Kissimmee River. The
issue was side-stepped, however, and
what they decided to do was study it.
The State spent a lot of money and put
together a very conclusive study that
indicated the Kissimmee River wasn't
a problem as far as Lake Okeechobee
was concerned.
It did identify the water quality
problem of Lake Okeechobee to be
Taylor Creek in the Everglades
agricultural area. People still weren't
satisfied, so when that study was over,
they went back to the decisionmakers
who again decided to sidestep the issue
and to create the Kissimmee River
Coordinating Council in 1976. After
six years, the Kissimmee River Coor-
dinating Council now wants to restore
the Kissimmee River for the sake of
If we want to spend $100,000,000 on
something like that, we ought to re-
examine our priorities. The State has
many more pressing problems on
which we need to concentrate our fun-
ding. It is incorrect to take the position
that the channelization of the Kissim-
mee River is destroying Lake
Okeechobee. We have spent, not only
several million dollars of the State's
money, but several million dollars of
South Florida's money to document
that and develop a report that no one
has read. The dechannelization of the
Kissimmee River will be the next ma-
jor environmental battle ground in
Florida. I hope the ultimate decision
will be made on the facts and not on
the emotions of the issue.

Wade Stephens
We have a manmade disaster in
regard to growth along the southeast
coast. Are we looking at building
moratoriums there or anywhere else?

Vicki Tschinkel
I don't think there are any building
moratoriums being looked at now, but
there is going to be a lot of attention
on seeing what can be done to slow
things down a bit. We're all concerned
about it.

Jack Maloy
The way we do or fail to do our jobs
is going to have a lot to do with the
way Florida will look 20 years from
now. Whether we like the controversy
or not, we're in the center of the
storm, and we are going to have to be
objective. We will have to provide fac-
tual information to local government
officials and possibly prod them along
occasionally with our regulatory
authority. We cannot sidestep the con-

Bill Tatum
The recent amendment to Chapter
373 that says,"Thou shall assist local
governments," puts us in the eye of
the storm more than ever. We're not
going to be doing land use zoning, but
we're going to be in the middle of it
whether we want to be or not.

Mary McLachlin
Mr. Vergara, it has been widely
reported that some of your consti-
tuents in Putnam County were
grievously offended by remarks that
were made about the cultural and
social resources of Palatka. The ques-
tion needs to be resolved once and for
all in front of all these people: is there
life after dark in Palatka? And, if so,
what species?

Sonny Vergara
What goes on in Palatka at night is
none of your business unless you want
to participate in it! The comment
about the night life in Palatka did not
originate with a Board member but
with a county commissioner. That
comment concerned the educational
opportunities in Palatka for our young
professionals. We have a lot of young
professionals living in Gainesville
because they like to continue their
education while working.

George Thurston
That hot Palatka potato is difficult
to follow, but I'd like to ask if
anybody foresees the time when you

- --~-~~-----.------~--.-xn~r~l9~~i-

will tell industries that were recruited
by somebody's Chamber of Com-
merce that there is an absolute limit to
the amount of water they can take
from the available supply, and an ab-
solute amount of pollutants that can
be put into the water and air?

Sonny Vergara
Water management districts have
one of the most unique opportunities
in government to move and do things
fast because they have the regulatory
arm and the funding base.
The consumptive use permitting
responsibility was reinforced by the
Legislature in the last session when
they said consumptive use programs
would be implemented throughout the
state by October of 1983. Don
Morgan's is already in place and St.
Johns will be by January 1, 1983. It's
This new program is intended to tell
local elected representatives, county
and city commissioners that the
potable water supply source in an area
is reaching its maximum yield and that
if there is going to be additional in-
dustrial or other types of growth, then
the water supply, sewer facilities, and
all the other growth-related concerns
are going to have to be reconsidered or
looked at in maybe an innovative way.

Bill McCartney
Some of us are planners in North-
west Florida, and four years ago we
developed an industrial water
availability assessment of Northwest
Florida. We identified 11 likely areas
for industry and told them what the
finite water limits were. That is active
rather than reactive.
Consumptive use permitting is a
regulatory program that can limit in-
dustrial development. But I think we
need to encourage industry and other
water-intensive users of water to go to
those areas where the conditions are
compatible with the intended uses.

Jack Maloy
We in South Florida are limiting the
industrial use of water. One of the big-
gest and most visible examples was
with Florida Power and Light in which
we limited the amount of water that
they could use for their industrial cool-
ing process. We also do that with other
processing industries. We will not, for
example, grant them water use permits

unless they have a very efficient reuse
system, or are willing to develop one.

Bill Tatum
At Southwest we're doing it to a
great degree by placing stringent con-
ditions on our consumptive use per-
mits. Once we complete the water sup-
ply requirements the Legislature put
on us last year, we're going to have a
much better grasp on what water is
there and we'll be able to tell local
government what is the limit.

Representative Sadowski
Okay, folks, we have exceeded our
time by a respectable margin. I'd like
to thank the guests of honor and the
other people, and I hope this has been
as informative for you in the audience
as it has been for us sitting up here.


Organized by the Suwannee River Water Management District

HON. JONATHAN WERSHOW, Secretary/Treasurer, Suwannee River Water Management District Governing
Former Chairman, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
HON. EARL STARNES, Member, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
Member, Suwannee River Water Management District Governing Board
HON. LEE VAUSE, Former President, Florida Regional Council Association
Former Chairman, Apalachee Regional Planning Council
HON. DENNIS KOEHLER, Member, Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council
HON. CHARLES CRUMPTON, Member, South Florida Water Management District Governing Board
Member, South Florida Regional Planning Council
On a regional scale, Water Management Districts (WMD's) and Regional Planning Councils (RPC's) are respon-
sible for water quantity planning and land use planning, respectively. There is no question that these two functions are
very closely related. Land uses will impact water uses, and the location and quantity of ground and surface water will
affect where development will occur. In short, RPC's need to have water management in their programs and WMD's
need to get land use planning into their programs. To a certain degree this is occurring, but action tends to be on a uni-
lateral basis.
Generally speaking, there is poor quality of communication and coordination between the RPC's and WMD's.
This problem may be the result of a variety of factors including the lack of common administrative boundaries, the
different character of governing bodies, conflicting management perspectives and policies, funding and staffing dif-
ferentials, and the "protection of turf." The relationship of WMD plans and regulatory programs to RPC regional
plans should be defined. The Legislature has made a step in that direction:

Chapter 373.0395, Florida Statutes:
"Each'water management district shall develop a ground-water basin resource availability inventory...
A copy of the ground-water basin availability inventory shall be submitted to each affected municipality, county,
and regional planning agency upon completion. This inventory shall be reviewed by regional planning agencies,
affected municipalities, and counties for consistency with the local government comprehensive plan and shall be
considered in future revisions of such plan. It is the intent of the Legislature that future growth and development
planning reflect the limitations of the available ground water or other available water supplies."
Chapter 160.07:
"Regional planning councils shall present their policy plans to the appropriate water management district or the
Secretary of the Department of Environmental Regulation for resolution of inconsistencies between regional dis-
trict plans and comprehensive regional policy plans."
Such statutory language indicates that there should be cooperation among RPC's and WMD's. To date, however,
there is no indication that WMD's and RPC's have developed either the desire or the mechanism for effective coopera-
What are the major areas in which RPC's and WMD's need to develop close cooperation? Is the regulatory
WMD approach to resource management essentially incompatible with the voluntary, non-regulatory approach of the
RPC's? What is the practical relationship between the regional comprehensive plans and the regional regulatory
authority of the WMD's?
Is the consolidation of WMD's and RPC's into a single land and water management agency desirable? What
would be the political realities of actually implementing such a consolidation? If a complete consolidation of WMD's
and RPC's is not desirable, what selected functions should be transferred? Would there be any advantage to having
RPC's and WMD's co-locate? Is there a specific institutionalframework that could be suggested to improve RPC and
WMD relationships?
The WMD's have taxing powers. Should they use these resources to support the poorly financed RPC's? This
may not be permitted by 373. Should it be changed to permit this?


Dennis Koehler
I know we have many water
management district Governing Board
members in the audience. I look for-
ward to some discussion from the au-
dience because I am a bit biased. I'm a
County Commissioner, which should
immediately give an indication to the
water management districts how I feel
about having appointed officials in
decisionmaking roles.
I had the great pleasure of serving
on the Resource Management Task
Force, and I will also reflect here a bit
of the bias I picked up in those 22 days
of deliberations. An additional bias
that will color my remarks is the fact
that in Palm Beach County we have
established a pretty good working rela-
tionship with Jack Maloy and some of
the other people from the South
Florida Water Management District.
Having reviewed our Resource
Management Task Force recommen-
dations, I realize how little has been
accomplished on what our Task Force
declared as the primary goal for
managing resources. There hasn't
been a formal state mechanism
adopted to address state resources and
the inherent problems of growth. Our
first recommendation was that an in-
tegrated policy framework for land
and water management be developed
and that it would guide regional and
local agency activities, including plan-
ning, research, regulation, and service
There's no question in my mind that
the integration of planning functions
is a major area in which regional plan-
ning councils and water management
districts need to develop closer
cooperation. We do look to our water
management districts for input on
specific cases, but we have not yet, at
the regional planning council level,
adopted a regional plan, and news of
the water management district plans
has not been communicated to us.
State policy might force that kind of
cooperation, but it doesn't exist now.
There's also a big difference between
water management district respon-
sibilities, which are highly technical,
and those of the planning councils,
which are highly political. You'll find
local elected officials complaining
about the water management districts'
insensitivity or failure to recognize
political problems, but I think the
questions of environmental carrying
capacity or the ability of our water

resources to provide for growth are
properly decided within a technical
agency led by a group of people with
outstanding technical qualifications. I
do feel, however, that elected officials
and the perspective that we have
would be a valuable addition to the
water management district Governing
You don't have to be elected to
understand that regional plans and
local government comprehensive plans
are guides to growth and development.
They establish perimeters within which
elected officials have flexibility to
make individual decisions. Guides to
development are what elected officials
feel plans ought to be. We should have
a policy framework to make certain
the technical water resource plans
developed by the water management
districts, the RPC plans, and local
government plans all agree. Local
governments should not be able to
move toward growth without
assurances that growth will be
manageable in terms of the available
water resources.
Our Task Force felt that, as a long-
range goal, the water management
districts and RPC's should be con-
solidated into a single land and water
management agency. From a
developer's point of view, there are
great advantages to coming to one of-
fice for permit applications and staff
review. But there are political
obstacles because elected officials like
to have the final say over land use
decisions. Government bureaucracies
tend to do their own thing without the
whip of responsiveness to the people
that comes most effectively through a
responsive elected public official. I've
always felt an elected official's job is
to make the bureaucracy work for the
people, and often the bureaucrats have
their own set ideas about how things
should function.
Another political obstacle to con-
solidation is the Department of En-
vironmental Regulation. Could it be
consolidated with the water manage-
ment districts? Perhaps, but on a
region-by-region basis rather than in-
tegrating the entire State.
Chapter 373 should not be amended
to give money to regional planning
councils. Local governments, to a ma-
jor extent, should foot the bill of the
Water management district Govern-
ing Boards are doing, at least in my

area, an outstanding job of regulating
our water resource availability. Their
.performance would be improved even
more if elected officials had the power
to add that elected perspective.

Lee Vause
The regional planning councils and
water management districts not only
must live together, but I think they
must begin to function more closely.
There is a turf battle between the
districts and the regional planning
councils that must be resolved.
When the statewide referendum
established the water management
districts throughout the State, this is
the only area of the State that did not
vote affirmatively on the referendum.
It was not successful here because
there was no appreciation by the peo-
ple that water was a problem. In the
Panhandle, we have tended over the
years to think we have an unlimited
supply of good, clean water. There is
still that perception, although in the
extreme end of the Panhandle where
there is an intensive use of water, it is
beginning to change. There has not
been an appreciation of the role of the
water management district in our part
of the State. We're changing because
we do have an aggressive water
management district and Governing
Board plus a cooperative, responsible
staff. That has begun, to be ap-
preciated by the various county com-
missions in our area, and certainly by
my own.
I don't believe it's necessary for the
water management districts to support
the regional planning councils, but
clearly the regional planning councils
are in need of financial assistance.
During the two years I served as Chair-
man of the Association, the major
legislative goal we had was to secure,
from the Legislature, increased fun-
ding for the responsibilities the plan-
ning councils had from the state. We
were successful in a very limited way.
Certainly the appointed officials on
the Governing Boards are politically
well-connected people who could be
very helpful by carrying the message to
the Legislature that regional planning
councils ought to be effective partners
with water management districts. The
regional planning councils ought to be
funded by local governments and by
the State Legislature.
Our water management district and
our regional planning council did enter


into a memorandum of understanding
with regard to exchanges of informa-
tion. That is functioning well, but
there is not the interrelationship that
ought to exist between our regional
planning council and water manage-
ment district.
As we come to realize that there is a
finite water resource available, par-
ticularly in the southern, coastal areas
of the State, we'll develop a growth
policy that will tend to encourage
development of areas that have better
water resources than the rest of the
State. For that reason, it is imperative
that our water management district
and the regional planning council in
this area begin to work closely
together in the development of land
use plans. The water management
district was not as involved as it should
have been in the overall development
of comprehensive plans for Leon
The regional planning councils were
restructured in the last couple of years
to allow for members to be appointed
by the Governor. On balance, it has
worked very well. The water manage-
ment districts do not have local elected
officials serving on their Governing
Boards, and, until that is possible, I
cannot see the counties in my area sup-
porting the consolidation of the two
One problem with having the coun-
cils and districts co-locate or con-
solidate is that there are five districts
and 11 councils. And the districts have
boundaries defined by drainage
basins, while the planning councils
have boundaries based on mutuality of
interests. There is also the question
concerning the non-regulatory ap-
proach of the RPC's and the
regulatory approach of the districts.
The regional planning councils are
primarily planning agencies that are
useful for promoting dialogues be-
tween counties. They have never been
viewed as regulatory bodies. Most of
the regional planning councils would
not want to become regulatory bodies.

Earl Starnes
We have visited this issue several
times over the last 12 years and what
we've done is built a house of cards.
At the turn of the century, Governor
Jennings and Governor Broward pro-
posed to lower the water level in Lake
Okeechobee to drain large portions of
southern Florida. They created a tax-

ing district to do that, and it probably
was the first one dealing with water in
the State. The purpose of the district
was for draining most of the Kissim-
mee Valley. It was a state function,
with taxing powers, for building a
canal connecting St. Lucie with Lake
Regional planning didn't come
along until quite late. The first one
was East Central Florida, and then
Tampa Bay.
In 1972, we enacted the Land and
Water Management Act that has a
provision requiring regional reviews.
It didn't appear to us that the water
management districts had the capacity
to implement regional review by July
1973, so we looked at the regional
planning council situation. There were
only three at that time. An alternative
would have been to appoint some par-
ticular state agency for the regional
review. That provision is in the Act
and has never been changed; the
Governor could appoint tomorrow the
Department of Transportation as a
regional review agency for DRI's. We
wondered if we could create, within 12
months, wall-to-wall regional plan-
ning agencies in Florida. In some areas
of the State we had area-wide planning
agencies that we could attach regional
names to. In some cases, there was on-
ly one county in a regional planning
Since 1972 we have nurtured these
water management districts and
regional planning councils. But it
seems to me that we need to take a
look at these things and at what's go-
ing on at the state level. I have three
models that I suggest we consider.
Model One: Abolish all water
management districts, the Department
of Environmental Regulation and all
of the regional planning councils in
order to create a state agency that
would have pervasive and transcen-
ding environmental planning and
regulatory functions.
Model Two: Realign the water
management district boundaries to
conform to settlement patterns. The
water management district boun-
daries, under 373, were created super-
ficially because they deal with surface
water basins and not with the more
valuable Floridan aquifer. We could
realign the water management districts
along settlement patterns and create
sub-regional, comprehensive planning
agencies under that umbrella. Make

Board member positions on the water
management districts elective and
make the representatives on regional
planning councils subject to appoint-
ment by the Governor and by
members of the water management
district Governing Board.
Model Three: Leave it alone, but
work out greater statutory linkages
between water management districts
and regional planning councils, such
as requiring the sharing of resources.
The Florida Legislature appears loath
to support regional planning; it
hasn't increased that responsibility for
nine years.
There are already mandatory ties
between water planning and land use
planning. Those should be more ex-
plicit. Both the districts and the coun-
cils ought to respond to the legislative
requirements for having basin plans
and regional policy plans. We have
had the requirement for regional
policy plans for two years now, and I
have not yet seen one.
The mandatory review of regulatory
implications of all local government
comprehensive plans that is done by
the water management districts should
be in writing and should be specific.
They should deal specifically with the
implications of growth and of resource
management. If you summarize the
comprehensive plans in the various
districts, for example, you would find
there are projected populations far
beyond what the natural resources can
support. The regional planning coun-
cils-should also be required to review
major consumptive use permits being
considered by water management
There should be mandatory use of
common data, data standards, and
regional information bases. We should
provide access, for the regional plan-
iing councils, to the large data files of
the water management districts, and
provide a vehicle for the sharing of
that information. There's a lot of in-
dependent study going on by regional
planning councils and water manage-
ment districts. They're neither coor-
dinating those studies nor working

Charles Crumpton
Certainly we must live together.
However, I do question whether
regional planning councils have been
doing any regional planning. The cry
from the council is, "They gave us a

mandate, but they gave us no money
to do it." I question that. They get
money that could be used for regional
Coordination between regional
planning councils and water manage-
ment districts does exist. The South
Florida Water Management District
works with five regional planning
councils. With the exception of one,
there's excellent coordination. I'm
sorry to say that it happens to be the
one I sit upon.
I've been involved in governmental
activities since 1955. I've been with
organizations that had proportional
representation for the elected bodies
and which gave good representation
for minority groups as well as the ma-
jority. I've also been in organizations
where they were elected by partisan
and by non-partisan politics. When it
comes to reorganizing the planning
process, I'll go Mr. Starnes one fur-
ther. In Florida, the antiquated system
of county and city government is not
attuned to today's needs. Con-
ceivably, that system needs to be
abolished and reorganized from a
political point of view. Let's have ur-
ban and non-urban regions and a
series of performance-type standards.
Whenever a non-urban area gets to the
.point of meeting certain criteria, it
automatically becomes a part of that
adjacent urban region. This is not
new. Alaska, Hawaii, and a few other
states have it already.
People say we need elected members
on all of these boards and organiza-
tions. Well, those who get elected
usually get elected by six to 18 percent
of the population. And that is con-
sidered a mandate! One has to look at
that kind of representation which is
made too much of and which is really
a fallacy. There is one mayor who has
been elected by six or eight percent of
the people perpetually for 20 years and
has called that a mandate for represen-
ting people. All that elected official
has to consider is, "How can I please
that six to eight percent?"
We have five water management
districts and 11 regional planning
councils, plus four state environmen-
tal districts, 14 pollution control pro-
grams, four Corps of Engineer
districts, six air quality regions, 12 of
the 208 Wastewater Management
areas, and a myriad of transportation,
health care, and other districts cover-
ing Florida. These particular organiza-

tions need to be reviewed to see that
they have a better boundary situation.
Possibly, the water management
districts and regional planning coun-
cils should merge and become co-
terminous in boundary. Perhaps it
could be done on a water supply basis.
But the regional planning councils
and the water management districts,
regardless of their boundaries, must
work together because of the activities
in which both are engaged. One is
predominately land use and land
policies, and the other is water source
and resource. The regional councils
must relate to the water management
districts for water resource policies
and guidelines. Most do.
Here, again, the two of them can
and must be compatible, but the
system that you have, be it political or
natural, and the boundaries that one
has, be they political or natural, do
not make for cooperation and coor-
dination. It's people, and people can
either make it or break it. Laws are
made by man for man and, therefore,
this coordination is between people
and that's the way it's going to get
done regardless of what the system is,
regardless of what the boundaries are,
and we must get on with making peo-
ple work together to resolve mutual
concerns and problems. And as long
as we've got people who will work
with people, this will happen.

Dennis Koehler
It is political reality that you have to
make do with what you have. We've
got to move, as our Resource Manage-
ment Task Force recommended,
toward working out the linkages that
will accomplish a more rational
resource management policy. The
question of funding is critical. It isn't
just the local elected officials being
reluctant to up the tax bite to fund the
regional planning councils. The State
has an obligation to fund this planning
effort, and that may be why our
regional planning councils' planning
efforts have dragged along.
We elected officials do feel strongly
about elected input into some of these
resource planning decisions. At last
Friday's Treasure Coast Regional
Planning Council meeting, our staff
presented its wetlands policy. Some 40
percent of the land area of the
Treasure Coast Regional Planning
Council jurisdiction is going to be off
limits for development because of this

wetlands policy. Nat Reed, one of the
appointees on the council, suggested
that, "Even the developers ought to
have a chance to respond to that as
well as local elected officials." Any
time you raise that kind of spector,
you need to have the elected reaction.
That kind of policy must be fully ex-
posed to the public and its implica-
tions fully understood before it's

Lee Vause
A careful reading of the legislation
will clearly show that the councils shall
develop regional policy plans when the
activity is funded by the Legislature.
The Legislature has not yet funded it,
but when they do, the people at the
planning councils will carry out their
It would be callous of me or any
local elected official to disregard
change. We are in a dynamic State and
we should never be totally resistant to
suggested change. The important thing
about the change, as it relates to our
form of government, is that when the
people want it to happen, it will hap-
pen. The final answer must rest with
the people when you're talking about
fundamental change to their form of
government. I rest easy knowing that
they have the final word because I
have great respect for their ability and
willingness to make those kinds of
The patchwork quilt of agencies and
responsibilities doesn't bother me,
because, in every case, you are dealing
with issues that call for different boun-
daries. In the real world, different
areas of concern legitimately require
different boundaries.

Charles Crumpton
On the funding issue, the statutes
say, "Comprehensive regional policy
plans shall be adopted to the extent of
available resources pursuant to
Chapter 120." Those resources can be
local, regional, or state. Of course,
one way to keep anything from hap-
pening is not to provide any money.
It's also conceivable that the
regional planning councils should be
involved in regional planning activities
that have a state origin. State activities
that apply to the region should be
looked at by the regional planning
council so they would be reflecting not
only local input but the state activities.

Earl Starnes
The Elms II Committee has been ap-
pointed and charged by the Governor
to look at resource management and
planning in the State. I hope that all of
these marvelous suggestions we've
made today will find their way to that
To return to the House of Cards no-
tion, I believe we need to evaluate the
kind of relationships that we build in
regional agencies. If we don't address
resource management in state govern-
ment, it's unlikely there's going to be
any developed at a sub-state level that
would be more coherent or com-
prehensive than the state counterpart.
We constantly need to review and
evaluate the state agencies. During the
'70's, we reorganized the environmen-
tal agencies twice. During the '80's, we
ought to reorganize them three times
because there's a very healthy reason.
We often get rid of functions that have
become anachronistic and we may
move people out of jobs who are not
very effective. We need to look
carefully at our state agencies,
regional planning councils, and the
water management districts, without
fear of change. We tend to protect our
interests, and to argue long and hard
for them. We really need to look at
what we're doing in terms of advanc-
ing the public welfare with regard to
the resources of this State.

Jonathan Wershow
This is a smart panel. We want to
thank each of you for participating.
On behalf of Florida Water Manage-
ment Districts and the Seventh Annual
Conference on Water Management,
we appreciate your being here. Thank
you all for attending. This conference
is now adjourned.


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