Title: Water Use in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002954/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water Use in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Water Resources Study Commission
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - Water Use in Florida
General Note: Box 12, Folder 3 ( Florida Water Resources Study Commission - Reports of Major Committees - 1956 ), Item 13
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00002954
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text














Preliminary Report of t*%

Committee on Water Use

of the

FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES STUDY COMMISSION


August, 1956


Committee members:

Thomas A. Maxwell, Chairman
W. Turner Wallis
William Morse
J. M. Myers
David B. Lee
John B. Miller
Don Luethy
Fred A. Eidsness
W. H. Turner
A. T. Lohkamp
L. E. Dequine, Jr.
R. B. Lee
E: C. Weichel, Jr.
U. S. Allison
H. R. Wilber, M.D.
John H. McMurry
Rush E. Choate
Lacy Thomas
George Hack


Fla. Assn. of Soil Cons. Dist. Suprvs.
Florida Engineering Society
Florida Engineering Society
Agri. Expt. Station & Fla. Sec., A.S.A.E.
Florida State Board of Health
Florida State Board of Health
State Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
Fla. Sec., American Water Works Assn.
Associated Industries of Florida
Associated Industries of Florida
Associated Industries of Florida
Associated Industries of Florida
Associated Industries of Florida
U. S. Soil Conservation Service
Florida Wildlife Federation
Dept. of Geography, Fla. State University
Dept. of Agri. Engrg., Univ. of Florida
Florida Farm Bureau
Florida Development Commission








WATER USE IN FLORIDA


The utility of Florida's water resources depends entirely upon the

beneficial use to which this resource is subjected. For this reason, it

is important to gather basic data showing quantitatively the water require-

ments of the various beneficial users--municipal, agricultural, industrial

and recreational.

Planning for the future also necessitates that estimates be made

of increases in the water requirements. Attempts to estimate future water

usage are not without hazard, since fluctuations in the national or state

economy, technological developments, or other unpredictable elements may

easily change the pattern upon which these estimates are based. Neverthe-

less, the future water requirements have been estimated through the year

1970 in this section of the report, and it is believed the results are

indicative of the future water use pattern in Florida.

The quantity of water utilized from a given supply often does not

completely describe the demands on the available water resources. In some

operations the water quantity and quality are altered but little, and the

water may be returned to surface or ground reservoirs where it is again

available for use. Other operations may completely destroy the utility of

the water and thus remove it from that volume which may be used again. For

example, the large quantities utilized in the manufacture of electric power

are not changed qualitatively and are diminished quantitatively a very

small amount. Most of the water used for irrigation is dissipated by evap-

oration and transpiration, while certain industrial uses impair the quality

to such an extent that the water is no longer usable for other beneficial

purposes. Even the waste water from industries and municipalities that may

be reclaimed is often removed from beneficial use by allowing it to flow


-1-


__ ___






into tidal waters. Most water used by municipalities in Florida falls in
this category, since a majority of the state's population is concentrated

along the coast of the state.
On the whole, Florida's abundant water resources exceed by far the

demands for water in the foreseeable future if they are properly managed.

This report shows that water demands are not uniformly distributed over

the state but rather are concentrated in small areas. Another report demon-

strates that neither are the available resources uniformly distributed but

fluctuate violently with respect to season and to place. This is also true

of the quality of Florida's waters. In this report an attempt has been

made to determine the present and future water requirements by counties so

as to indicate those areas where it is possible for the demand to exceed

the supply. Other sections of the report will show the quantities of water

in these areas which are available at the quality necessary for the given

beneficial uses, thus indicating those areas of the state that may exper-

ience difficulty at the present or in the foreseeable future.

Domestic and Municipal Use

One of the first considerations in the development of an area's

water resources is that of furnishing a safe and potable domestic and

municipal supply. In general the quantitative requirements are based

entirely upon the number of people served with proper allowance for the

standard of living adopted by the population. Municipal use includes such

items as drinking water, lawn sprinkling, bathroom and kitchen facilities,

air-conditioning, office building and commercial use, and small industries

depending upon municipalities for source of supply. In rural areas where
a public water system is not available, individual systems are required to

supply water for normal household uses and for livestock water purposes.
A survey conducted by the U. S. Public Health Service in cooperation

with the Florida State Board of Health shows that in 1956, 499 public

2 -






systems were in operation serving an estimated population of 2,858,000
people, as shown in Table 1. Data received for this inventory indicate that
at present an average of 378 million gallons a day (m.g.d.) are being pro-
duced and distributed by these systems. Ground water serves as the major
source of supply (86%), primarily because of the ease with which a suffic-
ient quantity of high quality water is obtainable from the ground water
reservoirs in the vicinity
/of most municipalities. In spite of this, at least 104 public water supply
systems in 45 counties of the state have experienced shortages from one
cause or another, as shown in Table 2. These data indicate that the supply
from 90 of these systems resulted from insufficient facilities but that the
deficiencies in 45 of the systems have been partially or completely corrected
to date. In 14 of the systems the supply was endangered by pollution of one
type or another, and 6 of these systems have been altered to alleviate the
danger of pollution. There were shortages in 4 systems due to inadequate
sources of supply.


TABLE 1. 1956 Usage of Fresh Water by Municipalities in Florida.
(All values are in millions of gallons per day.)
Number of Est. Pop. Ground Surface
County Public Systems Served Water Water Total

Alachua 10 44,712 5.1 x 5.1
Baker 1 1,750 0.2 x 0.2
Bay 11 45,370 3.7 x 3.7
Bradford 2 4,800 0.4 x 0.4
Brevard 5 26,400 1.4 0.8 2.2
Broward 14 139,676 30.8 x 30.8
Calhoun 2 2,510 0.2 x 0.2
Charlotte 2 4,000 x 0.3 0.3
Citrus 3 2,800 0.2 x 0.2
Clay 7 7,424 0.9 x 0.9
Collier 3 4,900 0.9 x 0.9
Columbia 1 8,580 1.0 x 1.0
Dade 45 659,853 84.5 x 84.5
DeSoto 3 5,835 0.3 0.7 1.0
Dixie 2 1,700 0.2 x 0.2
Duval 69 312,866 45.7 x 45.7
Escambia 9 92,665 16.3 x 16.3
Flagler 3 1,756 0.2 x 0.2
Franklin 5 3,910 0.3 x 0.3


-3-


_r_~_ __







County

Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton

TOTALS


Number of
Public Systems

5
1
2
4
3
4
3
1
7
8
1
2
12
3
1
13
5
14
3
1
4
19
10
6
1
2
8
1
14
3
26
8
14
32
4
6
1
5
6
4
4
2
1
2
13
4
4

499


Est. Pop. Ground Surface
Served Water Water


24,300
704
1,000
4,850
3,152
4,416
3,250
3,500
16,885
233,975
2,260
8,150
15,825
3,040
900
39,575
20,630
53,310
2,600
160
4,410
28,811
18,715
5,500
60,000
6,693
27,450
3,000
134,040
10,750
119,144
17,780
260,475
118,524
12,915
21,100
21,100
5,770
31,148
23,100
2,775
7,062
4,827
3,470
85,345
300
4,150


0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.5
0.1
0.3
2.4
3.7
0.1
2.1
2.1
0.3
0.1
4.6
2.6
4.8
0.2
x
0.5
1.0
2.4
1.2
4.6
0.8
2.1
x
10.9
2.0
11.7
1.6
32.1
15.7
1.5
2.0
x
0.5
3.1
1.6
0.3
0.5
0.6
0.6
9.7
x
0.4


2,857,903 325.3


Total


2.8 3.2
x 0.1
x 0.1
0.4 0.5
x 0.4
x 0.5
1.0 1.1
x 0.3
0.2 2.6
20.9 24.6
x 0.1
x 2.1
x 2.1
x 0.3
x 0.1
x 4.6
x 2.6
x 4.8
x 0.2
x x
x 0.5
1.8 2.8
x 2.4
x 1.2
x 4.6
x 0.8
x 2.1
0.3 0.3
6.6 17.5
x 2.0
15.3 27.0
x 1.6
x 32.1
x 15.7
x 1.5
x 2.0
1.8 1.8
x 0.5
x 3.1
x 1.6
x 0.3
x 0.5
x 0.6
x 0.6
x 9.7
0.1 0.1
x 0.4

53.0 378.3


Source: Inventory of public water systems of the state by the U. S. Public
Health Service and the Florida State Board of Health, 1956.
x indicates an insignificant amount.


-4-







TABLE 2. Public Water Systems Experiencing Shortages


Alachua

Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard

Broward

Charlotte

Citrus

Clay
Collier
Dade
Dixie
Duval











Escambia


Gadsden

Gilchrist
Hamilton

Hardee

Hendry
Highlands
Hillsborough
Indian River
Jackson


City and system

Gainesville
Newberry
Macclenny
Mexico Beach
Starke
Cocoa
Melbourne
Titusville
Deerfield Beach
Ft. Lauderdale
Pompano Beach
Punta Gorda

Crystal River
Yankeetown
Green Cove Springs
Naples
Bell Camp Manor S/D
Cross City
Atlantic Beach
Arlington BluffS/D

Arlington Community
Club
Armstrong's Riverview S/D
Corder's Buenos Aires S/D
Jacksonville J. C.
Lynwood S/D
Milmar Manor S/D
Roosevelt Gardens S/D
Southside Estates S/D
Thompson's Riverview
Jacksonville Beach
Century
Santa Rosa Island
Warrington
Ferry Pass Heights S/D
Havana
Quincy
Trenton
Jasper

Bowling Green
Wauchula
LaBelle
DeSoto City
Tampa
Vero Beach
Alford
Cottondale
Greenwood
Malone
Ft. Myers
Ft. Myers Beach


Period of shortage

Summer 1955
Summer 1955
Dry Spell 1953
Prior to 1953
Dry Spells
1951, 1952, 1956
1956
April every year
1953-55
-1951-52 (dry spells)
1952-55
1952

1950
1950
1952-53
Prior to 1955
Dry spells
Every summer
Prior to 1955
Prior to 1953
(Dry periods)

The past few years
Every summer
Previous years
1956
1955
Extended dry spells
1953 (Dry spells)
Extended dry spells
Prior to 1953
Prior to 1950
1948
Prior to 1956
1952
1956
1953 (Dry spell)
1955
Dry spells
Summer months -
dry spells
1953
1953
1956
1953
1953
1949-53
Dry spells
Summer 1955
Dry spells
Prior to 1955
1947
1952


Cause of short.

A-3
A-l, 2
A-l, 2**
A-l, 2**
A-4
E
A-l; D-l
A-l**
A-l, 2**
A
A-l, 2
Pipeline
failure**
B-2
B-2
A-l, 2*
D-l**
A-2
A-l, 2, 3
A-l, 2**

A-l, 2**

A-l, 2
B-l
B-l*
A-l, 2
A-l, 2*
A-l, 2
A-2**
A-2*
B-l**
A-l**
C
A-l**
A-2
A-l, 2
A-1, 2*
E
A-l, 2*

A-1, 2
D-3**
B-l**
B-l
C**
Dam failure
A-1,2,3**
A-1, 2
A-1, 2
A-2, 4
A-l, 2, 4
D-2*
A-1,2,3,5;* D-3


-5-


___ __ __~ __






County City and system


Leon

Manatee







Martin

Monroe
Okaloosa

Okeechobee
Osceola
Palm Beach






Pinellas





Polk

Putnam

St. Johns

St. Lucie
Santa Rosa

Sarasota
Suwannee

Taylor
Union
Volusia

Washington


Bond's S/D
Stiles S/D
Anna Maria
Bradenton
Harbor Hills S/D
Azure Shores S/D
Cullom W. S.
Independent W. S.
Sisk W. S.
Vogt W. S.
Waterman W. S.
Hobe Sound
Indiantown
Key West
Ft. Walton Beach
Niceville
Valparaiso
Okeechobee
St. Cloud
Belle Glade
Boynton Beach
Hypoluxo
Lake Worth
Englewood Manor S/D
Riviera Beach
U.S.A.F. Base
Suburban Water Co.
Clearwater
Crystal Beach
Largo
Oldsmar
Palm Harbor Water Co.
Lake Citrus Estate S/D
Tarpon Springs
Winter Haven
Haines City
Eloise Woods S/D
Crescent City
Palatka
Ponte Vedra Beach Inn
St. Augustine
Ft. Pierce
East Milton
Milton
St. Armand's Key
Branford
Live Oak
Perry
Raiford State Pen.
Daytona Beach
Holly Hill
Vernon
Wausau


Period of shortage

1956
1951-52
1956
1948-49
1952
1956
1953, 1956
1956
1956
1956
1952
Prior to 1950
1955
1943-45, 1954-55
1954
1955
1954-55
During hurricanes
1954
Some dry spells
1955
Each summer
Dry summers
1955
Extreme drought
1956
1956
1955 (Dry season)
1955-56
In near future
1953
In near future
1956
1956
Prior to 1954
Prior to 1952
1954-55
Every summer
Dry summers
Dry summers
1953 Dry summer
1928, 30, 39, 50, 51
1954
1953, 1956
1956
Prior to 1954
1954, 1956
Prior to 1954
Dry summers
Dry summers
1948
1956
In previous years


-6-


Cause of short.

A-2, 4
A-l, 2**
D-2
A-3**
C*
B-1
B-1
C
B-1
B-1
B-1**
A-i, 2**
A-1, 2*; C*
A-5*
A-1, 2**
A-2**
A-2, 4
B-2
C**
E
A-l*
A-i, 2
A-2
A-2
C
A-i, 2, 3
A-2
A-i, D-l*
D-l; A-i, 2
D-1
D-l**
D-1
A-i, 2; D-l*
D-1
A-1, 2, 4*
A-l**
A-i, 2**
A-i, 2
A-2, 3**
A-i, 2
A*
E
A-i, 2**
A-I, 2*
A-5
A-i, 2
A-i, D-3
A-i, 2, 3*
A-i, 2
A-i, 2, 3*
A
A-i, 2
A-2**


_ __







Table 2. (continued) Code to Causes of Shortages
A: Capacity exceeded by demand during periods of shortage.
A-I: Well yield too small
A-2: Inadequate facilities
A-3: Inadequate treatment plant capacity
A-4: Inadequate storage capacity
A-5: Inadequate transmission capacity

B: Pumping facility difficulties.
B-1: No pumping facilities
B-2: Power failure during hurricanes

C: Well failure (caved in, split casing, dried up, etc.)
D: Pollution of supply.
D-1: Salt water intrusion
D-2: Chemical pollution other than salt water
D-3: Bacteriological pollution

E. Inadequate source of supply.
Notes: Shortage partially eliminated or progress underway.
** Shortage eliminated.
W.S. Water system.
S/D Subdivision.


In rural areas it is estimated that about 1,380,000 people were

served by individual water supply systems in 1956. Although the exact per
capital consumption is not known, it is estimated that each person consumed
water at the rate of 50 gallons per capital day, to give a total of 69 m.g.d.
with the source of supply being almost entirely from wells. As indicated in
Table 3, an additional 35 m.g.d. were consumed by livestock in Florida, to
give a total of 104 m.g.d. used for domestic and livestock consumption in--
the state.

TABLE 3. Estimated Water Use by Farm Animals 1956

Tvoe of Animal Number on Farm(l) Gallons/dav/animal(2) Million Gals.
Horses & mules 34,048 12 0.4
Cattle & calves 1,648 400 20 33.0
Hogs & pigs 418,181 4 1.7
Chickens 3,198,803 .04 0.1
35.2
(1) Source: 1955 Agricultural Census.
(2) Source: U.S.D.A. Miscellaneous Publication No. 674.


-7-







A recent study made for the State Board of Control has indicated

that the 1970 population of Florida will be 6,013,000 (see Fig. 1). By that

date, it is likely that about 70 per cent of the population will be served

by public water supply systems. The present daily per capital consumption of

persons served by public systems is 132 gallons, a figure somewhat below the

national average of 153 gallons per capital daily. The rate of consumption

is steadily increasing, however, and by 1970 consumption in Florida should
reach 150 gallons per capital daily, in which case the 4,209,000 persons

served by public systems will consume an average of 631 m.g.d. By the same

token, the per capital consumption of the rural population will likely in-
crease to about 60 gallons per capital daily and the estimated 1970 rural

population of 1,804,000 will consume about 108 m.g.d. Assuming a slight
increase in the amount of water consumed by livestock, it is estimated that
the 1970 water consumption in rural areas will amount to 160 m.g.d., giving

a total estimated consumption for domestic and municipal purposes of 791
m.g.d. It is likely that well over9-Q..er t-cat- -thi~ qantity will be

obtained from ground water sources.

Industrial Use

The requirements for industrial water in Florida are more diverse

than those of any other beneficial water user. Some industries'operations

require no water while others use tremendous volumes of this natural resource.

The quality requirements vary from water of the highest purity in some proc-

esses to the use of sea water for cooling purposes. As a consequence, it is
impossible to generalize on this type of water use as has been done in the
case of municipal water supplies. There are, however, four major categories
of industrial water usage in Florida. These are (1) electric power produc-
tion, (2) pulp and paper manufacture and general chemical industry, (3)
citrus processing, and (4) mining. Data on water usage in each of these


- 8 -






four categories have been obtained by county in order to show the area dis-

tribution of industrial water supply requirements. Estimates of future

requirements were obtained by extrapolating the presently announced expansion

plans and in some cases by estimating the potential development based upon

available raw materials, such as the rate of citrus production within the

foreseeable future.
Electric Power Production. At present the production of electric

power in Florida is accomplished by hydroelectric and by steam generating

power plants. Both methods require huge volumes of water since the energy
generated in a hydroelectric plant is derived entirely from the falling water

and steam generating plants require large volumes for cooling purposes.

Hydroelectric plants do not play a prominent part in the state picture since

there are few sites which are satisfactory for impounding the water and

developing the head necessary to operate the turbines. One small plant

exists at Inglis in Levy County and a second plant operates in Leon County.

The Jim Woodruff Dam will develop hydroelectric power but has not yet been

placed in operation.
The water requirements of steam generated power plants are such that

the quality of water used does not play an important part in the operation.

A number of plants use brackish or salt water for cooling purposes but many

plants must be located where only fresh water is available. Table 4 lists

the fresh water requirements by county of the power manufacturing industry

in Florida, and shows that in 1956 an average of 1,591 m.g.d. were used by
the plants. Of this amount, only 2 per cent was obtained from ground sources.

In general, the water is not impaired in quality since it is subjected only
to a slight temperature rise and is diminished in quantity by only about 4

per cent. A vast majority is returned to the fresh water reservoir from
whence it came.


- 9 -







TABLE 4. Usage of Fresh Water by Steam Generated Power
Plants in Florida 1956. (All values are in
millions of gallons daily.)

County Surface Water Ground Water Total
Broward 135 22 157
Dade 68 x 68
Duval 325 4 329
Escambia 123 x 123
Highlands 75 x 75
Hillsborough x 1 1
Indian River x 1 1
Jackson 120 x 120
Levy 272 x 272
Nassau x 1 1
Orange 59 x 59
Polk 28 x 28
Putnam 42 x 42
Seminole 59 x 59
Suwannee 87 x 87
Union x 1 1
Volusia 118 x 118
Wakulla 50 x 50
TOTALS 1,561 30 1,591
Source: Data obtained from the power industries of Florida.
x indicates an insignificant amount.



The Federal Power Commission reports that in 1955 electric power

production amounted to 10,013,000,000 kilowatt-hours in Florida, representing
is
a gross revenue to the companies of about $175,000,000. It/estimated that in
year.
the next ten years this will increase to at least $225,000,000 V/ The in-
crease in fresh water requirements by 1970 will amount to about 25 per cent
for a total usage of about 2,120 m.g.d.
Pulp and Paper Manufacture and Chemical Industries. The manufacture

of pulp and its attendant end products from pulpwood and the manufacture
of various chemical products are becoming an important part of the industrial
picture in Florida. Most of these industrial sites have been selected after
giving primary consideration to the area's water resources. Some processes
such as the manufacture of ammonia and other nitrogenous compounds use the
water as a raw material from which the end product is made. Others require


- 10 -







water for various process operations and cooling purposes. No two industries

require the same quantity or quality of water and even individual plants of

a type of industry vary in their requirements.

In general, each industry endeavors to hold the amount of water used

to a minimum. For example, in the average pulp mill, the water entering

the mill is used more than six times before it is discharged. The reason

for this reuse of water is the fact that costs of obtaining the raw water

generally militate against its wasteful use. Table 5 shows the 1956 usage

of fresh water by the 10 chemical plants and the 8 pulp mills in Florida

which employ 500 or more persons each. In 1956, 307 m.g.d. were being used

by these industries with the supply being obtained about equally from sur-

face and ground sources. Should planned expansion within the next 14 years

double that already announced, the estimated fresh water requirements by

this category of industry will amount to 770 m.g.d. in 1970, without allow-

ance for new industries which may be established in the state.


TABLE 5. Usage of Fresh Water by Chemical Plants and
Pulp and Paper Mills in Florida 1956. (All
values are in millions of gallons per day.)

Count Surface Water Ground Water Total

Duval 31 19 50
Escambia 23 40 63
Gulf 32 x 32
Hillsborough x 4 4
Nassau x 50 50
Polk 54 4 58
Putnam 14 10 24
Taylor x 26 26

TOTALS 154 153 307
Source: Data obtained by questionnaire from the 10 chemical plants and the
8 pulp and paper mills in Florida, which employ 500 or more employees
each.

x indicates an insignificant amount.


- 11 -


_ __







The prominence of the pulp and chemical industries in Florida's
economy is illustrated by some facts presented in the.1956 Directory Issue of

the Manufacturer's Record. In 1955 the output value of chemical plants.in
the state amounted to $120,000,000 and that of the pulp and paper industry

$255,000,000.
Citrus Processing Industry. Data on water requirements of the citrus

processing industry were compiled from 24 of the major concentrating plants
which produce 95 per cent of the concentrated citrus juices in Florida. Also
included are figures from 8 of the largest canning plants, canning single
strength juice and processing chilled juice.
There is a variety of requirements for water used in the processing
of citrus. The manufacture of one gallon of 420 Brix concentrate requires
the removal of 24.7 pounds of water, or approximately three gallons. Steam
used is 26.1 pounds per gallon of 420 Brix concentrate made. A total of 6.1
gallons of water is added to the condensing water from the product being con-
centrated and from condensed steam for each gallon of concentrate produced.
Therefore in measuring a flow of 256 gallons of water per gallon of 420 Brix

concentrate, the net water used is 250 gallons per gallon of 420 Brix con-
centrate made. An average of 250 gallons of water is required for each

gallon of concentrate made.

The water required for fresh fruit packing averages about 5 gallons

per box of fruit packed.
In the manufacture of single strength juice, the requirement is 37
gallons of water per case of 24 No. 2 cans. Canned grapefruit sections,
citrus salad and orange sections will require approximately 122 gallons per
case.
The by-products of citrus processing require 82 gallons of water per
box of fruit, or 17,500 gallons per ton of by-products.
Using these figures, the total of all water used in citrus process-

ing is 32,944.5 million gallons per season, as shown in Table 6.
12 -






TABLE 6. Fresh Water Used

Product

75,487,177 gal. 420
Brix Concentrate

5,884,785 base cases of
Grapefruit Sections

42,424,133 base cases of
Single Strength Juice
48,000,000 boxes of
Fresh Fruit

4,500,000 crates of Oranges
used for fresh juice
By-Products
(128,680,000)
Consumed Water
(3% of Total)


in Citrus Processing in Florida 1956.
Gallons of Total Gallons of
Water/Unit Water Used/Year


18,871,794,250

717,943,770

1,569,692,921


240,000,000


7.5
82 gal. field
crate processed


TOTAL


33,750,000

10,551,760,000

959,547,228

32,944,488,169


The average daily use of water over a 200-day operating season,
extending from November 15 to June 20, (as there are a number of days during
this time when the plants will not run, a 200-day operating season is ample)
is 165,000,000 gallons. Computed on an annual basis for uniform reporting,
the average annual rate of use is 90 m.g.d.
The peak pumping load is reached during the months of December,
January, April, May and June. During these months concentrate operations
are at the peak. The peak pumping rat4 will probably exceed 220 m.g.d. dur-
ing this period. Concentrate production alone as of December 1955 required
148 m.g.d.
When the estimated future production of 254,960,000 boxes of citrus
is reached, the use of water will reach 168 m.g.d., based on the average
annual value as shown in Table 7.


- 13 -


1_ I_ ~_ i __~~~I







TABLE 7. Esti

Product

161,000,000 gal. 420
Brix Concentrate
6,000,000 cases of
Grapefruit Sections

43,000,000 cases of
Single Strength Juice

50,000,000 boxes
Fresh Fruit

9,000,000 boxes for
Fresh Juice

By-Products (204 MM
field boxes)

Consumed water


TOTAL


mated Fresh Water for Citrus Processing in 1970.
Total Gallons of
Gal./Unit Water Used/Year


40,250,000,000

732,000,000

1,591,000,000


250,000,000

67,500,000


16,728,000,000

1,788,550,600

61,407,050,000


There are at present two types of concentrating equipment used by

the major concentrate producers. One is known as the steam cycle and the
other the refrigeration cycle. The refrigeration type concentrators require

approximately 100 gallons of water per gallon of concentrate less than steam

recompression concentrators. Fifty-eight per cent of the present concentrate
production is made by the steam recompression method, while the remaining

42 per cent is made by the refrigeration type concentrators.
The by-products of the citrus industry require the second largest

volume of water but unless they are processed, pose an almost insurmountable
problem of disposal. The cash value of the by-products is also a great con-
sideration, as the dried citrus pulp and citrus molasses are much desired

cattle feeds. Table 8 lists by counties the present usage of fresh water by
the citrus processing industry in Florida.


- 14 -






TABLE 8. Usage of Fresh Water by Citrus Processing
Plants in Florida 1956. (All values are
in millions of gallons per day.)

Count Surface Water Ground Water
Dade x 0.5
Hardee x 0.7
Hillsborough x 3.6
Indian River x 2.2
Lake x 10.4
Manatee x 2.5
Marion x 2.3
Orange x 4.3'
Osceola x 0.4
Pasco x 25.2
Polk x 34.5
Seminole x 2.1
Sumter x 1.4

TOTALS 90.0

Source: Data obtained by computations based on 1955-56 production
processing plants.

x indicates an insignificant amount.


Total

0.5
0.7
3.6
2.2
10.4
2.5
2.3
4.3
0.4
25.2
34.5
2.1
1.4

90.0

of citrus


Mining Industry. Although Florida is not generally known as a mining

state, mining operations do play a significant part in the state's economy

and in the use of its water resources. According to the 1956 Directory Issue

of the Manufacturer's Record, the output value of mines in the state amounted

to $75,000,000 during 1955. Principal operations include phosphate rock,
Fullers earth, heavy sands, and hard and soft limestone.
Great quantities of water are used in the mining industry in Florida

for many different uses. Almost universally, the water required for these

uses is obtained from large settling areas in which the water has been im-

pounded, and from which it is recycled and reused as required. Additional

water is obtained, primarily from deep and shallow wells, for certain proc-

esses where clear water is required, and for make up water to be added to

the system to replenish water lost due to leakage and evaporation.
Probably the largest single use of water in the industry is its use


- 15 -






for the transportation of solids in pipelines and launders. Large quantities
are used in hydraulic mining, such as is practiced in the phosphate field.
Where dredging operations are employed, water is used for the flotation and
transportation of barges and equipment.
In the recovery operations, water is used in many ways in the proc-

esses to concentrate and upgrade the ore being mined. It serves as wash
water in screening, crushing, sizing, and classifying operations. It is
used as a slurry in jig, spiral, flotation cell, and table concentrators.
It is used as make up water to control slurry density, and in filtration and
desliming operations. It is important as wash water in washing and scrubbing
operations to remove reagents, caustic, and objectionable coatings. It is
further used as priming and sealing water in pumping operations, as a cool-
Sant for ore and equipment, for steam generation, and for jet water in

exploratory and blast-hole drilling operations.
The use of fresh water by the mining industry in Florida for 1956 is

shown in Table 9. Such operations required an average of 187 m.g.d., with

a majority of this water being derived from underground sources. According
to information received from the mining industry, the presently contemplated

expansion within the next five years will amount to some 38 m.g.d. If expan-
sion during the 10-year period following 1960 is of the same order of
magnitude as that of contemplated expansion, the 1970 usage of fresh water
by the mining industry in Florida will amount to some 363 m.g.d. It is
likely that this quantity of water will be obtained primarily from wells in
a manner similar to current operations.

TABLE 9. Usage of Fresh Water by the Mining Industry
in Florida 1956. (All values are in
millions of gallons daily.)
County Surface Water Ground Water Total
Broward x 1 1
Clay x 10 10
Dade 21 25 46

16 -







Table 9 (continued)

Flagler x 1 1
Gadsden 1 x 1
Hillsborough 6 5 11
Indian River x 1 1
Lake 1 x 1
Polk 5 107 112
Putnam 3 x 3

TOTALS 37 150 187

Source: Data obtained by questionnaire from the mining industries of Florida.

x indicates an insignificant amount.


Agricultural Water Use

The largest of all water uses in Florida is that required for

agricultural operations. A greater amount of the water used in raising crops,

pastures and groves is not collected and transported to the place of use but

rather is supplied by rains which fall on the area. Some of the rain is

temporarily stored in the agricultural lands in the form of soil moisture

for consumption in the normal evaporational processes and the transpirational

processes of growing plants. It would appear that in an area of abundant

rainfall, such as Florida, sufficient soil moisture would always be present

to permit active and continued growth of agricultural crops. Such is not

the case. The vagrancies of nature do not supply rainfall at a uniform rate,

and there are periods in normal and wet years when the soil moisture is

depleted below the optimum growing point for extended periods of time. In

drought years this condition becomes even more serious. For this reason,

supplemental irrigation is becoming increasingly more common in Florida in

order to supply moisture to the soil during those periods when it is most

needed.
In 1956 there were 16,584,000 acres of productive farm land and

pasture in Florida, or about 48 per cent of the state's total land area.


17 -






Data contained in Table 10 show that of the productive farm land, some 742,000
Acres were subject to irrigation practices in 1956. While this acreage con-
stitutes but a small portion of the total productive acreage, a significant
trend towards supplemental irrigation is to be noted. The amount of irri-
gated acreage increased 73 per cent over that in 1955.

TABLE 10. Land irrigated in Florida 1956
(All values are in acres.)
1956 County Agent Survevyl)
Tot.Acs. Total Vege-
Irrig. Acres tables & Other
County 1955(2) Irri. Citrus Truck Tobacco Pasture (3)
Alachua 1,032 800 x 200 600 :x x
Baker 136 40 x x 20 x 20
Bay 67 44 x 4 x 40 x
Bradford 39 310 x 250 60 x x
Brevard 6163 *
Broward 18,666 40,070 6,000 23,000 30 11,000 40
Calhoun 40 630 x 20 x 240 370
Charlotte 2,244 14,510 1,500 5,000 x 8,000 10
Citrus 111 490 450 40 x x x
Clay 2,112 2,870 10 680 x 2,180 x
Collier 9,324 18,000 x 18,000 x x x
Columbia 367 51 x x 51 x x
Dade 17,087 56,050 6,500 40,000 100 450 9,000
DeSoto 3,386 8,000 7,400 x x x 600
Dixie x 67 x x 12 30 25
Duval 215 350 50 x x 300 x
Escambia 169 80 x 60 x 20 x
Flagler 2,625 4,500 x 4,000 x 500 x
Franklin 41 85 x x x 85 x
Gadsden 4,042 6,000 x 700 4,500 300 500
Gilchrist x x x x x x x
Glades 6,516 16,000 x 1,200 x 9,800 5,000
Gulf 18 12 x x x 12 x
Hamilton 1,137 2,285 x 100 1,485 100 600
Hardee 3,703 20,000 10,000 5,000 x 5,000 x
Hendry 19,304 23,000 1,000 10,000 x 11,980 20
Hernando 958 450 300 50 x 100 x
Highlands 9,564 22,300 17,000 2,400 x 2,200 700
Hillsborough 21,779 22,000 6,200 15,350 x 450 x
Holmes 162 80 x x x 80 x
Indian River 31,168 6,930 5,000 1,800 30 100 x
Jackson 964 2,280 x 160 x 820 1,300
Jefferson 25 *
Lafayette 114 1,250 x x 950 150 150
Lake 10,697 26,350 20,000 3,800 x 2,350 200
Lee 15,088 25,000 500 10,000 x 8,000 6,500
Leon 1,745 975 x x 22 753 200
Levy 73 103 x 20 13 x 70


- 18 -






County Agent Survev(l)
Tot.Acs. Total Vege-
Irrig. Acres tables & Other
County 19552) Irrig Citrus Truck Tobacco Pasture (3)
Liberty 11 x x x x x x
Madison 51.8 500 x 180 320 x x
Manatee 11,95 1,000 250 600 x 150 x
Marion 5,928 6,728 2,418 3,500 10 800 x
Martin 10,135 20,000 2,000 4,000 x x 14,000
Monroe 5 *
Nassau 242 1,058 x 20 4 1,000 34
Okaloosa x x x x x x x
Okeechobee 4,133 6,700 200 2,500 x 4,000 x
Orange 16,941 67,347 51,847 8,000 x 7,500 x
Osceola 3,318 1,540 1,500 20 x 20 x
Palm Beach 78,831 175,000 200 80,000 x 61,300 33,500
Pasco 4,398 5,000 4,300 200 x 500 x
Pinellas 5,968 12,000 11,280 20 x 500 200
Polk 19,197 50,000 40,000 4,000 x 6,000 x
Putnam 3,676 *
St. Johns 13,340 20,600 400 16,000 x 3,500 700
St. Lucie 42,160 35,220 20,000 x x 15,000 220
Santa Rosa 128 *
Sarasota 3,033 8,600 850 2,250 x 4,000 1,500
Seminole 9,441 *
Sumter 2,740 4,840 x 4,800 40 x x
Suwannee 414 1,770 x 150 800 200 620
Taylor x 300 x 20 125 155 x
Union 100 220 x 110 70 40 x
Volusia 880 1,800 1,000 300 x 300 200
Wakulla x x x x x x x
Walton 20 50 x x x x 50
Washington x 25 x 10 x 15 x

TOTALS 428,392 742,260 218,155 268,514 9,242 170,020 76,329

(1) Source: Survey of County Agents made by T. C. Skinner, Florida Agri-
cultural Extension'Service, 1956.
(2) Source: 1955 Agriculture Census.
(3) Acreage not identified as to crop.
x indicates an insignificant acreage.
S- indicates no report from county agent.


It was not possible to obtain data in regard to water used for irri-
gation in 1956. An estimate of the irrigation water requirements was obtained,
however, by computing the difference between the net soil moisture supplied


- 19 -







by normal rainfall in 1956 and the potential evapotranspiration demands

resulting from the net solar energy available. The computations are somewhat
lengthy and are not included in this report but have been placed on file in
the Commission's office, where they are available for review. The results
indicating the average depth of supplemental irrigation water applied to
Florida agricultural crops are shown in Table 11.

TABLE 11. Estimated Depth of Supplemental
Irrigation Water Applied to Florida
Agricultural Crops in 1956. (All
values are in inches.)
Lower East
CoR NI(1) North(2) N. Central(3) So.Central(l) SOLil Coast (6)
Citrus 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2
Vegetable
& Truck 11.2 15.2 12.3 13.4 15.7 14.1
Tobacco 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2
Pasture 22.3 25.5 28.7 31.0 37.3 34.2
Other 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0

(1) Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Holmes, Jackson,
Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Wakulla, Walton and
Washington.

(2) Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Clay, Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Flagler Gilchrist,
Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy, Madison, Nassau, Putnam, St. Johns, Suwannee,
Taylor and Union.

(3) Citrus, Hernando, Lake, Marion, Orange, Pasco, Seminole, Sumter, Volusia.
(4) Brevard, DeSoto, Hardee, Highlands, Hillsborough, Indian River, Manatee,
Okeechobee, Osceola, Pinellas, Polk, St. Lucie and Sarasota.

(5) Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry, Lee, Martin, Monroe, and Palm Beach.
(6) Broward and Dade.


Applying these depths to the irrigated acreage shown in Table 10, the
estimated supplemental water requirements were computed and are presented in
Table 12.


- 20 -






TABLE 12. Estimated Supplemental Water Requirement for
Agricultural Crops in Florida 1956. (All
values are in millions of gallons daily.)


County

Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard(l)
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson(l)
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe(l)
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola


.Vegetables
Citrus & Truck


x
x
x
x
7.3
x
.1.8
0.5
x
x"
7.9
9.0
x
0.1
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
12.1
1.2
0.4
20.6
7.5
x
X
X
x
x
x


x
x
x
x
x
2.9



2.4
0.6






x
X





x
0.2


62.8
1.8
X
X
0.2
62.8
1.8


0.2
x
x
0.3
x
24.1
x
5.9
x
0.8
x
x
41.9
x
X
x

0.1
4.5
x
0.6
x
1.4
x
0.1
5.0
11.7
x
2.4
15.4
x
x
0.1
x
X
3.5
11.8
x
x
x
0.2
x
3.2
4.7
x
x
x
2.5
7.5
x


Tobacco -Pasture

0.7 x
x x
x 0.1
0.1 x
x x
x 28.2
x 0.4
x 22.3
x x
x 4.2
x x
0.1 x
x 1.1
x x
x 0.1
x x
x x
x 1.0
x 0.1
5.1 0.5
x x
x 27.3
x. x
1.7 0.2
x 11.6
x 33.3
x 0.2
x 5.1
x 1.0
x 0.1
x x
x 1.4
x x
1.1 0.3
x 5.0
x 22.3
x 1.3
x x
x x
0.3 x
x x
x 1.7
x x
x x
x 1.1
x x
x 9.3
x 16.1
x x


- 21


Other

0.5
0.2
0.1
x
8.3
x
0.4
x
x
X '
12.5
0.4
10.1
0.7
x
0.6
0.1
x
x -
0.6
x
5.6
x
0.7
x
x
x
0.8
x
0.1
42.0
1.5
x
0.2
0.2
7.3
1.5
0.1
x
0.1
16.1
x
15.7
x
x
x
x
x
2.7


Total

1.4
0.2
0.2
0.4
8.3
59.6
0.8
30.0
0.5
5.0
12.5
0.5
61.0
9.7
0.1
0.7
0.2
5.5
0.1
6.7
x
34.3
x
2.7
28.7
46.2
0.6
28.9
23.9
0.2
42.0
3.0
x
1.6
32.9
42.0
2.8
0.1
x
0.6
16.1
7.8
22.8
x
1.1
X
12.0
86.4
4.5


I






County

Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam(l)
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa(l)
Sarasota
Seminole(1)
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington

TOTALS


Citrus

0.2
5.2
13.6
48.4
x
0.5
24.3
x
1.0
x
x
x
x
x
1.2
x
x
x

257.7


Vegetables
& Truck

93.5
0.2
x
4.0
x
18.2
x
x
2.3
x
4.4
0.2
x
0.1
0.3
x
x
x

271.2


Tobacco
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
0.9
0.1
0.1
x
x
x
x

11.9


173.0
1.1
1.2
13.9
x
6.7
34.8
x
9.4
x
x
0.4
0.3
0.1
x
x
x
x

436.3


33.7
x
0.2
x
5.0
0.8
17.5
0.2
1.7
12.7
x
0.7
x
x
0.2
x
0.1
x

202.6


300.4
6.5
15.0
66.3
5.0
26.2
76.6
0.2
14.4
12.7
4.4
2.2
0.4
0.3
1.7
x
0.1
x

1,179.7


(1) No report received from county agent. The 1955 census acreage was used
with a 20 per cent increase to allow for increases since date of census.

x indicates no significant amount.



From these estimates, it may be seen that the average daily consumption

of water for irrigation purposes in Florida amounted to 1,180 m.g.d. daily.

It must be recognized that most of the water is used during the growing season,

which is somewhat less than the 12-month period used for averaging, but the

results are presented on a yearly basis for purposes of uniformity in report-

ing the results of the study.

According to information gathered by a study group of the Florida

Board of Control, it is estimated that Florida's vegetable acreage will in-

crease from 321,000 to 416,000 acres by 1970. Other estimates show that field

crops will increase from 1,470,000 to 1,720,000, citrus from 565,000 to

765,000, and improved pasture from 1,923,000 to 5,500,000 acres in 1970.

Of the 4,279,000 acres under production in 1956, only 4.5 per cent was

subject to irrigation practices. If the amount of irrigated land increases


- 22 -


__ 1 i __






only enough to maintain the same ratio, the estimated water requirements in
1970 will average 2,200 m.g.d.

Water Use for Navigation

River and harbor development in Florida has been a steady process over

the past 130 years. Florida's 1,500-mile-long coastline is the longest of any
state in the nation. Its natural waterways have a total length which few
other states can surpass. Florida's natural harbors did much to attract the
first European settlements on the North American continent. At the prevent
date, the many improved harbors and waterways attract industrialists and the

commercial and pleasure boater.
Harbors. Florida has eight seaports with the usable depth of 30 or

more feet of water. It has another eight with depths ranging from 21 to 28

feet. Six of its ports, three on the Gulf and three on the Atlantic handled

over a million tons of commerce each during 1955.

Tampa Harbor is Florida's first ranking port and claims 15th ranking,

nation-wide. The harbor is on a large natural estuary of the Gulf of Mexico

located about midway of the western coast of the peninsula. Since the first

channel improvement in 1899, dredging has continued over the years to provide

depths and widths suitable for modern commerce. The existing 30-foot depth

was completed in 1936. Congress has since authorized a 34-foot channel. The
annual average commerce handled at the Tampa Harbor has been about 6,000,000

tons in recent years. The main products.are phosphate fertilizer materials,
fuel oil, gasoline and other petroleum products, and oyster shell.
Jacksonville Harbor ranks second in the state. Commerce handled for

the port during 1954 totaled 5,268,000 tons. The main products include fuel
oil, gasoline and other petroleum products, gypsum, lumber and oyster shell.

The port is located on the St. Johns River about 25 miles from the ocean. The
main ship canal is 34 feet deep. The harbor has the deepest ocean entrance

in Florida, having been dredged to 40 feet to accommodate aircraft carrier's


- 23 -






for the Navy carrier base near Mayport, just inside the ocean entrance.
Miami Harbor, Florida's third largest port is unique in its variety
of vessel traffic and its beautiful setting. The port handled more than 150
different classifications of commodities during 1954, totaling 2,620,000 tons.
Its passenger traffic totaled some 500,000. Port Everglades Harbor, near
Ft. Lauderdale on Florida's lower east coast, is the deepest commercial harbor
in the state. It was originally dredged to 35 feet as a local enterprise and
was taken over as a Federal project in 1930. Since about 1946 it has become
an important oil distribution center. Its water-borne commerce in 1954
totaled 2,884,000 tons, almost half of which was motor fuel and gasoline.
Other important harbors of the state, ranked according to commerce
handled during 1954, are Port St. Joe, Panama City, Charlotte Harbor, Pensa-
St. Petersburg Harbor,
cola, Palm Beach Harbor/and Canaveral Harbor. Their principal commodities
are petroleum products, industrial chemicals, paper and paper products, phos-
phate fertilizer materials, oyster shell, and limestone.
Waterways. Florida's waterways are important from both the commercial

and the recreational boating standpoint. Florida has almost 1,800 miles of
improved waterways which serve both interests equally well.
The most important waterway in the state from the standpoint of water-
borne commerce tonnage is the section of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
between Carabelle, Florida and the Alabama state line. During 1954 a total
of about 2 million tons of commerce travelled over the waterway. The prin-
cipal commodities are petroleum products, oyster shell and industrial chemicals.
Second in tonnage is the Intracoastal Waterway along the Atlantic

Coast of Florida from Fernandina to Key West. The waterway is 12 feet deep
as far south as Eau Gallie, Florida. From Eau Gallie to Miami it is 8 feet
deep, and from Miami to Key West, 5 feet. The waterway carried a total of
1,663,000 tons of commerce in 1954. The main products were gasoline, fuel
oil, and limestone. In addition to the commercial traffic, the waterway







serves an extensive fleet of winter vacation pleasure craft which travel

between northern points and southern Florida. Last year, 2,628 passages were

recorded. The number has been increasing rapidly each year since the end of

World War II. In 1945 only 568 passages were recorded. The Okeechobee Cross

Florida Waterway from Stuart on the east coast through Lake Okeechobee to Fort

Myers Beach on the Gulf is a tributary waterway to the east coast waterway.
The third ranking waterway, commerce-wise, is the St. Johns River

from Jacksonville upstream some 160 miles to Lake Harney. It was one of the

first waterways in the state to have commercial importance. Its early paddle-

wheel steamer traffic contributed greatly to the early development of North-

east Florida. Today the river serves a thriving trade in petroleum products,

pulpwood, and fish products. During 1954, over 500,000 tons of commerce

travelled the waterway.

Other important waterways of the state, ranked according to their 1954

commerce, are St. Marks River, Withlachoochee River, Apalachicola River,

LeGrange Bayou, and the unimproved Intracoastal Waterway between Caloosa-

hatchee River and Anclote River on the west coast of the peninsula. As on

other Florida waterways, their principal commodities are petroleum products,

oyster shell, sand and gravel, and fish.
These ports and waterways are only a few of the more important projects

in the state. The accompanying map (Figure 2) shows the authorized federal

river and harbor works which have been completed or are under construction.

Recreational Water Use

The recreational use of Florida's water resources cannot be evaluated

quantitatively in a manner similar to that of the other three major users.

Water used for swimming, skiing, boating and the like is rarely, if ever,

subject to transportation or treatment. Rather, it is used where it is found

and such use almost without exception does not impair its quantity or quality


- 25.-







for other users. For these reasons it il possible to gain an appreciation
of recreational water use by demonstrating the significance of such use to
the state's economy.
The amount of money spent to use Florida's waters for recreational

purposes is astounding. In this section of the report, data have been pre-
sented to show the magnitude of expenditures by residents and visitors to the
state in 1955. In general these data appear to be conservative and are based
on information collected from a number of reliable sources. Representatives
of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission were untiring in their
efforts to collect these facts, as were certain members of the Florida Wild-
life Federation. Among those groups who furnished information were the
Industry Advisory Committee on Statistics of the National Association of
Engine and Boating Manufacturers, Inc., the Outboard Boating Club of America,
the major outboard engine and boat manufacturers, the Outdoor Writers Asso-

ciation, and various sportsmen's organizations. The supporting information

is too voluminous to be included in this report but has been placed on file
in the Commission's office.
Fraeh Water Sport Fishing. The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission

reports that 333,000 fresh water fishing licenses were sold in Florida in

1955. In addition, it was estimated that more than 267,000 individuals
availed themselves of the nonlicensing fishing privileges, which gives a
total of 597,000 fresh water fishermen in the state last year. Since a
license is not required for salt water fishing, it is likely that an equal

number of fishermen in the state were enjoying the benefits of salt water
fishing.
It is estimated that in 1955 people fishing in the fresh waters of

state expended $121,514,000 for such things as rental boats and motors,
transportation to and from the fishing site, depreciation of boats and out-
board motors, expendable tackle, and trailers.


26 -


__


- ^ /W,-






Airboats. Of the 1,030 licensed airboats in Florida in 1955, 247 were

used primarily for commercial purposes, such as frogging, but the remainder
are used primarily for recreational purposes. Most airboats in Florida are
concentrated in the Everglades region for sport fishing, sight-seeing, and
hunting. Such equipment is relatively expensive to operate and maintain. It
is estimated by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission that the total dollar
volume for the recreational use of airboats amounted to $1,036,000 in 1955.
Hunting. The Game Management Division of the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission have been collecting data on waterfowl utilization for a num-
ber of years. Expenditures for waterfowl hunting include the hunting equip-
ment and use of boats required to reach the favorable hunting areas. The
value placed on waterfowl in 1955 is estimated at $1,500,000.
Recreational Boating. The most common as well as the most expensive
method of enjoying Florida's water resources is recreational boating. Accord-
ing to information based on the U. S. Coast Guard reports, 400,000 boats used
Florida's waters in 1955. These boats range in size from 16 feet skulls to
large cruisers used on the inland waterways and bays of the state. There is
obviously a wide variation in the annual operational cost of these craft.
According to the best low estimates available, however, it is reported that
the average maintenance and use cost per vessel is $500, thus indicating
expenditures of $200,000,000 on maintenance and operation of these boats in
Florida during 1955. In addition, major outboard manufacturers report a total
sale of $6,500,000 in motors during 1955, to which must be added a reported

$13,000,000 of sales of boats and equipment in 1955. During the same period
inboard boat purchases with equipment totaled some $30,000,000. The cost of
new equipment purchased during 1955 is estimated at $5,000,000 to give a
grand total of $255,000,000 expended for recreational boating in Florida,
excluding the cost of boats less than 16 feet in length.


- 27 -






Fish Camps. It is reported that in 1956 there were 879 fresh water

fish camps in Florida having 8771 boats for hire and 1,645 cabins and two

hotels available for public usage. Although no figure for income from the
operation of these fish camps is available, the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission reports a capital investment of $3,578,C00.
Commercial Frog Hunting. Frog hunting normally requires the use of

airboats. It has already been seen that airboats are expensive to own and
operate; but regardless of the necessary costs of doing business, the value
of frog legs packed in Florida is placed at $1,125,000 per year.
Commercial Fish Bait Industry. A number of people in Florida derive

their major source of income from catching and selling bait fish. These fish
usually are caught by means of cast nets used by individuals, but there are

several commercial fish hatcheries scattered throughout the state. According
to the best estimates available, $726,000 of bait fish were sold in the state

in 1955.
Future Recreational Uses. It is difficult if not impossible to pro-

ject the economic figures in this report to the future. However, the fishing
and boating pressure of Florida's water resources will undoubtedly continue
to increase. Based on present-day trends, it is estimated that by 1970 at
least 500,000 fresh water fishing licenses will be sold each year and an
additional 400,000 people will fish in the fresh waters of the state without
a license. Should this trend hold, sport fishing values will probably in-
crease to $3,400,000 per year.
The estimated $381,000,000 spent in 1956 for recreational use of the

state's water resources constitutes a substantial segment of the economy.

Summary of Water Usage in Florida

From the information shown in this report, some conception of the

magnitude of water usage by the various beneficial users may be gained.


- 28 -






Table 15 presents in summary form total water use in Florida during the year

1956 for municipal and rural, agricultural, and industrial operations. The
totals indicate that some 3,800 m.g.d. were used for various beneficial pur-
poses during the year, but there are undoubtedly other operations, such as
air-conditioning, which consume significant quantities of water but which
have not been treated in this report. In addition untold billions of gallons
of water are used by individuals and groups for recreational purposes, but
quantitative valuations of the amount are not possible or practicable. Earlier
sections of this report show, however, the terrific impact of recreational use
upon the state's economy.
An attempt has also been made to project water use values into the
year 1970. The estimations show that municipal and rural domestic and live-
stock usage will increase from about 480 to 790 m.g.d. in 1970, while water
used by the four major industries of the state will increase from 2,170 to

3,420 m.g.d. The largest increase percentage-wise is that indicated by the
future demand for supplemental irrigation water. The estimates show that the

1956 average daily use of 1,180 m.g.d. may be expected to increase to approxi-
mately 2,200 m.g.d., giving an increase in the total usage from 3,700 to 6,400
m.g.d., or an estimated average increase of 67 per cent. It should again be
pointed out that all the rates of water use are based on the average daily
consumption during the entire year of 1956. In actuality, the rates of demand
at any given time may be somewhat lower or considerably higher than the average
values indicated. For example, municipal consumption of water during the warm
summer months often exceeds the average daily consumption by 150 per cent,
while the demands for irrigation water may occur entirely within a period of
two or three months.
The study shows, nevertheless, that the rate of water consumption and
use for beneficial purposes in Florida is rapidly increasing, and the vari-
ability of the available water resources with time and with place can create


- 29 -






a set of circumstances whereby the water requirements of a given area may exceed

the available amounts during certain periods of the year.

TABLE 15. Total Water Use in Florida 1956
Note: Water use for recreation in Florida cannot be given quantitatively.
Refer to the section on recreational water use.
Industrial
Citrus Chem. &
County Munic. Agri. Mining Power Proc. Pulp & Paper Total
Alachua 5.1 1.4 x x x x 6.5
Baker 0.2 0.2 x x x x 0.4
Bay 3.7 0.2 x x x x 3.9
Bradford 0.4 0.4 x x x x 0.8
Brevard 2.2 8.3 x x x x 10.5
Broward 30.8 59.6 1.0 157.0 x x 248.4
Calhoun 0.2 0.8 x x x x 1.0
Charlotte 0.3 30.0 x x x x 30.3
Citrus 0.2 0.5 x x x x 0.7
Clay 0.9 5.0 10.0 x x x 15.9
Collier 0.9 12.5 x x x x 13.4
Columbia 1.0 0.5 x x x x 1.5
Dade 84.5 61.0 46.0 68.0 0.5 x 260.0
DeSoto 1.0 9.7 x x x x 10.7
Dixie 0.2 0.1 x x x x 0.3
Duval 45.7 0.7 x 329.0 x 50 425.4
Escambia 16.3 0.2 x 123.0 x 63 202.5
Flagler 0.2 5.5 1.0 x x x 6.7
Franklin 0.3 0.1 x x x x 0.4
Gadsden 3.2 6.7 1.0 x x x 10.9
Gilchrist 0.1 x x x x x 0.1
Glades 0.1 34.3 x x x x 34.4
Gulf 0.5 x x x x 32 32.5
Hamilton 0.4 2.7 x x x x 3.1
Hardee 0.5 28.7 x x 0.7 x 29.9
Hendry 1.1 46.2 x x x x 47.3
Hernando 0.3 0.6 x x x x 0.9
Highlands 2.6 28.9 x 75.0 x x 106.5
*Hillsborough 24.6 23.9 11.0 1.0 3.6 4 68.1
Indian River 2.1 42.0 1.0 1.0 2.2 x 48.3
Jackson 2.1 3.0 x 120.0 x x 125.1
Jefferson 0.3 x x x x x 0.3
Lafayette 0.1 1.6 x x x x 1.7
Lake 4.6 32.9 1.0 x 10.4 x 46.9
Lee 2.6 42.0 x x x x 44.6
Leon 4.8 2.8 x x x x 7.6
Levy 0.2 0.1 x 272.0 x x 272.3
Liberty x x x x x x x
Madison 0.5 0.6 x x x x 1.1
Manatee 2.8 16.1 x x 2.5 x 21.4
Marion 2.4 7.8 x x 2.3 x 12.5
Martin 1.2 22.8 x x x x 24.0
*Holmes 0.1 0.2 x x x x 0.3
30 -


- _-.___IL-







Citrus Chem. &
County Munic. Agri. Mining Power Proc. Pul & Paer Total
Monroe 4.6 x x x x x 4.6
Nassau 0.8 1.1 x 1.0 x 50 52.9
Okaloosa 2.1 x x x x x 2.1
Okeechobee 0.3 12.0 x x x x 12.3
Orange 17.5 86.4 x 59.0 4.3 x 167.2
Osceola 2.0 4.5 x x 0.4 x 6.9
Palm Beach 27.0 300.4 x x x x 327.4
Pasco 1.6 6.5 x x 25.2 x 33.3
Pinellas 32.1 15.0 x x x x 47.1
Polk 15.7 66.3 112.0 28.0 34.5 58 314.5
Putnam 1.5 5.0 3.0 42.0 x 24 75.5
St. Johns 2.0 26.2 x x x x 28.2
St. Lucie 1.8 76.6 x x x x 78.4
Santa Rosa 0.5 0.2 x x x x 0.7
Sarasota 3.1 14.4 x x x x 17.5
Seminole 1.6 12.7 x 59.0 2.1 x 75.4
Sumter 0.3 4.4 x x 1.4 x 6.1
Suwannee 0.5 2.2 x 87.0 x x 89.7
Taylor 0.6 0.4 x x x 26 27.0
Union 0.6 0.3 x 1.0 x x 1.9
Volusia 9.7 1.7 x 118.0 x x 129.4
Wakulla 0.1 x x 50.0 x x 50.1
Walton 0.6 0.1 x x x x 0.7
Washington 0.4 x x x x x 0.4

TOTALS 378.0 1,180.0 187.0 1,591.0 90.0 307.0 3,730.0


- 31 -


I_




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs