Title: California and the San Joaquin Valley - Feather River Project
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002931/00001
 Material Information
Title: California and the San Joaquin Valley - Feather River Project
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: State Water Resources Board - March 1956
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - California and the San Joaquin Valley - Feather River Project
General Note: Box 12, Folder 2 ( Water Resources Reports - Various States - 1955 - 1957 ), Item 2
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00002931
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text


I"' I TI



.. Y Abr."O ELD A J\

Sna. 6o. SOLA- O TAMADOAR---L-

SC O 'n SEA LS D 0 A D 0 .

CLAR. rM -'o' E .CED a .
5 Jo.e 0 OMercAd MA
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STA N i S r A A A N O


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L O CL O" O U- I N .0N ,

"A SI L.WS I AT O _7




And Counto




LoAtia la

Ba r A
Josua N. AYLmETO
Zmp vim
5 -

C-amoIH. H.nOLUs


W. E. Su.vuwoou
savainna i

SmFr Pveico
Director at Large

DoniL Boss
Evaxirr G. BDuUKALTzi
ity C ie..ma
SmnFron emo
RonBoT amiGimo
Fo.m ewrr...
tFam Faims

WDjJAM B. How=
L4e Angel

HowAne A. MELv.

eama alesN

Sm FramncEo
J. P. vAN LOemm Sa

Hxmx D. GBuEiN

Dear Citizens

The story which follows graphically and pictorially

presents key facts for better understanding of the water

problems which face the San Joaquin Valley and the

entire State.

A large share of Feather River Project water will be

used in the San Joaquin Valley. Therefore it is important

that you, as a resident of this productive farming area,

be informed of the direct benefits to be expected from

the Feather River Project.

The Feather River Project Association, representing

state water leaders from Oroville to San Diego including

representatives of cities, counties, farm and business

organizations, is dedicated to solving this state-wide

water problem for the benefit of all Californians. Officers

and members of the association are listed in the column

at the left.

We urge your interest and participation in furthering

this much-needed water development project.

eery truly yo ,

OR SHION, President

The Feather River Project Association

Facts about the F.R.P.

The Feather River Project, the initial Unit
of the California Water Plan, is workable
and financially feasible. It can provide needed
supplemental water and flood control with-
in four to six years from the date construc-
tion is started. Water should be delivered to
the San Joaquin Valley within that time.
In ten to fifteen years the FRP should deliver
water to the South San Francisco Bay area
and Southern California.
The economic and engineering feasibility
of the Feather River Project as recommended
by the State Engineer has been confirmed by
the Bechtel Corporation.

Areas and people within 27 counties can
be served by the Feather River Project. The
entire State will receive direct or indirect
Oroville Dam, the key Unit of the FRP,
will protect northern counties from floods.
The FRP Aqueduct and delivery system will
annually bring to farms and cities of Cali-
fornia an amount of water sufficient to cover
nearly five million acres of land a foot deep!
The continued growth of the economy of
the State, which the FRP will assure, will
provide jobs for hundreds of thousands who
are coming to California every year.

,'. ..


There's plenty of water in California.

Fortunately, California has all the water
it needs now or in the predictable future.
More than 71,000,000 acre-feet run through
the state's streams each year, originating in
snow-packed mountains, such as pictured
California also possesses a great under-

ground reservoir of 130,000,000 acre-feet of
water within 200 feet of the ground surface.
However, we are overdrawing this under-
ground water supply at the rate of 5,000,000
acre-feet a year. By 1965, we will be over-
drawing it at the rate of 1,000,000o acre-
feet a year-unless we do something about it.

but it's wasted, poorly distributed!

Nearly three-fourths of California's water
originates in and flows through the northern
half of the state.
The San Joaquin Valley, the world's larg-
est and most fertile area of irrigated crops,
has only 16 per cent of the state's water.
The other o per cent is scattered through-
out the coastal regions and the dry Lahontan
and Colorado basin desert areas.
In short, the problem before us is to redis-
tribute excess northern water, which wastes
into the sea, into the thirsty and productive
acres of central and southern California.

Thickness of arrows show amount of water that flows in various California drainage areas.

Uncontrolled this flow results

in tragic flood

During Christmas week 1955, heavy rain
fell throughout most of California and flood
waters raged uncontrolled into the state's
This worst flood on the state record killed
40 persons and caused damage estimated at
$ I00,000,000.
Highways, bridges, lumber mills, fish

hatcheries, homes, autos, crops and livestock
were destroyed as 70,000,000 acre-feet of
rampant water raged across country and
The shocking fact is that such floods and
consequent loss of lives and property could
be prevented by an adequate water conser-
vation program.

Controlled it

will benefit the

state and

the valley!

At the present time, farming in
the western and southern part of
the San Joaquin Valley is handi-
capped by a serious and increasing
shortage of water. Experts agree
that a significant amount of this
extremely fertile farm land may
have to be abandoned soon because
of fast receding underground
water tables. Should this happen,
gone will be the income from tens
of thousands of acres of land-
and gone with it will be jobs,
homes and people.
Water for agriculture in some
parts of the San Joaquin Valley
today is already being pumped
from the alarming depth of 500
to 650 feet. ellsls drilled iooo feet
deep are not uncommon in some
areas and with their pumping
equipment, can cost as much as
$25,000 or more each.
These are grim facts and the
Valley's race against water poverty
will soon become greatly more
desperate unless projects-partic-
ularly the FRP-to relieve these
conditions are undertaken imme-

A,. r





The River: Wild and Wasteful

The turbulent Feather River (at left) winds
down the rugged Sierra Nevadas into the
Sacramento Valley, draining a basin of more
than 4,000 square miles and carrying nearly
5,000,000 acre-feet of water per year.
Engineers estimate only 12 per cent of the
Feather River water would be needed to
develop completely the areas in which the
river originates and naturally flows. The
other 88 per cent is needed in the state's
thirsty acres to the south.

Greatest loss of natural water in Califor-
nia is its continual wasting into the Pacific
Ocean through areas like the San Francisco
Bay area (above).
California's dams and reservoirs hold only
20,000,000 acre-feet. The other 51,000,000
acre-feet of water spills into the sea each
year-while farmers in central and southern
California drill deeper into the earth for
less and less water.


Many of California's largest cities will soon need FRP water, not only for household and
industrial use, but to keep healthy their supporting agricultural economy. Communities-
like crops-need water for growth!

The big job of developing a sound water program for
the state of California falls on everyone's shoulders.


1. Join and support the Feather River Project Association and your
local organizations working for the FRP.

2. Make your desire for a good California Water Plan known to
your legislators and other public officials.

3. Encourage your service club, civic and fraternal organizations
to adopt a program supporting the California Water Plan.

~~ 3 a
ki N3

Feather River Project Ass'n
210 W. Seventh Street
Los Angeles 14, Calif.


Permit No. 15341
Los Angeles, Cal.



Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California

Reports of Progress in Research by the California Agricultural Experiment Station

. '6Aa h.4

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A ML L of major important
in th6 nra WWOaer rigbis was an amend

M;V;*j~r*AW qr A&B, attacsng t
A#'atri r mppW~st to the sain
'M;zds of rc~oiQabIaoefickir usoe c
n t*e f6A ei penploig water'righti
Ash oustmullig tesude laav ont yeat
*83 the bIc.son of Ir* -caiarltia S,
sr Q3n-in 1049 iti-iA Raymon.
n -b~the Chgo Pasaden
-ctyaiOt .Cit Tyat d
4 mai94 ib a new- k,_tdie Cal

Y4 c-V eouE that whe
i~ Cp ~l a~~k~_PP~ Nm-~gn fir,
lij~iver S~~S1 -in *Vor
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to. *t

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to ceqjons, bm without re O to -haracte
r1 er be r4olted to tb
Sfib the report work
of the watei usel
...... i..oes dot inpair the validity o

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SeWonmi implications of the* our ene e p0e000r for
feJ. M...F1 ; I. M yder
allodfing ground wtr implortnint in it dvopnd t ard use 2

i A s e .. oud-wauer cedee provides m a parties with the fective in 1955 and hbs eduted ground-
,. pne w.f -~.e giwof .u impartial imeriga try w.er Cetractiqu bjy .u,.25% below
i u bes alClagtas juiuaieau -a ur* e,wp the 19f-8M5 rtes. Wlnew. of. wter
S ,i Coun sme. -sad k .ir ay.em boed on the
Wants and anee -Ia nte .. -f of ?Pod_
by t u.e. of we !rTa ... quca No aoV permed ,
.aP of A Wepst Coast yBai- int el the u e agemet afec the water
.t Anges County-is pending trial cr. rt !944-- riip4s t, panrtiesto the suit. The
trt sustained .by S. e "a S rem e agrewmet was designed to reduce the
w..u .. .. .0w n
arid hy produtie area of Cain "194--dente watrige roUm e overdraft, and preserve the
tla* sin8 always been depead- of the itgat&. All patie with. 4iGts rights of the parties during litigation.
.p irigatio to sustain its inLte- t puoamp. asl ,jt arnot. oe
cL U f '.ta 4 has relied heavly uk .teb ie,, de folt tomeZ4 adt
4 waterr ^n trriegfa ated. age. d&e c dse i aa Wyat uag ftoCasynd Basin and
3.iae afea, doeatic, cormnuar l wer no in thfae ;Pu. Te fl hling to a b thee now.e-- and--ntil the

iaW eordwR tet. ri.tswee by t", ate, op- p., ".yastd ain .. the -, ,tas and
.bews ba ii iire chawacterised by ww9on olksea s overlfyinawm- A Wtheportaf ^attpf m a wasl
lafon, ground water-a ea~doriprc .atpWF^at tim wep &p r egroun-
e d pimipg lthe ieoueaad ia. abe ltets also c&MMd or pareered water ad sepiatdly iBCesaainpumip- **^
Slifts qve resulted. The pgh by reason of the wer they in lifts weidated,
,ownt -a- had sat ate ina p*ped I "eal or be an 'd saMlt water
^M^^^4a~ef~lE^^.owpt^^ H^.i
ime f Cowsl of. Aie the ona.4.4~L1 Yl siKia litiganre pe~oned the trial ta ring A^edise gunp drafted

Sihe water rights oO ",
u. severed aa iy, amqft yiew rn *aon in
pan" .t -..ate spah Pf, n poe bn.d
on ad* c4 p ed cu rsa-sagt u fin4 $ aejrd-

A**04 giounA waW CAW m that td*i* f.. "ha gm-

..-v,-W w.-. fxqNqOs. tfl o n iI t t l i.pe....-

r'zp nd:.sel .q t davr-'af

39 4;eaB~aw~~j
M '. i 7*",~-~~.~ I~r~z~r ;*~n pb


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77 7F7

refilling water reservoirs

problem o ni'y pg vernmental agencies

SWarmn A. Hall

i rrri plga-teS% of Califoniia a
irrigate3;.ar | d depends n reser-
voirs ofi i -it.. o
In seari state, natural re-
charge is ~, i replae water e
moved for z or t. Hb*owver, in
other arsir i' rean d at a mas
faster rate' t AA it can be replaced by
natural smeann.
Research is under way to determine
how gwouni after recharge can best be
The fifirst ucw sal artificial recharge
operation ra of ature's own sys-
tem. As *.NPv;t* emerge from
the mot i i ''te Taley floor, tbhy"
drop the j aOi p _ad coarsest sediment
first ne0r fftS t Abf mountain wit.
qpgregre imal huer masiterials found e
te centeat t6 i di"ey is approached.
By a.systis 6f &tewii-e check and oR-
version dams, tA 'eees: winter flow is
made to p d iot er large area of
the coa which readily ab-
sorb ai'. heie it gradualy
trick wwn la~o pmtips in the valley
There are disadvantages to this sys-
tem, simpn: t ..'may be. When flood
waters a e'l over these areas
and a4Woein* to theground,
alt of -iu y the water
is 4 jR&emd surface
.and fori uit fur-
S.ther infil k e tarse
sedirent aAs *se

curr ng.

that the, ,,. 8

feithodsM oimro.i, e *
T mAftr t ee 'prblea; Aeudies of
methods of improving the permeability

of the surface soils were conducted. Ex-
peri ents indicated that cotton gin trash
-.d *_,other owydcat organic
*iSa wrsdcts could lazeriafly oierease
the i"ftration rates in some localities.
Similar results were obtained with- com-
mercial soil conditioners. Bermuda grass,
if allowed to grow with the tops above
the water, proved to be almost as ef-
Inability of these surface treatments
to priide satisfactory increases in in-
filtration rate' .o some large spreading
areas led to studies on the effects of the
"d ep subsurface siil conditions on the
valie of surface treatments.
Measurements were made of the pres-
sure of the water at depths up to 80' as
it percolated down. A series of perched
water tables were observed, each created
by a thin horibontal layer of clay. When
the apprmtost perched water table rose
to-e soil surface, the permeability of
the surface soil ceased to be an impor-
lant fct6r in the infiltration rate. The
less permneble clays backed up the water,
greatly reducing the rate of inflow.

Plans Studied
One proposal to eliminate the effects
of the deepless permeable strata was
to spread water in relatively long narrOw
basiwivith considerath prodiotive farm
land between. The perched water tables
dCoaMe lh *laky ta ahey grew, deortean
ifigf Sbdater -

tess aritae asse* at a*f a& ?t
at the soil surfao
Exptiwdental trenches were et-
str-eted and operated. The frt results

were quite disappointing because of the
.tMr~asoction o'sall 'Ao construction
eof ,the trnch as on Bt ithe trench
with water. After the first year's opera-
tion, a thin crust of very low permea-
bility was found over-the sides and bot-
tom of the trench. Experiments are be-
ing conducted to eliminate the silting
A third proposal would bypass all the
intervening obstacles to ground-water
recharge by feeding the water directly
to the ground wiaer through wells. How-
ever, wells are subject to the same prob-
lems of decreasing permeability that
plague surface recharge systems. In fact,
they are magnified, for all of the water
must pass through the small area of con-
tact between the well casing and the soil.
As a result, it becomes more easily
clogged with sediment and micrborgan-
isms. It has proven to be almost impos-
sible to effectively dean the clogging
material from the walls of the well.
Probability of plugging and the re-
sultant decreased capacity as well as the
possibility of bacterial contamination of
domestic water supplies virtually pre-
clude use of existing pumping wells.
Some successful recharge with wells
has been done using clear or filtered wa-
ter, chlorinated to remove all organic
matter. Notable is the fresh water bar-
rier near Manhattan Beach, created to
prevent intrusion of salt water into the
nearby fresh water basins.
A recent proposal has been termed
replenishment-irrigation. This method
involves excess irrigation of regular crop
land during the winter using the normal
irrigation distribution system. Recently
completed studies on, 60 acres of three
year old-aalfa are quite encouraging.
Observations were made of the differ-
ences in- plt mortality rates and yield
between noirrited and checks exces-
sIjly irrigated between December 15
a~CFebruM y One cheek'was continu-
-.w y Irrigaed; for the entire period.
Other. were irrigated continuously for
periods of ocp wd4k, two weeks, three
weeks,. and.fou weekly both early and
late in *te ts period. The percentage of
thie.j Mp u .ti.i. g after the experi-
-meat.a isW sael th sae .for the
i ""at agi the controls. The
heE' 2 "waifc y Irrigated
MEg at i 'etijR g e iM f-isty lower
d~ ia itfeeett = 1. Tr sixth cut-
t s'h*er, iuiBwes no-significant dif-

At4 id4sptakJenefi was the excellent
ct fitfwe&d obtained in those checks

eJesrea d. H1O is Assistaat Professor of Irri-
a. tina Unesityeak Cadiref Davis.
g&os ASU a afoI sr yr and ihe
i fi c operated in
sthe oesit pewneabildty of surface


' '*

Watershed Management

good practices required for the optimum production of forage

and water yields demonstrated by results of long term study

R. H. Burgy and A. F. Pillsbury

Manipulation of vegetation-as a form
of management of brush covered water-
sheds-has shown promise as a means of
increasing seasonal runoff.
Between 10 and 20 million acres of
California's foothill and intermediate
elevation watershed vegetation is princi-
pally brush. These lands are becoming
increasingly important as water produc-
ing areas. Management of watersheds
for production of water may vary from
control of land use to physical modifica-
tion of the vegetation cover.
Programs of vegetation management
to convert from brush to desirable forage
species are being actively pursued par-
ticularly on those areas most adaptable
as livestock ranges. Such programs are
of dual benefit through improvement of
ranges and increased water yields.
Heavy brush species are usually deep
rooted and use all of the moisture avail-
able in the soil profile. Further, such
vegetation has an extremely dense
canopy which results in a high intercep-
tion loss. Both of these factors are im-
Grasses tend to root less deeply and

they become dormant at an earlier date
in the season, This results in a smaller
use of moisture with a consequent carry-
over of moisture storage to the next sea-
son. The interception of rainfall is less
by grass than by brush, as it permits a
greater part of the rain to reach the soil.
Soils have fixed capacities to store
moisture. When winter rainfall exceeds
15"-20", a soil's field capacity is nearly
always satisfied. With a grass cover, more
water becomes available for runoff-
either directly or by retarded subsurface
drainage-to lower elevations.

Hydrologic Studies
Long term studies of the hydrologic
effects of brush-grass conversions have
shown increased yields of runoff water
except in the drier climates. Plot tests
and small watershed studies have been
set up to measure rainfall and runoff
throughout complete cycles of treatment.
In addition, the effects of such treatments
on soil erosion and vegetative succession
are being measured.
Watershed installations are being op-

rated in Shasta, Tehama, Mendocino,
Placer, Mariposa, Madera, Tulare and
Riverside counties. Generally the sta-
tions consist of paired watersheds with
gaging stations, erosion collectors and
precipitation stations. They are operated
to collect data from watersheds of one
acre to 4,000 acres in size. Six of these
watersheds have been converted from
brush to grass thus far, the remainder
being under pretreatment calibration.

Water Saved
The studies indicate that savings of
water can be accomplished in most of
these regions. In some cases increases
of runoff have exceeded an equivalent of
1"-2" depth of water over the entire
watershed. Vegetative type, soils, climate,
precipitation and other factors influence
the magnitudes of the effects. Upon com-
pletion of a cycle of revegetation-which
takes approximately three seasons of
growth to become stable-erosion has
been effectively reduced over that which
occurs normally under brush cover.
Concluded on page 38

Left-Diamond Range, Tehama County, watershed after felling trees in preparation for burning of vegetation. Right-
After removal of woody vegetation, range grasses have replaced the tree types.


-~ L- -~

e 4 b 4m fo)grnd-water
. ; ,- =... .

$sphCn c. nah

A.^ *_, y., .

1 y r, M 18 water

,set. lszoelb .. iep ff
i. ,ria t &a f t _e fa ote

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15, ji u ite

jjf'J-E~iia L-
WBEU~swux iH

4 lSaMje --A,-MaVL'ItMi, A ,1PP, 1957

v~n,:i l 2...,


by c

me rpa
'. atioM
* ratl

_I __

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procedures for reaphig de*iq.i where
pgae Oin;eat conict ar 'foc inter-
mil vw. mi~am.T6 pub-
lie ikai-t of < traditional
mean. for f agreeiit among
0. ~ she~tio proc-
S~ais ra,pi i~ ar;yaoced -re
fo. l t Ofigc't of CenUnon
ni 1i;s4. 4dfi66ag The immediate
opwirfti 1s p41r action. iThe lec-
,ioe -pbn cie h ben used by water
dasnawrvSitiu districts to determine
whiberS" iet q c oeos, interest
iptedf let a^ distrir tfor elect-
ig ti'd ctrs, and for ap-
mpr ea ifO6 efa bonds.
of interest freqnaenly develop
over wo iotereIted types of issues:
1; the prompe milbas for action and 2,
thf er:t"f rn. The plam for
aiat~ai couonft ~ ince they
Ti itai40 imelr'niser to the
beii 6_i 4 te6irp collective ac-
.i be,* i THm 39 t a .B0ay be
' q*.(ftmiree-.-4 '~i~ii~ic'(S5t.'^a~t ar con-
ornieift1 Me|eaity i aposa nd
with qaii&Ms f roject controL In
tbese. t of convict -e district
eTe~iafle ei hamc been succesfully
ued to sinr decisions.

-. fJu using the
** 1 n

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a. w X 4.siHm ia m an 'A A momi e-44t fpd OWeaw of saWt a41 gypWUii-4 at qptribW to

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fmwm, tra wdmte "4.nt pon lb awrte Aw i-.
atcl.1 2 neaancm-eEfat- )and;-ikdlvrAind-a the
-4 5pt_, F.ne -Buy y watrIn1st iul o Wkqy&Sls L11o-
*L ^,^ ,I ig., .f ri. k oo t wa W of- the it.Ur ceal'-

i p ."rF *or
i-4jqbaptsmasm wa*. t iami'*i nai mur and *5 ad bysawks hsad mMse

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R 1-r.- w
tco~iSe to o izn prove
Sreatve toof i.ic toOP-
,l "~~ l poop-
r*7 for land
o aennial pdsW'ftures eas a preven-
I* X- ~W k b y i wh-s p ue No c cumulative it-.
jrifc to wr tr station have been
talig l 4L A ha'o a 4n bhaactI.e red on
:MS wipagbciana oa
Sa--wa op as of good inoganic

|o oedm by the mse type" of distribution
.P aeytts" usd! wit r ^ bOM e 4nLi prte&rwl <.culties due to
gg :;^i ^.lgging Swt eeaena s in prBtre systems,
Sf -b~,o doz cea B Bh. D&...t .may be-
ib*pa *a**w]mrsua4Wy layer of
SA '*d eipt.caesh Breasived a mini-
S''i' '"'5l "I -u.Bs of'tLnd ctr .
os, e I ., oDe .-. iso.','f the western United
sf ldeda .f ee o St A gae a onaidWered to be

-w b. ak a a..s4-the ....ar ging seanon is
LY.e;.sflp .4ile e u"iy S ra ine.r Rng H & j.aif. af choice s avail-
h Orr S aN., id 4m m;r a' shifiess w ei. yaa sa i of .e.ase.td e ad.-dhigher
WC 140 S -pply. A l* o ta.t MifBf enits. In ewery reported

|, '-* "iiBid^ ^ w 11 .i W i lB; dlB: tt l ra a ti r a;ai or -t o ,ti i a'in ff fI"es,
SB. ., ,, yk wu uing
V n "-wai4 WSi
dj t wandered tpe AB Xaristion of shendal analy es
Thce~aditp .-- sa ab Paa eftudtrBUat- oa qtypipablea oft 1 C1lifrwnia cities
t.'Wc ^^jB?^yir~ci~i6~;~ of-TBa< ~ Nd~jFrotiuama p n l abws Ah]8e~ldsaut nitroeeB, omr-

f'rtsh ,fo 4mhtpe!pe s w ru so tie .aaesast |.~SL II .dheir^I* f ohe piiaiU foot of w*teamaB: e--p*49 ~ of' ?t
ly iPop "e ot fg S r o .i o -0 ynd e


i : -. '- : ., .. .... i r u -.-
P'. t WC, POeWtt ga lrotagon, and fur-
Alpep~ityi~rlr are enalistshed more
t~l~i~lad wgpei re-
aegideas: h imorbansd

re "r,4bes~iwr ~dGIcju rl-ad bm'IXLi1)5

A~.tr T -

_44ft- twr --a
soi mo'stvpift g,,wth reatws we iA cd by many-

factors in o type, plant root sysm and weatHer

nRMt M. Han -

lb frigm" ,M-'ad w he neces.
r ,. wiph dasiag a ar e famier emat
falSinsaweate Bs trotever so. 50e1
~tuf*eaofe thie other ail phydS-
CelkinAe larger pons in ;aost
-a rainqthalp seJ l drain away
a 4in aTai dayw after an trigatioe or
maiwfh being the .soil at a- mlature
0, ma.ld feat .Oapieky, : Plant
w'9 tsr oer the sai, wWfl Oxft wOte,
: i on *aii ad mlabnt willaa ,t
7y with Th Inotltare content ,a
. .- dat occurs i tihe wld-y point.
SS WALt b.Ad *i ia biatwren Sed
q ity i rand the wing point i called
tW-file % wat'r. Various soils retain
uslaAot of water at bSeld ca.
and wkig point; *ierefore, they
ai perwoat water capacities
3: SIxut viewpoi t" on soil moisture-
Sr~owth relaions and the probable
.wtlee of plant, soil weather, and
abt m nseous factors on these re
s.~ a e ilutrated by a aeries ao
., .lagram. Most of theasdi&a

Ia-allab S ?:thiSleirIPs. e*phled

'. ".l, s ,". o,M tl tii-jllB^MK '
I. dtai. .umo w -

;s B'
:~~~~~~~~~9ae iFNf.efew~a~rl

On the other hand, it is often main-
tai$ta fw~s peowt diminishea pro-
e ..es ai instale canltet
~~m l ue q cid t with growth
ebabiy a* f, -ti' point--ea ir.e-
.tant i. the Boo ied igr t this
mets waters, s growt idea fnds Bttle
support among research workers.



a a M f ET

UThevantbilty of soil moisture is n
ftf~liri^' uB.in ed la terms of s
v Ma'ie askwai v a ts"(t tipend
elaet wsitdrid'wa it enftv of l

.lllf w el' W a c Wf-Sito S
'*irpllluwpil^er f-ai i lroof

*procuEjl Bh-eril0 wlt
*pa~tfe---h *" 1 *"*

as so it8 s~~~!
7-- -'- -
$. i4~ S~wn ~ PUFW-

Alim w~sinsr w D-.

.40 1 i *, s ui t i,4,, a I$ Ij. .

i !,- -- ." '

a9 s5 s7

The theory that plant growth is a
function of soil mlaoistE t ares is niet
expressed iagreaumially. If ucfh a
reaetiostip'.exic Re. retatdation in
growth on the ianijni e sandy soil -
would e expected aatil nearly an the
available water d been -diiet--
io cure .l-**it on -the omasine slaT soil
illnstaaed eome- le~ig of !owib
should oear after about S0% deti
mw -curve2. on thbe:asid6ioit at
soil curve S- rednad rowt rat woald
ent be e dsct1ed even abt iieM eontedt
.tal nearfier capat.a j ,~roi go A
or- especed I& dedale a lppsta*lf IBva in
the the ap*C half of the available moistare
08,- -


5 e 25 so o
'MuAL- MaTnmE DMLETAR. Pikfft .

for 5

i .

~a~B~P~ -----------

~.1~:. I -~-.-.

'I, .~

3- I.


-"ro dMiW-nabe .eliaowd that
sewalrid J eatrded by delaying iri-
ata-.-^y .a^tiktr.,- vareties of beans
showed 4theat resPonres to inRiga.
ems, wich am rd9ed to diffreenes in
t air ot .. ITus, t&e frac-
X .o of *_r ea:wra'e maoiastre range
iif e 1 s etilied- before g~towth is
ha~eed 4will.vary with -tot density.

"yW ..-' ,f
Seaea. to ~aasi6e sa *rsipeo tt. way to
'we" p Sidi

Oss tMent or- i" rep for which d-e

ant '- a"1 1:.s*isternt i*WI
i a cr t. ..tar:a(be e pow

:y trv .ae vlpaiety grc on rmaH

go t etse o
*''- .- .. --. ;',..?:-. -.-:- .. .. *,,A^ f W ,,^ e .
:. -^^"^^^WP;~V i~*b~pI naopt. -Beceisaw.ie9fg Bt

'; "S'and-"Cy T aa s t

c.. 0i d. ga

Pmp- sui
-- _. I-

a.-, n, k *. ** p .. ,
'46 1

f: I' i ~C A-Fo efi a

_S {dte l #,ea E p I tplrq stra. BeAUMe of

*., r ri0 to hv 'even dtoun a rela-
.q15:."-itiap a,.a ,mshf ,A m -- ,t ,may.de-
_i i ~XO -i.i I sas in g so il
Ml $'lr an. u:bijatq d to'^ iito '4Bwi&M C t.amtbn d sad -out a few
0' no ieS- ve large
_L~u hnetiakeyo sl.r v6Auioii um orid silfkeween roots
H.,Th pri of some 1* Uir euit soimol v-
aAkewts is mE.d. by aoi _.re q. A. pus or avres teade indictiiag devices
S t*eoe"... r ~.einl~Cf-Meiae aMy -iJ -Iieatkftaleptaaeqf Iiois-
S. v4-i.w we SWt. ..qgi.av. as y 'L i o Sq ndiC.e. Crops
a n-l _-h sMed Itbog. Sbwaur .-pad o. i ..ia-
- .. d .ef.si fni_, ,oh .ab hd ao.H iL
5n \),a;rl~~-ns -,ii Nriiia< ^ <


UUni-t maboduase developed to meas-
urn tlWagnshrid ma emnreaoed by
rt b!,._!!_-". Wa cn"ltoeas.
oMry mow1re

-. ., .'. -+_,- .a ....
59-N ii Miz U .5. j


it very dl ia o evasluate e actual soil
we awe to which the plant is ub-
e .W.ans cenfiWed to cotainame d
A,. Ilam mfbeMipected to be quite
to depletion of the available sail

*^; Faflors
- Amy soil factor which affects root
desiLty or depth cas be.expected to in-
fluenM the response of the crop to irri-
- t MeelhN cal ipedasce, aow
eplg etratiroan -d poor inteRelp
ws, anld ; defilient aeration- fre-
q, y are. responsible for. sparse a id
awroo. So.istrctu re. texture, and
tdA deteWiue the total capacity o the
Sfqrusoria g available water for )lant
-^ 'IT6' total awalabte mosatre
mpsily within the root zone and the
.miteretra ae characteris s of the
Wi aie be&h important factor&deternrin-
i4 the urate of change in soil moisture
in is or stressa Deep-rooted eraps on
de. mus.lly u raaow. smaar. response
to irrigation than l-allower-roted
Scri.. en the same soil. Crops growng
ad a soiiin which 75%-85% f di e
,Baw s water is released at tensioM
hdd Bee-u Ph"*her tay be expected
tiacwrr t i a sie usme teirrigstioun
atgila raitite:t da~ r evel than.
tp, .ado',i^i .aow n e<.a -ai;t..in
ee diew thn S alesabausech
,Y..i'ewm.. MTe ri~fte t whic .WeN.t
,A .e .~~ts4 eiorbing rew,eac

irtoma de, caner amtw ea of
Sintesdinintrgegby leaaing 'Mmwevr,
same sTop fssy raxepo B rad-rY e toMy
to the m4e0 frequent 041tashedule.
in Sois where te avT.w& weoply of
Some cuftftwi{-Bn- pta srftfr the
top soil, the'dryiag out oflie iir pr-.
ties ofhe.&eto sawe nsywetieBupy retard
jplakt irowtSh i.eR dteuteh& a iqjt may
,i be d* .at i =' iMe water
from a lis fa .ti i re-
spoBes tavte *hpOtswetd ifterpreta-
tion of many soil moisture'veras plant
growth experiments.

Sandeercendirtionsu-pwrticularly light
and *1teapramiB-n-ay so -inflaLce the
gruiwt aitIurias T ot and
root as to, afec sbo. a gnur-gr wth re-
latlea. LIns.iO4ptede sagar .beetswhiwB
mugt develop root _diq- hoe dry
weather taay .f-iltb dise g.,ai dense or
deep a root system aiearly seeded teets,
Suic b6ier are srmCh cie AiAtive to
depqedot of avlableMa iture TMa are'
t&is idep xootaetd eapa idd 4y. in
a fitewa I'ke laeg if a0t ap disease
Wefi fa l lnirei roo inam s'lept


0 i n 13
-P M n-i. a.tew

4 jyrORNIA AGrsIrCU-LTUaR, ArrIM, 19S2
-f:...- .

iUtrnBa j.seet rH ar "-O.fu ,
snsue sewmtk. Sifal sname predietO.,

M n


~., ~,,. --.~~,,~~--YIYI ~----~--I- __.__ __

artiea, drainage, ,^ root

tse igadotrsw; i :low
., _, e .. ,.. :
aiaw idetranardi tool great h ant ^ Mid

Ite fea.ity ,aoiis Plf tttenmdBP pos-
A;~i~3h~ idy dedepiskeas~en aine. ep
siia-ony alt w entr&ea nesmthe i
grow mwpoai of -opso to iratigs

-ar~r~i~E$~p' A116111101 iW~n- 11,11 Z.~ i

depend-Ot dti liBORaMgar ee rel-th
tion.tE aildftfliie. s for diffe-as
rates iE i bic he Oe
&ised.i ias neat aeada-
*medad WoIwe.larwiffilthhud lowern-
she pleuarnam eorLstposduig v to any
givena (Mrfil ignedtst ste s. washlW
kwAE A4,e4aS*E esuorg amwth to
diiniah 'ae yiel sIItar< letds as
iwestratiptheem MNack mare ork on
Itis poit is needed.

*-Piiobbiw fafdieated wvih bfiaet con-
aro el.hersest^g ligasyttimae ineusob
dittas on (o) yied Tlde- Mollowing
Study of forage sd seed production by
ladia. clo"w provides an interesting

* .. ~



*y?;. w '4Af; $bw k 4 r"

e'iCkto'fetn he shoud
to ife smae available
5t fracton of
dte ktto id i rtatiwMuiHe range which
qi hka tid vik ay -deypendm4s on a
'asade of lfetatsti hsodl p M rooting
dcharseteria^ia )9ab de ir rimgtion
system. f,a. iluarated below, a afety
margin of 16% is made to meet the prac-

bwrtl.o !

naul- *

** *

S 6*7- :- -

homer repe sOee

* -a

O s5 0 75 MI

ical problemS of irrigation under farm-
ing oboditidsn, then a on~iderable por-
lon of the fiMff s predicted by the
several currenp etheries on water-soil-
ipla2t.n'rembo tends to disappear How-
eve, 'to raie iMgslgah ediciency and to
iheirawe cop.prodetion, vigaorou pro-
gre t "of usch mst be continued.
o ~brt M ipo, Ass ociate Professor o
irnrein. Uiversit of Caifrni.a, Davis.
Lshq.adiss oasw beets were conducted
4 t19.h. OsRsM, a kdhie on beans by L. D.
dsiw, Pr6jfeir fraiomfdore and D. *. Hen.
ders, ;'AssiiMd- rf r of Irrigatfn, tini-
-wisy 4iK-C4Uhmia, aisds.

sey and the Imperial Vallky
UaM6n0 .Mdt4.nbl.Jue-k."

or:me rd:the a arm sodium, trouble
ieepu d Lans somil 4ipersal and

,h Tis
~f d aL


CralPflWn& nAGsIcsrwU Ie,. A .ltR 19 57

p p '..


^-*- '^^


*i- -J



r -

i ~I~ ~-

Grapes and Deciduous Fruits

irrigation of deciduous orchards and vineyards influenced

by plant-soil-water relationships in individual situations

F. J. Veihmeyer and A. H. Hendrickson

One of the principal cultural practices
in deciduous fruit orchards and vine-
yards is irrigation and its successful ac-
complishment frequently determines
whether the grower makes a profit.
The cost of irrigation-preparing the
land for surface irrigation, the labor of
applying the water and the cost of the
water-may be one of the important
items in the production of fruit.Because
experience has shown that much time and
labor may be wasted, the selection of a
rational program of irrigation is of great
Whether to irrigate or not, or when to
irrigate, are questions that can be an-
swered only from consideration of the
moisture properties of the soil, the kind
of plant, its depth of rooting, the kind of
root system, prevailing climatic condi-
tions, and whether there is a supply of
water for irrigation.
A grower should consider the soil as
a reservoir for the storage of water for
use by the plants. Therefore, he needs to
know how much readily available water
can be stored in the soil.
When water is applied to a soil the
pore spaces are almost filled with water
for a short time to the depth wetted. Dur-
ing this interval the soil is nearly satu-
rated. If drainage takes place some of
the water will move downward and, to a
less extent, laterally, by gravity. The
amount of water held by the soil after

drainage takes place is called the field
capacity of that soil. For practical pur-
poses a soil has a definite field capacity.
When the moisture content of the soil
reservoir is not sufficient to maintain
normal growth and vigor of plants, that
point is called the permanent wilting per-
centage and the plants will reach a con-
dition of wilting such that recovery will
not take place until water is added to
the soil.
The field capacity and the permanent
wilting percentage are the only soil mois-
ture conditions of any practical value
for consideration in connection with
plant growth.
The grower may be able to judge when
his trees need water by his daily observa-
tion of their condition. When wilting or
other evidence of lack of readily avail-
able moisture is hard to detect in the
trees, the condition of some of the broad-
leaved weeds-left as indicator plants in
various places in the orchard-will show
by drooping that they need water. Gen-
erally such weeds are deep-rooted enough
to indicate by their wilting a lack of
readily available water in the soil occu-
pied by the roots of the trees.

Root Systems
The depth and character of the root
systems of trees and vines are important
in determining irrigation practices. De-

ciduous fruit trees and grape vines are
in the class of deep rooted plants. Conse-
quently they can be grown sometimes in
regions where there is little rain during
the growing season, and where evaporat-
ing conditions are relatively mild.
Withholding irrigation will not force
trees to send their roots deeply into the
soil and light irrigation will not encour-
age shallow rooting; neither will irrigat-
ing on one side of the tree only confine
the roots to that side.
If soils are wet only to a certain depth,
and if the soil below this depth is at the
permanent wilting percentage, the roots
will be confined within the wetted area.
On the other hand, plants which are nor-
mally deep-rooted can not be made to
keep their roots in the upper layers of
soil if those at lower depths have a
readily available supply of moisture and
if no other adverse condition for root
development lies below.
If the soil is wet to the full depth to
which the roots would normally pene-
trate during the growing season, then
later applications of water during the
summer will have no influence on the
extent of the distribution of the roots,
unless they be frequent enough to pro-
duce conditions unfavorable for root
growth. The presence of water in
amounts above the field capacity, a con-
dition often called waterlogging, may
injure the roots of some trees.
The kind of root system a plant has
is a very important item to be considered.
Some plants-for a part or all of their
life span-seem to have a genetic char-
acter of sparse root development. The
roots do not thoroughly permeate the
soil and consequently there may be parts
of soil not occupied by roots. Sampling
the soil for moisture conditions under
these conditions may not give a true pic-
ture of the soil in actual contact with
the absorbing portion of the roots. It
may, then, be impossible to determine
the amount of water available for these
kinds of plants at any given time.
Sometimes soils compacted by traffic
of field equipment and dense soils such
as a clay adobe interfere with root de-
velopment. Such soils do not permit roots
to penetrate into them. Where the roots
of plants do not thoroughly permeate the
soil, moisture data may be unreliable.
Continued on next page


Graded contour furrows can be used successfully on steep land.

Continued from preceding page
Study-for many years-of the re-
sponses of fruit trees and vines to irri-
gation has resulted in the conviction that
soil moisture, from the field capacity
down to the permanent wilting percent-
age, is readily available to plants and
for that reason it is called readily avail-
able moisture. Therefore, irrigation is
not necessary until the soil moisture
reservoir is drawn down to the perma-
nent wilting percentage. In practice, it
may be necessary to irrigate before this
danger point is reached. Irrigation must
be started early enough so the entire area
may be irrigated before the trees in the
last section suffer.
The growth of fruit is retarded, and
other symptoms appear, when the soil
containing most of the roots has been
reduced to the permanent wilting per-
centage. The degree of injury depends
upon the length of time the soil remains
in this condition.
Responses to irrigation may be segre-
gated into two broad classes:
1. Those in which the response is im-
mediate or takes effect in the season when
a change is made in the irrigation treat-
2. Those in which the response appears
slowly and is sometimes only apparent
after several years of following a given
irrigation program.

Sprinkling can be used under a great variety of conditions, but is best adapted
to steep lands which can not be leveled, terraced or contoured economically.

In general, the beneficial results are
chiefly those obtained during several
years of good irrigation practice. Imme-
diate results are generally harmful ones
that usually follow changes in practice
involving neglect or ceasing to irrigate,
especially if this occurs during certain
critical periods.
Increases in yield, as a rule, are among
the benefits that are sometimes slow in
appearing, and are the reward for the
long, continued practice of keeping the
trees supplied with readily available
water throughout the year.
Decreased size in many fruits, delay
in maturity of pears, and a lowered per-

Straight furrows on land with a slope of less than 0.15%. Enough furrows
between the tree rows are used to wet all of the soil.
h;B II .',; ,,,, r

- ..- .,, -
B -

centage of well-filled shells in walnuts are
some of the results that immediately fol-
low a failure to keep trees supplied with

Fruit Sizes and Fields
The most sensitive index as to whether
the trees have water available to them
is the rate at which the fruit grows. Ex-
periments extending over many years
and with various kinds of deciduous fruit
trees and grapes show that growth of
fruit proceeds at a normal rate-irre-
spective of the amount of readily avail-
able moisture in the soil which contains
the major portion of the root system-
until the soil reaches the permanent wilt-
ing percentage, when there is an imme-
diate check in growth.
In some areas-where the winter rain-
fall is ample and the soil holds a com-
paratively large supply of moisture-
certain early fruits may be grown to ma-
turity without irrigation and reduction
in size of fruit. This is because the
amount of soil moisture is sufficient to
supply the needs of the tree, at least until
the crop is mature. When there is a
scarcity of water it is less harmful to
eliminate irrigation in the late season
than in the early part of the summer.
Generally, fruits may be expected to
attain normal size if the usual thinning
practice is followed and if the soil mois-
ture does not fall to the permanent
wilting percentage while the fruits are
The timing of irrigation should not
be decided upon because of a certain
stage of growth of the trees and vines.
The demand for water is dependent upon
the size of the plant, sunlight, tempera-
ture, humidity, and wind, and not upon
the growth stage of the plant.
Highest fruit quality is obtained when
trees and vines are supplied with mois-
ture throughout the year.
Experiments with canning peaches
Concluded on page 18



Ornamental Crop Production

irrigation technics and dependable soil mixes basic to

maximum production and minimum growing costs in industry

0. R. Lunt

Commercial production of ornamen-
tals-cut flowers, potted plants, nursery
stock-in California has an annual
wholesale value of approximately $65
million or about one half the value of the
combined citrus and avocado production
of the state.
The management problems of the or-
namental growers-representing one of
the larger specialty crops-are different
from those of most agricultural field
crops. Treatments essential for the pro-
duction of some ornamentals would be
economically prohibitive for most field
crops. For example, the gross value of an
acre of glasshouse grown carnations or
chrysanthemums will usually exceed
$50,000 per year and production costs
are proportionately high. Large invest-
ments-in labor and facilities-are re-
quired for the production of such high
value crops and dependable growing
practices must be followed. Any develop-
ment leading to even a partial crop fail-
ure would cause a considerable economic
loss. In growing glasshouse or lath house
crops the fertilizer expense-when cor-
rectly selected and applied-is likely to
be about 1% of the total cost of produc-
tion, but underfertilization or overfertili-
zation can have disastrous effects on
Many ornamental crops are grown as

field crops and soil and water manage-
ment are similar to those of vegetable
crops. However, when ornamental and
nursery crops are grown in shallow con-
tainers-such as cans, pots, or benches-
growing problems related to soil proper-
ties usually can be attributed to: 1, lack
of standardization of the soil mix; 2,
improper drainage; 3, accumulation of
excessive quantities of soluble salts; 4,
inadequate fertility control; 5, toxicity
resulting from steaming and other prob-
lems related to disease control; or 6, a
combination of two or more factors.

Soil Mixes
Standardization of the soil mix is par-
ticularly important where the soil is sold
with the crop-as is the case in many
nursery operations-because soil fertility
and management practices will change
with each mix.
In recent years, there has been a trend
toward standardization on mixes of fine
sand and a coarse organic amendment.
Sands are readily characterized and
therefore it is easy to write specifications
for them. Also they are adaptable to me-
chanical handling. Physical properties of
sand and peat-or a similar organic
amendment-mixes are desirable, be-
cause they are easily leached, are nor-

Perforated plastic tubing used to distribute water to ornamentals grown in shal-
low containers supplies water with good uniformity in runs up to 100'.


mally free from steaming hazards, are
easily managed from the point of view of
disease control, and sources are widely
available. However, sand-organic amend-
ment mixes have essentially no retentive
capacity for many fertilizer elements.
Consequently careful attention must be
given to fertilizer programs. Scheduled
fertilization-dry, liquid, or both-is es-
sential with sand growing mixes.
Desirable sand would have a composi-
tion of 50% or more of its particle size
in the range of 0.4 millimeter diameter-
approximately 35 mesh-to 0.1 milli-
meter diameter approximately 150
mesh-and not more than about 10% or
preferably 5% material smaller than 0.1
millimeter. Incorporation of one third to
one half by volume of peat or similar
material will lighten the mix and increase
air space.

Water and Air Relationships
Soils in shallow containers have water
and air relationships that are different
from those of field soils and irrigation
and other practices must be modified.
The table on page 18 summarizes the
volume proportions of water and air
space occurring in a number of soils and
soil mixes for both deep and shallow soil
conditions when drainage essentially
ceases following an irrigation.
A sandy soil under container condi-
tions will usually retain as much water as
a clay soil in the field. The Diablo clay
soil-shown in the table-was exception-
ally well aggregated, having a bulk den-
sity of about 1.0, and drained unusually
well under bench conditions.
Almost any soil-amended or un-
amended-when used in a relatively shal-
low container will retain a large volume
of available water. Expressed as a volume
percentage the moisture content will
usually fall between 25% and 50%. Con-
sequently texture has only a small effect
on the frequency of irrigations when soils
are used in containers.
The consumptive use of water by
greenhouse crops varies within wide lim-
its depending on climatic conditions, but
many crops consume substantial quanti-
ties of water. Carnations, for example,
will consume about 0.20" per day or
more on clear days. A crop of chrysan-
Concluded on page 18


at nmnterp zrntgho heat-

Cotaon-i oirea
A Bia petwanifi iigtK taed
a membr arription treat-
Under a A---o rrgations
--the cottU4a B wore.aBowed to defi-
nitely wi.aFlt i uitt n.,.
Plants X.i B---12 irriga-
tions -+* wIeror bC p. ad
thfrouigoUt tde .e.. n.
The Trwt s: A"-six. irrigatioa--
plot was 4 i ithd the first indie-
tion the V itrl esaia.
of soil M.ite first sign of 6te
was a c eW ~Oi4nW in the {ifolieu
accompsai4t transient wiltin u,Iw
apparent the fernoon prior to irr
These thee treatments have' 6is .
tuted the ,bhe pEittigon schedule bi
work at .e ts Station. ,
Treatiest C--whe1 the numbbea of
irrigation. [w slted ian .i'0 decrease ita t -
tative grt I n
ence .io: _t. g.^ua se.ults .h ,.

point up
84as 4i g mfisr
defic iti f...

tare v': a

~ v eutr .C. t a.. s r
r-L I* '*u- '"' "LaO "' -* *&* .

nd appears to he 4 better indication of
te. stress 'on the light sandy soils
onthe heavy ols.
Was.a.l u n.a We Wn tor t He W
2 -; I(enS6 whnaMs, Suiow

Twu161S 111 C A
O. v w .,. ... .7. 90 6 4l
I LMe.. 42 3 7 at

Treatment 1-1~ 4 irrigations-r-i-
a .exessivetl prior to June 28-the
Initiation of BwnRaing-fer that date
irrgation wa Wste me as.Treatnment B.
The plot receiving Treatment --10
irigations-was not irrigated -pior to
the initiation of flowering. On June 28
the plants.t:weesverefly stressed and re-
ceived l he irs -irrigation. After that
date irrigation was the same as Treat-
ment B.
The veggetie growth, as measured
by height of aplt, for these treu ents
-dwoUgoht the saeso is shown in the
Vrb on this page, Oa J e 28 the plant
heights ior tretments.-/, 3 and L were
19", 15" and .12, or a maximum dif-
ference of 7", whereas on September 1
the difference between irrigation treat-
ments was less than 3".

hgrr Irrlgouls one -hd wad Pleat Mose,

m. $r0t0W.rru4a o/. 4 2 0
Thd, u lbrM. mr .. 23J 2.79 2A9
mL sdmmm wBnd

.' ..".. Ito 6 2
he j nflence of these soil moisture
ugimen on insect activity appears to be
_sCeuAcm Lygue Bags are a serious in- The nuser of irrigations prior to
.spita of- ottL in the San: Joaquin June 2, lint yields and per cent plants
Vsa&y. To determine the abundance of infected with verticillinm wilt are given
thii pe t a the .irrigation plots, sweep in he following table. After June 28 al
counts were ade in treatments A ad teatxent received 10 irrigation and
- ar* nd.s~_ge A.ents iaitaigtu~ lfod the iprigatior a'edle for
~fr Iey. w aWaer ft -lygts l boa 'eicateamt X&
-uag hini^ gsgita w .90n s npi
.Atehsa Aaqmns6nmd. a&aeaao;kl iS a o a -


~lar ---- ---~----- --~----r~- ~e~-. Iail~lmr~~L1--~-- --

-- 4.--, ;W-. _! p. .V .,I,,P-

gquot-. o- not moteriaily affected by diffent

irrigon 11AM f 4Ain experiments on the types .of soil

J. R. Sllkeln and L. D. Donsea


I 't'--. '1


The experiment was essentially re-
peated-with the exception that Treat-
ment C was substituted for B-and after
June 28 all treatments received five irri-
gations on the same schedule as Treat-
ment C.
These additional treatments are as fol-
Treatment K-nine irrigations-irri-
gated with excessive frequency prior to
June 28, after which it was irrigated the
same as Treatment C.
Treatment M-five irrigations--was
not irrigated prior to the initiation of
flowering. On June 28 the plants were
severely stressed and received their first
Sirriation. After that date irrigation was
as for Treatment C.
These treatments were primarily con-
cerned with the number of irrigations
prior to June 28 and then irrigating for
the balance of the season at the first signs
of soil moisture deficit. The results of
this experiment are given in the follow-
ing table.

Voyls the Early Irrigation and Irrigating
by Color Change, Smafer
1 Gimftl K C M
N.or I Imor to 6/25. 4 1 0
Mj hbdr WS.6/25.. 20 16 11
Mi* hfet, indMs 9/1 36 37 35
4,1Jea pdr de... 2.61 2.67 2.51
.......... 1is 1

Again, early irrigations have resulted
in more plants infected with verticillium
wilt The plant height on June 25 showed
wide differences between treatments, but
by September 1 the differences were ob-
liteted. Although vegetative growth
and' plant diseases are markedly infu-
enod by early irrigations, the subse-
queit irrigations timed by color change
of the plant, or Treatment C, had a tend-
ency to reduce these variations by
Other irrigation trials were conducted


Froe mcy of irrigation n relation to vegeative growth as measured by 'Frequency of Irigation e vegetative growth as msured by height In
height In Inches. Battomwillow experiment. Inches. Cercoran experiment.

0UNE 20

so "JULY o 0

I~~~~ Is -




,0- ------------r.------------

-0 C 2-
20 D -

I .--" -A-- ---

i -" ." ----3 4

... 3
0- ---------4,

30 JULY 10 20 30 AUGC 1 0 30 SEPT 10 D0



A 3
A -------
a -------7
C -----4
0 -----*-- 5







on a Merced clay soil near Buttonwillow
and on a Tulare clay soi near Corcoran,
in the Tulare Lake Basin.
The irrigation treatments tested in
these studies were:
Treatment A-dry-where the plants
were allowed to wilt severely prior to
each irrigation;
Treatm-nt B wet-irrigated fre-
quently all season;
Treatment C-intermediate-irrigated
at a frequency intermediate between
treatments A and B.
Treatment D-dry then wet-was
severely stressed for moisture prior to
the first irrigation and was then irri-
gated frequently. At Buttonwillow the
first irrigation was applied on July 9 and
at Corcoran on July 26.
The results for the various irrigation
treatments at Buttonwillow on Merced
clay soil are given in the following table.

Rewuls of Irrigation Trials at Bnttonwimow on
Mercd Clay Loam
Treatment A C NB D
No. Irrigatio.. 3 4 7 s
Date, o.stirrig... 7/9 6/25 6/15 7/9
Yield, balesacre 2.16 2.11 1.74 2.16
% plants Infected
with vert. wilt 48 35 71 3s

and for Treatment D for a part of the
The experiments at Buttonwillow and
at Shafter indicate that high soil mois-
ture or frequent irrigations early in the
season will increase the verticillium wilt
in plants with a corresponding decrease
in yield. This would be especially sig-
nificant for seasons favorable for a high
incidence of the disease.
The yields and the number of irriga-
tions for the Tulare Lake Basin plots are
given in this table.
At the Tulare Lake Basin location ver-
ticillium wilt was not a problem, which
may be due, in part, to the lateness in
June for the first irrigation on Treat-
ment B.

Results of Irrigation Trials at Tuire Lake Basin
on Tulare Clay
Treatment A C B D
No. rrigations .. 2 3 6 4
Date, firt irrg.. 7/26 7/15 6/23 7/26
Yield, bhlu/acre 1.15 1.95 2.07 1.72

This soil is extremely heavy and soil
moisture extraction by the cotton roots
was linmied to the surface 18"-24" of
soil. Because of the poor soil structure,
root development in the second foot of
soil is variable and sparse. The yield,
to some extent, reflects frequency of ir-
rigation, but not to the degree that is
indicated by the vegetative growth.

Plant Height
On July 29 the height of the plant
for treatments A and D was 13" as com-
pared to 18" for C and 27" for Treat-
ment B. The moisture stress early in the
season was so severe for treatments A
and D that a reduction in both yield and
vegetative growth occurred even though
Treatment D was irrigated frequently
after July 26. Treatment C received half
Concluded on page 25

Only Treatment B received two irriga-
tions in June and consequently had a
high soil moisture condition for the early
vegetative growth. The severity of verti-
cillium wilt appears to be directly re-
lated to this early June irrigation. How-
ever, general level of infection is much
higher than on the sandy soils at Shafter.
Apparently this disease is responsible
for the 29% reduction in yield for the
B treatment. Otherwise there are little
differences in yield for the various soil
moisture conditions as maintained by the
different irrigation schedules. The vege-
tative growth shows differences, espe-
cially for Treatment A, which changed
color or wilted before each irrigation

Continued from page 14
Showed that maintaining readily avail-
able moisture in the soil up to and in-
cluding harvest time did not injure either
the shipping or canning quality. Lack of
readily available moisture for several
weeks before harvest produced peaches
of tough, leathery texture.
Quality in prunes, as measured by the
specific gravity, is not greasy. afected
by the irrigation treatment. It seems to
be associated with climatic conditions
during the summer. The drying ratios of
prunes are not materially affected by the
S irrigation treatment. They are chiefly
Dependent on the amount of fruit on the
trees. Years of large crops have high
drying ratios while those of light crops
have low ratios.
Irrigation did not affect the keeping
quality, flavor or drying ratio of table
and raisin varieties of grapes. Wines
produced from the grapes under different
irrigation treatments were remarkably
similar when the fruit was allowed to
reach maturity.
Quality is an intangible characteristic
not well adapted to precise measurements
but where analyses such as sugar, acid,
firmness and storage life can be made,
the results have indicated that qualty
can not be affected by irrigating but it
may be adversely affected by withholding

Amount of Water Used
Experience with orchards, and vine-
yards in California iliustraethe irriga-
tion requirements for tbese cops.
The maximum use of water .per day
varies from about 0.I" In the coastal
areas with mild climates to .4", or
higher, in the hot portions of the interior
The actual use of water hy the trees
or vines will not be increasedby ineseae-
ing the number of applications. Plants
can not be made to trautspie hobre *ter
because of high soil moi6stre condlions'
than they transpire under lesser amounts
of readily available soil moisture. When
more irrigations 'are gien than are
necessary to assure a continuous supply
of readily available moisture, waste oc-
curs by surface evaporation -and deep
percolation. Where wati supplies are
cheap, there is a tendency to overirigate'
by giving too heavy rather than too light
irrigations. Under pumping conditions
there is a more conservative practice.
For mature orchards maximum water
extraction from the soil may be as high
as 36 acre-inches per acre per season.
For the average orchard 18-24 acrb-
inches of irrigation water p4 acre may
meet the demands of the trees In yehis
of normal rainfall On loamy soils, this

amouns ca be appled in three irriga-
tions. WhF the ogroid water is 12' or
less from diemuriase, deciduous orhrds
are able get a part of their water from
that source. The need for winter irriga
tion should be gauged by soil moisture
conditions near the end of the winter
Deteruination of the seasonal water
requirements for an orchard or vineyard
is only one consideration necessary for
successful rigation. If a grower knows
his soil, its fel capacity and permanent
wilting percentage, he will be able to
time his irrigations correctly.
F. J. VaihWyer is Professor of Irrigation,
Emeritus, University of California, Davis.
A. f. Hendri&kse is Pomologist, Emeritus,
University of Caliornia, Davis.

Continued from page 15
themums may consume as much as 0.35"
of water per day as it reaches maturity.
When water conoamption is so great
and rootsystems are limited by the con-
fines of the container, the interval-be-
tween the time wleifwater is adequately
available and severe water stress can be
as short as two hours. To avoid any possi.
ability of a wdter stress developing, orna-
mental growers multaly irrigate when
waternuction may be relatively low--O
atmosphere or les. The tensiometer
could serve as a- guide to the irrigation of
contaier grown ornamental r but it
is not.wridey used. The interval between
irigtio" under container conditions is
l kel to'p about the-same or longer for
a sandy soil as for a loam or clay.

.e, a s, tq OW b

Mur m
bI-y. a 31 W2 32 7
0 ait a1 s is
*DW dry 173 31.s ... 20 *
11ts $2 ... 49 12.5
mt.. 15s 25 12 11.5 2
"M IS 45.aS 33 38.5 6.
2 2 1 2 .

*nar w ui

Because water-holding capacities of
shallow soils may he- aunally. high,
there has been considerable apprehen-
sion among ornamental growers regard-
ing possible inadequate aeration. To
date, research has failed to demonstrate
inadequate aeration in container grown
carnations or chrysanthemums even
when using fine textured soils which
would remain approximately saturated
after an irrigation. It appears that trans-
piration losses may induce adequate
aeration conditions within a day or two
under these conditions. Aeration might
become limiting, however, should soils be
used in which infiltration was so poor
that water stood on the soil surface for
prolonged periods.
To assure a free porosity of about 6%
or more under container conditions it is
the practice for growers to include a
coarse organic amendment in a soil mix.
Chemical aggregate stabilizers such as
krilium are also effective.
One of the significant developments in
the use of amendments in recent years
has been the use of lowcost bark or wood
fragments in place of peat. The use of
pine, fir or redwood materials has been
quite satisfactory when adequate nitro-
gen fertfftier has been supplied. These
materials may be obtained at about one
half or less of the cost of -an equivalent
volume of peat. Thus the cost of prepar-
ing special soil mixes in most cases has
declined in recent years.

Irrigation Te mIques
Inasmuch as equipment is available to
automatically turn on water when
needed, the biggest irrigation problem
facing the orlatental growers is-distri-
bution of water from the supply source
to pots, cans or benches. The use of per-
forated, flexible plastic tubing appears to
be a satdsfictory solution for irrigation
of beach crops. Hand irrigation.with a
hose' oets about 10 per square foot per
year. At this cost for band irrigation,
plastic tubing approxhmbtely pays for its
installation in the first year.
SThe irrigation of potted plants is a
more difficult problem. Hand irrigation
here costs about 750 per square foot per
year. Subinigation appears to be the
most satisfactory solution -to this prob-
lem, although problem- of disease control
with this cultural practve. have yet to be
thoroughly evaluated. Plastics are also
playing a part in this development by
making psible lightweight, economical
watertight benches.
The accumulation of salts in pots due
to capillary conduction to the surface.
presents a problem, iut it is one which
can readily be dealt with if the grower is
cognizant ofthe hazard.
O. R. Luan is Assistant Professor of Soil Sci-
ence, University of California, Los Angeles.


-,~I,,, I


Water Temperature in Irrigation

cold water damage to rice can be controlled by use of small

unshaded warming basins before water is applied to fields

Franklin C. Raney, Robert M. Hagan, and Dwight C. Finfrock

Rice yields have been reduced during
recent years in northern California, be-
cause of cold water damage near field
intake boxes.
Since the construction of Shasta Dam,
water temperature in the Sacramento
River approximately 13 river miles below
the dam has dropped an average of 160F,
to approximately 510F and at the city of
Sacramento, 260 river miles south, re-
duced by 50F, to about 660F. As more
dams are built to maintain high summer
flow rates for irrigation in other areas
of central and southern California, water
temperatures may be expected to fall still
farther. Construction of Oroville Dam
can be expected to cause the Feather
River-from which much rice is irri-
gated-as well as the Sacramento River
to become colder during the growing
In past years cold water damage to

rice has seriously affected about 5% of
the planted area. Even this apparently
small percentage represents a direct loss
to growers who must bear the cost of
land preparation, seeding and irrigation
on the unproductive acreage. Plants are
delayed in heading, heads do not fill, or
maturity is not reached by the end of
the normal growing season.
Cold water in the large rivers or canals
warms up some, it is true, but only about
100F during the growing season at any
one place and about 10F per 10 miles
moved by the water. At the grower's
headgate in northern California, water
temperatures in the high fifties or low
sixties are common during the season.
After water enters the rice field it spreads
out and warms up as it runs through
successive checks. The mean water tem-
perature may increase at least 7F in
going from the intake to the end of the

third check. It continues to warm going
down the field. Even during the last half
of the summer-when the water is
shaded by the maturing rice plants-
some warming occurs as it passes across
the rice field.
Such water warming in the field is
reflected in higher rice yields. As intake
water is warmed yields increase and after
the first few checks they reach field aver-
age. In this way the first checks are
serving as water warming basins, al-
though inefficiently.
Field studies during the last three
years have shown that small weed-free
water warming basins can successfully
raise the mean water temperature to
70F or higher throughout the growing
season. A temperature of 700F is about
the lowest that the present varieties en-
dure without showing damage or seri-
Continued on next page

Rice field in Glenn County in October 1953, showing water circulation-white arrows-and plant immaturity in checks
near intake. Damaged areas are dark colored in the photograph and enclosed by a dotted line. Note stagnant area with
mature rice in first check.


Continued from preceding page
ously delayed maturity. Approximately
square basins, equal to about 2% of the
planted area and 24" deep raised the
mean water temperature about 50F;
basins 12" deep, about 7F; 6" deep,
about 90F above intake temperature.
The yield of rice was related to the
degree of shading and depth of water in
the warming basin serving the rice plot.
If the warming basin were kept weed-
free, even the checks near the intake pro-
duced a nearly normal yield. On the
other hand, plots served from warming
ponds shaded by weeds-or immature
rice-consistently produced the lowest
yields. In two years out of three, yields
in plots served from unshaded ponds 12"
and 24" deep were lower than those from
unshaded ponds 6" deep. During the
third year, however, yields below the 6"
weed-free ponds were lower than those
below the deeper ponds, presumably be-

Warming of water in passing through a rice field
during the latter half of the season when the
water is shaded by rice plants. Checks are num-
bered successively downfield from the intake

20 27 3 10 17 24 31 7 14

cause of a different combination of
meteorological factors. The relationships
involved are receiving further study.
Studies were made at Davis in out-
door plots during the last two years to
determine water temperature require-
ments of Caloro rice grown under con-
tinuous flooding with water 6" deep.
Ten water temperature treatments with
four replications were used. In Treat-
ments 1-4, water temperature-day and
night, from sowing until the water was
drained prior to harvest-was constant
at 650F, 700F, 800F, and 900F. In Treat-
ment 5, water temperature cycled with
days at 800F and nights at 70F. In
Treatment 6, days were 700F and nights
800F. In Treatments 7-10, water tem-

perature was constant at 700F day and
night, except that the temperature was
held at 900F during one of the four
growth stages and then returned to 700F
until water was drained prior to harvest.
The four growth stages during which the
temperature was elevated were: germina-
tion to emergence in Treatment 7; emer-

Rice yields in successive checks downfield from
intake in the same field.


gence to tillering in Treatment 8; tiller-
ing to heading in Treatment 9; and, in
Treatment 10, from heading to maturity.
The higher the constant water tem-
perature the earlier was the maturity
date. The two cyclic treatments-5 and
6-matured on the same date. Of the
plants held at 700F, application of 90F
water from tillering to heading resulted
in earliest maturity. In the constant tem-
perature treatments, grain yields dimin-
ished in the following order: 800F, 900F,
700F and 650F. Both day-night cyclic
treatments outyielded all other treat-
ments. Elevating the temperature to 900F
from emergence to tillering resulted in a
higher yield than by the same elevation
of temperature during other growth
Thus, it appears that the commercial
rice variety Caloro shows two effects
from water temperature: it matures only
when water temperatures average above
a minimum threshold of about 700F, and
yield is increased by applying warmed
water at certain growth stages.

Warming Pond Materials
The possibilities of minimizing rice
yield losses from cold water by use of
warming ponds point to the importance
of finding ways to increase the warming
efficiency of the ponds.
During most days of the growing sea-
son about 40% of the incoming solar
energy is lost from a water basin through
evaporation. This loss can be much
greater on windy days.

A combination of membranes or films
which sharply curtail evaporation could
result in higher water temperatures. The
required area of warming basins might
be considerably reduced-
Recent trials were made at the Rice
Experiment Station at Biggs with poly-
ethylene floating membranes 2-4 mils-
thousandths of an inch-thick.
A transparent membrane permitted
light to pass and at first produced higher
water temperatures. However, weeds
flourished beneath and tended to lift the
membrane. Algae and diatoms coated the
under side of the membrane while dust
deposits on the top increased the reflec-
tivity of the surface. As a consequence
the water temperature gains later fell
A floating black, opaque membrane
completely eliminated weeds. However,
even with baffled, turbulent flow in the
basin, the energy saved by reducing
evaporation was approximately offset by
the energy lost because of the opacity of

Effect of water depth and shading in warming
ponds on rice yield in basins directly served
from ponds. 1953-1956.






6" 24" 12" 6"

the film. Accordingly water temperature
gains were small.
A proposed combination of mem-
branes may be more successful. A black,
opaque membrane covering the basin
floor would eliminate weeds. Baffles
placed to minimize thermal stratification
would ballast the bottom membrane. Use
of a flexible surface film of a long chain
carbon compound would permit dust to
fall through, reduce evaporation, permit
free light passage, and result in large
water temperature gains. Installation and
maintenance costs appear reasonable.
The design of an efficient water warm-
Concluded on page 37







+ C
-1. T.



Meant of Soil Moisture

accurate instruments for measuring soil moisture conditions

practical means of determining proper timing of irrigation

L. H. Stozy, G. A. Cahoon, and T. Szuszklewicz

~lutruments to measure soil moisture
conditions-developed as research tools
-eliminate much of the guesswork in the
timing of irrigations and can indicate
adequate penetration for a particular soil
type and crop.
Two types of such instruments--ensi-
ometers and resistance blocks-are avail-
able and are practical in both research
and commercial use. A new method-
neutron thermalizing-has certain ad-
vantages in research studies but does not
have practical application on farms be-
cause of the cost and radiation hazard.
Tensiometer is a general term which
applies to an instrument consisting of a
porous ceramic cup with a narrow neck
jolped to a section of tubing. The oppo-
site end of the tubing is connected to a
mercury manometer or to a vacuum
When filled with water and in-
S in soil the tensiometer provides
a reading of the soil moisture suction
value at the cup contact area.
The mercury manometer type of tensi-
emeter gives precise readings and is use-
ful in soils where water table conditions
are present For practical purposes in
most agricultural soils the-vacuum gauge
tensiometer is useful.
Tensiometers are the only instruments.
that give a direct reading on soil mois.
tre availability to plants, which is an.
index of soil wetness. Because tensio-n&,1
tei* cease to function at soil sgatiers'
abbve 800 millibars-due to air nte t
the system-their usfulness is fti
irfime tetared soils.The usefu nge
of tensiometers co red with tAb Mwr
cent of available moi re to plants woi
vary for different typefof sOl. Tn a si*
soil the useful agi of teaisdoweite
would represent about 90% of the daai .
able water, while in a clay soil t ir ippa.
sents about 50% of the available water.
Tensiometers indicate the rate of watei.
se--even in fine textured soils--as weIA
as water penetration after irrigations.

Resistance Blocks
The electrical resistance block method
of measuring soil moisture is used in
many types of agriculture because of its
simplicity and low cost when large num-
bers of units are needed. Its construction
consists of two electrodes eaReddea fa
moisture blocks of an inert porous ma-

trial such as fiberglass, nylon, or
ceramic-or a slightly soluble electrolyte
such as gypsum. When buried in the soil
the porous material becomes a part of the
soil environment and changes in mois-
ture content with the soil. Wire leads
from the electrodes can be located at
the soil surface in areas not being dis-
turbed by cultural practices. The changes
in electrical resistance of the blocks due
to changes in soil moisture are measured
by connecting the ends of the block lead
to a specially designed meter. Some
meters are calibrated to indicate directly
needs for irrigations.
The porous material most often used
in the construction of resistance blocks
is gypsum-plaster of paris. Gypsum
blocks are sensitive mainly in the drier
range of soil moisture.
When the gypsum block is compared
with a tensiometer in the field, the block
will not indicate change in soil moisture
until the 500 millibars value is reached.
This will vary greatly with the construc-
tion of the block. The gypsum block

Portable neutron rate mter mounted at cn-
vensent work heiL oesa elf cart. The prole
Madl Phlaw m Ieulrtd a4KL senws tes cart.

should never be used in soils that are con-
tinually wet due to poor drainage condi-
tions. Nylon and fiberglass blocks are
not as easily deteriorated by high mois-
ture condition. They are also more sen-
sitive to moisture changes at lower soil
suction values than are the gypsum

Neutron Thermalizing
Radioactive materials have been used
to measure soil conditions only in recent
Neutrons can be used for measuring
soil moisture because they are uncharged
particles and have almost the same
weight as a hydrogen atom and because
most of the hydrogen in soil is in the
water form.
When fast neutrons are emitted into
the soil they are decelerated to slow neu-
trons upon collisions with hydrogen
atoms. By counting the slow neutrons it
is possible to show a good relationship
between the number of neutrons counted
and the amount of moisture in the soil.
The field equipment shown in the pho-
tograph is being used to measure soil
moisture in citrus groves. The radio-
active source of fast neutrons is attached
aa a ring to the center of the probe which
T cants the neutrons after they are slowed
down. This unit is lowered into soil
through aluminum access tubes placed
permanently is the soil The shield is for
Sprotec~io and standardization. It has a
ball of lead around the radioactive
source to stop,the gamma radiation. Sur-
rounding the lead is paraffin containing
a high percentage of hydrogen atoms
which slow down the fast neutrons. Be-
cause paraffin has the same effect on fast
neutrons as water it can be used to adjust
the meter to a set value before measuring
soil moisture. The meter indicates the
number of slow neutrons counted by the
The neutron thermalizing method has
several advantages in measuring soil
moisture. It measures moisture on a vol-
ume basis and thus supplies a number
that can be used to convert the moisture
value to inches of water per given depth
of soil. Results of measuring on a volume
basis are not affected by temperature,
salts, and soil compaction as is the case
Continued on next page


Contiaed'from preceding page
with resistance blocks. One calibration
curve serves for many soil types and one
instrument can be used to make as many
moisture measurements as time allows.
Also, the access tubes are the only part of
the equipment left'in the field. Further-
more, this method measures, a larger
volume of soil.
However, there are some disadvan-
tages in the neutron thermalizing
method. The equipment is costly and
there are radiation hazards. If moisture
content obtained by neutron thermaliz-
ing is to be related to soil suction a sepa-
rate calibration is needed for each soil
type. Also, the volume of soil that is
measured changes with the moisture con-
tent of the soil.

Comparisons of Methods
The three methods of measuring
soil moisture--tensiometers, resistance
blocks, neutron thermalizing-have been
used to study irrigation effects on citrus
at Riverside. Some of the data for the
irrigation season of 1956 are graphically
illustrated for comparative purposes.
The upper graph on this page repre-
sents an infrequently irrigated orange
plot at Riverside and shows the range of
moisture depleted on a volume basis
which is approximately 195%-8.5%.
The first readings on soil moisture condi-
tions were made about two days after the
irrigation water was turned off. The field
capacity for both methods was at a lower
moisture content or a higher suction
value for the last two irrigation. This
change in field capacity as the irrigation
season progresses has been noted in other
areas. It could be due to either higher
water use during the two days after the
irrigation or lack of complete wetting of
soil particles. The teomiorneter did not
respond to changes in soil moisture
above 800 millibars. However, by extra-
polation, valid information can be ob-
tained up to the one bar soil suction
value which is approximately 12% umois-
ture on a volume basis. This extrapolated
value represents almost 70% of the avail-
able moisture in a Ramona sandy loam.
On August 27, soil samples were taken
near the place where neutron measure-
ments were made. The soil moisture con-
tents of these samples were at or below
the 15 bar soil suction value down to the
24" depth in the soil profile. The 15 bar
valve is comparable to the permanent
wilting percentage. The trees were wilted
at this time. The slope of the line indi-
cates the rate of soil moisture depletion.
During the month of September the rate
of evapo-transpiration was the highest-as
shown by the slope. This agrees with
mean monthly temperature for this pe-

riod, On the slober fand, October shows

f be tee *to& of zeasteig sopil
moisture -onditions were used in a corn-
mrcial navel orange grove. Sprinkler
irrigation t ts were applied here
as a portion of an e4perimeat. Readings
were made on. a weekly basis. AR meas-
urements were made in the soil near the
edge of the tree. The tensiometers and
resistanee blocks were located at the 18"
soil depth. Neutron measurements were
made at 12" and 2" soil depths and so
the average value of the two depths was

/ /
/ /

(. *J,. e Gees *


To a

plotted. Became the anetrof method,

ture ooanteU wiit rj" e, B i average
moisture condition of the soil profile
from about 6"-30". This volume of soil
would contain about 80% of the citrus
feeder roots. The data taken with the
neutron method and w"th the tensiome-
ters compare well. This meats that a
tensiometer properly located in the active
root zone will register moisture changes
that are average for the soil profile. Dur-
ing the months of July and Aagust this
Concluded on page 37






/ -



ron Method a-----A
i eters 0 ............

-1000. S

-500 a


- 00


-I I I I i I I I r I I
t1 20 30 1o o0 s0 to 20 30 1t 0 t 0so so to 0s
CaasdrS wmt l otron .mW bd 1all
use deais worn4 st. P'

:9 ",,,a % i o
st~- s;Ial s anE-g.ip" at Elhrdd.

ep uobr / law qMPllW

-, 1000
--= At
I 500

S. t4 ........A2 1
. \ !I rlA7i0 -

a .so

a n*Rur Method A-----A
= e,. ;Me fl-..u --------:
- Fibs U st +-4

Time- Days



c ,, --,



Water Penetration of Soils

soil and water management practices important in coping with

widespread problem of soil penetration by irrigation water
D. W. Henderson and J. A. Vomocil

The slow rate of water penetration into
soils during irrigation is a serious prob-
lem, affecting-to some degree-a large
portion of the major irrigated areas of
California. In extreme cases there is a
marked loss of production because it is
difficult to supply crops with sufficient
water even with frequent irrigation.
Slow water penetration is in reality
several problems because it can be caused
by different soil conditions. Effective
means of coping with the problem de-
pend on the cause. For example, one
reason for slow water penetration is
excessive sodium absorbed on the soil;
a condition recognized for many years
as alkali or black-alkali. Because sodium
soils may be reclaimed by the use of
mineral amendments such as gypsum,
there is a tendency to attempt the im-
provement of other kinds of impervious
soils by applying similar materials. Such
treatments are not effective, because they
do not attack the underlying cause of the
problem. All too frequently a quick, ef-
fective treatment can not be found.
There are three additional causes of
poor water penetration now recognized.
One of them-high clay content-is well
known. The limitations of clay soils in
crop production may include slow pene-
tration of water, but farmers have de-
veloped special practices which largely
overcome this difficulty. One of the maj or
problems remaining is the prevention of
waterlogging of the surface soil, which
is frequently more open than the subsoil.
Good surface drainage is essential, espe-
cially for crops susceptible to injury by
root-rot diseases.
Two additional causes are soil com-
paction by traffic or tillage and unstable
soils which run together on wetting.
These conditions have been recognized
comparatively recently, at least to the ex-
tent they are now known to occur.

Soil Compaction
Many soils which naturally absorb
water readily have been compacted dur-
ing land grading or farming operations.
Two processes are involved-compres-
sion of the soil by excessive surface
traffic and compression or puddling by
tillage implements. Both are more in-
jurious if traffic or tillage occurs when
the soil is moist, and both cause destruc-

tion of large pores in the soil necessary
for rapid infiltration of water. Where
compaction is extreme, entry of roots is
retarded or even prevented.
Plow pans-compacted layers a few
inches thick just below plow depth-
have been recognized for years. They
have caused no great concern because
they can be broken up by increasing the
depth of plowing and because they rep-
resent a small part of the total depth of
the root zone. More intensive farming,
heavier machinery, and in some cases
deeper tillage have deepened the compact
zone so that it may extend from the soil
surface or the bottom of the tilled layer
to an over-all depth of 18"-24" below
the surface. This greatly increases the
seriousness of the problem.
Highly compacted soils can be recog-
nized by experienced observers by dig-
ging or probing, especially if the soil
lying below the compact zone is other-
wise similar. Comparisons with the same
soils in uncultivated areas such as fence
rows may be helpful. Compacted soils
are hard even when moist, and when
lifted with a shovel loams and clays tend
to fracture in layers with edges parallel
to the ground surface. When a clod is
broken, the freshly exposed edges are

Soil compaction affects crop growth through wa-
ter penetration. The dark strips are green,
vigorously growing barley; the lighter strips are
plants already dead from lack of water.

comparatively smooth with few openings
visible. Clay soils have the appearance
of fine-grained shale, and sandy soils
look like sandstone. Lesser degrees of
compaction are harder to distinguish
visually even though water penetration
is seriously impaired, especially in sandy
Compaction may be considered an
abuse of the soil, and the best practice is
to minimize traffic or tillage, or delay
until the soil is dry. However, essential
operations may have to be performed
when the soil is moist and therefore sus-
ceptible to compaction. Shattering by
subsoiling through the compact zone
when the soil is very dry may substan-
tially improve the soil and increase wa-
ter and root penetration. The improve-
ment may be very temporary if the soil
tends to run back together or if it is
soon compacted again.
Under the most favorable conditions
shattering allows penetration of water
and roots into the fractures formed, but
leaves dense clods which roots can not
readily grow into. It should be consid-
ered the first step only in soil improve-
ment, the rest depending on natural proc-
esses such as slow penetration by roots,
wetting and drying, and others. In gen-
eral, soils compacted by traffic or tillage
do not respond to application of soil
Soil management practices such as
cover cropping, growing green manure
crops, and crop rotation need more study
on a long-range basis. One application
of manure or growth of a single green
manure crop does not in general improve
water penetration into soils already made
compact by traffic or tillage. It is possible
that such practices carried out over a
period of years will reduce the suscepti-
bility of soils to compaction, but not to
the degree that they will withstand abuse.

Unstable Soils
Most soils have a tendency to slake
and run together somewhat when dry
clods are wetted rapidly, but usually they
break down into aggregates consisting of
several soil particles, and these aggre-
gates resist further disintegration. But
there are some soils which slake to the
extent that no aggregates remain, and
Continued on page 29


... iU

experiments show moisture -movemoet frmn one porion of soil

to another and soil footem which inrimence that movement

S J. Richards and L. V. Weeks

Elongation of Root and moisture
movement to roots inuence the water up-
take by plants.
Recent techniques for evaluating un-
saturated flow of soil moisture have dem-
onstrated that moisture movement is
The schematic drawing on this pqge
shows an experimental means of demon-
strating moisture extraction from a root
free block of soil. A pot of soil 10" in
diameter has an inner container 2%" in
diameter made of a porous ceramic ma-
terial. Soil is placed in both containers,
but plants are grown only in the outer an-
nular soil volume. The pores in the ce-
ramic wall of the inner container are fine
enough to prevent roots from growing
into the inner soil volume, yet water
moves readily through such a wall.
By means of a dial type tensiometer
in each soil container the soil moisture
suction or relative wetness of the soil in
the two portions of the system canbe fol-
lowed directly without further calibra-
tion or corrections for differences in soil
type or bulk density. As the soil drive out,
the soil moisture tension or suction-as
read on the dial vacuum gaues-e-.
comes larger. Two irrigation cycles are

Water extraded fromn hbsretqa sl colmiurb
cons-tut sulcn mile i t te.d R fii. l of col-
=00us. TIMe upper sufwo meg iert. was
extmdced from a gu s ,AiglaIbtAU
9te s*l 7 o".*r Nw
tribute t1o cu wu r
Te'lm ipwr cutvap slea e wtn
xtractleo rate from rl e nr t*l where t
sell colmsI were hTl ag.
2 ,


2 3 4 5 6 7 8



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A IIIq 1ips eIPA sorswmadIre slif
rt _cR
i Wae

shown for each of two soils. Irrigation
water is applied to alt ~ the sail as indi-
cated by the low suctiiin eadilgs.
In experiments wwit.Fapbrook sandy
loam and HoltillBe sioty clay, plants were
well established ithe soils. Te soil sur-
face was covered with plastic sheet to
limit evaporation. Station values in the
root zone fUqowing i' iTaton increased
more rapidly tIn tkel plee under nor-
mal field conditions;n, h4ite of'the rapid
drying of th. tested soil, the suction
values, ib the robt-free zone followed the
changes in the robit zpe indkating a free
exchange of water through the ceramic
The water exchange pattern in Fall-
brook sandy loam oweda. no abrupt
obanges over the full ang of moisture
conditions iaeserable wif. tenaiometers.
Holtville soil if iae, it*ed and shLws
a someibat difMerea yig characteris-
tic; the sucico vahlua in the' root-free
zone follow the chase, in the root zone
until the suctiao v approach 500
millibars. Suction v a ie, cuntuite to in-
crease but lets a adlyWater.ontinues
to move qqt of the.root soil.
Tenliodpeters win% tiheasuremsoil suc-
tion over drbry rsoi soimoiature
conditions. At the iai ir-one atmos-
Concluded on pae 37

W ntP 116, a ~riftu nt m 7-a fro.

:: : ~.row action..


r ----- T~~-'- I~-- 7-0r?~~

rie ^ ^ ^ ^ M .j..;Pg^P^Jaea ^gg^^^ ^

-'^R^^-l k ^ v."* ? *-
Coste ^ Ir~uliui~u t

distance of transport, height of

lift and timing of pumping

operations influence costs of irrigation water to farmers

L. J. Booker and M. R. Hubety

T p Vrice farmers pay for irrigation
water diepws to a large extent on the
cat of eomnieting and operating the
SeawgilUri i i ko s needed to deliver the
war a ao l farms.
1fe coat. o irrigation water varies
fra~p a few cent to more than $50 for
es ame-fdAt of water used. The higher
ee.a.teso whe the water must be tranms
por. d .aag ; ~tmes or mqet be lifted
pg h ads.
Ife .within the state-surface
ruiau a ngew d waters-are pro-
Maler~ to. & e t ,epo. ope-ry of the people
of 4a ieWqowvwer, Mfarmers hae spent
c~niveia$i. sains for legal actions rele-
as ll to. eiifing or protecting their
rI~ f ti-o,~twater, and.these atms
-. cty:, development costs of an
l the early irrigation projects
'. lituated d in areas where surface
;*Araes&t he easily diverted, or where
4idltt ugtd water were available for
0 .0ia&. Thepresent ast of water deliv-
aijt'by ol elo deished projects is,
br. ihay *i l west to be found in
atte,; ~~am pe e ts deliver water to
fp w the $S1.04 an acre-foot.
Te coast of wtr O other project may
range fia .O00 t acWe-fooL
Water cats on more recently deveL-
opjo proj ees and for projects that .are
hes proposed reflect tbe higher coots of
90tiettcdg irrigation works needed to-
e"y water great distances. Water from
- ro Mf eieesp supply is often carried
ewral hundred mile to water deficient
Under the Central Valley Project, costs
4of as w term delivered at canalside
vaftry i'6. $.5 to $3.50 an acre.foot. In
aikltieo, te farmers pay for the cost of

the distribution works needed to deliver
water to their farms.
Water costs under the Feather River
Project will depend on the distance the
water must be carried and the lift re-
Where surface waters are not available
for irrigation, ground waters may be
obtained by pumping from wells. There
are'some 75,000 such wells used in Cali-
fornia, varying from less than 50' deep
and costing less than $1,000 to wells sev-
eral thouand feet deep and costing
$25,000 or more.

Pm.ph .g Costs
-Costs for pumping water from wells
include annual fixed charges for interest,
taxes, depreciation and maintenance on
wells and pumping equipment, and
charges for energy needed to operate the
power unit.
The energy required to pump an acre-
foot of water depends on the efficiency of
the pumping equipment and on the height
of the lift-whether a few feet or several
hundred feet. The cost of power is re-
lated not only to the amount of. energy
used but to the number of hours that
pump is operated each year. Because of
the power rate structure in common use
by utility companies in Califoria power
costs will he les for a smallpump operat-
Ing long hours than for a large pump
operating a few hours, even though both
pumps use the same amount of energy
and deliver the same amount of water
with the same lift. Overnight storage
reservoirs are used on many farms, to
permit continuous operation of pumps
tailored to the water requirements of the
area to be irrigated. The reservoirs per-
mit irrigating during daylight hours

while taking advantage of reduced power
costs. Joint use of a single pump by sev-
eral farmers is another practice used to
reduce pump costs.
There are wide limits between the costs
of pumping water in California. An av-
erage cost for power might be 2 -an acre-
foot per foot of lif plus a similar amount
for fixed charges, making a total of 4q.
To lift water 100--in this case-would
cost $4.00 for each acre-foot pumped.
In many -gound-water basins the
amount of water being pumped is greater
than the normal recharge to those basins.
This has reelted in a lowering of the
water table and increased pumping lifts
with increased e6ts. Many farmers have

found it necessary to lower the pumps in
their wells as the water table recedes.
During the pat several decades; im-
provements in pump operating efficien-
ciesand'reductions in power rates partly
compensated, for the increased lifting
costs, but the trend has been reversed
during the last several years. There has
been some increase in power costs and a
considerable ticrease in the cost of
pu eipment.
Wth e9ue a e income crops, water
costs ey;Be, "b y a minor part of the
total proution Coots. In such cases a
conasidrerl: remi e in water costs may
ot gres affethe faroner's operations.
On tie tihr hand, with many low income
crops, the cost of water is an important
item, and any increase in the price a
farmer pays for irrigation water may
make. his operations nonprofitable or
place him at a disadvantage in competing
with areas where water costs are les.
L. J. Booker is Extension IrrigationisI, Uni-
versity of California, Davis.
M. R Huberty is Professor of Irrigation and
Eniineering, University of California, Los An-

Continued from page 17
the number of irrigations as compared
to treatment B, vet the reduction in yield
wad only 6%o whereas a 29% reduction
occurred in vegetative growth. This is
an excellent example of where a soil con-
dition limits root development and the
re l4iinhip between irrigada 'fre-
quency on yield and vegetative growth

when compared with results obtained on
the Buttonwillow plots where root devel-
opment was better.
In all three locations and extremes in
irrigation treatments the quality of the
fiber was not materially affected. Lint
from Shafter and Tulare basin showed
no differences in either grade or staple
lenth even fo the extremely dry treat-
'Ater ie was ere seun ito yare-
duced After the lint was spun into yarn

there were no outstanding differences.
However, the less frequently irrigated
treatments did show a tendency to have
slightly stronger yarn with a better ap-
pearance ihdex which is probably a re-
fection of less trash in the seed cotton
and fewer nappy thin walled fibers.
J. R. Stockton is Assistant Specialist in Irri-
gation, Unisorsity o Califoni, Dawis.
L. D. Daneen is Prsoessor of Irrigation, Uni-
versity of California, Dvis.


-. I; = -"- "--- uwa -

i 1 .


..-,' f ,

, I

Irrigation Efficiency Study

increasing demands on water necessitate efficient irrigation

practices to apply correct amount of water at proper time

Jewel L. Meyer, Norman W. Ross, Verne H. Scott and Clyde E. Houston

Economic production of practically all
crops in California is dependent on irri-
Efficient use of irrigation water re-
quires knowledge of soil characteristics
and of water use by the plant-among
other factors-to design an irrigation
system that can apply the correct amount
of water to the proper depth of soil at the
required time interval. Research workers
have investigated these factors and de-
veloped standards for design under rela-
tively ideal conditions. The farm opera-
tor's problem is to apply those standards
to his crop, soil and water conditions.
Procedures used to develop informa-
tion on consumptive use of water by
peaches and irrigation efficiencies pos-
sible are exemplified by a study con-
ducted on .a one-acre plot in a commer-
cial bearing orchard near Hughson,
Stanislaus County. The trees-Fay El-
berta variety-were planted on 20'
centers in 1949. The orchard is clean
cultivated and the 1956 yield was 25 tons
per acre. The soil in the study plot is
Hanford sandy loam with an apparent
specific gravity of 1.55. It is formed
from recent alluvial material of granitic
origin, absorbs water readily, and re-
tains it fairly well. It is an excellent agri-
cultural soil, well adapted to a wide
variety of crops, and has a Storie Index
of 95%. The study plot was surrounded
by a 1' levee and all water applied was
retained in the basin.
The first step in an irrigation evalua-
tion study is to measure-as accurately
as field conditions will permit-the water
applied. In this study, water was deliv-
ered through a 24" monolith concrete


I i






O 20U 10 U2 10 ZO 10 20

10 20

10 20

10 20 1020


Soil moisture variations, peach test plot-Stanislaus County, 1956.

pipe on a rational-demand schedule, nor-
mally in flow rates of 15 cubic feet per
second. The flow was discharged simul-
taneously through two 24" valves each
located in the center of a 5' concrete box.
The box was open on one side, permitting
the water to flow into the check after
some of the high velocity of water dis-

charging from the pipe line had been dis-
For these conditions a sharp-edged
suppressed weir, equipped with an auto-
matic water stage recorder, was used.
It consisted of a steel plate extending
across the full width of the concrete box.
A stilling well connected to the face of
the weir housed a float which responded
to the height of water passing over the
weir. This level was transmitted to the
chart of the recorder. The amount of
water applied to the plot was computed
from the length of weir and the length of
time the average depth of water passed
over the weir. There was practically no
rainfall during the irrigation study
Soil sampling was done to show extent
and control of a continuous supply of
moisture. Soil samples were obtained in
1' increments in 9' of soil profile before
and after each of the irrigations during
the season. The samples were immedi-
Concluded on page 38


5---------------- -- _^-,-------
7- --V---- -, V--- -----


3 ---------------- -----

6---_ I _

C-- -----
8- --- ---------------^ ^

4--------- -------- ---------_---

Type of weir used in field irrigation study.
;.;.-.^ a_ :" -. *tU

Surface Irrigation

changing conditions and requirements

affect water-application practices

James C. Marr

Methods of applying irrigation water to
crops-by broad classification-are sur-
face, subsurface and overhead or sprin-
kler systems.
Surface irrigation allows water as a
stream to pond or flow over the ground
surface. In subsurface irrigation the soil
is wetted from beneath by raising the
water table; and in overhead irrigation
sprinkling is employed. Each procedure
is being continually adapted to the end-
less number of conditions and require-
ments encountered in growing different
crops, managing various types of soils,
and meeting changing economic condi-
A recent adaptation of the corruga-
tion method of surface irrigation-run-
ning exceedingly small streams of water
directly down slope in shallow furrows
pressed into the soil by the runners of a
weighted sled-involves land slopes of
0.1% or less, poor soil drainage, and
irrigated pasture utilization.
The problem consists of preventing or
quickly removing stagnant water follow-
ing irrigation. Otherwise pasture utiliza-
tion periods are too short. Also the life of
the crop is shortened. Carefully con-
trolled sprinkling might be used but for
the necessity to economize. Also the land
could be graded to a slope that would
provide the needed surface drainage, but
the cost of earth moving in this case is

excessive. The use of corrugated-contour
checks-a combination of certain fea-
tures of both the corrugation and the
contour check methods of irrigation-
solves the problem.
Corrugations in the soil are made by
a tractor drawn steel sled with four run-
ners spaced 30" apart and loaded with
eleven 52-gallon drums of water. The cor-
rugating is done perpendicular to the
contours. The part of the contour check
procedure which is used concerns only
construction of the checks. The checks-
irregular strips of land forming elon-
gated basins-are made after the corru-
gations are in by throwing up levees on
the contour at every 0.2' or so change in
elevation and by connecting them at 660'
intervals with cross levees. The strips are
level throughout their length; have the
0.2' cross slopes; are surrounded by the
ditch which is formed during the process
of levee building; and are corrugated
approximately at right angles to the con-
tour levees.
The irrigation water is admitted first
to the upper check and progressively to
those next down the slope by head ditches
located perpendicular to the contour
levees and midway between adjacent
cross levees. The earth moved in excavat-
ing the ditches is used to reinforce the
levees, thus leaving the edges of the
ditches at land-surface level.

Gate structures are placed at each con-
tour-levee crossing to progressively hold
the water back and release it as each
check is filled and drained.
The corrugations, the ditch surround-
ing each check, the bankless head ditch,
and the limited length of check-330'
each way from the head ditch-together
with the use of a large irrigation stream,
combine to make it possible to quickly
submerge and drain each check. In the
lower right illustration the construction
is complete except for the cross levees
and some of the ditch-bank leveling.
After six years of use this layout is still
operating and the pasture is in good con-
Another simple, inexpensive method
of conveying water down slopes-as
steep as 25%-is to fill one series of
contour furrows after another.
A safeguard in this method consists of
pressure relief structures for controlling
the velocity of the water as it is brought
down the slope and delivered to the con-
tour furrows. Ordinarily this need is
taken care of at considerable expense
with permanent structures of concrete.
Another simple, inexpensive arrange-
ment consists of a portable, quick-
coupling, aluminum pipe with hose con-
nections and cut-off valves spaced so that
a short piece of hose can be made to con-
vey water to each contour furrow for one
half the distance. Regardless of the pres-
sure, the velocity of the issuing water can
be controlled by the valve opening and
size of hose.
Portable siphon outlets for surface
irrigation systems are widely used and
overshadow all else as a labor-saving
improvement in the practice of surface
James C. Marr is Lecturer and Specialist in
Irrigation, University of California, Davis.

Left-Corrugations made by weighted sled corrugator. Right-A nearly completed corrugated-contour check system.


.-- .. *' i, -i -im i j i ,^ r i|- -

vt ''
* :i3?vK ,t,~,.

effectiveness of uvar des p..s of lwsi min smoa tllig 0

ditches under study for cstrmo o seegf aod vegeo

Veqw HN. sco9

Csrtai prebricated .
used as linuings is nall irrigaP
to control sepage and vgetatin ii. 'e
shown considerable prom~ a. Never -
less, their use is limited-toa sme eart
-by relatively high initial ceet e- id
questionable longevity underthe vanity
6f field conditions which est .on iri-
gated farms. However, increased p"oduc-
tion and availability of some aof the- f
materials-such as plautioe-a. W -
ing costs to a point where eplacM t
may be economical on a t Syewr.
Several different types of ,~ais
asphalt, asbestos, woodlv, p4a lf
coated kraft papers, and vioay ad poly-
ethylene films-have beeip evluated in
the field and laboratory 4 ring te pa pst
three years.
The width, length, and thiclknes of
the available materials viary Iad proper
width and length are iunportit in min"-
mizing the numbet:of jei Sal
tion labor. For most farm i iltra~ti*s
carrying a flow of 1-4 cubic feet pere-

Use of siph w.n snitMa & .

eand W, wid t a m-aiBhpam i the

o .o1 own ,~,h
S74" iBMW-zl g j*Wflia *ormWetWs ares to
,e -.. '-46' a.go..fe
,h s, ,,e,.

d rQao, 1r-*V"and a
9ditfe i~q eta hper.chitying capacity.
Ltm ilk, < en rois re .
8ow ^O L ^aute a dBehessc

.wii i- ttrawevase

Ftand t oteilow6f .leadmke toiuagh
T ii" to owor p twwt- cha icete.

il aa*ai 441'1ige, 00ai ate" ta-

stasfla2on laoT, ^4 l dess r p ofi aIdi-
Kt~art~fiatK |I liraauN Ies o rf d
ftewfi Vid At dh4it ofthe

Aky* -* J6 fi f _- eA^' **
q T s is W KE ;

Caupuse no-'abn.

ic film



**e^.1- anuurtms 4 NUbS
S1 eae dNe soil was very
. seuglh lopes,were aue-
time was required
kteniah the elds to hbe
Swete installed in a Iec-
asdtees had been foo ed
rlazBirea dischle~ ng e-I -pmft.

Sw, ae :tp of t~a ditch.Iank.
10 hadisBowere lws ioertoy
O.- 14 sdesand b ty haod

.e t mloinangd thee evnsi3
.nu tr qL r s r ~ in

r or gawf Jofro-
MBita ii~f. T 1 ..danmae wse
Ewi water linh and aherepore
doMethe finuigp' aFvetIreness
dOmiw was detected between
alIes of poly coarled paper.
lajMl(H" ii4Ali BIb t as pear
.wke a picking action. of
-i -f. bo&. te
-i-t-a. growthousesh: he

we damagepdTy 1 khisi on .
In a pondirg test-to evaluate the
amount of water lost by seepage-the
loss through the unlined action. was
over seven times that of the lined section
or approximately 7.7 cac f e' "
squate foot per .t hoar. Uob e dry
this rate would notbe maintained dung
each irrigation throughout Ihe season.
Hlrwever-h-as umifg the average eep-
a.e loss for the entire season was only
half of the measured amount-he cost
of the B ing and installation could be
recavwed in, one average season, based
t~ a total cost of the water alone of ap-
prgxis tely $5 per acre fot. Saving in
., rripfn labor cost also -cosa be
One farmer, in Yuba Coapty ied to
doable,the bomber of a "ihas he had"
been dui"., became Eft. S.an t of
nwaWrrwfed'y aplase ldh.i.
Mecbnaieal methods of ayin light.
weigls bs--tO eiminate sofe the in.
stallation labor-are beig tu&died. Also
ruling the lining up at the end of a sea-
son and storing it for nse the next year
is being investigated.
Verne H. Swctt is Asasciate Preoessor of Irri-
gstin, Vniversity of CGifoenda Dwis,
PaSid fa., FOnr Ad sr, absk Cowyr,
JackA cA %o& W SI AK. U.
aoian r sei knsr in ,U aw.xsd ia
tae A -"" t hpaftd rs .

Jq qeinpneLk$WI13 flW~i ~i~ tealt.

Sfrastiea to eemt .coarner ptnk 2im'
'gftker. .
.The weort of these os have certain
schracWteriisa b which they may b
recogndtis taet time a loosesed
is flooded tde soil slak down usti
rthee i s trima Ma ds of cl siisald le
dryina. P; awhaeuppt, jsz setB seE
and yet.a e soBft erimnles nr ly wihe
a dry clod is crushed in the haPd, with
formatio-qan eaMns b ie amount of Sia
dust. oedfwys beuiome oeWred tbA a
tick aye of .ow*ery dut. There i
altnost a tprls maIomeant of watev
froB fiorewsw erawah tes bbsoterm d
aiddel f fa^Pblj ,.et been beispard
asy also be-d irueti by maore
tes aft, md Wt titq may he uvaable
soow wbhM "lWd in the dignosis of
h.s tS ieb -4aw
e imoiMn; wakfiteatnane being ia-
va~ ^ wihkn< Caused by" t wi p
ditima. kIt eaipecSadoy siOa becaisse.
the diicinty ]*rI as ihesemit cbesto'
teriatiec f the soil which canad bhe
changed by toy ecoaomieal means
known pd0e'aL.
Difiswpg ithe cease or causes of
slow urwateibati 0 into soil is. im-
An"~to in lkli ay* to
As n SO j" e,,oDn,
diof li a pr toeabat, andp
au t y to aby

'& water in the.sQAs as
Sd by the c the re-
eve -nloeil moisture may determine
nA there is an adequate sup-

.-Oiebl" on page 37

f.__iLAt.. I., .m


*" '" .-9n' tyTa i ~ ~t:~-, ~r- ~~-

o ~ .- .. .- *- .7 .

distr UtIOO of-,
i PF

-VUenUU fl.1* Y$9 &f~~. Nd 'W3

144isafI recent field testea
extent. WindiC ufd. 7rikdlIr
spacing--ipfnelattcnw minf
tr disthibtion from uMeia
Winds. in excess of 6
hour--have a decided iI
ter diatiihbtioe. InlfLaot
used with s e spriMier a
the water recoing thine
the arebetwenap
1S5% of the amount
signed to apply. Such
resutdt-in a sevefl-
eiency and a reduction ie
Iniproved waiter disA
obtained under wi4d'
closer aeiaf apiru
Meditu, 4aeiety >ra^' r'
ing gawevte bea difeti
greater range and tSI
lHowever, ceataffis Pin
ing must be iw i 'AUi
icrased Initial coast w
and aim' webldEt i
tars alo with Ah
asma Wtr. tins ralo n..
s~il--A~huld be
of a well planned op
The effect of tMi aw 'ai
tion cah be- di
specially .de4 A l=Ui-
arowund the., .r..
pattern and -a i ri
from the asaosqiy i
the ca. tlhe _:0 M tsGd-i
auy eaipeed .e" 1 4
tion petobt gi&
The most CHoBBa ifo.
method is :i icoa
Pr'ie8 a- a 46lCi

a crC"~~f~pl~? fl~


L ~: %k-

;... ,.
r ': I -~L?' :.~I
r. '~N~C~I -;1
;Ir. '~
scA~ u
.r 1
r .I'C7~iI


' -`-----~~-'-' -``-~ ---------- -----------

"' --'-------------


**^ ..;.*, .


*x N

Cn*tsiien were f we z0$Inot ln0*
In am tdIA,,'8r~a c~ra~t W&S -10C. ftjj~f~baij'
windy or hot.
Data for two of the irrigations with
different arverag wind conditions 46e
shown in tlie following table. A direct
OMreTMiOt of the imifprmaily C=eenta
foraI~fsai e omrbi!EtlrsqvatioiW* hOW4
EQI affspm:'vi,wgCjh OU1Wt

ivid Yih y:ity bI4r d freOi 2.1to 6,A
46:p~ This inf irmek;6n, confirrm'dwi vea-
liafitibty ot 6f zz obtfined -y sby Aoh
sin&ge laterat tests.

WId Sprlnktkw ftmdum
I=I*Y 20 so 40 60
,4 = .toSqwdww
40. 50 0 sa 60 0 so
.d W
GA, 41 -75 -ft 7*7Y 71 74' 79-',46.

T9 evakse~tate -he-perrrIRcc: of Asb
difrei.a reaIt Wets ybotea ub
ndmka~liilrp wk -f~Lj~~
S1&40$ XQ* Ia. Saeang 04*4ItrUi*S
C005661k.op~ei, iw 41i tPe
~I~P~E~r~i ~ ~ I* 4R., tb~ti~8_~2

1D~~~Ins $that di otdapie rrpv ixht
Come **

,'ApkiA t s, b for E$mgahi**ag Aid in
t~i .r~iioj~ e1 Ca1rJtaia.R Duvu.

.that did not- dimpmme or- redui iarfikrx.
ion rat e-when irriigatd with a hi* p*-

wa r *0"~i~1u~so~~n

per "WWAIlofiti boroupAj ca lue injury to
ipimit~ioe p-a~P~t& ej c O

i~t: rib.~ac (if I&Mft:-P~ie is not

conentroii 'in the sail, for upon
"*.yad-c i bL1I eonoeutration of salts
is fadv aM& mnsy times it' is Clite low.
sen~b, wio~xib~ rs~a in-ct~uiu~its
t~oxivity io; satraians 6f ettnue apd
Ehis. i# kitown as
'..g~*;~ Fpa


Wucor" Cr'"ICCUN- '


.. :itqr

in0" the

A ME*k9a



IV -. ,M. '1i
I 1 1".


,- -- -- ~i' U,-~~Pi3~~i-J .wrt5'- -.1:9F1 r~ii~~lt ql-
to: sqriOtisi. *,W WW R P

t. *I~

bx- espediaUy svere ihtd. A
Calif ernia .i~~i
Tbc-tig type of c

Th O -ly mirn. dwr

ei- ma.
throusb aww "Mh.'O

of -a zqipixwoft IT~a

w ~** isr"
frem Oprc *.au -A

parckie~r~i '

of the.i


1~ fr.ir;-

r.r- --m-- -;r ~.

. 1 ra k

e -4 '

r ~~nb ~j~~403~F~a~cit by~tie
MW .A... . .
p~b6.iait Ot Ea C-w4rfp lb dspit
.dpjn~ farm iclid a.by the ivioled ftr comtreteig &siu. re

dmreasci~pv t r-1"OWanhEAbOe t
'4~u~adfor AxaaJ~~hs :~ ;w fimW& 3jiES wPith. J:~~~pifii~r.ah8i:
__ffMo av4&itSI*I~*Lq

P. A. 6 A is,
dvinybcfarm oomW.~ in.." e* use for ionstaaIgu 4of r
:jaAlomi v&W 60 b~ate iim pe tbri m --- or
4w dweswiwwp!--... ft -aA4, 40 bapumm

M z5. 1Cla~~Pbts~4. f~w. ~fi
W*_#vIm- iron men -a- Ati& Ah. VA* a

.lw 'orda~~
~9~~blt M~ ~ ;:~:.ial to fnu~t Up i

--how -&a p c

*10 to

~"wl~ ipu~l Jt* *h4 t pp$&tiat eso
; WIN L:$ t~~3~;r~~
a Ja
Wow wwmawpp- 7P!R,"
. VOW.;6

ff.. W_


a- ^,

, .. -

r e" -" "- ,

rbba Sa a


'.- 4:.:.~i4 ~9Cd4?

- 1 --- -

W4 .

.* *

1..* *"

Avlbwr F. i'!hbwy

"510 in.

~Ik. 6r 4a~rmatii~o~I;mai osR vii. & j
for-amp= vihaieij iiii 'on,;
*~a~.p4 &~rrB1IiC-of die
maew vhem~ dt wte :w wi' 4a
84 *i ,pprma"e deahsp&,p w-e e am-




'-Wi is

*00~~illri I~~n

. vbei*46

B;i hritmt a. *swr
ped P& i up t&e deep
irlip t heiieu is

~*teadcej -to ph=n
-_IDI if~sieit it~

' o- .

- ,g'''~L.

6eld 0 r
--r ... -. a V
i-I: i ~f

cpme ~iI ,a ,th0 :;
twee -w tag*

__oa 7' .
,ot *I.

0r00ai f

, toiDltE~' ':1:"- ~ ri


*. l P W r t.. (,*

- ~- b`T

%3'' abc

J ,eg



r ,,-.. -. ... :.,~.X


i- I~.~~~~ I~~'--rr--Y ~ ~ ~ ---~--- **----r--;- ._,C'?;~ t- -.----- ---- -- -- -.---.' *

Continued from page 24
phere suction value-about 75% of the
available water has been removed from
the Fallbrook soil and approximately
60% from the Holtville soil.
Further studies of moisture extraction
from soils are being made under con-
trolled conditions without using plants.
Soil columns are positioned horizontally
and brought to equilibrium with water at
approximately 30 millibars. This is often
a value read on tensiometers following an
irrigation in the field. A constant suction
is then applied at one end of a soil col-
umn, by applying a controlled vacuum to
one side of a porous ceramic disc the
other side of which is in direct contact
with the soil. The lower left graph on
page 24 shows the accumulated water ex-
tracted from soil columns when the suc-
tion of 900 millibars was maintained
constant. The extracted water was meas-
ured in surface inches in relation to the
area of the soil column.
In the same length of time, 80% more
water was extracted from a column of soil
14" long compared with the same column
when it was cut down to 7" in length.
This would indicate that, for this Fall-
brook sandy loam, root-free portions of
the soil 7" away from roots can make
substantial contributions to water ex-
tracted by roots.
Soils vary greatly in their ability to
conduct water. A comparison of three
soiJ types shows that under the same con-
trolled laboratory conditions the water
extracted from a Ramona sandy loam soil
was approximately twice as much as
from a Fallbrook sandy loam and three-
fold that from a Yolo loam. The curves
comparing various soils were all ob-
tained using 14" soil columns.
For these studies of soil moisture
movement, fragmented soil samples
were screened and compacted in the col-
umns. Further studies will be made on
undisturbed cores.
If only moisture flow rates are meas-
ured-to compare the ability of various
soils to conduct water-the size and
shape of the soil sample and suction
equipment would need to be standard-
ized. However, when continuous records
of the moisture suction values are ob-
tained at various locations along the soil
column, as well as moisture extraction
rates, computations can be made express-
ing the conductivity values of a soil as a
function of the moisture suction. These
values are characteristic of the soil and
independent of the methods of measure-
ment. They can be used to characterize
different soils or study the effects of soil
management practices on the same soil.
Also, when suction values in the field are
measured by tensiometers, flow rates can
be estimated.

Studies of moisture movement in soils
in the liquid phase are made under con-
stant temperature conditions. Thermal
gradients within the soil column, which
result in water vapor diffusion, can cause
significant disturbances to the measured
liquid flow.
S. J. Richards is Associate Irrigation Engi-
neer, University of California, Riverside.
L. V. Weeks is Senior Laboratory Technician,
University of California, Riverside.
The above progress report is based on Re-
search Project No. 1546

Continued from page 29
In most cases not enough water can
be stored in the soil to last throughout
the season. Where water penetration is
slow. more water can be applied by irri-
gating more frequently or by increasing
the time the water is on the land surface
at each irrigation. Both approaches have
advantages and limitations. More fre-
quent irrigation may be accomplished
without any other change in the system
or in practice, but has the disadvantage
of higher labor costs. It may be an in-
adequate measure for the more difficult
problems. Prolonged irrigation may re-
quire substantial changes such as con-
verting from furrows to basins in which
water can be ponded for long periods or
using small furrows to insure better cov-
erage of border strips with small streams.
Irrigation of crops susceptible to injury
or disease under prolonged irrigation
can not be managed in this way, and the
practice may encourage growth of water-
loving weeds. However, such methods
may be the only means of increasing the
productivity of soils with very slow water
penetration even though changes in crop-
ping pattern or farming operations are
D. W. Henderson is Assistant Professor of Ir-
rigation, University of California, Davis.
J. A. Vomocil is Assistant Professor of Soil
Ph)sics, University of California, Davis.

Continued from page 20
ing facility must provide for maximum
energy capture, discharge water at a tem-
perature giving maximum rice yields, oc-
cupy a minimum land area, with reason-
able installation and maintenance costs.
From experience in rice irrigation,
water temperature may be expected to
influence the growth of other crops. How-
ever, it is difficult to predict the influence
of water temperature on yields because
of its numerous direct and indirect ef-
fects on the plant. In addition to the cold
water damage reported here, crop injury
is sometimes associated with warm water.
As more is learned about its effects on

irrigated crops, water temperature may
become a factor of considerable impor-
tance in the selection of crops and their
management for maximum yield and
minimum unit cost
Franklin C. Raney is Principal Laboratory
Technician in Irrigation. University of Cali-
fornia, Davis.
Robert M. Hagan is Associate Professor of
Irrigation. University of California. Davis.
Dwight C. Finfrock is Associate Specialist in
Agronomy and Superintendent of the Biggs
Rice Experiment Station. University of Cali-
fornia, Davis.
Bruce Wylie, Glenn County rice grower; the
Glenn-Colasa Irrigation District, and Milton D.
Miller, Extension Agronomist, University of
California, Davis, participated in the studies re-
ported in the above article.

Continued from page 22
grove was on a two week irrigation
schedule. The irrigation water applied
July 19 and August 3 reached the 12"
soil depth but did not wet the soil at the
18" depth to field capacity.
The time and place to use either tensi-
ometers or blocks depends to a large ex-
tent on climatic conditions and soil types
and to a lesser extent on the nature of
the crop. In inland areas of southern
California where high water losses may
cause stress conditions in plants, timing
of irrigations becomes very important.
Tensiometers have proved to be valuable
tools for timing irrigations in citrus and
avocado groves. However, in the more
humid areas where irrigations are inter-
mittent, along with rainfall, resistance
blocks are used with satisfactory results.
Resistance blocks made of gypsum rather
than fiberglass or nylon are generally
preferred in agricultural soils.
The neutron method is still a research
tool although it might be valuable on
large agricultural acreages.
L. H. Stolzy is Assistant Irrigation Engineer,
University of California, Riverside.
G. A. Cahoon is Assistant Horticulturist, Uni-
versity-of California, Riverside.
T. E. Szusz.iewica is Senior Laboratory Tech-
nician, University of California, Riverside.
The above progress report is based on Re-
search Project No. 1612.

Continued from page 31
in the Imperial Valley. Here Colorado
River water is used for irrigation and
contains large quantities of sulfate,
which produces this toxic symptom.
L. D. Doneen is Professor of Irrigation, Uni-
versity of California, Dams.
D. I. Henderson is Assistant Professor of
Irrigation, University of California, Davis.
The above progress report is based on Re-
search Project No. 1529.


- 'iJt; ~i~8li~


tontilued from pge 6
The experience of the two water cqp-
servation districts in Santa Clara County
illustrates the role of the pdblic district
in dealing with conflicts of this type.'
The Santa Clara Valley Water Conseiva-
tion pistriot was organized in 1929 alter
two attempts to'use alternative bound-
aries. The South Santa Clara Valley
Water Conservation District was created
in .1938. This southern district was un-
able to execute its program until the
original area within the district was en-
larged in 1951 from 18,000. ares to 34,-
900 acres. In both cases difficalies were
encountered in reaching agreement on
the incidence of benefits.
One of the primary purposes of the
district was to encompass within its
boundaries the interests which were to
be benefited from the collective action
so that the costs of executing th. action
could fall upon these benefited interests.
However, the anticipated beheits fromn
the early water management .proposal
were not distributed uniforly to al
ground-water users.
. Santa Clara County contains two dis-
tinct ground-water basins, oei sloping
north toward San Francisco Bay while
the other slopes toward the Pajaro Rivet
in the south. The small Coyte ValYBe
connects the larger northern aiA sohi-
ern basins. Water users ti Coyote Vaey
were reluctant to join the distri because
they feared detention dams ad stream
flow diversion would lessen the arde
volume of influent seepage of water~tsp
the stream to their portion okf te gr nd-
water reservoir and that the B
meant of the poorly drained ap..e w'd
become more difficult In additi water
spreading at a lower elevsaiow i elijer
d lictc wouTl have been of d- beasit
Consequently, Coyote Valley was omit-
ted from inclusion in the tw6 d iana
districts. In fact, the Cooral Spnta 6 A
Valley Water Cnser vtion Diatct s
formed to prttst a water-ria
tion by the northern distrci~ the
failure of : t atiop, Coyote ..By was
annexedto the S~t Clara Vey Water
Conservation District Th 195 aj d the
original plan was adjusted to provide
benefit to die area.
The district procedure provided for
local interests to register their approval
or. disapproval with respect to o e pro-
posed plan. In these instanees the lack
of coincidence of district i*id bami
boundaries was a factor leading jo Cs-
fict and contributing to. delay. in he
initiation of effective ground-wae man-
The method of assessing project costs
is one of the terms of orgaia which
is. frequently a source of confit with
respect to ground-water management.

Thof center around
tf .4 '4 ,w
of om~itrSeech a r~musaaSWreldawkinsip
to the ditiribution of benefitsAIn th esae
of the ate-pt to esteatt a jreand
water management organization i Santa
Clara County, agreement was not
reached concerning the method for rais-
ing revanut until four menhodi hadbeen
considered: 1, a tax upon each parel of
land proporionate to the project bene-
fit assessedto it; 2, a tax upon the,quan-
tity of water pumped froia eac well;
3, an assessment upon the value of the
land and it provemems; and 4, taxing
the land-eaelusive of improvements-
which was the welod thit finally won
general agreement and was incorporated
into leufing legislation of 1929.
.The role of the district in these con-
flicts of interest was to provide themearns
for reai4ng a decision in a situation of
conliets ard to have. the authority to col-
lect the retired revenue. The election
procedure and informal interest group
committb wre 'used to sele these con-
flicting interests. The authority of these'
districts to collect reveaues was never
seriously qiestiitned although the ability
to isem bond aid the -lse of bond issues
did lieome questions of electoral con-
The district form provides a flexible
manage4aVttool for determiinig die in.
cidenee of -rbjeet costs or, to put t dif-
fently oifs aing f services rendered.
Beepiw'a tis f il'lbikty, revenue or
pricingssdhe es .af. be tsed to fit local
ground-ater management problems so
that thee is a coicidense of the inci-
dence- of project benefits and costs or
dtht a reasonble relationship exists be-
tween them.
'The ability of the district to associate
costs witl imset a iould not be con-
fused with the insidence dLiAepeidigre.
I.-fact, the largest expenditures of the
water conservation district in Santa
Clara Couety werq made to construct
detention dams outside of thb district.
This WoUa d sM6g' s,thqt, if a particular
watershed 'mamaement practice in the
area Ahove e4.i renv s were measur-
ably ben cil to district program,
the incide f expeditnre could be
made to fal p tphe n1owners above
the a while the iidene of oeasd
of hbeieit would be within -the district
or could be paially shared by the dis-
trict.. For example, the' district could
enter into contractual arrangements with
the bled landowners and pay them
to folw agreedupon practices.
Stephpn C.. Smith is Associate. Specialist in
Agricucrwa Economics, University of -alifor.
am, Berkeey.
Foregoing artile is based on Ciannini Foun
datin Pper No. 152, "Problmos in rqe Use of
the P. District for enMd-Water Manage-
ment" by the srume author

Continued from psge 5
Other studies incfude the development
of redonnaissasee teaC quet i to evaluate
rainfalldisposal and possibilities of yield
increase, and to investigate watershed
paving as a possible means of yield
maxmnization and debris control.
The potntialities of vagetati-o man-
agement as a means of increasing Cali-
fornia water sapfies are being consid.
ered in detail. y resahs -idicate that
vegieative pemnas ent may be a new
tool to assist in the beneficial utilization
of watersheds to produce increased run.
R. H. Burgy is Assistan Professor of Irriga-
tion, Universiy of Cfaiforfna, Dais.
A. F. PiObiry ts Professor of Irrigiodm and
Engineering, University of Californka, Los An-



Cor iitded firi page 26
lately brought to the. laratory, we
and dried for 24 hours at a230F to e-
mine moisture percentage on a dry asis.
About 4Y' of water were applied to
the test plot.during the season by seven
irrigations with the individual amounts
varying. from 5"-8" at an average of
about 6". The oil moitre extraction
dwJing the pIeriod ,l e seven irrigation
in 9' of be soil profile was 36". The 7"
difference between the 36" and the 43"
applied can be attributed to deep perco-
lation below the root tone.
The water application efficiency or
amount of water retained in the root zone
divided by-the Amount applied was 84%.
This is a high efficiency, as should be
expected with an irrigation system
wherein large flows of water are con-
tained in relatively small areas. The total
amount of water coni ned from the time
that Jeaoes appeared. on the trees, in the
middleof March, until te time they were
shed, around the first of Nvember, was
ewaty 44". The 8" difference between
total water consumed and water fur-
nished by irriatio is attributable to
wn ralns. O the total water consumed
23;% wps extracted from the top foot of
roil; 63% extracted from the top 5'; and
.87% from the top 7'.
Jewel L. Meyer is Farm Advisor, Stanislaus
County, univwery o California.
Normmu Ross is Farm Advisor, Stanislaus
Comuty. Valairsity of Caliornis.
Verse H. Scotr is Associate Prolessor of Ir.
rigtian, Uisrrsity of Caifornia, Davis.
Clyde L. Hoason is Eaension Specia st in
IrrifguiJ and Drainage, University of Caifor-
Grower'4 rid ieson, of Hsghson, cooper.
ated in te 6btiy reportein the e oe progress




I =21

ALMWOCAT3@M Cos ibia casse-has bit inatdl4 a4
W AT a tfe floidfity mad the a Ve.rif tb
Ca Sinued from page 3 te .h a
necessary to *Wts UILWZIWW4atelwu
resources, to undertake capital expendi- ormy, The pr.cedire as a legal pe
' atens to iomit resources other than t. appears to be- adequate to dudiatoei
water resourees to long-time devdep- ground-water rihta in well
meat.i is desirable that there eist a ground-water basins. It is a legally va
certain degee of security over tihislM A rdlsaMMnti1tisfies an inediate e-
respct to use of te resource. wAsgi ~%Itt can be improved and
Vill iBTediponse an I are aeed in advance, if interim
Smy ratess the' sfte for a reasonable agreements are used, and if only the
. i tyI of he resource and the use to in pros. The Court Rera$n e r
wa h that resource may be put. cedure provides for effective over-all
.Flxible aspects of the riparian doc- allocation of ground water and protect
trine '"a applied tb ground water-the tion of ground-water rights.
o' cpeltiw rights doctrine-have facli
tad the development of the ground erbert Snyder is Assistant Polr of
Agricultural Enomics, University of Calior-
: water -sfwace tn-hte course of economic ., Davis.
ht-ge. -lin aspect of the correlative
rihtOs..dotine haa not yet been fully
tested ader economic conditions where
b f d-water development can not be RIGHTS
srm p subsequently .by additional Continued from page 2
Aw r .devopent. The rationing in-
od' Wint i ymond Baoi andWest court ordered that all parties be allowed
SCoast Basin.area merely provides for a to continue to pump at a reduced rate,
reAntioa in use of relatively inipeqtive the total pumpage not to exceed the safe
local grsoud water and supplemmtation yield. Another comprehensive determina-
-by edJrakg we of relatively expensive tion of ground-water rights, in the West
import surface water. Coast Basin, is still pending.
Development, management, and use of An increasingly serious problem is that
water in ground-water basins requires of overdrawn ground-water, supplies,
.ong-ran security for the individual de- particularly in the southern part of the
Vto ping or making use of the water. He state. In recognition of this situation,
'S 'be ottain that all deferred revenues statutes applying only to specified south-
ind coste6f hie development and use cat era counties were enacted in 1951, 1953,
be aseoated for and fully cipensated and 1955. None of these statutes pur-
over iAmn. he adjudicated pumping ports to restrict the exercise of the
thares o6k h individual based on the overlying landowner's or appropriator's
e' fee's ending provide for a aseere groundwater right.
right to pump ground water and protect One of the statutes encourage th
--4 a degree at least-previous cor- groundwater user to obtain ante ate
,itamenti a supply of water from a ottriburtary
One of the key characteristics of an source, the use of which will be deed
operating economy is the change inherent equivalent to a reasonable beneficial se
in that economy. Normal operations of of the ground water which he has ceased
-a economy include the elements that to extract as a result of having the sub-
allow for economic flexibility as well as stitute supply.
Weonoml seetrity over time. The imposi- Another statute requires the ground-
tijn of legal framework upon the opera- water user to make-to the State Water
tii of an economy should allow for Rights Board-annual reports of infor-
eeonomi cha ge of that ceonomy. Thus, mation essential to adjustments and de-
absotlte depnendene or reliance upon a terminations of ground-water rights, thus
Single legal doctrine that provides some speeding up and reducing.the east of the
elements of flexibility, for example, but requisite studies.
ittle or no security would not be condu- The third statute relates to preliminary
eive t the best operation of the economy. injunctions equitably restricng and ap-
On the other hand a legal process that portioning a reduction in pumping where
would establish security but not permit it appears that unrestricted pumping
flexibility over time would be equally would destroy or irreparably injure the
awkward. Thus a single legal process, if ground-water supply, because of ocean
it is to allow for normal operations of an water intrusion, while rights of use are
economy, must take into account both the being determined.
security and flexibility aspects of the op- The steady increase in California
eration of that economy. population and the increasing costs of
The Court Reference Procedure-as obtaining additional water supplies have
applied, in the Raymond Basin ease and led to a era of large projects: the Siate
as preliminarily applied. in the West Water Plan; the Central Vally Project;

..*3 ,i .

AFrtIL, 1957

_______________________________ ~' ~ -17. -s~r 6


Illd~ilieal _L* L, -_-_,%- -- .IF,w


the Feagher Rler Pjaect; and the Me-
^a^flwb-. hta D 91t.i Southern
f et ,istr c ,na*l r paasy e~iti- :,'
The Appare trend is toward formal
appropriations of water b large proj-
Ects, which will either dieritw the; :
waer or provide for its tao
indiaidulv al aMs rsanat to legal ora.ea
trhe aid t I n man' -laitie,8, .
the emsar's indiviial piUpmgp pilae ,s
his own farm is an Biportait eption.
BiDt even i that cse, with, increasing
drats on groinidwater applies, idtfc '
tiouns ie mir that camMty o
tion wil be neede-in protecting and re '
charging many of the supplies.
In 1955, the legislature reeuganied. '
the State water agencies. The Division
of Water Resource -of the Department of
Public Works wasabolieled and.is fuan .
tions'pertaining to water and dams were
trar~ired to two newly created agencies
.of the.State government. A State Wter
Rights Board wasvested with c~itrol of
the acquisition of tights by appropria-
.tiea aqMistance to the coaurte tin al .i-
j$dtiction of water rigftE, and adminis-
tratiop of taibtioi applicable to south-
ern Calforma counties concerning ex-
traction of ground water. Supervision
over distribution of water in watenrmaste
service areas, together with the remain- -
ing functions relating to water and damsl
was transferred to a Department of Wa-
ter Resources.
Th; extensive developments of Cali-
fopia water resources and those being
planned have created important water
rigts problem Among aAee are some
mtuStes of 'ea~-btateirelatieohips, is.
efaiaag-m 169i0aer limitiae. Andthter
arob is lgat' ~dleto .over water.
'fiateo graod-water are by Mati-
IWa-amew widhbt the coisent of over-
ltigta, .adowmns withoutiariit ; t
,of Iei rei~rrat8rt rights but wi due
protection of rigts to the use of the imu .
ported wat.B recent problem s the
status of a entry on public lands, under .
the Desert Land Act, supported by an
apprq'priimi' of percolai ngrotd u
water, whch xader current Caera
law is tiae by informal diversion and
use and not pursuant to the California
Water Code.
A major problm---till- far from set-
tidenmTt-involve water uihta of area
of ori-n of water. In existing law, cei-
tain restrictions are stated with respect
to the taking of water, pursuant to State .-
and Federal plans, away from the coun-.
ties, watersheds, and areas in which it
originates. The restrictions with respect
to counties are statewide in application;
those for watersheds and areas relate to
the Central Valley Project The restric-
tions are to the etfee that in the develop-
Coaduded on next page :



1 1 .. .

-now ready for distribution-
Single coines of these publicatlemie-ceapt the
Manual-or a catalog of Agriculfurtl Pblig in -
may be obtained without charge from tie t~e .
of the Parm Advisor or by addreesip a rnuues tot
Agricultutal Publliation.s 22 Glannint Hall, Universahy
of California, Brkeley 4.

69; Figs, Leaf. 70; Pears, Leaf. 71;
Cherries. Leaf. 72; Olives, Leal. 73;
Apricots, Leaf. 74; Bashberries, Leaf.
75; Apples, Leaf. 76; PIams. and Prunes,
Leaf. 77; Peaches and Nectrines, Leaf.
78; Grapes, Leaf. 79; W-hauls, Leaf.
80; Strawberries, Leaf. 81.

Erdman and I. M. Tinley, Bul. 758.

by William A. Williams, R. Merton
Love, and Lester I.-Berry, Cir.' 458.

CROPS, by R. N. Jeferson and A. Earl
Pritchard, Leaf. 66.

CAGES,. by Leon S. Rosenblau, Leaf.

Continued from preceding page
meat of these major water plansthe coun-
ties, watersheds, and areas of origin

shall not be Reprived of any water re-
quired to supply local needs. There is no
provision for determining in any given
case, presently or in the future, the ex-
tent of these local needs and of quauti-
Sties of.water to serve them. The tack'of
certainty is currently the subject of con-
troversy and of a eonsidrable measure
of opposition to projected developments.
Wells A. Hatchins was formerly Lecturer in
Irrigatieh; university of Calforoki, Davis, and
is Agrieultaral Econmist, Farm Econotics
Reseqrch pirsiets; Agriculdtr Research Sere-
ice, United Sutes Deparsmena of Agriculture,

Gifts ro rhe Unitersity of California for research by the Division of Agrieultral Sciences acceed in Felruary, 1957.

Diamond March Co.. .............. Selected red fir planks
For srudy of relation of site to quality of red &r
Dow ChemicaL Co., Western Div.............. 8 5 gal. drums DN-289
For walnut insect investigations
Union Lumber Co. .. ..... .... .. Tanoask logs
For study of properties of California hardwoods, and sluing
J. McDonald l
avid Macintyre ( .............Madroe lo
For study of properties of Califocnia hardwoods

Armour & Company ... ......... ....... ..... $2,500.00
For research in pouhry meat technology
Chipman Chemical Company, In.. ....... 17 50-lb. bags Chlora 40 and
11 50-lb. bass Chiorea
For field trials
Di Giorgio Frui Corporation...... ......... ..... .... .$2,612.00
For study of grape virus diseases
Dow Chemical Company.. .20 gs 2,4-D Dow Weed Killer
Formula .S0; 40 lbs. Sodium TCA
For fall sterilam applications
E. I. du Pont de Nemours a Co.
Graselli Chemicals Department. 50 Ibs. each, Karmex W Monuron
Herbicdde and Karmex DW
Diatro Herbicide
For soil sterilaar trials
Herman Frasch Foundation ... ............ ..... ..$2,500.00
For research on the effect of environment on the chemical coascitmion
of plants in relation to disease and pest resistance
(Ist of five annual payspes)
Henniuasen, Inc .................. .................. .2,250.00
For research on urilization of by. grqduss from eg industry,
particularly es brreoing operaions results
Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Sales, Fnc.
Chemical Diviion. ................... I too of calcined pagnesite
For nutritional 'studies in deciduous orchards

National Science Foundadqu ......... .................. $8,50000
#ror research on bV*rdsi o IIW in dairy cows
(1st pqssupof at4a:r$4,5W06 )
Norrbrup-Kin & Company ......... ........ ... .250 lbs. onion seed
For research on seed srotae- sealed containers
Ewing Turf Products. ............................ $250.00
N Great to further' murt as program
United Stares Borax & Chemical Crp......... 900 lbs. DB Granular
300 Ibs. Ureabor
600 Ibs. Polyborchlorate
For soil steriles field rials

Agricultural Ammonia Semice, iac.................. ......5 50.00
SFor the lsimneter project (la pearoe at of oral fa 000)
California Spear-Cheacal Copoersion .................... $1,500.00
To support current fteri woek wih vegetable crops on
sources of aitroes
Citrus Industry Research Associaion...'. ................. .$300.00
To imtall refrieration and inscrumersdon in 600 cubic ft. reefer box
Diamond H:a=t Is Comma,
i"Research ad mae Deparitet ................. 3,000.00
For research ag ptue and luac.ude of nicotine residues on
S vegerabtl crops
Rialmo-Fotuaaa Cirmus .Assoclaip ....... I Washig-creasin-dryg ni
For ,rposed fruit handling facility
Rohm & Has Company .. ..... ...................... 3,000.00
For screening and field testing of insecticides and fungicides
U. S. Public Health Service. ............................9,235.00
Far research on reproductivity of enaomopbhhorous fiugi

Shell Chemical Corporrion .................. ......... ,000.OD
For reswe as to ame and adaptb iili of certain emicls developed
by Sh fCematica Cog% for ccmspfttf nematles.-ftbpatCular
reference to value of such cemi i agriBlem e of Cs forouTl


* *


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