Title: Preview of The California Water Plan
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002930/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preview of The California Water Plan
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: State Water Resources Board
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - Preview of The California Water Plan
General Note: Box 12, Folder 2 ( Water Resources Reports - Various States - 1955 - 1957 ), Item 1
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00002930
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text






March, 1956

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PREFACE ... . . . .


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The Problems . .. . .

The Geographic Problem . . .

The Problem of Regulation . . . .

Other Physical Problems . . . .

Solving the Problems . .

C e e C C C

. 10

Local Development .. .

North Coastal Area . . .
San Francisco Bay Area . . .
Central Coastal Area .. . .
South Coastal Area . . .
Central Valley Area-Sacramento River Basin
Central Valley Area-San Joaquin River and
Tulare Lake Basins . .
Lahontan Area .. .
Colorado Desert Area . . ..

The California Aqueduct System ..

Klamath-Trinity Division ..
Eel River Division ...
Sacramento Division ..
Delta Division .. .
South Bay Aqueduct . ..
San Joaquin Division . .
Central Coastal Aqueduct ..
Southern California Division

Costs .. . . .

. . 21

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C e

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Summary . . .

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. . . 13

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(Plates are bound at end of report)

Plate No.



Ultimate Water Distribution Under The California
Water Plan

California Aqueduct System of The California
Water Plan


Pacing age
Artist's Conception of Oroville Reservoir Frontispiece

Flood of December, 1955--Levee Break in
Feather River Near Yuba City . .. 6

The White Gold of California--A Winter Scene in
American River Basin. . . .

Pit No. 5 Power House--A 152,000-kilowatt Installation 12

Sawmill Near Eureka--Industrial Use of Water is Vital
to.California's Economy .. . 12

Don Pedro Dam on Tuolumne River--Built and Operated
by Turlock and Modesto Irrigation Districts . 18

Orchard in Napa County. .... ... .18

Sprinkler Irrigation in Central Coastal Area . 24

Harvesting Celery Near Salinas . . 24

Navigation on Sacramento River .. .. ... .. 32

Urban Development in San Francisco Bay Metropolitan Area 32

Ia ---~ I--C- ------..--------- II I r n Il-----"~--*newers~---



The California Water Plan
California Feather River Project
Florida's Water Resources
Georgia Studies
Illinois Water Use Law
Kentucky Water Rights Law
Mississippi Water Resources Report
Western Water Resources Conference Proceedings


-.i.T~~RILIII~---I*CC*~191 -_~X~err_~; ~-~lrqrar~r~-xl-~In~~3sll~---~L--n ----






e l

March, 1956

-.-- _______ ~11*- ~IIICC~I~II~I


Artist's Conception of Oroville Reservoir, Dam and Power Plant

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-- March 2 1956 *" p.,RICH, MARN. LLE

Honorable Goodwin J. Knight, Governor, and
Members of the Legislature of the
State of California


We have the honor to transmit herewith a report entitled
"Preview of The California Water Plan", authorization of which
was initiated by Chapter 1541, Statutes of 1947.

Under the provisions of the cited statute and subse-
quent budget acts, the Legislature directed the State Water Re-
sources Board to investigate the water resources of California
and formulate plans for their orderly development. The investi--
gation is being conducted by the Division of Water Resources of
the Department of Public Works, under direction of the State Wa-
ter Resources Board.

This report provides a summary statement of the works
planned to ensure the conservation and control of water resources
necessary for continued growth and economic development of the
F State. These works will provide sufficient water supplies to
meet anticipated water requirements for all beneficial uses in
all areas of the State, insofar as practicable. -In addition,
substantial benefits will accrue to the people of the State by
reason of the flood control provided, by salinity repulsion, and
by enhancement of fish and wildlife resources and recreational

SState Water Resources Board Bulletin No. 3, "Report on
The California Water Plan", to be published in preliminary form
later this year, will discuss the plan in more detail.

1 Very truly yours,

Clair A. Hill

I 1



Clair A. Hill, Chairman, Redding

R. V. Meikle, Vice Chairman, Turlock

A. Frew, King City

C. A. Griffith, Azusa

W. Penn Rowe, San Bernardino

Phil D. Swing, San Diego

W. P. Rich, Marysville

Harvey 0. Banks, State Engineer
Secretary and Engineer

Sam R. Leedom, Administrative Assistant



Prank B. Durkee * Director of Public Works
Harve 0. Banks . . . State Engineer
William L. Berry .. .. Assistant StateEngineer

This preview of The California Water Plan
was prepared under the supervision of

John M. Haley
Principal Hydraulic Engineer

Henry Holsinger, Principal Attorney
T. R. Merryweather, Administrative Officer
Isabel C. Nessler, Coordinator of Reports




The investigation resulting in the formula-
tion of The California Water Plan was authorized by
the State Legislature in 1947 and initiated,on Septem-
ber 5, 1947, by adoption of a program of investigation
by the State Water Resources Board.

Royal Miller was Chairman of the Board at
the inception of the investigation, being succeeded
by C. A. Griffith, and later by the present Chairman,
Clair A. Hill. Changes in the' membership of the Board
have been occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Miller
on January 15, 1953, the retirement of Mr. H. P.
Cozzens on January 1, 1954, and the death of Mr. B. A.
Etcheverry on October 26, 1954.

Edward Hyatt was State Engineer at the in-
ception of the investigation. Mr. Hyatt retired on
January 31, 1950, and was succeeded by A. D. Edmonston,
who retired on November 1, 1955. The investigation
has been successively under the general supervision
of Assistant State Engineers A. D. Edmonston to Jan-
uary 31, 1950; P. H. Van Etten, until his retirement
on June 15, 1951; Thomas B. Waddell,'until his retire-
ment on November 1, 1955; and William L. Berry.

Conduct of the investigation has been suc-
cessively under the direction of the following prin-
cipal hydraulic engineers: P. H. Van Etten, until
January 31, 1950, at which time he assumed duties as
Assistant State Engineer; T. R. Simpson, until Sep-
tember 15, 1950, at which time he resigned to accept
appointment as Professor of Civil Engineering at the
University of California; William L. Berry, until
November 3, 1955, at which time he assumed duties as
Assistant State Engineer; and John M. Haley, since
November 3, 1955.

r .- -------


The Urgent Need for Water Development

We are currently overdrawing our water bank account in

California by about 5,000,000 acre-feet per season, mostly by

overdraft on our ground water basins. This dangerous deficit ex-

ceeds the yield of the Feather River Project. If further conser-
vation works are not built, by 1965 the overdraft may amount to

11,000,000 acre-feet seasonally. The immediate need for flood

control on the North Coastal streams, such as the Eel, Mad, Klam-

ath, and Russian Rivers, and on the Feather, Yuba, and other

streams in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, was only too

well demonstrated in December, 1955. The west and south sides of

the San Joaquin Valley, and Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Benito

Counties, as well as Antelope Valley, are all critically in need

of supplemental water. The situation in San Diego County can be-

come acute very shortly if the drought continues.. By 1975, or

possibly much earlier, all of southern California will need more

water. Many of the mountainous areas, such as the Upper Feather

River Service Area and portions of the North Coastal Area, need

water development projects not only for municipal and irrigation

water, but also to maintain stream flow for fish and wildlife and

to enhance the recreational potential, an important economic asset.

The immediate need for a state-wide program for water development

is all too apparent.
Assuming that we are not deprived of any of our current

entitlement to water from the Colorado River, there is sufficient
water within California to meet our foreseeable ultimate needs.

' vii

.,,..,. ..1L..,..,...... ._.,.

It is engineeringly and physically feasible to provide the works
to control, conserve, and distribute our water resources. The
California Water Plan, which is briefly described in this

report, will be presented to the Legislature in greater detail
later this year. It will provide a master plan for the control,
conservation, protection, and distribution of the waters of Cal-
ifornia to meet present and future needs for all beneficial uses
and purposes in all areas of the State to the maximum feasible

extent. This plan should be adopted by the Legislature at the

earliest practicable time, and thereafter future water develop-
ments by all agencies should reasonably conform thereto.

There are few, if any, areas of the State which will
not need physical works for the development of water resources.

The problem cannot be considered as one pertaining solely to the
so-called "areas of deficiency". The California Water Plan must
be implemented by a state-wide program for the construction of
needed projects to control and supply water wherever the need
arises and as projects are found feasible. The job is a big one,
and will require the combined efforts of the Federal Government,
the State Government, and local entities. But the State must
take a leading role.

The Feather River Project is the initial unit of The
California Water Plan. It is urgently needed now, and must be
started immediately. But this project alone will not meet all of
our current needs for water in all areas of the State. Other
projects must follow. Finally, and this cannot be emphasized too

strongly, solution to the water problems of California,lies in the
construction of physical works--not alone in reservations and laws,

however necessary these may be as steps in the process.



The recent tragic floods in California have served at

least one good purpose. Most effectively, and for all the people,

they have dramatized the immediate need for further protection of

our rapidly expanding population and economy against the tremen-

dous forces of nature. It is understandable that much of the em-

phasis at this time is for flood protection. However, it is well

to remember that the control of floods is but one of the important

elements in our complex of water problems, and that conservation

of the presently wasted waters, for later beneficial use, is of

primary importance to the continued growth and development of our

State. Fortunately the problems of flood control and water con-

servation frequently have solutions in common.
Even without the recent disastrous flood example, the

problems of water in California have never before assumed such

large proportions nor been of such vital significance as they are

today. Their critical nature largely stems from the unprecedented

recent growth of population, industry, and agriculture in our

semiarid State, coupled with an extended period in which the con-

struction of both water conservation and flood control works has

lagged far behind the increasing needs. The construction of high-

ways, schools, institutions, and other necessary public works, has

greatly accelerated during recent years. However, as regards wa-

ter development, California is relying for the most part on works

which were designed to meet needs foreseen 20 to 30 years ago.

These facts are now becoming known and more generally understood

by the people. It is apparent to most that the continued growth


i ii _I_/

and prosperity of California is dependent upon prompt and substan-

tial efforts by the responsible local, State, and Federal govern-

ments to provide physical solutions to the problems of water, com-

mensurate with the needs.

The State Water Resources Board, created in 1945 to ad-

vise the Legislature in matters of water, was authorized by the

Legislature in 1947 to conduct an investigation of the water re-

sources of California. The adopted investigational program, be-

ing conducted for the Board by the Division of Water Resources,

has the objective of formulating a long-range plan for comprehen-

sive development of the water resources of the entire State.

Basically, the planning is being done in order that urgently

needed water projects of today may be designed to fit a pattern

appropriate for the future.

The first phase of the investigation comprised an inven-

tory of data on sources, quantities, and characteristics of water

in California. The results are available in State Water Resources

Board Bulletin No. 1, "Water Resources of California", published

in 1951. This bulletin comprises a concise compilation of data on

precipitation, runoff of streams, flood flows and frequencies, and

quality of water throughout the State.

The second phase dealt with present and ultimate require-

ments for water. The associated report, Bulletin No. 2, "Water

Utilization and Requirements of California", has just been printed

and is now available from the State Printer. This bulletin In-

cludes determinations of the present use of water throughout the

State for all consumptive purposes, and presents forecasts of ul-

timate water requirements, based in general on the capabilities of


_____U__IYC____IIIIq__ll -- 1 ~~__1_1_-_1~--_~ls~---------~-~s~---~


the land to support further development. The term "ultimate" is

used as descriptive of conditions of essentially complete devel-


The third and final phase of this initial planning pro-
gram has been proceeding concurrently with the foregoing studies,

and will soon be completed. This constitutes the surveys and

studies for The California Water Plan, the results of which will

be presented in Bulletin No. 3 on or about next June 30th.

The Problems

Correlation of the data from Bulletin No. 1 on the quan-

tities and characteristics of our water resources with that from

Bulletin No. 2 on our requirements for water, enables an under-

standing of the physical problems of water development in Calif-

ornia. In addition, many difficult legal, financial, and organ-

izational problems are inherent to the physical problems in the

future control, conservation, protection, and use of water. While

the importance of this latter group of problems is fully recog-

nized, this report is largely concerned with solution of the phys-

ical problems of water development in our State.

In order to facilitate the state-wide studies, the land

area of California was divided into seven major hydrographic

areas. Locations and boundaries of these areas are shown on

Plate 1.

The Geographic Problem

For practical purposes, the amount of stream flow con-

stitutes the measure of that portion of the natural water resources


_11 i l o

that is available for control, regulation, and distribution to
meet requirements for water. The outstanding characteristic of
runoff in California is its geographic maldistribution. The major
sources of water are in the northern part of the State where they
can conveniently waste into the ocean unused. On the other hand,
the great productive land areas are located in the central and
southern regions where water supplies are insufficient. The pic-
ture is complicated by the intervening mountain ranges. Well over
70 percent of the stream flow occurs north of a line drawn roughly
through Sacramento. In contrast, an estimated 77 percent of the
present consumptive water requirement and 80 percent of the fore-
cast ultimate are found south of the same line.
The estimated mean seasonal natural runoff of all Calif-
ornia streams is about 71,000,000 acre-feet. The greatest contri-
butions come from streams of the North Coastal Area, which furnish
about 41 percent of the total for the State, and from streams of
the Sacramento River Basin in the Central Valley Area, which fur-
nish about 32 percent. Most of the remainder of the natural water
supplies, some 16 percent of the State's total, is in the San Joa-
quin Valley of the Central Valley Area. The San Francisco Bay,
Central Coastal, and South Coastal Areas, and the Lahontan and
Colorado Desert Areas receive only relatively insignificant por-
tions of our vital water resource.
Now, what about our growing requirements for water? In
this connection, the continuing population growth is rightfully
recognized as a prime factor in accentuating our historic water
problems. Furthermore, forecasts, based generally on the capabil-
ity of the land to support a balanced economy, indicate that the


Off"'M 0019M, 4-~IIII--- --- I~ __~ -_----_l____

~1. ___-~ll-~------i~--(-II~-~~Y~Y~lr~

J. li Il i. L I 1, ,- L).

present population of more than 13,000,000 may increase to more

than 40,000,000 under conditions of complete development.

Along with much greater domestic and municipal needs

for water, the future population growth will bring increased de-

mands for water for industries founded on local resources, includ-

ing the processing of agricultural products, ores, chemicals, pe-

troleum, steel, and timber. It is anticipated that the total use

of water for all urban and related purposes will increase about

five-fold from the present, in the ultimate future, from about

1,600,000 acre-feet per season to about 8,400,000. These values

are measured in terms of consumptive use of applied water plus un-

avoidable losses. The estimates of "present" values actually rep-

resent conditions as of about 1950.

By far the largest use of water in California is for

agriculture, a condition that will prevail even under conditions

of complete development. The present consumption of water for ir-

rigation is estimated to be 90 percent of the total for all bene-

ficial purposes, and will decrease only to about 80 percent ulti-

mately. The actual requirement for water for irrigated agricul-

ture, at present about 19,000,000 acre-feet per season, should

more than double under conditions of complete development, to more

than 41,000,000 acre-feet per season.

The total requirement for water in California for all

consumptive purposes in 1950 was about 21,000,000 acre-feet per

season. It is forecast that this will eventually increase nearly

two and one-half times, to some 50,000,000 acre-feet per season.

It is most significant to compare the geographical distribution

of this forecast of ultimate requirements with the runoff estimates


I~ _

previously presented. The comparison, which is graphically illus-

trated on Plate 1, demonstrates the geographic problem inherent in

major water supply development in California..

The North Coastal Area with its large natural water sup-

ply, 41 percent of the State's total, should ultimately require

only about 4 percent of the water consumptively used throughout

California. As regards the Central Valley Area, it is coinci-

dental that with 48 percent of the State's runoff this area should

ultimately require almost exactly 48 percent of the developed wa-

ter supplies. However, more than two-thirds of this ultimate use

should be in the water-deficient San Joaquin Valley, while the

Sacramento River Basin enjoys two-thirds of the Central Valley's


It is forecast that the San Francisco Bay Area and the

South Coastal Area, despite their tremendous metropolitan commun-

ities, will need only about 6 and 11 percent, respectively, of

the ultimately developed water supplies. Between them they re-

ceive a sparse 3.5 percent of our natural water supplies. Fin-

ally, the extremely arid Lahontan and Colorado Desert Areas, with

less than 5 percent of the runoff of California between them,

have the potential to use l4 and 12 percent, respectively, of the

ultimately developed water supplies of the State.

These data, developed in State Water Resources Board

Bulletins Nos. 1 and 2, not only demonstrate the basic geographi-

cal water problem of California, but also indicate the solution

to that problem. From the abundant water supplies of the North

Coastal Area and the Sacramento River Basin, an average of approx-

imately 21,000,000 acre-feet of water per season will ultimately


----(~-~~--aaca~i~-a~-~-~---*~---- I- ~__~_~~

-:.- -.ii^i*i -- -I

Flood of December, 1955-
Levee Break in Feather River
Near Yuba City

Courtesy State Division
of Highways

The White Gold of California
-A Winter Scene in
American River Basin

Courtesy State Division
of Highways

have to be developed and exported to the remaining inherently

water-deficient areas of the State. These exports will be sur-

plus waters, over and above the waters needed in the North Coastal

Area and the Sacramento River Basin for local use. With the full

practicable development of local water resources in all areas of

the State for local use, and with the water available under Calif-

ornia's rights in and to the waters of the Colorado River, these

exports from the north will satisfy the probable ultimate require-

ments for water in all parts of the State.

The Problem of Regulation

The problem attendant with the geographic maldistribu-

tion of our water resource has been described. Another outstand-

ing characteristic of the water resource of California is the

sporadic timing of its occurrence. Throughout the State the bulk

of precipitation occurs in a few winter months, while the summers

are almost always long and dry. Although runoff from the higher

mountain ranges is regulated to a considerable extent by the ef-

fect of the mountain snow packs, most of the stream flow in Calif-

ornia closely follows the pattern of precipitation, and comes dur-

ing the winter and early spring months--frequently in the form of

damaging floods of high intensity and short duration. The eco-

nomically important part of the stream flow that is delayed until

the late spring and early summer snowmelt period is insufficient

to provide for the large demands for water in the summer and fall.
In addition to the characteristic variation in its na-

tural water supply within the year, California is subject to ex-

tended wet and dry periods. In the late 20's and early 30's we


_1_ _

suffered a severe drought--one of a great many in the past--dur-

ing which runoff in the streams throughout the State for a 10-

year period averaged only a little more than 50 percent of the

long-time mean. In this connection, while the state-wide runoff

has averaged some 71,000,000 acre-feet per season, the actual sea-

sonal flows have varied from as little as 18,000,000 acre-feet to

more than 135,000,000 acre-feet.

The normal monthly variations in occurrence of the wa-

ter supplies of California, as well as the periodic droughts,

create a most basic problem relative to the development and use

of water. They dictate the provision of extremely large amounts

of reservoir storage capacity, for necessary seasonal and cyclic

regulation to meet the needs as they occur.

The importance of ground water storage capacity in meet-

ing the problem of water supply regulation should be emphasized.

Extensive ground water basins provide natural regulation for more

than half of the water presently used in California. The avail-

able underground storage capacity, estimated to be over 130,000,000

acre-feet within 200 feet of the ground surface in the Central

Valley Area alone, constitutes one of the most valuable natural

resources of the State. The significance of this vast ground wa-
ter storage capacity may be appreciated by relating it to the

4,500,000 acre-feet of surface storage capacity that has been

made available at great expense in Shasta Reservoir on the Sacra-

mento River. When operated coordinately with existing surface

reservoirs, and with those feasible of future construction, ground

water basins will provide relatively inexpensive regulation for

sufficient water to meet the forecast ultimate requirements.


~ ~ __I I I ~I I~ I _I_ Il~~__Y_

However, draft on many of these basins now exceeds replenishment,

and in some Instanc s the overdraft is of such magnitude as to
threaten irreparable damage to these valuable storage reservoirs.

Other Physical Problems

A multiplicity of other physical problems is involved

in the development and use of the waters of California for bene-

ficial purposes. These include flood control, repulsion of sea
water from underground basins, drainage of high-water-table lands,

maintenance of salt balance on irrigated lands, and protection

and maintenance of the quality of fresh waters.
The critical need for flood control and protection in

California has been tragically emphasized by recent events, and

must not be minimized in any planning for future water develop-

ment. The occurrence of intense winter rains over extensive areas

periodically creates flood conditions which result in major damage

and loss of life. The great floods of 1907, 1938, 1950, and 1955

resulted from rainfall of this type. In addition, accelerated

snowmelt, caused by unseasonable early spring temperatures, fre-

quently creates serious problems in controlling the resultant

runoff and preventing the flooding of agricultural and urban areas.
Flood control and protection may be effected by storage of flood

waters in reservoirs, improvement of flood channels by levees and

revetments, and by the creation of by-pass floodways, or by a

combination of these measures. In general, flood control works

can be advantageously integrated with water conservation works,

and the operations of the two types of works are susceptible of



II 1 _~ ~ _

Solving the Problems

As has been stated, Bulletin No. 3 of the State Water

Resources Board, presenting The California Water Plan, will be

published later this year. The bulletin will describe two prin-

cipal categories of water resource developments. The first group
will consist of local works in each of the major hydrographic

areas of California designed to meet present and future needs
within the respective areas. The second group will comprise a

major system of works to conserve and export surplus waters from

the North Coastal Area and the Sacramento River Basin, and to

transport these waters to areas of deficiency elsewhere in the

State, in sufficient amounts to meet the forecast ultimate re-

quirements. These export-import facilities are collectively

termed "The California Aqueduct System". Operation of both the

local water resource developments and The California Aqueduct

System will be outlined in Bulletin No. 3, and their achievements
and costs estimated.
The California Water Plan, comprising both The Calif-

ornia Aqueduct System and the more local works, will give consid-

eration to water conservation and reclamation, to flood control

and flood protection, to the use of water for agricultural, do-

mestic, and industrial purposes, to hydroelectric power develop-

ment, to salinity control and protection of the quality of fresh

waters, to navigation, and to the interests of fish, wildlife, and
recreation. It will contemplate the conjunctive operation of sur-

face and ground water reservoirs, which operation will be essen-
tial to regulation of the large amounts of water ultimately to

be involved.


------I -- I C -- -- ~L--------l~

The following concepts have entered into the planning

studies, and, for proper evaluation of the results, should be

borne in mind:

1. The California Water Plan is conceived as an ulti-

mate plan, one that will meet the requirements for water at some

unspecified but distant time in the future when the land and

other resources of California have essentially reached a state

of complete development.

2. The plan is designed to be comprehensive. It will

provide for future beneficial uses of water by individuals and

agencies in all parts of the State. With adoption and authoriza-

tion of the plan, and with firm provision for its progressive im-

plementation as component projects become feasible, sectional con-

cern as to future availability of necessary water supplies should

be eliminated.

3. The California Water Plan is a flexible pattern into

which future definite projects may be integrated in an orderly

fashion, with due consideration to varying interests. As addi-

tional data and experience are gained, as technology advances,

and as future conditions change in manners that cannot be fore-

seen today, The California Water Plan will be substantially al-

tered and improved.

4. The plan is designed to be susceptible of orderly

development by logical progressive stages as the growing demands

and requirements of the State may dictate. Certain of its fea-

tures should be implemented immediately, while others should be




5. The many features broadly embraced in The California

Water Plan, while believed to be endowed in common with engineer-

ing feasibility, have widely variant relationships to present con-

cepts of economic and financial feasibility. As an example, ex-

tremely costly works would be required to conserve and convey wa-

ter long distances to irrigate certain lands of very limited pres-

ent crop adaptability. Such works are for the indefinite future,

and may never be realized. However, the economics of the distant

future cannot be foreseen, and the planning effort is deemed nec-

essary at this time in order that provision may be made for such

development if and when the requirement arises.

6. The California Water Plan is designed to include or

supplement, rather than to supersede, existing water resource de-

velopment works. It also incorporates certain of the planned

works now proposed or authorized by public and private agencies

and individuals. Of special significance in this respect is the

Feather River Project, which is proposed as the unit for initial

construction under The California Water Plan.

Construction of the Feather River Project by the State

of California, acting through the Water Project Authority, was

authorized by the Legislature by Chapter 1441, Statutes of 1951.

The Feather River Project is the first state-wide project ever

proposed for California, and is designed to deliver water outside

of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, as was never envisioned

in the earlier Central Valley Project. All future large-scale

transfers of water will, of necessity, supplement or parallel the

principle of this project.


_ ------6111)111


Pit No. 5 Power House-A
152,000-kilowatt Installation

Courtesy Pacific Gas
and Electric Company

Sawmill Near Eureka-
Industrial Use of Water Is
Vital to California's Economy

Courtesy Eureka Chamber
of Commerce

The Feather River Project, with an estimated capital

cost in the order of $1,500,000,000, is but the first unit of The

California Water Plan. It is apparent that the plan will involve

the eventual construction of new works throughout California.

The most efficient use of water, and the full practicable recla-

mation of waste waters will be required. It is also apparent

that the full amount of the rights of California in and to the

waters of the Colorado River must be protected to meet present

and future requirements within the State. In addition, intelli-

gent and planned use must be made of our natural ground water


Local Development

It is beyond the scope of this brief report to more

than generally refer to the numerous preliminary plans being
made for local water resource development to meet local needs

throughout California. It is contemplated, however, that under

The California Water Plan water in all hydrographic areas would

ultimately be developed to the maximum practicable extent. Ex-

ports from areas of surplus would be excess waters, over and-

above those required to meet local needs, and limited to the

amounts needed to supplement the locally developed supplies in

deficient areas.

North Coastal Area. Present development of the ample

water resources of the North Coastal Area is very limited. There

is a diversion from the Upper Eel River into the Russian River

Basin primarily for the generation of hydroelectric power, as


1I,1I .ilB

well as a power development on the Klamath River near the state

line, the water supply for which is regulated in Oregon. Sweasey

Dam on the Mad River provides municipal water supplies for the

City of Eureka. Several relatively small irrigation systems

serve upland valleys, and minor pumping of ground water for do-

mestic, municipal, and irrigation purposes is scattered through-

out the area.

As has been stated, The California Water Plan would
meet all future local water requirements in the North Coastal

Area. In certain instances the works for local water supply

would be integrated with the export features. The reservoirs of

The California Aqueduct System would also provide much needed

local flood control, and releases of water to enhance summer and

fall stream flow in the interests of fish, wildlife, and recrea-

tion. Furthermore, a substantial portion of the energy created

by the hydroelectric power plants of The California Aqueduct Sys-

tem would be available for local needs. The strictly local water

developments in the North Coastal Area would include small con-

servation reservoirs to provide water for consumptive needs, and

for stream flow maintenance. Levees and stream channel improve-

ments would provide flood protection. These works of a local na-

ture would include nearly 50 reservoirs with an aggregate storage

capacity of some 3,500,000 acre-feet, yielding about 2,200,000

acre-feet of new water each season.

San Francisco Bay Area. The somewhat limited water re-
sources of the San Francisco Bay Area are already highly devel-

oped. This condition, which has existed for a number of years,

_ 1_1 _

is coupled with large urban water demands, and has fostered the

importation of water from distant watersheds by major aqueduct

systems., Locally, the City of San Francisco has developed the

waters ot the Peninsula, and of the Alameda Creek system across

the bay. The East Bay Municipal Utility District similarly uti-

lizes local waters of the east bay area. Water supplies of the

north bay have been almost fully developed by the Marin Municipal

Water District and other agencies and communities. In addition,

the ground water resources of the Santa Clara and Livermore Val-

leys and southern Alameda County are utilized to a degree of sub-

stantial overdraft for urban and agricultural purposes.

The California Water Plan contemplates further develop-

ment of local water resources of the San Francisco Bay Area to the

extent of practicability, and the coordinated operation of exist-

ing and proposed import works under The California Aqueduct Sys-

tem. Works for further local conservation development would in-

clude nine small reservoirs, with aggregate storage capacity of

about 200,000 acre-feet, and new seasonal yield of about 86,000

acre-feet. Channel improvements would provide-protection from

the flood waters of local streams.

Central Coastal Area. Under present conditions in the

Central Coastal Area, relatively large amounts of surface runoff

waste to the ocean. However, intensive development of ground wa-

ter supplies for municipal, domestic, and agricultural purposes

has occurred in the South Santa Clara and San Benito Valleys, the

Pajaro and Lower Salinas River Basins, the Arroyo Grande, Santa

Maria, and Cuyama Valleys, and the Lompoc Plain area. Small



reservoirs have been constructed, principally for municipal use,

in the South Santa Clara Valley, on the Carmel River, and on the

upper Salinas River. Three reservoirs to conserve runoff of the

Santa Ynez River meet demands for water in the Santa Barbara

coastal area. The Nacimiento Project, in the Salinas River Basin,

is now under construction by the Monterey County Flood Control and

Water Conservation District.

The California Water Plan includes works to accomplish

a higher degree of control and conservation of waters of the

Central Coastal Area now wasting to the ocean. The works planned,

including the cited Nacimiento Project, comprise reservoirs with

an aggregate conservation storage capacity of some 2,300,000 acre-

feet, from which a new yield of about 430,000 acre-feet per sea-

son would be obtained. Further storage capacity in the amount of

approximately 240,000 acre-feet would be provided for the control

of floods. In addition, the present seasonal yield of the under-

ground basins in the area could be increased by an estimated

72,000 acre-feet by use of approximately 550,000 acre-feet of ad-

ditional ground water storage capacity.

South Coastal Area. The tremendous population and econ-

omy of the South Coastal Area have imposed very large demands

upon the limited local water resources. As a result, there is a

high degree of utilization of these local water supplies, supple-

mented by major importations from distant sources. Ground water

basins underlying or contiguous to the Ventura, Santa Clara, Los

Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers are all developed to

the point of substantial overdraft. Conservation reservoirs have


C "-----~- i

been constructed on a number of the tributaries of these streams.

Comprehensive systems of flood control reservoirs, detention ba-

sins, and channel works protect the highly developed urban areas.

The effect of these developments, together with the operation of

artificial water-spreading works which enhance natural percola-

tion into all the major ground water basins, has resulted in con-

servation of most of the available water supplies to very nearly

the maximum practicable extent. Surface storage developments ac-

complish a high degree of conservation of the runoff of streams

draining San Diego County.

Limited opportunity exists for the development of addi-

tional surface water supplies in Ventura and San Diego Counties.

To this end The California Water Plan contemplates surface reser-

voirs with aggregate conservation storage capacity of some

1,200,000 acre-feet, which would produce a new seasonal yield of

about 120,000 acre-feet. In addition, by use of presently un-

used ground water storage capacity of about 150,000 acre-feet,

the seasonal yield of certain ground water basins in the area

could be increased by approximately 30,000 acre-feet.

Central Valley Area-Sacramento River Basin. Water re-

sources of the Sacramento River Basin far exceed all foreseeable

local requirements. The present water development is consider-

able and varied, but by no means approaches the feasible potential.

Among the outstanding works are those of the Central Valley Proj-

ect, which, in addition to making water available for export from

the basin, serve local purposes including irrigation and munici-

pal use of water, generation of hydroelectric power, salinity


I T I .~..~ -

Don Pedro Dam on Tuolumne
River-Built and Operated
by Turlock and Modesto
Irrigation Districts

Orchard in Napa County

Courtesy Redwood Empire

would contain about 2,000,000 acre-feet of storage space specifi-

cally reserved for flood control.

Central Valley Area-San Joaquin River and Tulare Lake

Basins. With its tremendous flat area and favorable soil and

climatic conditions the San Joaquin Valley has pioneered irriga-

tion development in California. Over 50 irrigation districts and

numerous other public water districts have been formed, and by

their initiative at the local level many notable water develop-

ments have been achieved. Over 4,500,000 acre-feet of reservoir

storage capacity has been constructed to conserve and control the

stream flow of the San Joaquin Valley. In addition to conserva-

tion of water for consumptive use, hydroelectric power is gener-

ated and flood control provided. The use of surface water sup-

plies has been supplemented with development and use of the vast

ground water resources, resulting in a relatively high degree of

utilization of the local water supplies. In addition, works of

the Central Valley Project convey surplus water from the Sacra-

mento River Basin for use in the San Joaquin Valley. Despite

this extensive development, supplemental water supplies are ur-

gently needed.
Features of The California Water Plan in the San Joa-

quin Valley would include over 50 new major reservoirs on east

side streams. With a total storage capacity of about 6,500,000

acre-feet, these reservoirs would produce about 2,000,000 acre-

feet of new yield seasonally, and provide a large measure of

flood control. Additional smaller reservoirs would supplement

yield from the major works to meet local water requirements in


// 14

the foothills and the mountainous watershed areas. New hydro-

electric power plants, with about 1,500,000 kilowatts of installed

power capacity, would generate approximately 7,000,000,000 kilowatt-

hours of energy seasonally. In order to achieve economic utiliza-

tion of both local and imported supplies, the surface reservoirs

would be operated in coordination with the storage capacity of

the underground basin.

Lahontan Area. The several basins of the Lahontan Area
have markedly differing physical and climatic characteristics.

Consequently, the nature and degree of water development in these

basins have likewise been variable. In the areas of high alti-

tudes and short growing season, little development has ensued ex-

cept for direct stream diversion for minor irrigation activities.

In the Truckee River, Walker River, and Mono Lake Basins, some

hydroelectric power as well as minor irrigation developments have

taken place. In the Owens River Basin there is a relatively high

degree of development, comprised primarily of the water conserva-

tion and power generation works of the Los Angeles Aqueduct sys-

tem. Considerable ground water development has occurred in the

Antelope Valley Basin, wherein a heavy overdraft prevails.

Under The California Water Plan, additional local de-
velopment would involve the construction of eight reservoirs with

an aggregate storage capacity of some 580,000 acre-feet, and a

seasonal yield of about 490,000 acre-feet. In addition, eight

hydroelectric power plants are planned, having a total installed

capacity of approximately 100,000 kilowatts, and an annual gener-

ation of about 400,000,000 kilowatt-hours.


1 -

~I L-_____L--- -- -- -s----- __~lt-c~--d~Ba~---^l+-c^---d~Ba

Colorado Desert Area. Due to the extremely limited

stream flow originating in this area, surface development works

for local water supplies are virtually nonexistent. However,

considerable irrigation development has taken place on lands bor-

dering the Colorado River, whence water supplies have been di-

verted by gravity flow. In addition, large-scale irrigation de-

velopment has taken place in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys,

utilizing water diverted and transported from the Colorado River.

Appreciable development of local ground water supplies for irri-

gation use has taken place in the Coachella, Lucerne, and Borrego


Local development works in the Colorado Desert-Area

under The California Water Plan would generally comprise features

for implementing the planned utilization of ground water basins in

conjunction with imported supplies.

The California Aqueduct System

The California Aqueduct System, comprising a complex

combination of reservoirs and conduits to export surplus waters

from the North Coastal Area and the Sacramento River Basin to

water-deficient areas to the south, would extend from the Oregon

line to the Mexican border. As has been stated, it would ulti-

mately transport more than 21,000,000 acre-feet of regulated wa-

ter each season, about half of which would be from the North

Coastal Area and half from the Sacramento River Basin.

The California Aqueduct System would be unprecedented

in its concept and scope. For purposes of study and description,

this immense interarea water conservation and transportation



L______CI--IL-L~~ ~ii-i~iiU1

system has been divided into the eight components or divisions

which are described in the ensuing sections. Principal features

of The California Aqueduct System are shown on Plate 2.

Klamath-Trinity Division. This division, in the North

Coastal Area, would develop surplus flows of the South Fork of

the Smith, the Klamath, the Trinity, the Van Duzen, and the Mad

Rivers, and convey the waters to the Sacramento Valley. It would

include a series of major regulating reservoirs, which for the

most part would be located contiguously along the Klamath and

Trinity Rivers from the vicinity of their junction upstream. How-

ever, other reservoirs would be located on nearby streams for the
conservation and transport of waters to the Klamath and Trinity

Rivers system. Conduits, pumping plants, and hydroelectric power

plants would be appurtenant to the dams and reservoirs. The wa-

ters conserved would be conveyed by gravity flow and pumping to a
collecting reservoir on the Trinity River, and then by gravity

through a tunnel beneath the Trinity Mountains to the Sacramento
River Basin. A considerable amount of hydroelectric power would

be developed in the drop to the floor of the valley. In addition,

a portion of the waters of the Trinity River would be regulated

and transported to the Sacramento Valley by means of facilities

contemplated in the Trinity Diversion Project, authorized for con-

struction by the federal Bureau of Reclamation.

The Klamath-Trinity Division would involve the construc-
tion of 16 dams and reservoirs with aggregate active storage ca-

pacity on the order of 15,500,000 acre-feet, 7 hydroelectric

power plants with installed power capacity totaling about


- ~`-~C CI~YrYI*--~-~


1,700,000 kilowatts, 3 pumping plants with total installed capac-

ity of approximately 900,000 kilowatts, and 6 tunnels having a

total length of about 76 miles. The works, which are susceptible

of staged development, eventually would make available some

8,200,000 acre-feet of water seasonally for export, not including

the yield from the Trinity Diversion Project. They would also

produce nearly 6,800,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electrical energy

each season. However, in excess of 3,800,000,000 kilowatt-hours

of energy would be required seasonally to pump the water to the

collecting reservoir from where it would flow through the Trinity

Divide into the Sacramento Valley.
The works of the Klamath-Trinity Division would provide

substantial local benefits to the North Coastal Area. These ben-

efits would vary in type and magnitude with the stage of develop-

ment of The California Aqueduct System. They would include reser-

voir control of the very large rain floods that are characteristic

to the area. Furthermore, regulated water would be made available

to meet local requirements for beneficial consumptive uses down-

stream from the reservoirs. Reservoir releases would also be made

to maintain summer and fall stream flow and enhance fish, wildlife,

and recreational values. Finally, a very large pool of hydroelec-

tric power would be created locally in the area to facilitate in-

dustrial growth and development.

Eel River Division. This division would include a ser-

ies of major reservoirs on the Eel River and one on its Middle

Fork. Pumping plants would transport the conserved water from

reservoir to reservoir, up the Eel River, to gravity flow tunnels


beneath the southerly divide. One tunnel would receive water for

export to the Sacramento River Basin by way of Clear Lake, the

head made available in the Sacramento Valley being developed for

electric power production. The other tunnel would discharge wa-

ter for export to the Russian River Basin and to lands on the-

north shore of San Francisco Bay. The transportation facilities

involved include the Russian River and a series of conduits. In-

cidental hydroelectric power generation would be accomplished in

operation of this system.

The Eel River Division would involve 9 dams and reser-

voirs with aggregate active storage capacity of over 7,200,000

acre-feet, 9 hydroelectric power plants with installed power ca-

pacity totaling about 670,000 kilowatts, 2 pumping plants with
total installed capacity of approximately 660,000 kilowatts, and

4 tunnels having a total length of about 22 miles. The works,

which are susceptible of staged development, eventually would

make available some 2,600,000 acre-feet of water seasonally for

export. They would also produce about 2,800,000,000 kilowatt-

hours of electrical energy each season. However, nearly

1,700,000,000 kilowatt-hours of energy would be required season-
ally to pump the water over the divide to the San Francisco Bay

Area and into the Sacramento Valley. Local benefits from the

works would be similar to those described for the Klamath-Trinity


Sacramento Division. This division would comprise the

foothill reservoirs of the Sacramento River Basin, the natural

underground storage in the alluvium of the Sacramento Valley, and


__ I P-


~' 1~ ; -.

Sprinkler Irrigation in
Central Coastal Area

Courtesy Armco Drainage &
Metal Products, Inc.

Harvesting Celery Near

Courtesy Salinas Chamber
of Commerce

r. .r.,
'~ G~
::' 7,,:

''b' :'?i~
'..: ~


:;.: :
~~Tr~ L.'~

the conduits, both natural and artificial, through which surplus

waters developed for export in both the North Coastal Area and in

the Sacramento River Basin would flow southward. In general, the

water for export would move to the south in the Folsom South Canal

on the east side of the Sacramento Valley, in a large canal on the

west side of the valley, and in the natural stream channels of the

Sacramento River and its tributaries. Separate drainage conduits

would convey wastes and low-quality drainage water, including wa-

ter pumped from ground water basins to maintain salt balance, into

the lower river through the Sacramento Deep Water Channel.

In addition to at least 28,000,000 acre-feet of usable

ground water storage capacity, the Sacramento Division would in-

clude 14 major reservoirs, strategically located near the foothill

line on tributaries of the Sacramento River, with gross storage

capacity aggregating about 14,000,000 acre-feet. Existing stor-

age in Shasta and Folsom Reservoirs, and that which will be made

available by the construction of Monticello Reservoir, is in-

cluded in this figure. Water released from the surface reservoirs,

augmented in some instances by imports, would flow through hydro-

electric power plants with installed power capacity totaling

nearly 2,000,000 kilowatts. These plants would generate an aver-

age of approximately 10,000,000,000 kilowatt-hours of energy sea-

sonally. Facilities of the Sacramento Division, when operated in

conjunction with upstream developments and available ground water

storage capacity, would make available from the Sacramento River

Basin an average of about 10,000,000 acre-feet of water seasonally

for export to the south, in addition to providing capacity for the


IT I -r

- l.- -a- L

southward conveyance of about 11,000,000 acre-feet of North Coastal

Area water.

Delta Division. This division would include the works

necessary to transport regulated waters from northern areas of

surplus southward across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The

crossing would be made by at least two major routes. One of these

would be a cross-delta channel upstream from the Junction Point

Barrier proposed in connection with the so-called Biemond Plan.

This plan involves a physical salinity control barrier upstream

from the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The

other route would lead from the canal along the west side of the

Sacramento Valley, and would include a number of siphons under the

Sacramento River in the vicinity of Antioch. A lateral conduit

would extend southwesterly from the vicinity of Antioch to supply

supplemental water to areas in Contra Costa County. Supplemental

water required in Solano, Marin, and lower Napa Counties would be

supplied from a branch conduit extending westerly along the north

bay from a point south and east of Fairfield.

Studies indicate that unregulated flows of the Sacra-

mento and San Joaquin Rivers will be reduced in the future by in-

creasing upstream conservation and use of water. Water is now re-

leased from upstream reservoirs, in addition to return flows from

irrigation, for the purpose of repelling intrusion of salt water

from San Francisco Bay into the Delta. In the future, however,

the valuable fresh-water supplies will be required for higher

uses, and it will be necessary to segregate and prevent comming-

ling of the higher quality conserved waters and the lower quality


Sia~x~w;u-. inrrr-*tnrr~u-r~xir*i-.~ru~l~-


drainage and flushing waters which now find their way to the Delta

in natural channels. This would be accomplished under the Junc-

tion Point Barrier Plan by providing separate drainage channels

for low-quality waters in both the Sacramento and San Joaquin

River Basins, and by closing off minor channels in the Delta from

the main channels of the Sacramento, Mokelumne, and San Joaquin

Rivers. The minor channels would then convey high-quality water

for use on the delta lands, and the main river channels would con-

vey flood and other flows into Suisun Bay. Encroachment of sea

water up the rivers from the bay would be prevented by installa-

tion of low weirs or barriers. The high-quality water in the

Sacramento River would be conveyed across the Delta in an enlarged

and improved crossing with siphons under the San Joaquin River.

Pumping plants located on Old River near Tracy, and on other ad-

jacent channels, would lift the water into conduits of The Calif-

ornia Aqueduct System.

In the manner described, an average of over 18,000,000

acre-feet of high-quality water would be transported southward

across the Delta each season. Of this amount, about one-half

would be from the Sacramento River Basin and the remainder from

the North Coastal Area.

South Bay Aqueduct. 'This conduit system would convey

regulated water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to areas of

deficiency in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, and Santa Cruz

Counties. Its facilities would include the works of the Alameda-

Santa Clara-San Benito Branch of the authorized Feather River

Project. In addition to 160 miles of canal and pipe line, the


/1 _~ 1 /

aqueduct would involve the construction of 4 regulatory reser-

voirs with aggregate storage capacity of about 150,000 acre-feet,

5 pumping plants with an installed capacity of about 77,000 kilo-
watts, and a system of parallel tunnels having a total length of

about 2.6 miles. The aqueduct would make available nearly 750,000

acre-feet of water to its service areas each season.
Water for the South Bay Aqueduct would first be pumped

from the San Joaquin Delta to the main canal of The California

Aqueduct System, which would skirt the western edge of the floor

of the San Joaquin Valley. The water would then be lifted from

the main canal to the portal of a tunnel beneath Brushy Peak.

From the outlet of the tunnel a canal would convey the water

around the south side of Livermore Valley to near Mission San Jose

and Warm Springs, and thence in a southeasterly direction cross-

ing Alum Rock Park southeast of San Jose, The canal would then
extend southerly along the base of the hills on the eastern side

of the Santa Clara Valley to a terminal reservoir on Pacheco Creek,
north of Hollister.

San Joaquin Division. This division would comprise the

facilities to convey regulated waters of northern areas of surplus

southward to and through the San Joaquin Valley. Since this val-
ley is one of the principal areas of water supply deficiency in

the State, a substantial portion of the imported water would be

diverted for storage and use along this reach of The California

Aqueduct System. The remaining portion would be conveyed onward

for further export.


~C"-I~1~Y* rr~- --I-~I~~~II~IIIII---------------~s*-

b I

The works of the San Joaquin Division would include

three parallel conduits along the western side of the San Joaquin

Valley. The Feather River Project Aqueduct, including San Luis

Reservoir and the pumping plants, would comprise the initial stage

of this development. Major pumping plants at the south edge of

the San Joaquin Delta would lift water into the west side canals,

from where it would flow southward by gravity to the San Luis

Forebay. Pumping plants at the forebay would pump water either

into San Luis Reservoir or into conduits extending on to the

south. From San Luis Forebay water would also be diverted for

storage and use in the San Joaquin Valley. The main canals of

the San Joaquin Division would convey water from both San Luis

Forebay and Reservoir to the Buena Vista Forebay, from where addi-

tional pumping plants would lift the water through the Tehachapis

and on to southern California. An important feature of the de-

velopment in the San Joaquin Division would be a drainage conduit,

situated roughly in the trough of the valley. This drain, to ac-
commodate waste and low-quality waters, as well as pumpage from

the ground water basin necessary to maintain salt balance, would

be separate from the natural drainage channels, and would extend

from Buena Vista Lake to the Delta.
The San Joaquin Division would involve the construction

of 1 major reservoir and 2 regulating reservoirs providing active
storage of over 2,000,000 acre-feet, 9 pumping plants with a total

installed pumping capacity of approximately 1,600,000 kilowatts,

and an aggregate of 930 miles of main canals. The works would
make available some 7,000,000 acre-feet of water seasonally for

use in the San Joaquin River and Tulare Lake Basins, and would


deliver approximately 10,000,000 acre-feet of water each season
for use in other water-deficient areas of California. Approxi-
mately 8,400,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electric energy would be

required seasonally to pump the water from the Delta Division
and through the conduits of the San Joaquin Division.

Central Coastal Aqueduct. This lateral would transport
water from the San Joaquin Division to areas of deficiency in
Monterey, San Luis Obispo, and Santa Barbara Counties. The con-
duit would begin with a canal-side pumping plant located on The

California Aqueduct System near Avenal Gap. Water would be lifted
by successive pumping plants to a tunnel through the Cholame Hills,
from where it would flow by gravity to a regulating reservoir in

the Upper Salinas River Basin. By pipe line, canal, and tunnel
it would be further conveyed in a southerly direction along the
Coast Range to a terminus in Cachuma Reservoir. Deliveries would
be made enroute to areas of deficiency.
The Central Coastal Aqueduct would involve the construc-
tion of 4 reservoirs with active storage capacity aggregating
about 350,000 acre-feet, 5 pumping plants with total installed ca-
pacity of approximately 230,000 kilowatts, and nearly 40 miles of

tunnel. The aqueduct would make available about 750,000 acre-
feet of water seasonally to the upper Salinas Valley, the San Luis
Obispo and Morro Bay coastal regions, the Arroyo Grande Basin, the
Santa Maria and Santa Ynez Valleys, and the Santa Barbara coastal
region. It would require nearly 1,000,000,000 kilowatt-hours of

energy each season to pump the water over the coastal mountains
to its service areas.



Southern California Division. This division would sup-

ply supplemental water to meet the ultimate requirements of the

South Coastal Area, the southern portion of the Lahontan Area,

and the Colorado Desert Area, excepting that portion having

rights in and to the waters of the Colorado River.
The Tehachapi Mountains at the southern end of the San

Joaquin Valley constitute a formidable barrier to importation of

northern waters. Alternative methods for crossing this barrier

are presently under study, and several combinations of pump lift

and tunnel have been found feasible from an engineering standpoint.

In addition, the Central Coastal Aqueduct could be extended south-

erly and easterly through Ventura County to supply supplemental

water to the South Coastal Area. It is considered probable, how-

ever, that the Southern California Division of The California

Aqueduct System, when constructed, will include features of the

"high-line" route of the authorized Feather River Project, to-

gether with required additional facilities.

When the need arises, The California Aqueduct System

would deliver approximately 9,000,000 acre-feet of water per

season into southern California. Of this amount, about 2,900,000

acre-feet would be supplied to the South Coastal Area, and the

remainder to the Lahontan and Colorado Desert Areas. In connec-

tion with the delivery of these supplies, substantial amounts of

hydroelectric power would be generated at several strategic loca-


From the floor of the southern end of the San Joaquin

Valley at Pastoria Creek, pumping plants would lift the water to

a system of parallel tunnels, one at an elevation of 3,357 feet


I r

, I

with a length of 10.5 miles, on the Feather River Project Aque-

duct, and two at an elevation of 3,140 feet with a length of about

9 miles each. The tunnels would convey the water through the

Tehachapi Mountains to regulatory storage in the vicinity of Quail

Lake. The main aqueduct system would then extend along the south

side of the Antelope Valley, crossing the Mojave Desert in an

easterly direction, and turning to the south in the vicinity of

Cajon Pass.
The California Aqueduct System would continue through

a series of parallel tunnels to the vicinity of San Bernardino,

from which point water would be delivered to the southerly por-

tion of the South Coastal Area and to pQrtions of the Colorado

Desert Area by two major routes. One route would comprise that
of the Feather River Project Aqueduct, terminating in Horse Thief

Canyon, tributary to the reservoir created by Barrett Dam in San

Diego County. The second route would traverse the Upper Santa

Ana River Basin, at a lower elevation but generally parallel to

the Feather River Project Aqueduct. It would continue southward,

terminating in the vicinity of San Vicente Reservoir in San Diego

County. In addition to the foregoing, supplemental water sup-

plies for San Diego County would be provided by a second San Diego

Aqueduct. This facility would begin at the west portal of the

San Jacinto Tunnel and continue southward and Just west of the

existing San Diego Aqueduct to an enlarged Lower Otay Reservoir
near the City of San Diego.

There are numerous alternative possibilities for deliv-

ering supplemental water from The California Aqueduct System to

the northern portion of the South Coastal Area. Among the more


Y~I1~II~----l~--~------I____ _~_ _~ ~~_~~~-~--. ----- --~-- -~_


Navigation on Sacramento

Courtesy The River Lines

Urban Development in
San Francisco Bay
Metropolitan Area

Courtesy Stale Division
of Highways


favorable from the standpoint of hydroelectric power generation

would be a diversion to a reservoir on Castaic Creek in the upper

reaches of the Santa Clara River watershed, where about 1,800

feet of power drop are available. Another attractive diversion

site is at Devil's Canyon near San Bernardino in the upper Santa

Ana Valley, where a power drop of about 1,400 feet could be de-

veloped. Large amounts of water could be delivered to both of

these strategic points and distributed therefrom. Prom Castaic

Reservoir delivery could be made to the San Fernando Reservoirs

of the City of Los Angeles, and thence to users in the Los Angeles

metropolitan area. Service could also be provided from this point

to areas of deficiency in Ventura County. From Devil's Canyon a

connection could be effected to Morris Reservoir on the San Gab-

riel River and to the Colorado River Aqueduct at the western end

of San Jacinto Tunnel. From these points distribution to users

could be made through the system of the Metropolitan Water Dis-

trict of Southern California.
When the need develops, about 4,800,000 acre-feet of

water per season would be diverted from The California Aqueduct

System for use in the southern portion of the Lahontan Area.

This water supply would be diverted along the desert reaches of

the Southern California Division, and distributed through the

Antelope-Mojave area by a system of surface conduits. Available

ground water storage capacity would be utilized in reregulation

of the supplemental water supply.
Required supplemental water for lands in the Colorado

Desert Area, excepting those lands having rights in and to the


a-.^ f

waters of the Colorado River, would be furnished by diversions
from The California Aqueduct System near Cajon Pass, Beaumont,
and Lake Henshaw. Distribution would be accomplished through
surface conduits.utilizing surface reservoirs and available ground
water storage capacity for necessary reregulation.
The Southern California Division would involve the con-
struction of 6 regulating reservoirs and 9 pumping plants. The
installed pumping capacity would be over 14,000,000 kilowatts,
requiring about 33,500,000,000 kilowatt-hours of power seasonally
for project purposes. In addition to the Tehachapi Tunnels, this
part of The California Aqueduct System would include about 700
miles of conduit. Three hydroelectric power plants on the aque-
duct line, with an installed capacity of about 860,000 kilowatts,
would generate over 3,000,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electric
energy seasonally.


It has been emphasized heretofore that The California
Water Plan is conceived as a master plan, or as a pattern into
which logical and orderly development of our water resources.may
be fitted by progressive stages as the needs may develop, from the
present time on into the indefinite future. It follows that the
entire plan, in its very broad scope, cannot be viewed as a def-
inite project proposal for construction in the foreseeable future.
It is entirely possible that the need for certain features of The
California Water Plan may never develop, or that in the light of
added information and study and future changes in technology, the
aspects of other planned works may be substantially altered.


Under any circumstances, it is probable that the responsibility

for implementation of much of The California Water Plan will be

met in large measure by generations yet unborn. For these rea-

sons, present estimates of over-all construction costs of the
works involved serve little purpose, other than to indicate.in a

very general way the magnitude of the task of water resource de-

velopment ultimately to face California.

With full understanding of the foregoing considerations,
preliminary estimates of capital costs of the new works incorpor-

ated in The California Water Plan are under preparation. These

estimates are subject to revision prior to final publication of

State Water Resources Board Bulletin No. 3. They are generally

based upon reconnaissance engineering and geologic surveys, very

preliminary designs, and present-day construction methods and

unit costs. The estimates indicate that the over-all capital ex-
penditure for The California Water Plan would eventually aggre-

gate between $12,000,000,000 and $13,000,000,000, of which approx-

imately $9,000,000,000 would be expended for features of The Cal-

ifornia Aqueduct System. These figures include costs of the au-

thorized Feather River Project, but not those for existing works,

nor for any other of the authorized works presently in the con-

struction or advanced pre-construction phases.

It is again pointed out that full implementation of The
California Water Plan would take many decades and perhaps hundreds

of years to accomplish. Investments made now would be repaid

many times over in benefits derived, before the latter portions

of the plan would be undertaken. In general, the works completed

would continue to serve the people far beyond the financing periods

-35- -

involved, and, like the well-conceived water resource developments

of the past, the indirect benefits to the people and to the gen-

eral economy would far outweigh the expenditures for construction.


The California Water Plan envisions the construction

and operation of some 260 new major reservoirs in the State.

These would add approximately 60,000,000 acre-feet of surface

storage capacity to the present 20,000,000, providing a total of

about 80,000,000 acre-feet. In addition, the ample ground water

storage resources of California would be more intelligently and

more extensively utilized than at present. The plan, if fully

implemented, would furnish water in sufficient quantities to per-

mit the presently irrigated agricultural area of about 7,300,000

acres to expand to more than 19,000,000 acres. It would permit

an accompanying increase in urban and suburban areas from the

present 1,000,000 acres to about 3,400,000.acres, Lands in the

Colorado Desert Area having rights in and to the waters of the

Colorado River, with an aggregate area.of 1,320,000 acres, are

not included in the accomplishments of the plan set forth above.

The California Water Plan would also furnish water for all non-

consumptive beneficial uses and water in the minor amounts neces-

sary for the remaining 77,000,000 acres of land in California.


~~L _IL_ II_- -~I~--- _I _1CrC9-- 91-P1



a 0 N


40 0o 40 80


(Requirements Less Local Supply
and present Import Rights)

A Sacramento River Basin
B Son Joaquin River Basin
C Tulare Lake Basin



O a


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