REPORT OF THE
FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES STUDY COMMISSION'S
COUNTY COMMITTEES ON WATER PROBLEMS
One of the operations of the Florida Water Resources Study
Commission involved an inventory of some of the water resources
problems experienced within the state. This inventory was obtained
through the efforts of local committees organized and conducted by
public-spirited chairmen in each of the 67 counties. The chairmen
and others freely gave their services to the. committee functions,
often with considerable sacrifice of time and money. After public
notice was given each committee held an open meeting and, at that
time, heard and recorded all statements presented. The results were
forwarded to the Commission and with only slight editorial changes
were organized into the attached material. An attempt has been made
to classify each problem according to the enclosed outline.
This report presents what is believed to be a typical cross-
section of Florida's water resources problems that have or may have
legal, economic, or administrative implications.
A list of the committee chairmen and the date and place of
each committee meeting may be found at the.end of the report.:
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OUTLINE OF WATER PROBLEMS INVENTORIED
DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER
A. Obstructions and Diversions
3. Sedimentation damage
B. Canals and Ditches
2. Sedimentation damage
1. Surface & subsurface
2. Need for outlets
3. Need for participation
1. Water supply and fish
2. Sanitation & mosquito
SSTREAMS, LAKES AND CANALS
A. Obstructions and Diversions
of StrEs~e and Lakes
1. Flooding or raising water
2. Sedimentation damage
4. Reducing normal flow or
5. 'Need for participation or
6. Dredging of lake bottoms
B. Ohaructione -and -Diversions- of
Gana-s--------- ---- **"
1. Flooding or raising water
2. Sedimentation damage
4. Need for participation or
C. Improving Streams and Canals
2. Flooding downstream
3. Salt water intrusion
4. Sedimentation damage
5. Need for participation
D. a er Level Control in Lakes
Leves oo high or too low
2. Inadequate supply for
3. Need for participation
E. PollutionJf Surface Waters
I. Municipal was~teb"." '-
2. Industrial wastes
F. Use of Surface Waters
2. Construction of docks
III. GROUND WATER
1. Wasteful flow
2. Reduction of flow
3. Increased use for bene-
4. Damage for oil explora-
5. Flooding or other damage
6. Salt water intrusion
7. Drainage wells
1. Reduction of flow
IV. TIDAL WATERS
A. Beach and Shore Erosion
1. Groins and sea walls
(32 persons participating)
One case was recorded where the state road department altered the
course of ditches and flooded the lower land of a homeowner.
I.A.1. A trailer park was flooded because the state road department -failed
to provide sufficient drainage ditches for an adjacent highway
In the northern section of county, several instances of flooding
were caused by state highway drainage ditches, and by poor culti-
vation practices by farmers permitting water to flow onto lower
lands and spread sediment on other farms.
I.D.1. Farmer "A" is using water from a pond to irrigate his crops. The
amount pumped is so large that there is danger of the pond going
dry, which would affect three other farmers who use this pond to
II.A.4. A farmer is putting a dam across the stream served by a natural
spring, thus depriving other downstream owners of water for live-
II.A.4. A landowner constructed a dam across a branch to-impound irrigation
water. During dry periods when he is irrigating, no water flows in
the branch below to furnish irrigation water to downstream owners.
During dry weather, a-large landowner pumps water from a canal to
irrigate his pastures, while in wet periods he pumps water into
the canal. The canal empties into a popular fishing lake. In dry
weather the water is needed in the lake to prevent it from going
dry, and in wet periods the extra drainage water from the pastures
aggravates flood conditions in the lake.
Natural sinkholes are found in every section of Alachua County.
Surface water runs into-them and disappears, thus lowering the
surface water level and, in many cases, causing ponds and lakes to
The wastes from one industry are dumped into a pond which drains
into a surface stream and eventually flows underground through a
sinkhole. The wastes create a nuisance where the stream flbws
through residential areas and endangers the underground supplies in
There are several cases where farmers have fenced lakes, thus
depriyvng the public access to them.
Qompe4,tpion for ground water is a problem over two-thirds of Alachua
County. ;At least 80 farmers have drilled deep wells for irrigation
purposes, causing shallower wellsof surrounding landowners to go
III.C. See II.E.2.
r- __ __ ~~_ _
(.15 persons participating)
I.A.l. Flooding of lands due to obstructions caused by brush and tree tops
from logging operations.
I.A.1. Flooding of lands due to improperly placed culverts in road ditches.
I.A.2. Erosion caused by unprotected and improper outlets on road ditches.
I.A.3. Sedimentation on lands and in ponds due to unprotected and improper
outlets on road ditches.
I.A.3. Small amount of sedimentation caused by diversions on farms.
I.E.l. Flooding of lands, due to lack of ditch stabilization or maintenance.
I.B.4. Overdrainage resulting from improper construction and maintenance of
canals and ditches is a problem.
I.C.2. Many outlets for water disposal from roads and diversions do not have
IoC.3. Better participation by landowners is a problem in connection with
drainage of surface water.
I.C.4. Control of overdrainage of surface water is a problem.
I.D.2. Sanitation and mosquito control in pond is a moderate problem. I-
I.D.3. Flooding and drowning of lands of others as a result of pond con-
struction is a limited problem. ,
II.A..1 Natural obstructions on smaller streams causes flooding. Need stream
II.B.1. Reduced spring flow is a problem in this county.
II.C.1. Overdrainage due to improper channel improvements is a problem.
II.D.2. Removal of water from lakes below a point that is damaging to other
owners is a problem.ndi'
II.E.1. Need for all municipal and industrial wastes to be treated and the
safe effluent to be placed back into the stream flow from which taken.
II.E.2. See II.E.1.
II.F.l. Certain lakes and streams no longer accessible for public use.
III.A.1. Wasteful flow of artesian wells is problem. '
III.A.3. Demand increasing for agricultural, municipal 'and industrial purposes.
III.A.6. Slight salt water intrusion in wells close to coast.
1 .t' '
BAY COUNTY (continued)
III.B.2. Public does not have access to most springs.
IV.A.1. Protection against improperly placed groins.
IV.A.2. Protection against improper dredging.
(29 persons participating)
I.B.1. Flooding conditions are caused by lack of planning and construction
of ditches to take surface flood water into natural water-ways. This
is a county-wide problem in times of excess rainfall.
I.C.3. There is need for an overall plan for constructing canals and ditches
to eliminate flooding, but at the same time avoid overdrainage.
There is definite need for construction of dams and spillways to
retain our surface water so that excess water may be disposed of in
case of flood conditions.
I.D.1. A problem exists on the need for natural and artificial ponds for
irrigation, livestock use, recreation and fish production.
II.A.1. In all of the streams in,the county, we have obstructions like fallen
trees and sedimentation that prevent the quick disposal of surplus
water during periods of excess rainfall.
II.A.2. In some of our larger rivers and streams there is a need for clearing
the stream bed and for dredging.
II.D.1. We find that there is a need for a well-planned program of taking
care of excess water in our lakes by means of underground drainage
wells, which should assist in raising our water table.
II.E.1. A small stream and the lake into which it empties is polluted by the
wastes from a municipality.
II.F.l. There have been conflicts over the rights and responsibilities of
landowners and the public as to recreational use of lakes.
(25 persons participating)
I.A.I. Farmers diked the land, cut interior drainage canals, pumped the
areas with no provision to take care of the discharge of water which
spread over areas of pasture land of the owner.
BREVARD COUNTY (continued)
I.Al.. A lot of diking in the St. Johns River causes problems of flooding.
No attempts should be made to reclaim the marginal lands to put them
Sin a productive status.
I.B.1. A ditch constructed to drain a private pond carried water under the
highway and emptied it into an inadequate ditch for roadway drainage.
S. The extra water overflowed the small ditch, temporarily flooding a
number of citrus groves near it.
I.B.4. There is a considerable number of ponds in this section. Owners are
digging ditches for drainage and irrigation through them. As this
section develops further, the water situation will become more acute.
II.A.l. A large landowner wants to use the muck land which forms a large part
of the west end of his ranch. Since there was no regulation which
prevented him from doing so, he diked his land off, creating the
problem of restricting the flow of a river, causing it to back up
when heavy rains came.
II.A.l. Flooding of the St. Johns River applies to Brevard County. Culverts
and bridges placed across canals cut down the natural flow, and the
a water is now backing up considerably.
II.A.2. It has been proven by geologists that silt in the water is detrimental
to the life of fish and to the spawning areas.
The waters of. the St. Johns are known as the best bass producing
waters in the world. Muck from the ditches and canals tends to settle
i in the propagating waters and contains elements harmful to the spawn-
ing areas and the larger fish, too.
II.C.3. Fresh and salt water intrusion should be controlled in this section.
In Brevard County, there are a number of canals draining the flat
lands to the west of the river into the Indian River. It has changed
the salt content and affects the volume of salt water fish available.
II.D.l. Cocoa's water supply comes from Clear Lake. When its elevation is
23 feet above sea level we are not bothered with chlorides, but when
it is low the chloride concentration jumps way up. The lake level is
now approximately 14 feet.
II.D.2. The most critical need for water now is for domestic consumption.
There are only two towns in these four counties with no water problems
--Stuart and Vero Beach.
III.A.l. There are a lot of wells along the St. Johns River used for irrigation
purposes. One man has 40 wells drilled on his own property, all over
8 inches and flowing full force.
SIII.A.6. Salt water intrusion should be considered, too. It seems to be getting
^ worse all the time, moving northward steadily. We will see an in-
creased use of ground water for agricultural, industrial and municipal
purposes in the very near future.
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(30 persons participating)
I.A.l. Owner "A" dikes several square miles of peat farm land without
adequate peripheral diversion channels to carry off intercepted
surface flow. This causes periodic surface flooding of adjacent
neighbors "B" and "C".
I.A.l. Owner "A" pumps for drainage over dike into virgin Glades without
benefit of drainage channel. Excess water periodically floods por-
tions of "B's" undiked pasture.
I.A.1. Expanding secondary road systems not provided with adequate cross
Strains or diversion ditches of adequate size to carry off flood
waters sometimes cause surface water to be impounded in adjacent low-
I.A.1, Many reaches of secondary drainage district laterals are choked with
weeds and aquatic growth to the extent that design flow cannot be
obtained. The resultant damage to crops by longer periods of inun-
dation than they can endure is extensive in such areas.
I.A.1. Diversion ditches from adjacent lands sometimes empty into natural
ponds or swales with no access to further drainage without flooding
I.A.2. Secondary road systems are often built with inadequate elevation or
cross drainage at points of surface water concentration, with the
result that flood-accelerated velocities of flow frequently wash out
culverts and side slopes where portions of these roads are subjected
I.A.2. On mineral soils, improperly protected cuts in canal banks providing
access to drainage canals for surface water from undeveloped areas
are often subjected to high velocities of flow which cut huge gullies
in the unprotected areas.
I.B.1. The geographical location of a mutual, dividing levee between adja-
cent drainage districts produces an artificial water-shed divide
that forces water movement in reverse to the natural slope of ground
in some areas of the districts, causing periodic surface flooding in
low areas near the dividing levee.
I.B.1. Some drainage district secondary canals do not have sufficient capac-
ity to carry off, by gravity, the pumped water from the tributary
developed areas. This produces high canal stages with increased
seepage and surface flooding of low areas.
I.B.2. Canals and drainage channels are often subjected to sedimentation in
the lower reaches when construction of new canals or maintenance of
established channels is occurring in the upper reaches, with conse-
quent stirring up of organic matter and soil.
I.B.2. Sand bars and sludge are often deposited in drainage ditches where
pump outlets discharge directly into the ditches....
BROWARD COUNTY (continued)
I.B.3. Flood waters frequently scour ditch banks at unprotected access
points, when surface water is fed directly into.drainage canals with-
out benefit of protected overfalls or outlets.
Many areas comprised of peat soils are overdrained with the conse-
quence that increased oxidation accelerates the rate of organic soil
loss. This loss in surface elevation demands still lower canal stages
with deleterious effects on adjacent mineral soils not subject to
I.B.4. Canals that are lowered for extended periods to facilitate construc-
tion deplete ground water storage in tributary areas.
I.B.4. In conservation areas on peat soils set aside for wildlife and
recreational purposes, overdrainage during periods of do6ught to
furnish irrigation water for farm lands creates a fire hazard, ad-
versely affects conservation of wildlife and fish, accentuates soil
subsidence, decreases recreational boating, permits expansion of
undesirable growth such as willows and myrtle,'debcreases the income
of commercial frogers and recreational concessioners, promotes a
concentration of organic acids in ground water that has a tendency
to kill fish on a rising stage, and promotes mosquito population
Sbuild-up by the killing of minnows that normally feed on mosquito
Urban developers experience periodic flooding in low lands that were
formerly used for agriculture with insufficient capacity of existing
drainage canals to meet the needs of increased surface drainage.
Existing laterals have insufficient capacity.
Developed lands not lying within the boundaries of established drainage
districts often-have inadequate drainage facilities for handling-
pumped surface water from the developed areas.
Frequently undeveloped tracts of land in farming areas remain unde-
veloped because they do not have access to'drainage canals without
using the private drainage ways of adjacent farms.
I.C.3. Developers on upper reaches of drainage canals sometimes install pumps
of huge size that discharge into canals that were not designed to
carry the immediate load produced by these pumps. The resulting
* increase in canal stage frequently increases the discharge head along
the lower reaches of the canal to the extent that units along the lower
reaches cannot operate at sufficient rate of discharge to adequately
remove surface water.
Landowners along the reach of a drainage canal who do not maintain
their portion of the channel nullify the efforts of neighbors who
regularly clean out the canal adjacent to their own property.
I.D.2. Isolated ponds and low marshy areas that remain wet for a portion of
each year create a problem, especially in urban areas, by serving as
a breeding ground for mosquitoes and sandflies.
BROWARD COUNTY (continued)
II.A.2. Dredging operations in drainage canals tributary to natural streams
often cause sludge to be carried in suspension. This sludge is de-
posited along the bottom of the natural streams.
In deepening a natural stream for navigation, there have been cases
of dredged material being improperly placed at the mouth of drainage
canals discharging into the stream with flood damage resulting from
the restricted cross-section. This material is usually washed back
into the dredged channel to cause sedimentation damage.
II.B.3. Often when land near a stream or canal is filled in for the develop-
ment of water front property, the restricted width of the stream
promotes velocities of flow that erode raw material"before sea walls
can be built.
Individuals having first access to irrigation water along the reaches
of canals often use more than their proportionate share of available
water during periods of drought.
The lower reaches of drainage canals are sometimes widened or deepened
to provide better drainage for more extensively developed areas with-
out placing intermediate controls to conserve water in the upper
reaches, with the result that normal stage is too low for beneficial
ground water conditions in adjacent areas.
II.C.3. The controversy over jurisdiction of natural streams for navigation
or water control has created problems of salt water intrusion in the
lower reaches of several natural streams and canals--especially in
those furnishing irrigation supply. This problem will worsen with
proposed deepening of those canals having tidal stages.
On most undeveloped private lands, large ponds are not normally pro-
vided with access to drainage canals. In instances where these ponds
lie close to developed areas, their high and low stages substantially
affect soil storage in adjoining lands.
In several areas of Broward County irrigation wells are used to
supplement canal supply during periods of drought on the higher sandy
lands. It has been found that heavy pumping sometimes depletes
available water in the underlying aquifer to the extent that nearby
'wells will not produce adequate or normal flow.
'The problem of salt.intrusion into municipal water supply wells is
expected to occur eventually with the almost continuous increase in
demand for expansion.
In areas near brackish water, tidal canals or salt water streams,
supplementary wells are often subject to salt water intrusion with
Flotsam from water front construction, aquatic growth dislodged from
drainage canals, and oil and tar from commerical boating are frequently
deposited on bathing beaches by tidal action.
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BROWARD COUNTY (continued)
'V. Indiscriminate spraying of recreational ponds to eradicate obnoxious
aquatic growth frequently kills fish that pollute the pond water.
V. Backwash from pleasure and fishing boats traveling at excessive
speeds erodes stream banks that are not protected by sea walls.
(12 persons participating)
I.A.2. An underground drain was laid to drain a rather large area. The
outlet opens onto another person's land on a rather steep slope' The
water out of the drain is undercutting the soil and breaking off the
pipe by sections, causing a deep gully to be forming uphill on the
other person's property.
I.B.3. The county and state road system in draining a large area empties the
water beside a farmer's field, causing continuous gullying and erosion
across a large field.
I.C.2. In a number of cases there are large areas that canmbe drained with
shallow ditches, but the drainage outlets will be on adjoining prop-
erty. The adjacent landowner protests.
I.C.3. One landowner cannot terrace his land for protection against erosion
because the outlets will be on his neighbor's property. Neighbor
I.D.3. A landowner builds a fish pond and water reservoir, causing back water
and high water table condition on an .adjacent landowner.
II.E.l. Garbage, rags, bottles, tin cans and oil are dumped from the four
bridges across the rivers in the county, !thus polluting -the streams
for fishing and swimming; also presenting a health hazard.
II.F.1. Docks and wharfs are needed for recreation of the public. The desir-
able sites adjacent to the main highways are owned by large land
companies, who will not promote it or release it for recreational
III.B.l. A well was dug to be used for irrigation. The neighbor one-half mile
away downhill claims his spring was caused to dry up, thus making his
fish pond and reservoir unfit for use.
(23 persons participating)
I.A.1. A state road acts as a dike across the natural water-ways of a water-
shed causing improper drainage on the north and east sides of the
highway, which causes excess surface water to back up on the ranches
in the area. The water moves down the road ditch for a few miles
where it passes under the road bridge and again spreads over the
surrounding land due to the fact that the canal constructed to drain
it is not properly located and is improperly maintained.
I.B.4. Deep canals are overdraining areas in places--lowering the water
I.C.2. Areas being subdivided and developed with no drainage outlets avail-
S I.C.2. City needs outlets to drain its outlying areas. Outlets needed in
railroad and state highways to relieve flooding condition.
I.D.l. Many ponds used for irrigation and livestock water and for fish have
been seriously depleted of water.
S II.A.l. Some streams need to be cleared or widened to permit excessive waters
to be removed during the wet season.
Five creeks in the county provide good drainage and have high banks,
but lack of control structures have resulted in too much loss of
II.D.2. A municipality constructed a water supply dam across a creek. Before
construction riparian owners could not use the creek water for irri-
gation because of salt water intrusion. After construction the
riparian landowners want to use the water in competition with the
municipality but there is insufficient quantity for both.
II.E.2. Industrial pollution of some streams has caused considerable concern.
The ground water supply is being lowered through heavy demands by
the various users.
Salt water intrusion is a problem along the coast, and has occurred
in many wells as a result of increased use of water.
A big problem results from poor drainage of subdivisions served by
septic tanks. When the tanks do not operate properly from the high
water table, the surrounding shallow wells used for drinking water
(41 persons participating)
I.A.l. A rancher put in a series of dikes and forced water out through one
outlet. There has not been a high water that did not break these
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CITRUS COUNTY continuede)
dikes, but if the dikes held they would flood at least two fish
camps, four orange groves and about 100 homes.
SI.B.4. Between Lakeland and Dade City there is a plateau that is our main
water-shed. In the last ten years many drainage ditches through that
area have drained off much of the water. Ditches put in by cattlemen
Shave done away with ,the natural constant supply of water we used to
4 get from the Withlacoochee. We did not get enough water last year
from the river to fill the lakes. During the rainy season the water
comes with a rush but we no longer get the steady, constant flow year
This is a problem (overdrainage) which affects the whole community.
II.A.4. One conferee traced the route, of the Withlacoochee River from which
the Tsala Apopka chain of lakes in Citrus County get their water
supply. He showed where the Hillsborough River begins and where the
T Hillsborough and the Withlacoochee get water from swamplands in Pasco
SCounty. A great land reclaiming project in Pasco has diverted waters
from the Withlacoochee to the Hillsborough, reducing the flow into
II.A.4. Last summer Floral City Lake got water through a canal to the
Withlacoochee River but Inverness did not get any. It was reported
that water was diverted back into the Withlacoochee in the Mocassin
SSlough area. Between Floral 'City and Inverness the water is certainly
diverted back to the Withlacoochee. A man in the Mocassin Slough
section owns some land on which he dug a canal to the river for
drainage purposes and this is where the diversion is. He drained the
water into the Withlacoochee with this canal.
Causeways to islands in lake without proper bridges or culverts to
maintain natural flow of water have created stagnant pools and re-
duced normal flow in many places.
Our area has not had enough water since the Cedar Keys hurricane.
It takes the river about five weeks after heavy rains or hurricanes
before water gets to Citrus County, and during that time the Floral
City Lake fills up. Since that time there has been a dam put in
around a boat basin, keeping water from coming into Inverness Lake.
Also there is a place between Lemon Island and Gospel Island Road
that used to have a bridge but now is closed by the new road.
It was reported that hyacinths and saw grass are so thick around
Brogdon bridge very little water gets through.,.
Someone asked how much lake bottom can be dredged, out to make more
land. This is being done in many places in the county where land is
being dredged and made into lots.
It was pointed out that the way the water comes in from Floral City
is by Mocassin Slough, where there is a natural ridge at Mocassin
Slough road. They have cut a canal from Davis Lake to Spivey Lake
and since that time on Davis Lake there has not been enough water.
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CITRUS COUNTY (continued)
Cutting canals is the worst thing we can do unless we have spillways
or dams to hold the water at a level in place of letting it go on out
through ditches that have been dug.
II.D.l. One reason for the low water table is the water is running off through
these canals so fast it does not soak down into the water table. The
water table was still low when the lake was up last year. Wells were
8 feet below normal when the lake was high last summer.
II.E.1. There is pollution of a lake by wastes from a municipality. Raw sewage
discharges into lake.
III.C. It was reported that there is a sinkhole in a lake and municipal sewage
is emptying into the lake, which results in pollution of the under-
V. Spraying of orange groves adjacent to lakes with poisonous sprays has
poisoned fish life.
(8 persons participating)
I.A.1. Extensive water control system installed on a pasture caused water to
concentrate on outlet in a very short period of time. This increase
in volume emptied into natural drainage way in such volume as to flood
out several ditches and created quite a problem on adjoining land.
I.A.1. The problem was cited of surface water and ground water flooding the
land of the man below from an irrigation system which causes erosion
on the adjacent farm.
I.A.2. See I.A.1. (No. 2) above.
I.B.4. There are a series of ditches connecting natural ponds which are
drained unnecessarily, therefore drying out the adjacent farm land.
If in these ditches obstructions could be placed to slow down the flow
of water and the ditch bottoms placed at such a level as not to com-
pletely drain existing natural ponds this would help build up the
reserve water in the soil.
I.C.1. Highway ditches rush surface waters off into branches and creeks.
These ditches are desirous to the extent that they keep the flood
water off the highway but are undesirable to the extent that they do
not allow the water to slow down enough to give proper absorption by
the soil on lands adjacent to the highway.
II.C.1. Water flows from Lake Magnolia through a chain of lakes until it
flows into the St. Johns River. The water has cut great gorges and
gullies through the areas of natural flow. During periods of heavy
rainfall there is a flooding condition; however, during dry seasons
the area is overdrained.
II.E.1. The St. Johns River is being polluted by a municipality and by naval
vessels, both of which discharge raw sewage in it.
CLAY COUNTY (continued)
II.F.1. In the area of Keystone Heights there are numerous lakes owned by the
Government, but cannot be used by the public because the people who
own the land adjacent to the Government property will not allow the
public to cross their lands.
II.A.1. Use and overuse of artesian well water, wasteful flow is a problem.
The wells are allowed to flow full force or to a wasteful extent.
II.A.2. Another problem reported was to the effect that when one farmer
turned on all his wells for irrigation, it reduced or in some cases
stopped the flow of the wells on an adjacent farm.
(18 persons participating)
I.A.1. During rainy season most of the southern area of Collier County is
flooded, but during the time from March through May the same area is
extremely dry in normal times. The problem seems to be how to pre-
vent having too much water at certain times of the year.without
making it extremely dry during the other parts of the year. .This
seems to be a common complaint.
I.B.4. In some places where canals or ditches have been dug without some
controls, area has dried out or seems to be overdrained.
II.A.1. Turner's River, in the southern part of the county, is so clogged
with growth or brush and grass that it furnishes very poor drainage
during the time it is most needed.
II.C.3. There have been some problems with salt water intrusion in wells
that were dug close to salt water canals. This has not been any
serious problem in the public water supplies nor in deep wells.
[II.A.6. See II.C.3. above.
IV.A.1. There has been difficulty experienced in the erosion of beaches in
the area along the Gulf Coast of Collier County. Different types of
groins are being used for experimental purposes.
(18 persons participating)
I.A.1. County or state constructs road with inadequate culverts or bridges,
causing accumulation of water on upstream side, which floods a
I.A.l. State Road Department accumulated water in roadside ditches and
deposited it in a natural drain running through fields on property
of Farmers "A", "B' and "C", causing periodic flooding and erosion.
- 13 -
CCOLUl321A COUNTY (continued)
I.A.2. See I.A.I. (No. 2) above.
I.B.4. Several years ago "A" Branch used to hold water continuously and
helped to maintain a high water table for the north end of the town.
City dynamited and ditched in a fight against mosquitoes, resulting
in the lowering of the water table and adversely affecting landowners.
I.B.4. A timber company drains large swamp by ditching, thereby lowering the
water table of surrounding agricultural land.
I.C.1. In the construction of the Air Base, the original surface full of
holes and sinks was filled in, ditches constructed and more water
turned into natural drainage ways than had been concentrated before,
causing periodic floods on several property owners' lands.
I.C.1. "A"s built terraces and obtained permission from County Road Department
to dump water into road. In a recent rain this terracing contributed
to the washing of the county road and caused sedimentation and flood-
ing of property of "A", "B" and "C".
I.D.3. "A" dams up a small area to catch diffused surface water from a big
water-shed. In doing so the dam was poorly constructed. The dam is
about 50 feet from a state road. It is likely that a heavy rainfall
would break the dam, releasing a large amount of water on road em-
bankment, causing considerable damage to road.
"A" builds an earthen dam in a haphazard manner. During a flood it
washes out, causing the sediment to reduce greatly the capacity of
the stream channel which causes flooding below during periods of
"A" builds a dam in accordance with engineering specifications on a
small stream. "3B", five years later, builds a poorly constructed
dam upstream causing threat to "As" dam.
"A" constructs a small water control structure in a natural outlet
on his property for the purpose of raising and controlling the water
level in the lake. "B", who also owns property on the lake, objects
to the structure, claiming that it is flooding a portion of his land.
See II.A.l, (No. 2) above.
II.A.4. '"A" and "B" cvn a 60-acre lake jointly. Farmer "A"l owns approximately
5 acres, "B" the remainder. "A" has been irrigating out of the lake
for the past two years and due to the drought the water has receded
off '"Asu property.
"A" and "B" jointly own a lake out of which "A" has been irrigating
for 10 years. "B" started irrigating. There was not enough water for
both to irrigate.
II.A.4.- "A' dammed an intermittent stream which "B" depended on for his
- 14 -
__ ___ __I
COLUMBIA COUNTY (continued)
II.A.4. "A" constructs a pond for irrigation purposes. Although there is
normal flow bypassing the pond, usually during the irrigation season
it is pumped down to where no flow passes the dam. Downstream owners
II.A.4. "A", "B", "C" and "D" all have irrigation systems on a stream flow.
No checks or dams in the stream. "A" has a large irrigation system.
"B", "C" and "D" have smaller plants. "A" is reducing the flow of
water by his large irrigation system and "B", "C" and "D" get no,
II.A.5. "A", "B", "C" and "D" had a natural stream running through their
property. "A" and "B" need and want to dam up the stream for irri-
gation purposes. It will not benefit "C", but he is willing to
cooperate. "D" refuses to participate due to an unfriendly attitude,
although the project could also benefit him.
II.C.1. Land values becoming what they are there is a tendency for land-,
owners to construct drainage canals to drain natural water areas,
bringing new land into production, thus lowering the water table
and affecting surrounding higher lands.
II.C.1. "A" wants to deepen or enlarge the holding capacity of a sink. There
is danger of reducing or destroying "B's" supply, which is located
II.C.L. In order to drain a large lake, a landowner drilled five 4-inch
drainage wells. Not only did the wells drain the lake but also a
stream that flowed continuously. The lake was formerly used for
recreational purposes by the public.
II.D.1. "A "B1,"C"'&"D .own property which lies around a natural lake. Water
in the lake is influenced by a sinkhole which opens and closes peri-
odically draining and flooding the lake bottom. At the present time,.
"A" is using his portion of the lake bottom for agriculture' purposes.
"B", "C" and "D" wish to construct a dike around the sinkhole and
flood the entire area for recreational purposes.
hII.E.2. An industry discharges some chemical materials into a stream. The
stream flows rit, "BB's" property. "B" wishes to construct a dam to
impound irrigation water but finds that the quality of the water is
impaired by industrial waste so that it is not fit for irrigation.
II.F.l. "A" and "B" own land entirely surroundingo.a .small lake which in the
past has been used by the public for fishing and recreation. Access
to this lake was denied when the properties were fenced in by the
II.F.1. "A" and "B" jointly own a lake. "B" ownsthe greatest portion of it.
"B" rents fishing privileges. "A" objects.
II.A.2. "A" digs a 10-inch irrigation well, then starts irrigating causing
surrounding 2-inch wells to begin going dry. "A" is blamed with the
drying up of 2-inch domestic wells.
II.A.7. See II.C.I. (No. 3) above.
COLUMBIA COUNTY (continued)
III.B.1. A landowner dammed up the flow of a natural spring, thus depriving
"B" of water for his livestock.
(46 persons participating)
I.A.1. A farmer built a fence in a small drainage ditch, holding up debris
during high water and causing additional flooding of crops on low
I.A.1. A farmer diked off his land during the 1947 flood, causing higher
water on his neighbor upstream in the Glade, and also causing addi-
tional flooding of county road.
I.A.1. A new subdivision concentrated runoff to a point in a natural glade
where previous runoff was spread out, thereby causing added ponding
and greater flooding of farm property at that point even though water
still drained to natural glade. (1953)
I.A.i. During the rainy season, Transverse Glades acts as a collection point
runoff from higher ground and serve as natural channels conveying
the water to natural or artificial outlets; although hydraulically
very poor, they are clearly defined. Recently, the need for addi-
tional land for development of the urban area has lead to filling of
fringe areas and as development continues, additional fills will be
made. We have required easements and rights-of-way for canals through
these areas that are filled, but because the fills cause a reduction
in flood plain storage area, at what point must development be re-
tarded until a proper channel is provided that would, from a hydrau-
lics standpoint, take care of runoff from both the higher ground
normally served by the Glade and the new areas in the Glade?
I.B.1. A contractor filled a ditch with rock for temporary crossing without
any permit from the county, and the county does not have clear legal
right to force him to keep ditch open (May, 1956). This resulted in
higher water upstream during wet season and blocked dry weather flow
which was desired in areas farther downstream in order to combat
salt water encroachment from the bay.
I.B.l. A landowner adjacent to a drainage ditch filled this ditch up even
though the ditch was partly on the county's road right-of-way, caus-
ing additional ponding of low-lands upstream and reducing the planned
drainage of roads and drive-in theater.
I.B.I. Flooding has been worsened in some instances by the construction of
farm roads and dikes in conjunction with ditch or canal construction.
Farm roads in many instances are put across ditches without proper
recognition of the rights of the man upstream. This has happened on
public ditches along state and county roads, and private projects.
- 16 -
C_ _1___~__ ____~
DADE COUNTY (continued)
I.B.2. A pumping outlet placed by contractor in a small drainage ditch
caused so much sedimentation that the ditch drainage and nearby
culvert capacity were impaired greatly. (1955)
I.B.4. A public agency has a program for holding fresh water by dams, but
because of political considerations it becomes impossible for fresh
Water to be held at high enough stage to effectively combat over-
drainage because of pressure from owners of low lying lands.
(Complaints of numerous owners of high lands are much less because
they do not realize their pasture lands are being overdrained.)
I.B.4. An owner of pasture lands complains of overdrainage because a state
agency opens up a water control dam to permit construction of bridge
facilities, resulting in overdrainage of his property. (1955)
I.B.4. In South Florida, the problem of overdrainage is acute. The Dade
County program as it exists has fairly good control over the major
channels, but control of smaller ditches is lacking because of
several reasons; private projects, small drainage ditches, State
Road Department ditches, and others, are uncontrolled.
I.C.l. A civic association sets up a storm sewer plan depending on Improve-
ment District Law, which is later declared invalid by state court
and the civic association is left to search for some means of assess-
ing themselves for constructing this storm sewer for drainage, which
# is badly needed because the area has been built up on land that is
excessively low and subject to flooding. Construction of a storm
sewer in an urban area, through the use of the state's Drainage
District Law hardly appears proper procedure. This group complains
that they need a simple means of assessing themselves for construction
of a storm sewer. (1954)
I.C.2. A subdivider of new lands is advised that federal loan agents require
positive drainage outlets for their developments, but there is no
natural or artificial outlets within a reasonable distance of his
subdivision, and there is not any public right-of-way sufficient for
him to construct a drainage outlet, and he does not have the right
to condemn property for this purpose.
I.C.3. Several landowners in a large area attempt to dike and drain their
property for farming, but each one has a different ideas as to a
drainage outlet and they work at cross purposes in construction of
dike and culverts. Although drainage district laws are available,
they are not in favor in the area because of past failures to provide
proper maintenance of facilities.
I.C.3. A farmer near the pump outlet of a ditch installed'culverts on his
west line of a size that retarded the flow of his neighbor to the
pump outlet. The ditch was originally dug by a drainage district,
the pump outlet being installed by the farmer.
I.D.2. A lake was dug to obtain fill in a large area being dredged as a
subdivision. In planning, treated sewage effluent was allowed to be
discharged into the lake. Experience now seems to indicate that the
_ __ __1_11_
DADE COUNTY (continued)
lake area does not have enough water area to allow continued dumping
of treated effluent because of the algae build-up, and a positive
outlet by ditch or culvert is now required by the Health Department.
II.B.1. A public agency has a dam in a canal for salinity control and canal
conservation by prevention of peat subsidence, and a small minority
of owners of property in the drainage basin upstream of the dam are
adversely affected because their land is exceedingly low and appar-
ently no legal policy or law has been established as to time limit
to which this minority land can be damaged without violation of the
low-landowners' constitutional rights. This problem has occurred
during the past 7 or 8 years in at least 4 or 5 canal basins.
II.B.4. Three farmers own land along a drainage ditch which is in poor
condition. "A" is nearest the bay; "B" and "C" are farther upstream.
"B" and "C" decide to clean their portion of the ditch and go to "A"
about his portion. He will not cooperate, i.e. spend any money for
cleaning. "B" and "C" have to clean "A's" portion at their expense
to improve their own drainage.
II.C.l. Federal and state agencies plan to make major improvement of a main
channel which will create overdrainage in another interconnecting
channel, and although said agencies plan a salinity control .in the
improved canal, they plan to leave the interconnecting channel uncon-
trolled, thereby resulting in overdrainage and salt encroachment
through the interconnecting channel. This, however, is contrary to
the county's local plans and program.
II.C.1. A developer digs a canal in low land on the downstream side of a
high ridge causing lowering of water in domestic wells up on the
ridge, and dynamiting causes muddying of water in those wells. The
canal development is in a municipal area, whereas the wells adversely
affected are in the unincorporated area. This makes very difficult
the control of such canal excavation under present laws.
II.C... A public water supply has found it necessary to spend $200,000 in
1956 to add additional wells at new sources prematurely because of
overdrainage of fresh water due to the fact that public agencies'
o salinity control was established too far upstream because of pressure
of boat owners on the agency in charge.
II.C.3. A-firm claims ownership to a number of canals, being the heirs and
assigns of the original plat. A number of years ago they installed
pumps in two of the main canals. During the last dry season their
pumping operations extended beyond the point of necessity and created
* a condition of draw-down that extended over a large area. The ele-
vations within the area of draw-down were below mean tide, creating
a condition of salt infiltration through canals and ditches affected
by the draw-down pattern.
II.C.3. A number of ditches were dug originally on a drainage district and
controls were installed. No maintenance of the ditches and controls
has been carried on for a period of 10 to 15 years; the controls have
deteriorated to such an extent that they do not function as controls
- 18 -
DADE COUNTY (continued)
and allow water to pass during periods of low water. Tidal waters
move past these controls causing salt water encroachment.
II,C.3. Se II.C.1. (No.3) above.
SII.C.3. See II.C.1. (No.1) above.
II.C.3. A Mosquito Control District constructs canals in marl, area in the bay
to control mosquitoes but fails to install flap gates or other con-
trols to prevent salt water encroachment which damages farm land in
jthe immediate vicinity.
II.C.3. The large farmer installs and operates a pump near the bay in such a
manner as to overdrain the area and increase salt concentration in
the farming area, and he refuses to modify his operations because he
owns a majority interest in the channel--although lands of a good
many other farmers are drained by this channel. .-
II.C.3. Domestic wells of property owners living in relatively high ridge
areas are endangered by construction of a large deep channel between
the ridge and the bay, because of overdrainage of fresh water and
consequent lowering of the fresh water table in the vicinity of the
wells; and the municipality in which the canals are excavated refused
to cooperate with the local agency in charge of water control, claim-
ing that the city has complete jurisdiction despite the fact that
wells being adversely affected are in the unincorporated area, which
is under the direct jurisdiction of the county commissioners, and
despite the fact that the local water conservation agency has con-
siderable authority specifically conferred by law to take measures to
conserve fresh water and prevent salt water encroachment.
Within a municipality, canals are allowed to be dug inland from the
bay, which allow sea water inland to the end of the canals so that
within a short period fresh water wells in the area become contami-
See II.C.3. (No.6) above.
A developer constructs a lake for land fill and for sewage disposal
in a new subdivision but finds that right-of-way facilities for
proper outlet to meet Health Department standards are not available
and will not be furnished by public funds.
A sewage disposal plant discharges its treated effluent into a public
canal, and because of the high nitrate content causes serious para
grass growth. The result is considerably increased channel mainte-
nance cost to the county.
A large industry discharges only partly treated effluent into a small
ditch causing a nuisance in the general neighborhood, and there is
some dispute as to the public's right to force them to change the
outlet to a much closer canal, which would reduce the nuisance and
also relieve the property owners of such nuisance and obligation to
permit the flow to cross their properties. There is no material
difference in the conditions resulting at the'canal outlet in either
- 19 -
_ I_ __ ~I
DADE COUNTY (continued)
II.E.2. A laundry discharges its waste directly into a small drainage canal;
over a period of time algae conditions have worsened and surface
sludge has become a problem. The Health Department has investigated
complaints and refers them to a county agency charged with maintenance
of canals, rather than enforce pollution control.
II.F.1. A lake built by a subdivider for fill was dedicated to the public on
each end of the lake, drainage right-of-way being also dedicated so
that the lake could be utilized as a part of a canal system. Indi-
viduals are entering upon the right-of-way to swim in the lake. The
" home owners around the lake object to the public use of the lake.
II.F.2. Federal and state agencies are planning to construct a salinity con-
trol in a major canal, but refuse to acknowledge that commercial and
recreational locks are absolutely essential and are an integral part
of the salinity control, because of the heavy usage of the channel
by both recreational and commercial barge traffic. In other similar
cases the federal agency refuses to provide boat lift or locks because
of a policy against providing recreational facilities, and refuses.,to
acknowledge the large commercial aspects of boat yards and docking of
recreational vessels upstream from the site of the proposed salinity
control, despite protests of private owners and local public agencies
III.A.2. See II.C.3. (No.7) above.
III.A.6. See II.C.3. (No.7) above.
*III.A.6. See II.C.3. (No.8) above.
V. Access to shore line along the bay is cut off by private subdividers
without regard to rights of the public to access to beach areas, and
there seems to be no law which requires public agencies to keep open
a minimum number of access-lanes to the beaches.
V. Farm crews obtain spray water from public canals in the operation of
spray rigs. Some spillage of poison occurs in canals, killing fish.
(26 persons participating)
I.A.1. Inadequate openings in railroads and county and state highways to
allow fast runoff of excess water during flood for sufficient drain-
I.A.l. Changing of drainage ditch when Highway 17 overpass was built north
of Arcadia, causes excess water during rainy season to flow over -
streets and flood adjacent homes and lots.
I.A.1. "A" and "B" have conflicts over runoff water during flood season, "A"
running water off on "Bt", and "B" sending it back to "A" in the
southeast section of the county.
- 20 -
DESOTO COUNTY (continued)
I.A.2. "A" and "B" are draining their properties. This water goes across
"COs" property at a high velocity, creating a serious erosion problem.
I.A.2. Water-from canal at rear of "A's" home washes out road ditch of
secondary road during heavy rains.
I.B.3. Natural drainage ditch was opened wider. Result is a ditch now about
15 feet deep, with danger of undermining adjacent groves.
I.C.3. "A" and "B" have excess amount of surface water. The natural drain
runs through "C's" property. "C" will not. give necessary easement
for drainage of water.
I.C.3. Natural water-way runs from "A's" property through "B's" property,
and over a period of years has become overgrown with brush and woods.
"B" now refuses to allow "A" to maintain this water-way to allow
II.A.1. New bents were put under railroad trestle and old bents were sawed
off at water level, thus causing obstructions and hindering flow of
II.A.I. Replacement of bridge with concrete culvert on U.S. 17 in the south
end of county, causes flood waters to flow over highway and causes
washouts in highway. Lee Branch at county line to Shell Creek is
not able to handle runoff during flood season, causing water to back
o up over considerable area. Joshua Creek at flood stage flows over
adjacent groves and backs up to flood Florida Highway 31.
SII.A.l. The major drainage outlet for DeSoto County is now obstructed by
railroad bridges and sunken barges. These obstructions hold up float-
ing debris and hyacinths, which hinder movement of water during the
II.A.4. "A" upstream pumps sufficient amount of water to stop flow, thus
depriving "B" and "C" below him from being able to get sufficient
II.A.4. Water is being pumped out of lake "A" into lake "B". Lake "B" is
being used to irrigate groves. As a result the water level in lake
"A" has been lowered to a dangerous level.
II.B.1. Aggravated flood conditions of Peace River during rainy season due
to river obstructions downstream, and from great amount of surface
water from counties upstream.
II.E.l. A municipality dumps raw sewage into river for lack of sewage disposal
II.E.2. "A" and "B" want to fish and hunt in river and its tributaries but an
r industry upstream has polluted the stream with material toxic to fish
and other wildlife.
II.F.1. Lake has been fenced off, denying access to same by public.
- 21 -
DESOTO COUNTY (continued)
:II.A.1. At least five artesian wells in southern part of county flow continu-
"A" has an artesian well which is allowed to flow at all times. "B"
has well at same depth, but well is capped for conservation of water.
"A" can pump sufficient water from well on his property to completely
stop farmers around him from getting sufficient water supply.
Approximately 15 per cent increase in wells at the present time for
Considerable pollution from septic tank drainage in area.
(14 persons participating)
In order to drain some low flats on property acquired for an air
base, drainage ditches were constructed through adjacent pasture and
timber land. The result has been overdrainage of this land.
I.B.4. Water control structures are needed in some drainage ditches to
I.B.4. The opinion of many at the meeting was that some overdrainage exists
in the county.
II.A.1. A deeper channel is needed at Horseshoe and at the mouth of the
Steinhatchee River to prevent flooding of adjacent lands.
II.C.2. Water control or flood control system is needed on Suwanee River.
Several wells have gone dry, indicating a lowering of the ground
III.B1.. Springs along Suwanee have had reduced discharge for some time.
III.B.1. Reduced flow of springs along Suwanee River has been noted.
V. A majority of the group indicated an interest in weather modification
and asked that comprehensive surveys be continued, and that state and
federal government aid research in the field.
(33 persons participating)
I.A.l. "A" built a dike along the eastern boundary of his property across
a natural drainage way, causing water to back up on "B's" pasture and
reversing the natural flow of the water.
- 22 -
DUVAL COUNTY (continued)
Many times a developer will purchase a low area. Later a rainy period
appears. Diffused surface water will take the course of natural flow
which is the low area and cause complications by flooding the homes
constructed in the area.
IA.1. There are instances where filling in low areas forced water on
I.A.1. "A" is damaged by excess diffused surface water. His farm is prac-
x tically flat with natural drainage to the north from about half of
his farm. Railroad runs along the north side of the farm. U.S.
Highway runs parallel to the railroad on the north. There is a small
culvert under each roadbed. They were there when "A" purchased his
farm. The culverts are at too high an elevation and are of too small
size to allow proper drainage of "A's" property. There is no defined
channel on "Aos" farm, but a drainage ditch does lead away from the
4 highway culvert going north across "D's" property. "A" is attempting
to improve and intensively utilize his land, but excess water is
seriously hindering his operations.
I.A.l. An old drainage ditch is to be cleaned out and improved in channel
design from its beginning to where it goes under a railroad track on
the north side of "A". All the landowners upstream from the railroad,
including "A", improved their individual farm drainage systems. "A"
owned the land on both sides of the ditch where it met the railroad.
"B" owned the land on the other side of the railroad. The channel
capacity under the railroad and the natural water-way across "B's"
property is not adequate to carry off the increased volume of water.
"A" may be flooded out.
Overdrainage exists in some areas in the county from ditches which
-cause low water table in dry periods.
I.C.3. See I.A.1. (No.5) above.
II.A.1. Several man-made lakes have been constructed in the county where the
possibility of a dam break exists. The result would be flooding and
II.A.1. Hogan and McCoy Creeks are natural drainage streams for Duval County.
Private development along these creeks have caused flooding of the
There are many problems of sewage disposal, especially in the unsewered
.urban areas. Both treated and untreated sewage is to be found in
open ditches primarily from overflowing septic tanks.
Some small streams are being polluted by industrial wastes. Many
times the industry was located before the property along the stream
There are many wells used for air condition systems where the water
is not recirculated, but wasted.
SIII.A.l. Many wild cat wells are flowing that should be capped.
- 23 -
DUVAL COUNTY (continued)
There are many privately owned water systems whiph have no meters,
and water runs continuously.
A manufacturing concern is in the city limits of a city. The company
uses a large artesian well 1,100 feet deep as its source of water for
its cooling towers. This water, according to the company, is too
hard for use in the manufacturing plant. The water is not reused and
is discharged into the river. The company uses a 4-inch well, 200
feet deep as its source of water for use in its manufacturing proc-
esses. The water produced by this 4-inch well has undergone a
gradual decline during the past 20 years until the flow is approxi-
mately half the original rate. The company is drilling an $-inch
well 200 feet deep to get the water it needs for present use and
future expansion. Neighboring water users have petitioned the city
to force the company to utilize water now wasted from the deep well
before the company is allowed to use its new 8-inch well.
The artesian flow being used by dairies in the northern part of Duval
has decreased because of industry moving in this area with many large
wells. Two subdivisions had wells to go dry in 1956. They had to
install pumps. These wells were free flowing 600 gallons per minute.
"A" has a deep well which provided water for his milking barn and the
processing plant. A nearby suburban town was using an 8-inch well
for domestic water supply. The town had a very rapid growth and put
down a field of several 14-inch deep wells pumped with turbine pumps.
The water pressure on "Ass"1 well dropped immediately from a minimum
average of 12 pounds to approximately 5 pounds. He had to rebuild
his water system and install a pump on his well.
Prior to 1949 the City of Jacksonville had no pumps on their wells
All were free flowing with a depth of 900 to 1,000'feet. Since 1952
the wells had to be drilled to a depth of 1,200 -1,250 feet to obtain
original flow. Many areas had to have horizontal pumps and turbine
type pumps to obtain original flow. This .indicates the need for water
conservation in this area.
Reduction of well flow in Duval County area has caused.:great concern.
For example, a 1,042'well with 521 feet of casing was drilled at the
Talleyrand Station in 1953. Original flow was 2 millionn gallons a
day. The same well on March 27, 1956 is producing 670,000 gallons
with 1/2 inch vacuum on pressure side of pump. Checks at McDuff
Water Station show a drop of 71 feet. Southeast part of the city
show a drop of (6 wells) 31 feet. There is an overall drop of the
47 city wells of about 5 feet. No decrease in quality or salt water
"A" has been using an artesian well for livestock water and irrigation.
It ran constantly in dry weather and whenever turned on during the
rest of the year. It had been most reliable for a long number of
years until recently when it went dry. It is 200 feet deep. Hundreds
of wells with pumps for individual home and lawn use have been drilled
into this particular rock layer within the last 2 or 3 years. These
wells are in a nearby suburban area of a large city.i "An' hs-aex-
amined his well for structural failure and can find nothing wrong.
Apparently the water is gone.
DUV L COUNTY (continued)
f III.A.3. See III.A.2. (No.2) above.
iIII.A.3. See III.A.1. (No.4i) above.
SIII.A.7 .'Use of wells to drain off surface water in the county is a possible
k 4 source of pollution.
IV.A.1.' Beach and shore'erosion is a continuous problem along the beaches of
S.Duval County during high tides. One cause is poorly constructed sea
walls. Bond issues are not adequate to place well constructed sea
V. Erosion of property along streams and creeksby excess week-end boat-
ing has resulted in continuous complaints by landowners along the
water. Recreational use of the streams and creeks is increasing in
the Duval area.
(33 persons participating)
I.A.1. Erosion and storm drainage problems have developed in some of our
I.A.1. Borrow pits and allied activity by State Road Department in area
adjacent to Palafox Highway (US 29) and 9-Mile Road form reservoirs
holding surface water which contaminates shallow water wells in the
immediate area. Also, drainage is very poor in this area and has~-
been aggravated by the new four-lane highway.
I.A.2. Flood conditions are apparent after heavy rains on West Cervantes
Street (a portion of US 90) between A and C Streets, resulting in
depths over four feet and accompanying erosion and sedimentation
I.A.3. See I.A.2. above.
I.C.. A great need exists for proper planning of drainage ditches, gutters,
curbs, etc., which parallel our new county-built roads.
I.D.2. See I.A.i. (No. 2) above.
II.C.1. Unwise drainage of some lakes and swampland areas has the effect of
flood conditions during rainy periods with drought conditions follow-
ing in the dry seasons.
II.C.2,, See II.C.1. above.
II.E.1. An acute need for better planning is drastically needed in this
entire sector to forestall recurrences of pollution problems dueto
the welcomed rapid industrialization in the Greater Pensacola area.
- 25 -
_ ____ ___
ESCAMBIA COUNTY (continued)
II.E.2. The discharge ofsludge and other chemical and acid sewage into 11-
Mile Creek has ruined this stream, and the flow of this contaminated
water into Perdido Bay is how having like effect, particularly in the
northern arm of Perdido Bay.
Flowing artesian wells which have been abandoned should be capped
wherever possible (there are only a few in this county).
A lowering-of the water table in certain farming areas of the county
has been noted. This pertains to wells using water from a shallow
strata, and does not necessarily include wells using a deep strata,
Over-industrialization, -by large water-users in a confined area will
result in lowering of water table, causing water shortages to all
Salt water intrusion into well water has been noted where wells are
placed too close to shore line.
To forestall any damage from an abandoned oil well, it is
recommended that each abandoned well be properly sealed.
prevent contaminated water from being high-pressured into
,See I.A.l. (No.2) above.
Some dredging activity has caused silt to be distributed to beach ... ;
areas, resulting in annoying odors and unsightly appearances..
Because of the rapid population growth in the City of Pensacola and
surrounding areas, it is apparent that a problem Will soon exist rel-
ative to disposition of sludge from disposal plants.
The dumping of sewage sludge into Bayou Chico presents a health prob-
lem to residents in the area, in addition to the corresponding nuisance
of odors and a highly contaminated body of water adjacent to many
This discharge of industrial wastes into Bayou Chico accentuates the
many hazards of nuisance andub~liic health.
(19 peros participatingn)
I.A.2. Water from road ditches is not properly handled in some cases. It may
,.be dumped on some farm along the road and cause damage to crops.
One of the problems in Bunnell is that the water does not drain in the
right direction, all drainage canals have been put in the wrong places.
This results in flooding at certain seasons.
- 26 -
FLAGLER COUNTY (continued)
In one section of the county the canals were set up for drainage, and
some of the farmers in that section think the land is overdrained.
They would like to put in structures of some kind.
There has not been much high water in the Haw Creek Section for the
past two years, but those living in the Haw Creek Section know that
during heavy rains the creeks stop up with hyacinths, etc., and the
water backs up on the farms as it cannot get out, and during flood
times it is impossible to get rid of the water.
A farmer stated that although the water levels are low, there is no
immediate worry but that there will be a serious problem in the not
too distant future. He seemed to think something could be done about
the wells that flow continuously.
One farmer stated that he had four wells on 140 acres of land, and
one of the wells at a depth of 90 feet is salty. He wants to put
down another well but wants to know that it will not be salty.
One farmer has dug 7 or 8 wells, has gone from 20 feet to 300 feet,
and has been unable to get anything but salt water. The deeper he
goes the less salt there is, but none of the wells have produced fresh
(7 persons participating)
I.C.2. A large area known as Tates Hell has excessive surface and subsurface
water which prevents the growth of timber. An outlet is needed for
I.E.1. Municipal and industrial wastes from upstream create pollution of
stream and bays at outlet of Apalachicola River. This pollution
causes the oyster beds to be unsanitary and condemned by the State
Board of Health.
I.E.2. See II.E.I. above.
I.A.1. There is wasteful flow from several artesian wells in the county.
I.A.2. There is significantly reduced flow of wells in the county and some
have completely dried up.
I.A.4. It is believed that the drilling of oil wells has broken the formation
deep in the ground and that water is wasted in these holes.
" I 7 -
The Road Department has constructed a road along.farmer's property
with farmer's consent. A drain ditch cut across farmer field..,-.,,
Several seasons of drainage have produced a gully on this area which
cannot be crossed by machinery or livestock. The gully greatly de-
preciates the value of the farm.
I.C.1. Large areas of farm land drainage has caused a flooded condition in i
colored community within the city limits. The water for the mos-; pal
'originates beyond the city limits.
II.A.1. "A" has some valuable timber that joins "B". "B" notifies "A' he has
: built a dam of a certain impoundment. "A" finds from a survey that
Shis timber will be flooded. "B" will not decrease head of water and
"A" is forced to cut his timber or bring suit. He prefers to cut.
SII.A.l'. Farmer constructs an impoundment above a county road. Seepage and
saturation cause damage to the.county road system. The county raise
r theiroad at a considerable expense and the farmer took advantage of
the added fill and raised his level of impoundment.
II.A.4.' Several farmers live on water-shed of ,4 ,creek which flows through
outskirts of city. The city secures their city water supply from
.... this creek. In May 1955, when farmers began irrigating tobacco, the
creek began to dry up, cutting off adequate supply of water for city.
II.A.4, "A" cleared out some springs and a watercourse which -runs through
property of "B" before again entering land belonging,-to 'A"' who
- :* intended,,impounding on his downstream property. When flow of water
increased, "B" impounded water. "A" did not then have enough to
_ II -C
- 28 -
(13 persons participating)
I.A.l. "A" so drained a field as to change the watercourse and flooded "B'.
"B" built a dike that held the water on "A" and flooded a valuable
crop for "A". "A" contends the water should goon "B". "B" cannot
I.A.1. Water' from'terraces in 'Crop land have greatly damaged state and
county rights-of-way arid ditches. ,
I.A.2. In 1950 a r6ad-was. constructed on the contour on a 5 7 per cent.,,:
slope. A culvert was placed under the road at the lowest elevation
of the upper property causing a concentrating of water running across
the property of another person. Later in 1955 the owner cultivated
the lower property for the first time in years. ,The.water washed ou
a ditch for him. The water from the upper place could have been di-
verted but not without a few hundred dollars cost.
IT.B.Z. A farmer deeded land for a new road with the understanding the accum
lated water of the road would be tile drained fromthe low point
across his crop land to a stream.. The road was built but the;engine
'said he could not tile the water as this area now becomes lIa 'natural
drain. Considerable damage was done to the farmer due to silting on
GADSDEN COUNTY (continued)
"B" also did not have enough until "A" increased the flow.
"A" has constructed a dam for irrigation. "B" impounds water above
him on the same stream cutting off all water to "A's" pond. "A" is
forced to move to a new stream, and a considerable cash outlay is used
to again have'water.
"A" and '"Bt both irrigate from the same watercourse. This watercourse
furnishes enough for only one farmer to irrigate at a time. All water
originates on "A"; and when "A" irrigates, "B" must delay-his opera-
tions until "A""finishes. Consequently, "B" does not get to irrigate
when his crops are in need,
"A" digs canal to bring water from a natural pond in water-shed 1 to
a pond in water-shed,2. "B" is in water-shed 1 and feels that the
natural pond helped to hold his water table higher in his home well
and feels the draining of this natural pond will eventually affect
his well.--' "- .
(12 persons participating)
II.A.1. A stream which carries off excess water is clogged up with logs and
other foreign material--will not allow drainage fast enough to give
proper water control.
II.A.4. "A" dammed up small stream cutting off water supply to "B" lower on
the stream. "B" used this source of water for his livestock.
County constructed a drainage well in lake to lower water level.
Farmers around the lake complain that water table was lowered through
reducing crop yields.
II.F.1. "A" bought a farm which had a 20-acre lake on-it. It had been used
by the public as a fishing place. He closed the lake to public fish-
"A" has small well on farm'to supply water for livestock and home use.
"B", "C" and "D" sink irrigation wells around "A"' and "A's" well goes
See II.D.1. above.
Springs used by public were suddenly closed by owners of property
- 29 -
(14 persons participating)
I.A.l. "A" diked around a section of land. This dike crossed two small
natural sloughs in which surface water normally moved during periods
of rain. The constructed dike caused the flooding of "B's" land.
I.B.1. "A" installed water control system on his land. Part of this system
was a large canal which was an improvement of a highway ditch. Land-
owner installed several turnouts with culverts in place. During rainy
season lands owned by "B", "C" and "D" were covered by water backed"up
by the small culverts.
I.B.l. "A" improved natural watercourses by canaling on his land. This col-
lected and discharged runoff at a faster rate and greater quantity.
This caused the natural watercourse on "B" to overflow and damaged
I.B.1. "A" diked and ditched his land, then installed a pump at one corner
and pumped out surface water. This concentration of water destroyed.
a culvert on a county road and caused the flood over of a stocked and
fertilized fish pond belonging to "B".
I.B.3. See I.B.1. (No.3) above.
I.B.4. "A" digs a drainage canal on his property but immediately adjacent to
property owned by "B". One year later "B" claims that the canal is
overdraining his pasture.
I.C.3. A group of 10 landowners propose a water-shed program to effect im-
proved drainage. One of the owners backs out and won't agree for main
outlet crossing his lands. Small natural outlet crosses him now.
II.B.2. Landowner digs a new ditch and discharges it into public canal. Silt
from the new ditch forms a bar in main canal.
II.C.l. Uncontrolled flow of water in Indian Prairie Canal, Harney Pond Canal
and Fisheating Creek has caused overdrainage.
II.C.2. City of Moore Haven is flooded during discharge of Lake Okeechobee
waters through Caloosahatchee River during floods.
II.D.1. Owners around the west shore of Lake Okeechobee are flooded by lake
waters at least every other year. In addition, high lake levels
retard canal runoff from these private properties.
II.D.2.' Insufficient water in Lake Okeechobee to supply irrigation needs for
farming and ranching during winter months and unusually dry year.
III.A.1. Problem of wild flow of artesian wells in south Florida.
- 30 -
(9 persons participating)
II.C.I. After the dredging of the Gulf County canal, residents of one commu-
nity had to drill deeper wells. Formerly their wells had been shallow
wells of approximately 15 to 20 feet in depth.
Gulf County's most serious problem is the regulation of the level of
the Dead Lakes. Since the installation of Jim Woodruff Dam at
Chattahoochee and the recent three-year dry spell experienced in this
section of the state, the level of the Dead Lakes has dropped to the
lowest recorded point. The installation of a dam at the outlet to
Dead Lakes. into Chipola River is now being discussed with the U. S.
Army Engineers. The Dead Lakes' area is considered a valuable asset
to the county for fishing and recreational purposes. Its low level
has hampered the development of this area.
All communities in Gulf County other than Port St. Joe have no sewage
disposal systems. Ground water pollution could be prevalent from
(15 persons participating)
During the 1948 flood, the spillway of a rather large mill pond gave
way. The excess water from the pond flooded a neighbor's corn crib
and fertilizer storage shed. The waters also destroyed over 100 feet
of a state highway. Serious erosion occurred on several farms, re-
sulting in threats of legal action to prevent reconstruction of dam.
A farmer complained of excessive flood waters from an adjoining farm.
The farmer upstream built a series of impounding structures. The
complaining neighbor on the lower farm then raised objections to in-
sufficient water flowing down from the farm upstream.
See II.A.1. (No.l) above.
Irrigation ponds are being built by constructing dams across small
streams. These dams in effect decrease or stop flow of water through
II.A.4. See II.A.l. (No.2) above.
IIT..l. A farmer proceeded to construct a dam to retain water in about the
upper third part of a lake. An injunction was filed by a sportsman'
to adjudicate the rights of the parties as to whether a dam could be
constructed across the lake, or whether the other party to the suit
could construct a canal on his property around the dam after it was
built. The court sustained a temporary injunction against both the
construction of the dam and also the digging of the canal. This lake
drains through a large sink at one end and this proposed dam would
_ I ___
HAMILTON COUNTY (continued)
have controlled the water level in perhaps a third of the lake, the
part owned'by the farmer. The proposed dam might have lowered the
water level in th' vicinity of the cottages owned by the sportsman.
Because of the large sink on the west end of the lake, during times
of id6w water table, tbe lake shrinks to no more than a hundred acres
of water. That practically ruins fishing conditions and also produces
a lack of irrigation water for five or six farmers who use the lake
water fbr tobacco production.
Tobacco plantings ranging up to 70 acres are being irrigated from
wells. As this practice increases, it is possible that competition
for this underground water will become a problem.
One landowner drained 'large swamp through two 8-inch drainage wells.
An adjacent farmer instituted a law suit claiming overdrainage of his
See III.A.5. .above,.
During high waters in 946, the county commissioners contracted for
the drilling of two 6-inch drainage wells to remove water off roads
and so permit passage of school buses and mail delivery. The wells
have kep the flood waters drained off this area, but since they were
within' five miles of a municipality, the State Board of Health com-
plained about the1 wells.
(13 persons participating)
I.A.1. "B" constructed a dike across a natural drain on his land, causing
water to back up on "A's" land, resulting in damage to crops being
I.A.I. Highways haive 'been constructed without adequate drainage openings .and
drainage blocks created.
I.A.l. Blockn f natural drainage ways has created flooding conditions.
I.A.I. Poor or fno dryinag: plan ..have flooded lands of others, causing septic
tanks to fail.
I.B.4. Ponds and low areas in the county have been drained without adequate
sturdy f tiheov4era4i effects in the area, thus creating overdrainage.
The lack of' controls in' ditches and streams have caused overdrainage
of some lands.
Flooding has resulted from increased discharge intosurface streams.
II.E.1. See I.A.1. (No.4) above.
- 32 -
II; -- -- ----
HARDEE COUNTY (continued)
II.E.1. Streams and lakes are polluted by industrial and municipal wastes,
killing fish and wildlife and creating nuisance.
II.E.2. See II.E.1. (No.2) above.
II.A.1. There are wells in the county which are allowed to flow to waste or
else are used in a wasteful manner.
II.A.2. Well failures have been reported from heavy pumping of other wells
:.i.A.2. "A" drilled a deep well to irrigate his grove. "B" and "C" then
found they did not get enough water from their wells to irrigate when
"A" was irrigating. Their wells were not as deep as "A's". "B" and
"C" have to wait until "A" completes his irrigating before they can
water their groves.
iII.A.7. Use of wells to control lake levels by drainage or by filling serves
no beneficial use.
S(14 persons participating)
I.A.1. When a road is constructed in flat country such as we have in Hendry
County, irrespective of the cross-drains which are usually installed,
it invariably interferes with the natural flow of surface water during
wet periods. Not only does it usually cause impoundment on the high
side of the road in many areas, but the nature of the cross drainage
and borrow ditches are such that it causes the natural overland flow
to become concentrated at various points, thus flooding other land.
Also, borrow ditches may cause excess drainage. How is the problem
of the accumulation and disposal of waters in these ditches to be
handled in order that there may be proper drainage in wet weather and
the proper amount of water retained during dry weather?
I.A.1. Surface waters draining southward from "A's" property onto "B'"
property, where it traversed through a natural drain. "B" built 'a
dike across his north boundary, thus causing a backlog of water to
accumulate on "A's" property. "A's" property was flooded and he
brought suit for damage against "B".
I.A.1. In an area where the annual rainfall is some 54 inches, with approxi-
mately 64 per cent falling during the period June-October and only 36
per cent falling during the remaining seven months, where the land is
very flat with elevation changing at the rate of less than one foot
per mile, and with no well-defined watercourses or streams, how are
landowners to handle excess waters during the rainy season without
damage to their neighbor and at the same time conserve water for use
during dry periods?
I.B.1. Landowner "A", in order to protect his pasture and certain agricul-
tural interests therein, constructed a dike along the high side of
HENDRY COUNTY (continued)
his property with view of preventing an overland 'flow across his ,;
lands during the rainy season. This dike caused impoundment on lands
S of "B'", and diversion of water to other adjacent lands, thereby aggra-
vating the flooding problems during the rainy season. The pasei r,-r
resulted in litigation during which it was alleged that landowner "!B"
had constructed certain ditches and canals which discharged additional
waters onto the lands of "A", and that the construction of the dike by
"A" was necessary in order to protect himself.
I.B.1. In areas where landowners are using drainage canals where quantity of,
water that may be pumped into these canals is limited"by administra-
tive action, how is the problem to be solved as to which landowner
should have first chance to pump flood waters from his land. That is,
during a time of flooding if each landowners along these canals
attempted to pump the water off of his land at the same time, it, wpuld
cause a more serious flooding condition as the canal would not be able
to handle all the discharged water at one time. Therefore, we'are
faced with the problem of who should be first and how should this be
I I.B.l. See I.A.1. (No.l) above.
I.B.1. See I.A.1. (No.3) above.'
I.B.4. See I.A.l. (No.3) above.
SI.B.4. See I.A.I. (No.l) above. ,
I...4-. The Caloosahatchee Valley has a land-locked basin, 1,000 square miles
in area, with the Caloosahatchee River as the gate. The land on the
south of the river has elevations up to approximately 32 feet, while
that on the north in the highlands goes up to 60 feet. The streets
of LaBelle (which is in the bottom of the basin), are only about 15 to
16 feet in elevation. Therefore, when the river capacity is exceeded
from waters draining into it from the higher areas, extensive flooding
results. One of the main problems of this valley is how to provide
insurance and protection against too much water, but still have an
adequate supply for those desiring to develop their lands. At present
most people are only concerned with getting rid of excess waters, but
unless some measures are taken to conserve some .of the water we will ,
be faced with a serious overdrainage problem. ,
I.C.%. See I...4- above.
II.B.l.' See I.B.1. (No.2) above.
V. Access to primary channels by backland owners is one of the most vital
problems facing this and many other counties in the state.
- 34 -
(16 persons participating)
A drainage outlet from a lake was enlarged in order to get the water
off a large piece of grazing land more quickly. Result: Grazing :
,lands belonging to owners at lower elevations were flooded at times
of heavy rainfall.
Due to construction fills for road construction, water is diverted
from natural drainage ways and is concentrated so that an excessive low
occurs across pasture lands at lower elevation, over and above normal
I.A.2. Road fill concentrated water so that excessive flow caused severe
gullying of pastures on lower side of road where water poured rapidly
A mining company dumped wash waters into a ditch which in turn carried
the water to a lake which the mining company does not own entirely,
others having riparian rights. Result: As wash waters slowed down
upon entry into lake, the sediments settled out, reducing capacity of.
lake to hold rainy season waters8and causing sediment deposits i
those areas of the lake not owned by the corporation.
II.D.1. A landowner, owning part of a large shallow lake, digs drainage wells
,to increase his pasture acreage. In drouthy times the levels go so
low that a fish camp operator on the other side of the lake is almost
forced out of business and the volume of water for fish reproduction
is seriously reduced.
II.E.l. A city has outgrown its sewage disposal plant. Its septic tank system
is overloaded and the sewage not fully treated. This results in un-
pleasant odors in the vicinity and movement df improperly treated
wastes into natural drainage systems of the area, with resultant dan-
Sger to wells at lower levels.
II.E.2. Wash waters from fruit processing plants was dumped into a sinkhole
which connects with a prairie pasture, overflowing the pasture drain-
age ditches in time of heavy rains. Result: The pasture lands were
reducedd in grazing value due to toxic materials in the wash waters,
which killed off certain grasses.
II.E.2. Same as II.A.2. above, .
A fruit processing plant dumps its waste water into settling ponds.
Due to weakness of the dam, insofar as the amount of water impounded
was concerned, the waters in one or more settling ponds overflowed
into a river, resulting in toxic conditions which killed fish and
other aquatic life.
II.F.1. A large spring is controlled by a corporation, operating the spring
as a recreational area for profit. The corporation controls the land
on both sides of the stream for some distance from the headwaters,
and places signs at the lower limits telling the public not to go be-
yond this point. The public normally will observe such signs but the
stream runs from 4 to 20 feet deep and so could be called a navigable
HERNANDO COUNTY (continued)
See IJ.-D.1. above,
SeelIIr*E.2. (No.1) above..
See II.E.1 above.
(23 persons participating)
I.B.2. Street and road storm sewers, withett adequate traps, are discharging
sedimentation into lakes, causing di-acoloration and''depositing silt
a on floors of .sand-bottom lakes. ",, -
II.A.4. Private partied cleaned north prong of Josephine Creek -P'oth .of tke
Josephine, with the ultimate result hi'.overdraining of Lake JosephineV.
It is felt in instances of this kind, where cleaning out of natural. ,
drainage areas is necessary, the control structures should be required';
so as to retain water during times of drought...
II.A.6. The dredging of lake bottoms to build new land ha'4sbeen ,ractlc'ed: to-:
the detriment of public and private rights..
II.C.2. Natural drainage between Lake Letta and,Bonnet, ike should be cleaned'-
and widened in order to handle discharge during e :tree high water.
Present condition menace to homeowners, Fish and Game CIb 'and r'Ste
Road 17. : .U
II.D.I. In 1954 a control and spillwy :were :constructed between Lake June and
Lake Frances and the channel'-f FJosephineOGreek cleaned. Result:
Considerable '-1wering of water tablb in Lake Frad~es,.'as source of
supply was controQled but discharge was wide open. Property owners
feel in projects of this nature all features should be completedd; as
failure to do so results in injury to certain sections.
V. Instance was cited where property owners built structures below meander
lines of lakes, which resulted in flooding of buildings when lakes :
return to natural level -
(1 persons par icipating)
I.B.4. Drainage District dug deep ditc'es' through grove land--the recent drop
in the water table 6'auses overdrainage through these ditches.
I.B.4. Overdrainage by construction of both state and county "oads is a
problem in the county.
II.A.6. One owner dredging lakes owned by several people without permission
of all the owners.
- 36 -
HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY (continued)
There are insufficient outlets for some canals which have been dug
by the county and other groups.
Larger canals cause drought damage during dry weather--need system of
check dams to control these canals to conserve water during drought
periods and afford drainage during heavy rainy seasons.
A series of lakes are connected in a large agricultural area. A
municipality takes enough water away from this area to cause a seri-
ous drop in water table, rendering the lakes useless in some cases.
The drop in water table is not due to short drought periods, but is
due to the great amount of water pumped away.
Industrial water pollution in the Alafia River causes loss of fish
and recreational facilities.
Cattlemen have leased land surrounding lakes made by phosphate mines
and will not allow the public to fish in these lakes.
Some artesian wells are allowed to flow in a wasteful manner.
Private wells are going dry in one area due to large wells supplying
to municipalities in an adjoining county.
Some wells have been pumped to such an extent that salt water intrusion
has occurred. Supervision needed to determine the depth of wells and
level to which water can be pumped to prevent salt water intrusion.
Drainage of Springs by heavy pumping from wells has been observed.
V. Mosquito control is needed in every body of water in county. In some
cases water is used for irrigation or livestock water and draining or
poisoning would be harmful.
(18 persons participating)
I.A.l. Several instances have occurred where water from a field is drained
on state highway.
I.A.1. At least one instance where water from highway floods a farmer's field,
I.A.1. When new farm to market road was built, sediment from road construc-
tion caused water to back into stream on dairy farm. The cows' bags
became infected in crossing the stream and the Sanitarian condemned
the milk. The State Road Department has now cleared this up.
I.A.2. Water runs off field of "A" causing erosion on "B's" farm. If road
'ditch could be lowered, then water would run down into stream.
I.A.3. One farmer states that water running from road has almost completely
1' covered fence with sedimentation.
I.A.3. One farmer's terraces ran water to a road. The drainage from his field
crossed a county road and destroyed the drainage system on another farm;
I.D.1. It was brought out that poison placed on cotton drop was washed into a
fish pond, thereby causing some damage to fish. Both cotton and pond
belonged to one owner but it could very well have been another person' |
HOLMES COUNTY (continued)
I.D.3. Ponds beini'd nstructed abovestate highway which might result in
highways being floodedand: damaged.
I.D.3. "A" wants a dam which would flood 20 or 30 acres of his own land but
in turn, would back water up on about 10 acres belonging to "B". This
Should naturally give "B" part ownership in pond and also benefit him,
but it is doubtful whether he would agree or not.
II.A.1.i' The group .discussed the fact that if Choctawhatchee River were dredged
it would prevent considerable amount of damage in case of floods.
II.A.4 "A" has a spring on his farm, and has built a dam, thereby resulting
in the water supply being cut from "B" who lives below him.
II.C.5. A grotp of farmers that own property near Holmes Creek would like to
have a drainage system constructed, but one farmer who is in the
Middle of the group refuses.
II.E.11. Outsiders bring in garbage and dump, it in creek which runs through
property owned by farmers.
II.F.l. Landowner who joins river fences natural lakes, and therefore river
is not accessible to public.
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY
S(32 persons participating)
I.A.I. Ranch developer dikes large area, retarding ;and diverting movement of
diffused surface water, resulting in flooding adjoining property a6d'
I.A.l. A large landowner cut numerous canals from a 10,000-acre tract into' '
small natural watercourse, flooding same to extent of submerging
'highway and backing up water in an existing Drainage District.
I.A.. 'A rancher drains all of natural shallow grass ponds in 30,000-acre
tract for use of grazing. This resulted in flooding lower lands
I immediately following heavy rains and disperses water away from
I.A.1. St. Johns Marsh (240 sq. mi. in this county) is encroached by a series
of dikes by individual landowners. This, with the increased rate of
runoff from its water-shed imposes a serious problem from both flobd-
ing in Fall months and excess drainageoby dike borrow pits in the
I.A.I:. later levels in lakes too high in Fall and early Winter because of
increased rate of runoff from improvement of cattle pastures oni
SI..3. A tomato farmer cuts shallow drainditches 'into canal without proper.
flumes, causing erosion and sand bars. ,
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY (continued)
I.B.4. "A" cuts large canal capable of handling flood water in September and
October. He fails to install proper gates or control structure, re-
sulting in overdrainage the other ten months of the year for himself
I.B.4. See I.A.1. (No.4) above.
I.B.4. A Drainage District maintains lateral and outfall canals annually
without water control structures to retain ground water in December
I.C.2. Citrus grove owner pumps excess water over dike without regard to
disposal of water; floods adjacent lands.
A citrus grove owner diked off a natural creek drain. Three more
groves have. since been planted above the first one. Each one diked
off the upland water which originally flowed to Indian River. Each
exceedingly wet period, one or more dikes break or are cut.
Several cattle ranches tb the west of St. Johns Marsh have ditched
and drained uplands, increasing the rate of runoff, until floodwaters
now come over rim dikes of three drainage districts. Dikes have been
inundated in past five years that never gave trouble before 1947-53.
*II.A.l. Extensive pasture development on the St. Johns River water-shed is
dumping'water at faster rate, creating ever-increasing flood stages.
This situation is further aggravated by dike encroachment into marsh,
closing off natural flow of water downstream in the St. Johns Valley.
One development has restricted the marsh opening to less than one mile.
A group of cattlemen propose to divert the excess waters from the
St. Johns River Marsh and Blue Cypress Lake into the Indian River
(tide water). Serious objections are filed by the citrus growers
abutting the Indian River as to dumping additional waters into the
tidal river in the Fall of the year when the ocean tides are the high-
est.' The water is also needed for irrigation in the Winter and Spring.
Landowner connects a series of ponds with ditches or canals emptying
into creek runs, causing excess flooding of lower lands by increased
runoff. This also causes serious erosion of stream.
There are large sedimentation areas at mouth of Sebastian River and
canals emptying directly into the Indian River.
II.A.3. See II.A.1. (No.3) above.
Salt water intrusion backs up in Sebastian River for a distance of
five miles in dry weather because of lack of tide gates.
Lack of willingness to organize prevents cooperative locks and control
structures necessary to water!.controls.
II.D.1. Water in lakes too low in spring because of dike borrow structures
bleeding water downstream to an elevation lower thanmarsh surface.
Fire sometimes results.
- 39 -
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY (continued)
II.D.1. With normal elevation of lake and marsh, agricultural irrigation water
can be used by gravity flow.- Levels too low require lifting by pumps
at an increased cost.
II.E.1. Residents of county are prohibited from taking oysters from large
areas of Indian River because of pollution from municipalities and
other thickly populated areas. Ruled by Health Department.
A landowner fenced and posted the only high land on a marsh-surrounded
Owner threatened to file suit to prevent construction of public dock
on county-owned road right-of-way adjacent to his residence.
"A" uses abandoned tomato fields for grazing and allows artesian
wells to run wild the year round. He refuses to close them on
Qhe grove owner found it impossible to fill citrus grove spray tank
in April and May of 1956, because oil wells in area were open for
irrigation. Quality of water was too poor to use.
.WelJs allowed to run wild reduce fresh water pressure that holds salt
Housing projects with septic tanks constructed on small lots pose
our most immediate problem of pollution of ground water and use of
Construction of Sebastian inlet jetties resulted in beach erosion to
south of inlet and a buildup on the north side. Loss of land by
erosion amounts to about 200 feet of depth, reflecting same loss as
far as six miles south of the inlet.
As date of this hearing, it is reported that Ocean Beach is polluted
with waste petroleum, creating unpleasant condition to bathers and
Large quantities of water hyacinths discharge into Indian River and
Blue Cypress Lake in flood times, causing a type of pollution.
(12 persons participating)
I.A.1. "A" constructed a dam and in so doing it backed up water on "B" and
I.A.1. A farmer owns a tract that has a large area of his most fertile land
in a depression. A highway was constructed through his farm where,
additional water above normal drainage was turned into this, depres-
sion, causing excessive flooding.
~- I L'
- 40 -
JACKSON COUNTY (continued)
I.A.2. A landowner terraced his farm and the runoff water from the terraces
drained onto a bank formed in the construction of public roads. The
bank of fill is subject to damage from the runoff.
I.A.2. One person constructed a dam without any engineering specifications
to create a reservoir for irrigation. In a flash flood the dam was
broken damaging downstream owners.
I.C.3. "A" owns a farm that is seriously eroding. Any erosion control
measures cannot be properly installed because "B" owns a farm above
"A" and is not interested in controlling erosion on his farm.
I.C.3. "A" wishes to drain valuable lands on his farm but "B", who owns
property below him, is not interested in draining. Any drainage must
be installed over "B's" property also in order to drain "A's" farm.,
I.C.3. "A" wishes to establish and maintain outlets for surface runoff water
from terracing. "B" owns land at the lower level which would neces-
sarily be crossed by the runoff water and refuses permission for "A"
to drain the water across his property..
II.A.4. There is a condition in an adjoining county where there is a large
lake and one person owns about 20 acres of land around the lake and
another person owns a small tract. The lake is a burden on l.e ,man
with the small tract, but if he drains his property it wou'l41so-
drain the other man's whole 20 acres. ; -
II.A.4. "A" has a stream flowing through his farm and -diverts the natural
flow and in doing so he reduces the water supply of other farmers in
III.B.1. "A" has a large spring on his property that flows through a number of
other properties from which he gets livestock water. "B" locates
what he thinks is water from an underground stream and is drawing
irrigation water from the spring.
(12 persons participating)
I.A.1. Farmers diverting water on to another farmer's land.
I.A.1. Farmers emptying water from terrace outlets on to state and county
II.A.5. The need for dams on small rivers and streams to provide a water level
sufficient for irrigation, recreation, fish, etc.
II.D.1. The problem is that the. water level is too low in all lakes in the
county. Steps have been taken to remedy this in Lake Miccosukee by
damming above the drainage outlet.
- 41 -
JEFFERSON COUNTY (continued)
II.D.2. Competition among different owners of the same lake or pond for irri-
gation and livestock water--or any use. This is a problem concerned
only by joint ownership of lakes and ponds.
II.E,1. Sewerage problems in municipalities could cause pollution of shallow
wells nearby, or have the same results by carrying raw sewage to
landowners below the town.
Reports of several examples where large wells by some owners greatly
reduce flow in surrounding wells when large wells are in use.
The problem is foreseen where competition for irrigation purposes
might make it necessary for older established wells to be abandoned,
because of greater competition for ground water. Competition for
industry is also foreseen in the same manner.
A great number of springs have ceased to flow. More have been reduced,
a few report no decrease.
See II.E.1. above.
(5 persons participating)
I.B.4. Approximately,two thirds of Lafayette County has relatively low,
flatwoods type i-ondition. The majority of this area is owned by large
timber companies. These companies are doing a lot of ditching, pri-
marily to expedite, the removal of excess ground and surface water
during wet weather. Farmers bordering these areas are concerned about
whether the drainage will affect the soil moisture relationship of:-
their crop land.
A 40-acre tract is situated on a small creek across which "A" has
erected a small dam for a fish pond site. The creek is made up of
flatwoods surface drainage water. A large landowner has control of
the area around-the 40-acre tract and wants to ditch the area to fa-
cilitate removal of surplus water. The creek will be one of the
primary means of ditch water disposal. "A" does not want the ditches
dumping water into the creek, either above or below his property. If
the ditches empty into the creek above the dam, it will be in danger
of being,washed out. If the ditches empty into the creek below the
dam, there may not be enough water in the creek bed to supply the
pond site at the dam.
S(24 persons participating)
Erosion and sedimentation damage is evident in areas of the county.
Specifidalcly, cases are known where soil washes off of one ownership
to anotherk@i' .1
- 42 -
LAKE COUNTY (continued)
I.A.3. See I.A.2. above.
I.B.4. Evidence of overdrainage of surface water is apparent throughout the
county. Unless certain swamp areas, which are natural reservoirs,
can be developed into very productive areas, they should be retained
as water reservoir areas.
I.B.4. Green Swamp area in Polk and.Lake Counties is a natural water reser-
voir. Water now being diverted from this natural reservoir and is
being uselessly tapped.and largely wasted.
I.B.4. Problem of cattlemen is excessive lowering of surface water.
II.A.6. Problems of dredging, flibodies of water which might result in drain-
age of the lakes to other areas.
II.D.2. Problems of homesite development on lakefronts versus need foriwater
to maintain citrus groves.
II.E.1. While only a relatively small portion of the Town "A" is provided
with sanitary sewers, the collected wastes are discharged through
septic tanks into a small body of water within the city limits.
II.E.1. City "B" has a sanitary sewer system serving a relatively small area
of the incorporated area, and the collected wastes are discharged
into a lake. A survey of the lake has indicated that the shore line
area of the lakeadjacent to City "B" is grossly polluted, but at the
time of the survey the pollution did not extend an unreasonable dis-
tance into the lake.
II.E.2. A citrus canning plant or processing plant discharges its wastes
waters to a highway ditch and thence to a canal and thence to a lake.
For the present, while there is obvious pollution iithe upper end of..
this canal, there is nopsubstantial evidence that the pollution has
extended into the lake. ,This canal likewise receives the effluent
from the primary sewage treatment plant of a city. At another city
the wastes from a citrus processing plant are discharged to a swampy
area which in turn feeds into a lake.
II.F.1. House-site developments on lakefronts close lakes to public use.
II.F.1. Many lakes have been closed by private ownership, thereby closing off
III.A.l. Ground water level has dropped, resulting in reduced flow of existing
III.B.2. Springs have been closed to public access.
(40 persons participating)
I.A.1. Better drainage plans are needed to prevent flooding and drowning lands
of others. ?Poor or no plans have caused septic tanks to fail even be-
fore they were expected to.
IEE COUNTY (continued)
I.A.1. About half of those answering questions stated that such obstructions
as highways, railroads, etc., caused flooding of upstream lands as
they sometimes act as dikes and impede the natural flow of water.f
I.A.1. A state road acts as a dam or dike;across the natrual water ways of
the water-shed causing improper drainage on the north and east sides
iT of,)the highway, which causes excess surface water to back up on the
ranches in the area. The water moves down the road ditch for a few
miles, where it passes under the road bridge where it again spreads
i? over the surrounding land, due to the fact that the canal constructed
to drain it is not properly located and is improperly maintained.
I.B.1. Approximately 10 per cent felt that canals and ditches in the district
were causing overdrainage. A few stated that canals caused flooding
in some areas where the canal was inadequate and channeled the water
onto adjacent lands.
I.B.4. See I.B.1. above.
I.C.1. Ninety per cent of those participating stated that drainage of surface
water was inadequate. Some landowners in the flatter areas suffer'
because of inadequate outlets for drainage. In;at least one area some
of the landowners thought that adequate drainage could be accomplished
if the landowners would cooperate to construct canals. Many of the
landowners stated that half of the year they were underdrained, and
the other half of the year they were overdrained.: Most of those who
.shared this opinion' stated that some control structures should be
provided in the larger ditches and canals.
I.C.2. See I.C.1. above.
I.C.3. See I.C.1. above.
II.C.1. The Caloosahatchee River should be controlled so as to prevent excess
discharge during flooded conditions and excess drainage which occurs
in the dry season.
II.C.2. See II.C.1. above.
-1I.C.3. Control structures on the lower Caloosahatchee River are badly needed
to prevent salt water intrusion up to Ortona Lock.
II.D.2. Many people stated that the water table was getting lower. Most
thought that it was due to overdrainage. No one mentioned the in-
creased use as a cause.
II.E.1. See I.A.1. (No.l) above.
II.A.1. At the present well water used in certain heating and cooling systems
is being discharged into sewers and salt water. Also sprinkling is
often maintained until 100 has occurred, and therefore should be
III.A.1. Wells which were allowed to flow unchecked were mentioned by over
half of those answering the questionnaire. Depth to which Jit is
- 44 -
LEE COUNTY (continued)
necessary to drill to get good flowing wells was reported to be
increasing. Salt content of wells was reported as increasing in many
cases. Decrease of the flow of some wells was reported.L This de-
crease was blamed on "too many wells" and on overdrainage of surface
I.A.3. The Ft. Myers area is faced with the problem of obtaining sufficient
quantity of good quality water to meet its growth requirements.
I.A.3. Several gladiolus and potato growers have found it necessary to start
pumping water from artesian wells as early as November in order to
get sufficient water for irrigating. One party.has farmed in the lona
area for the past nine years and has found that the flow of water from
such wells is steadily decreasing.
I.A.4. A local well driller pointed out that there is considerable salt
water intrusion showing up in test wells that the various Oil Compan-
ies have drilled. These test wells range to a depth of 10,000 feet
and are sources of high salt content water, which damages much of
the farming land in Lee County. It was further pointed out that these
test wells are not being properly "capped off" with concrete.
I.A.6. Controls are needed to prevent overpumping of wells which are causing
salt water intrusion, and therefore endangering our public water
II.A.6. See III.A.1. (No.2) above.
II.C, See I.A.1. (No.l) above.
(33 persons participating)
I.A.1. Where roads are built through terraced farm lands, adequate outlets
are hot established.
I.A.2. County builds abroad over hilly country where drainage had been no
problem7, but rioadsidb ditches cause erosion and sedimentation damage
on farmer's pasture at bottom of hill.
I.A.3. See I.A.2. above.
I.C.2. Drainage ditches gradually filled by sediment, thereby causing ditches
to fill up, creating health problems and expense of rediggingiditches.
I.C.2. Lack ofadequate outlets at lower elevations for the proper runoff of
'II.A.4. Problems of draining water from natural:lake basins onto man-made
basin ot adjoining property.
- 45 -
LEON COUNTY (continued)
II.A.4.' Diverting a stream from its natural course--to supply farmer with
water who is not normally supplied with water from this stream.
II.A.6. A lake covers properties owned by "A" and "B". The water level of
the lake goes down. "A" digs his half of the lake several feet deeper
causing all of the water to drain from "B's" side of the lake.
II.B.I, Reduced flow in springs is a problem in this county.
II.D.1. During periods of high rainfall, natural lake .without natural outlet
rises to the extent that a surrounding property is damaged.
II.E.2 Streams within the county are subject to pollution by industrial
II.E.2. A river runs through two states. Industrial plant near state line
of upper state dumps waste material into river. This pollution causes
fish in river to die, not only in that state but far enough downstream
to affect the adjoining state.
II.F.l. Fencing off lakes which have been used by the public. Lake has been
public fishing grounds for many years. New owner of adjacent property
fences property to exclude the public.
II.C. "A" drills well without proper casings and proper covers. Surface
L water enters ground through and around this well, thereby polluting
,II.C. Oil company drills test well and when leaving only caps the well,
thereby permitting pollution from surface water.
V. Fencing of dried up lake bottoms for cattle grazing, thereby excluding
other adjacent property owners from lake bottom. Fence posts in such
a lake become a hazard to boats when water returns to'normal,
(9 persons participating)
I.A.I. A natural water-shed flows across "A's" and "B's" properties. "B",
downstream, constructs a dike to prevent flooding and standing of
excess surface water on improved pastures. The dike causes surface
water to back up on "A's" property, forcing the excess surface water
to follow a lesser defined water-shed area. As a result, this leaves
water standing on "A's" property for long periods of time.'
I.A.1. The State Road Department curbed and guttered U.S. Highway 27 through
a certain city. In so doing, they constructed a drainage system of
underground culverts along the highway for a distance of about,3/4
mile. All of the street water is deposited in a low pond depression
in the City Park. A flash rainh 'rapidly fills this pond to the over-
flow point, thereby jeopardizing a building in the- park., and nine
homes and one business located nearl.the park.
- 46 -
LEVY COUNTY (continued)
I.A.1. In the city limits of the same city, property owner "A" filled in a
low depression on several lots. He plans to build houses on these
lots for rental or resale. Since the area has been filled, a city
street is under water for some length of time after a rain and prop-
erty owner "B" across the street has his yard and garbage flooded.
I.A.1. ,The State Road Department put in large culvert to drain a pond. The
culvert drains excessive water under the road and ultimately onto
property of a ranch owner. This water floods two low areas of pasture
land for considerable length of time.
I.A.l. Ranch "A", having several hundred acres of improved pasture, con-
structed surface drainage ditches to take care of excessive surface
water during rainy season. As a result, considerable flooding takes
place on Ranch "B", which is located on a lower part of the water-
I.B.l. A ranch borders a river on the south and lies 1/8 of a mile from the
highway on the north. Due to a pond close to the highway which in
high water flooded the highway, the State Road Department put in a
large culvert which took the excess water under the highway and
ultimately onto the property of the ranch owner. This water floods
two low areas of pasture land for considerable lengths of time.
I.B.1. "A", having several hundred acres of improved pasture, constructed
surface drainage ditches to take care of excess surface water during
the rainy season. As a result considerable flooding takes place on
Ranch "B". 1951-52.
I.B.1. A truck farmer desires to construct proper drainage ditches to handle
diffused water which sometimes causes loss of crops. In so doing he
will deposit excess water onto large tract of timberland belonging
to a large company. 1953.
I.C.3. "B", having a large acreage of woodland pastures, objects to "A"
throwing excess water onto his property damaging both trees and
grasses. "C" below has over 100 acres of prairie land which he de-
sires to develop, but must first control the surface water. He has
sufficient fall to make surface drainage feasible. But due to the
!i large water-shed above, without the cooperation of "B', it is very
doubtful that he can economically construct a surface drainage system
to handle the surface water adequately unless he has the cooperation
of landowners above. 1953.
II.A.1. Due to sedimentation at mouth of Suwannee River during hurricanes and
increased diffused water flowing;into Suwannee River, the channel is
.i not sufficient to carry the increased burden without overflowing. As
a result fish camps and resort homes along this beautiful river under-
go considerable damage.
II.A.l, Obstructions of stream channel of Waccassassa River in Levy County
by logs and tops left from logging and pulowoodioperations cause
flooding of other lands and sometimes loss of crops.
- 47 -
LEVY COUNTY (continued)
II.A.4. A large pond or lake lies on Landowner "A's" property. In high water
it overflows on southern end into a smaller pond on Landowner "B"
before the water backs up and follows the naturalwater-shed area into
a chain of ponds and ultimately into the river. Landowner "A" diked
the pond on the southern end to develop prairie land for truck crop-
ping and clover pastures. The normal overflow in high water can no
longer occur. As a result his pond dries up in dry weather, causing
loss of source of water for livestock. 1953. :
A landowner fenced a large tract of land for a game reserve and posted
same. He placed a caretaker on this property with instructions to
prohibit anyone from entering without permission. In so doing, he
closed an old road which leads to a boat landing where a number of
people kept their boats tied up in a river. He requested that all
boats be removed within a given time. 1952.
Landowner "A" has constructed a well and installed a smalliirrigation
system in an area which he can operate successfully with a centrifugal
pump. Landowner "B" constructs a large well for irrigation of a large
area which requires a more expensive type of pump (turbine). In dry
weather when the water table is at its lowest and irrigation is prac-
ticed, "A" is unable to operate his system due to the draw down caused
by irrigation of the large area by "B", which puts the water level
down below the point from which to operate a small irrigation system
with a centrifugal pump.
Cedar Key is confronted with the problem of furnishing chloride-free
water for household purposes. Due to falling water table salt water
encroaches upon their fresh water supply. They must depend entirely
upon rain water as their source of water to replenish the ground water
and displace the salt water. At present they are furnishing their
household water needs by use of numerous shallow wells; pumping from
different wells alternately to prevent salt water encroachment.
The problems listed for this county are included in the Calhoun
(22 persons participating)
I.A.1. State diverts water from highway right-of-way into lake on "A's" land,
causing the lake level to rise and keep under water a number of acres
of land around the lake. No outlet was made for excess water being
diverted into the lake.
I.A.1. Some instances of damage from water released from highway ditches into
farm land was mentioned on the Blue Springs Highway in this county.
- 48 -
MADISON COUNTY (continued)
I.A.l. Concreted highway ditch diverted and also concentrated runoff water,
which caused damage to fields, pasture fences and county roads.
Fence at "A's" farm was completely washed out during heavy periods
I.C.3. A group of 10 landowners propose a water-shed program to effect
improved drainage. One of the owners backs outtand won't agree for
main outlet crossing his lands. The small natural outlet crosses his
I.C.3. "A" owns a field above "B's" farm. There,is a large gully down across
"A's" farm that crosses "B's" farm and drains into the woods. "A"
wants to make a terrace outlet channel out of this gully, so that he
can terrace the field and have a safe water disposal area. "B" ob-
jects to the water crossing his land.
II.A.1. A fairly well-defined stream goes through "Ats" property. "A" diked
his land off and diverted the stream around his property back to the
natural watercourse. In doing so, he flooded out "B". "B" wants "A"
to clean out the existing watercourse and break the dike and allow
the water to resume its natural flow.
II.A.l. "A" owns a pond. "B" owns a pond above. Both ponds go dry at times.
There is a definite stream bed below that crosses "C's" land. "A"
wants to put in a dam to raise the water level in his pond, which
would back water onto "B's" land. To build a dam on IA's"t land wouiid
impound enough water for him to irrigate and supply his livestock.
The water would back up on "B", and "C's" water would be delayed by
the dam, or cut off.
II.A.4. Property owner "A" has a spring which flows constantly through a
well-defined channel onto the property of "B". He wishes to impound
the water and use it for irrigation purposes. If this is done during
the dry periods when irrigation is being practiced, all the water will
be utilized by "A" and there will be no water for "B's" livestock.
II.A.4. See II.A.1. (No.2) above.
II.C.. "A" "B" and "C" are joint owners of a lake. "A" sinks a large well
for draining the lake, of which he owns only. a part. As a result the
whole lake is completely drained. "B" and "C" have been using water
from this lake for livestock purposes.
II.E.2. Several persons reported a situation which has been quite harmful and
which has been much talked about in this county, dealing with stream
pollution. A certain pulp mill in Georgia uses water from and dis-
charges into the Withlacoochee River. The Withlacoochee water was
polluted to such an extent that all the fish for several miles below
the point of discharge are inedible. They taste as if they were
Si soaked in kerosene. Several drinking wells were likewise affected.
II.F.1. Much of the land along the Suwannee River and Aucilla River have been
"' fenced and the public prohibited from u'ihg the streams.
- 49 -
_ _~ _~ ~ ~ ~__
MADISON COUNTY (continued)
III.A.7. See II.C.1. above.
TII.B.. "A" owned a large natural spring which was used for recreation pur-
poses. An industrial company installed a large deep well nearby.
"A's" spring ceased to flow sufficiently to maintain the pool.
III.C. See II.E.2. aboye. ,
(25 persons participating
I.A.1. Local dairyman operates dairy adjacent to county and state roads.
Surface drainage waters are prevented from reaching outlets due to
inadequate number and size of drainage culverts in roadway.
I.A.1. ."A" operates a dairy farm, utilizing natural topograph of the land
for drainage. "B", a rancher on adjoining property, constructed a
field grade along the property line, with resulting flooding of "A's"
land because of blocked outlet..
I.A.1. "A" operates a ranch on Arcadia Road, utilizing natural outlets for
drainage of excess surface waters. "B" operates truck farm below
"A", and, to prevent damage to tomato crop during heavy rains, dikes
his property. "B" installed small culvert through dike to allow
normal drainage waters to pass but during extreme rains closes cul-
vert, resulting in water impoundment on "A" grazing lands, resulting
in grass loss and soil loss due to.erosion and improper runoff.
I.A.1. County constructed new grade on "A's" property for access to fields.
New grade crossed natural well-defined outlet for "B's" drainage of
40-acre pasture. Culvert installed of insufficient size and set too
high causing flooding on "B".
I.A.1. "A" has constructed farm fish pond adjacent to state road. In an
effort to keep drainage waters from the ditches along the road out of
pond, he constructed a dike resulting in flooding of the state road.
I.A.2. See I.A.1. (No.3) above.
I.B.1. "A" has developed improved pasture along the old drainage canal,
maintained by county. Apparently due to lack' of maintenance in rainy
season, approximately 20 acres of pasture is flooded from canal.over-
flow, resulting in food loss.
I.B.1. "A's" pasture land is adjacent to dwellings of "B" and "C". "A"
closed surface drainage ditches constructed by him, resulting in
Flooding of "B" and "C's" backyard areas with surface waters. "A"
k also owns a narrow strip of property on natural inlet route direct
from "B" and "C" to canal but has indicated a noncooperative attitude
- 50 -
r ~--~-- -------------------;
MANATEE COUNTY (continued)
"A" cleared and ditched land for cultivated crops. Rim ditches were
constructed within his property lines rather than on the line as is
common. In wet season "B" connected his drainage ditches to "A's"
without "A's" knowledge, resulting in overloading of the ditches and
crop damage to "A".
I.B.4. An outlet canal constructed by the county in conjunction with the
State Road Department and the city reportedly is causing lowering of
Water table along canal route, where deep depth of canal is necessary
S to take water from inland areas to outlet.
SI.C.2. "A"i,purchased land for development of improved pastures. Improvement
of land not feasible unless surface waters can be removed. Railroad
I. culverts on outlet route insufficient in size and setting to permit
Proper drainage. Lack of development in the area when the track was
laid made present culverts sufficient.
I.C.3. Large sawgrass area cut by drainage district canal inadequately drained
because of meandering creek which is outlet. Present owner of saw-
grass is diking off his property with resulting dike creating severe
S- drainage problem for adjacent owners. Repeated'contacts have resulted
Sin nothing--total lack of cooperation by participating owner.
See.I.B.1. (No. 2) above.
I.D.2. "A" has constructed farm fish pond by excavating natural low area.
In the spring due to low water fish die, creating offensive odors to
"A" has been ranching in Tatum Sawgrass area, drained by the Myakka_.
River, for fifty years. Twenty years ago the State Park constructed
a spillway dam below him on the river to raise the Park lake level
and/or maintain it for fishing and recreation. Due to slight gradient
and frequent flood stages, grasslands, normally highly productive,
have been sanded over and clogged with hyacinths and water weeds, -re-
sulting in loss of grazing and curtailment of cattle program.
Rancher reports that old hand-dug canal which had drained lands in his
area for years was recently cleaned out and enlarged by county com-
missioners resulting in overdrainage of his lands.
County cleaned out old natural intermittent stream to the river, with
resulting high tides causing salt water to reach further inland, and
causing reported damage on adjacent lands.
Drainage canal cleaned out with spoil banks untreated and piled
adjacent to the canal. With coming of rains, spoil was washed back
into the canal, causing damage to lower lands and restricting drain-
Sewage from one town and one village discharging untreated into a
river--this includes sanitary as well as industrial wastes.
Numerous homes discharging either sanitary or laundry wastes into
streams without treatment.
- 51 -
_ __I_~ __ _~__ __ ___~_~I
MANATEE COUNTY (continued)
2. See II.E.I. (No.1) above.
2. Industrial wastes from two citrus processing plants discharging into
same river without treatments
2. Wastes from one commercial steam laundry discharging into drainage
Scandal without treatment.
2. Wastes from two self-service laundries discharging into a bay without
2. Industrial wastes from a canning plant discharging into a creek with-
2. Two trailer park laundry wastes discharging into a canal without
2. Two preserving plant industrial wastes discharging into ditches
2. industrial wastes from a milk processing plant discharging into a
drainage ditch without treatment.
1. Several instances reported where uncapped artesian wells are flowing
in unused or idle agricultural lands. Also some instances of wells
flowing with undiminished flow in pasture lands without regard to
need for moisture.
1. Also reported were wells that either from break through of old casing
or insufficient casing were causing water loss.
2. Turbine pumping of deep wells to irrigate crops cause draw down in
adjoining owners well. This resulted in no water for home use.
2' Local industry increasing number of deep wells with turbine pumps
caused cessation of flow in adjoining grove owner's well.
3. Reported that farming area where wells flowed naturally four years
ago--no flow reported, with anyone desiring water having to resort
to turbine pumps.
5. Property owners adjacent to pasture lands object to flooded condition
of yards and land due to unlimited flow of wells in pasture without
regard to needs.
6. Increased number of wells and increased ,pumping results in reported
high salt content to such an extent that wells are abandoned for
Island areas report some erosion during hurricane season, due to
Insufficient sea walls and:groins.o Beach.commission at present con-
.,structing additional groins and walls.
Water works manager reports that some trouble results .at his water
MANATEE COUNTY (continued)
treatment plant due to herbicides applied by sportsmen upstream from
the dam where source of water for city is found.
(13 persons participating)
Several small lakes were, constructed on the edge of a city which
resulted in providing a breeding ground for mosquitoes and no con-
trol of the mosquitoes was being made.
The natural outlet for a lake was partially obstructed in the process
of clearing land for pasture, causing the lake to flood on all, sides.
Excessive drainage of a large lake caused permanent changes in the
boundary line on a lake which had served as a legal boundary for
adjoining property. This caused confusion as to where the exact
A man drained a large lake which had several fine citrus groves near-
by. The removal of the water removed warmth protection for the
groves, permitting considerable frost damage.
Several grove owners began to irrigate out of a lake. In doing so
they lowered the level of the lake, which caused homeowners to object
because it left dock and beaches dry.
Water level control was not practiced in a large lake which had
several streams flowing into it and one stream flowing out of it.
This lake alternated between flooding and very low levels. Both
situations caused damage to adjoining property because in the flood
stage it covered crop land and in the low level stage it seriously
hurt the business of fish camp owners on the lake.
See II.D.1. (No.3) above.
A large lake which serves as a big economical asset to a nearby
community for both recreation and agriculture has gone dry. This
could have been prevented if proper control structure had been
A man fenced up the passage-way of a lake which had been used for
years for fishing by the general public. This action prohibited any-
one from reaching the lake to fish or swim.
Several irrigation wells were put down in a small area, causing the
water level in existing wells to drop below the reach of centrifugal
pumps which were normally used in that area.
A.man was bottling water out of a natural mineral spring when several
large wells were put down nearby, causing the spring to cease flowing.
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T ___~__~__I________ __ ____ __
MARION COUNTY (continued)
III.C. How water from the cooling system of one industrial plant was pumped
back into the ground, causing water in the well in a nearby plant
which was also used for cooling to become heated, thereby reducing
its cooling efficiency.' '.
III.C. Industrial water was pumped into a natural sinkhole, which contami-
nated drinking water in several nearby wells.
(20 persons participating)
I.A.1. "A" diked and ditched his property and installed pumps, jogging his
dike so that his water, from his pump, could be pumped over the dike
and the water will spill on "As" property. After about ten minutes
of pumping, the excess water flows from "A's" property onto the State
Road Department's property, flooding a drainage ditch, flowing over
the highway through an inadequate culvert, onto railroad property,
onto "B's" pasture.
I.A.1. Landowners "A" and "B" have diked lands trapping water on landowner'
"C". "'C" has no way of draining histland other than through "A's"
I.B.l. The State Road Department dug a ditch on their right-of-way, spoil to
be used in constructing the highway. This ditch has no outlet for
drainage. During periods of excessive rainfall, this ditch collects
more water than it will hold, flooding privately owned lands adjacent
to the right-of-way.
I.B.1. "A" has ditched and diked his land, spilling water into a natural
drain. "A" has an easement over "B's" property to drain his water via
the natural drain. As a result of "A's" ditching and diking, divert-
ing all of the excess water into the natural drain, the natural drain
is overflowing, killing pasture grasses and reducing the flowing off
of "B's" property.
I.B.1. "A" cleaned, ditched and diked land, spilling excess water into a
creek. This creek traversed "B's" property before "A" ditched and
diked his land. The creek was sufficiently large to take care of
the excess water, not causing any damage to adjacent landowner. The
additional flow from "A" flooded "B's" property and reduced "B's"
drainage water control system to the extent that it is practically
I.B.1. "A" has diked his land, causing water to be trapped behind his dike,
which floods "B's" property. It will be necessary for "B" to drain
his excess water from his property by cutting a ditch through the
highest point of elevation on his property. Before "A" diked his
property, excess water from "B's" property flowed down a series of
- 54 -
MARTIN COUNTY (continued)
I.B.1. In constructing the Sunshine Turnpike, it was necessary for the con-
tractor to excavate a continuous ditch adjacent to the highway on
both sides, spoil used to protect the Turnpike roadbed. No control
structure was provided in these ditches. During normal rainfall, the
fall in these ditches was so great that considerable spoil washed
into a natural creek, which if it had continued would have completely
filled the creek. Local civic groups prevailed upon the Turnpike
authorities to prevent this sedimentation. The Turnpike authorities
promptly constructed earth dams. As a result of installing these
earth dams, water is.trapped in areas of these ditches and flooding
and overdraining adjacent landowners.
I.B2. See I.B.. (No.5) above.
I.B.2. See I.B.1. (No.5) above.
I.B.4. See I.B.1. (No.5) above.
I.C.2. Landowner "A" wants to clean a natural drain which normally flows
into the St. Lucie Canal. At the time "A" purchased the property,
the St. Lucie Canal was there and thespoil from the canal diked off
of "Als" property. "A" needs an entrance into the canal so that he
can drain and irrigate his property.
I.C.3. See I.A.1. (No.2) above.
II.B.1. See I.B.1. (No.3) above.
II.B.2. "A' improves natural drains through his property, spilling water into
an old creek which flows into the St. Lucie Canal. During times of
excessive rainfall, considerable siltration occurs into the St. Lucie
Canal at the mouth of this natural drain.
II.D.1. Property owner "A" owns the majority of a large shallow, marshy lake.
Property owner "B" has constructed an adequate water control'program
on his portion of the marshy lake, using the land, after water con-
Strol has been installed, for vegetable production; 'Property owner
"C", who owns another portion of the lake, is now constructing a
water control system on his land. As a result of "B" and "C's" water
control program on their land, "A's" portion of the lake is now
enclosed on three sides by large dikes, raising the water elevation
to an extent that it is flooding "A's" improved land. "A" is now in
the act of suing "B" and "C" on the ground that they are causing him
excess water damage.
a II.D.2. A body of land, consisting of several thousand acres, owned by indi-
viduals, municipalities and counties, has been covered by water from
a depth of a few inches to several feet over a period of years and,
-more or less, accepted for public recreational purposes and as al
source of water for various uses. Three small municipalities are
adjacent to this body of water; as a result of the fast expansion in
This small community, municipality "A" has diked off a large portion
of this body of water and is using it as a source of water supply for
their city. Municipalities "B" and. "C" ,have both reached the .stage
in their growth where it is necessary for them to draw on this body
- 56 -
MARTIN COUNTY (continued)
of water to supply their cities. There is not enough water left in
this area for "B" and I"C" because of "A's" dike trapping most of the
volume of water for their use.
II.D.3. See II.D.1. above.
II.E.1. The following are examples of pollution of river waters which results
in prevention of swimming and possible shellfish industry, specifi-
i' cally, the St. Lucie and Indian Rivers.
(a) Effluent from existing septic tanks.
(b) Raw sewage from existing homes and industries.
(c) Industrial wastes from existing industries.
(d) Excess of silt in river, coming from Lake
Okeechobee and irrigation ditches.
II.E.2. See II.E.1. above.
III.A.1. Artesian wells are allowed to run freely or have cracks in casing
which allow salt water intrusion of fresh water wells.
III.A.6. Salt water intrusion occurs near the coast during dry seasons because'
of overdrainage in certain areas causes water table to be lowered and
resulting in water shortage;at times.
III.A.6. See III.A.1. above.
IV.A.1. Property owner "A" has constructed a sea wall which created a water
whirl, causing excessive erosion of property owner "Bs"l water front
which did not occur before "A" constructed his sea wall. Property
owner "A" constructed jetties into the ocean, the tidal action has
created an extension of "A's" beach between the two jetties into the
ocean. Property owners "B" and "C", who are adjacent to "A", com-
plain that the jetties have caused eddies along their beach front
property, creating treacherous deep holes on their beach fr6nt prop-
erty and spoiling the looks as well asthe safety of their ocean
IV.B. TheSt.Lucie River and the Indian River, at one time, provided a source
of recreation and livelihood by people looking for oysters. Home
owners adjacent to these rivers have, in some cases, dumped raw
sewage into the rivers and, in some cases, dumped septic tank over-
flow into the rivers to such an extent that there are few oysters left
in the rivers. The few remaining have been condemned by the local
V. A privately-owned public supply was inadequately operated, leaving an
entire area without water for weeks at a time. Many individuals were
forced, by necessity, to install private water supplies, resulting in
7 much expense at a time when it could hardly be afforded.
- 56 -
This county reported that its primary problem is one of proper
distribution ,f fresh water. Since the source of supply for the;
Keys is in Dade County, the problems of procurement in Dade County
are the ones of concern to Monroe County.
(9 persons participating)
I.A.1. Lack of proper outlets near Callahan during times of excessive ,
I.C.2. See I.A.1. above.
Flow has been reduced in'wells in Fernandina Beach, because,of,
increased use of water by the mills.
Tr T "
(No. persons participating not reported)
I.A.l. Problem of one landowner dumping surface water,either from terracing
or draining, onto another's property.
I.B.1. See I.A.I. above.
II.A.5. Problem of developing water districts which could dam streams and use
these reservoirs for public and industrial purposes.
II.E.l. Problem of dumping raw sewage into surface waters.
II.E.2. Problem of requiring industrial users to purify waste water before
releasing it to stream, so that it will not endanger public health or
harm sports or commercial fishing.
III.A.l. Problem of wasteful flow of artesian wells.
V. Problem of carrying out a county and state-wide program of sanitation
and mosquito control.
V. Problem of obtaining a survey of the water resources of Okaloosa
(8 persons participating)
I.A.l. "A" diked and ditched a section for the growing of vegetable crops.
This section is a flat prairie and has no slough or watercourse
through or adjacent to it. "A" installs a pump at one corner and
pumps out hissurface and seepage water. This concentration of water
destroyed a culvert on a county road and caused the flood over of a
stocked and fertilized fish pond belonging to "B".,
ITA.1. State Road Department builds new road and places too small or too few
culverts. This backs water up on adjoining land.
I.A.1. "A" diked around a section of land. This dike crossed two small
natural sloughs in which surface water normally moved during periods
of rain. The dike caused the flooding of 150 acres of clover :o "B's"
land, thereby causing him to have to replant.
I.B.1. "A" improved a natural watercourse by canaling to south boundary of
his land. This collected and discharged runoff at a faster rate and
greater quantity. This caused a natural watercourse on "B's" prop-
erty 'to overflow and damaged his pastures, put water under his house,
and washed out a farm road culvert.
I.B.1. The construction of canals and ditches by landowners in the upper part
of the water-shed without proper planning for a sufficient outlet has
brought on flooding of lands in the lower water-shed.
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY (continued)
I.B.2. The resulting flooding of the lands and drainage ways in the lower
water-sheds brings on sedimentation damages.
I.B.3. Some erosion results on the drainage ways and adjacent lands as a
result of too much water being dumped into them in too short a time.
I.B.4. Overdrainage is a very debatable question in our district. Some
landowners claim;there is little if any overdrainage and others claim
there is a great deal as a result of the construction of canals-and
I.C.1. The topography of this county:is relatively flat, the average slope
being less than two feet per mile. The existing drainage ways are
not adequate .to handle the surplus surface water during the summer
rainy season.,; These conditions result in water standing on the ex-
pansive flat areas causing flooding conditions.
I.C.2. See I.B.l. (No.2) above.
I.C.2. There is a definite need for well-planned outlets for drainage. The
lack of sufficient outlets has resulted in much damage in the past
and as more ditches and canals are put in, this damage will increase
in the future.
I.C.3. There is need for participation by landowners in the drainage problems.
The complexity of some of the drainage problems in the district will
necessitate that these problems be worked out on a water-shed basis
'with all landowners participating. Agreement of landowners is needed
t'o permit. passage ,of water. In order that a water-shed drainage pro-
gram may be put in, it becomes necessary that landowners in the drain-
age ways give easements across their property.
I.D.2. Need for sanitation and mosquito control. This problem has received
little consideration in the past. But undoubtedly there is a need
for it; cattle and people suffer from the great concentration of these
insects that breed,in areas covered with stagnant water during the
rainy season. .
II.A.1. Obstructions both natural and man-made in the Taylor Creek, Popash
Slough, Mosquito Creek, Nubbin Slough, Lettuce Creek, Hendry Creek,
Chandler Slough and Kissimmee River drainage ways cause intensive
flooding damage each year.
II.A.2.. Sedimentation ;amage results to the channels and adjacent lands in the
above listed (II.A.1.) drainage ways from flooding each year,
II.A.3. Some erosion results from flooding each year.
II.A.5. Lack of willingness to participate in water programs arises many times
where one or more landowners owning land on a drainage way refuse to
cooperate in a drainage program.
II.A.5. A group of landowners improve a natural watercourse by enlarging the
stream channel. "D", whose land is astride the ,stream at about mid-
point-fails to maintainhis stretch by allowing fallen trees,and
collected debris to remain in the channel.
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY (continued)
II.B.1. The lack of proper maintenance in canals resulting in the channels
becoming clogged up where they no longer carry the flood waters off
causes flooding of lands they were :designed to drain.
II.B.2. The above described conditions (II.B.1.) cause the canals to become
clogged up with sediments to the point where they no longer drain
II.B.3. There results some erosion damage on the canal banks caused by the
II.B.4. The refusal of some landowners owning land on the canal to participate
in cleaning out these obstructions results in damages to the other
landowners. Also the lack of willingness to permit use of property
for conveyance of water arises in conjunction with this problem.
II.C.1. See I.B.4. above.
II.C.1. "A" digs a 6-foot deep drainage canal on his property but immediately
adjacent to property owned by "B". One year later "B" claims that
the canal is overdraining his pasture for a distance of 300 feet from
II.C.4. Sediment damages downstream arise many times where the spoil banks are
not properly treated.
II.C.5. Lack of willingness to participate in water program and permit to-use
of property for conveyance of water. Many times landowners on a
drainage way, by their refusal to cooperate, prevent these channels
from being improved.
II.D.l. The Okeechobee District borders on the northern shores of Lake
Okeechobee and the Kissimmee River, which drains into the lake, forms
the western boundary of the District. The levels on Lake Okeechobee
vitally affect the lands adjacent to the lake and river. The year
1952 is a good example of damages resulting from too high lake levels.
The year 1954 is an example of the other extreme.
II.E.1. A municipality dumps raw sewage into a creek, thereby creating a
health hazard and odor nuisance.
II.E.2. There is a canning plant in one city, the wastes of which are dumped
into a drainage canal, that created a problem last year-when the
canal became clogged with this wasteland would not drain off. The
canal was cleaned out which temporarily corrected this problem.
III.C. Thestate and county boards of health report many cases of shallow'W6lls
in the area being polluted. We believe this to be caused by a natu-
rally high water table, inadequate drainage and poor sewage disposal
systems in the area.
- 60 -
~_ ~___ ____I___ _~____I_ _
(38 persons participating)
I.A.1. "A" owns land which he wants to put into improved pasture. Part of
the land needs drainage to prevent water from standing on improved
pasture during the rainy season. "A" finds that his drainage is
limited by a road culvert that is either placed too high or is too
small to handle the excess water fast enough. "A" thinks the road
department should correct the situation so he can drain his land.
I.A.l. Excess surface water floods flat lands and roadside ditches and puts
out of operation septic tanks in many suburban areas.
I.B.l. "A" has recently planted improved pasture in a low area adjacent to
a lake. Years before the area was planted to improved'pasture the
county dug a ditch from a nearby road ditch to the edge of the low
area. Water from the county ditch flooded over the low area and
eventually found its way into the lake, During heavy rains water
from the road ditch still floods part of the area that is now improved
pasture. "A" claims that the county should extend its ditch to the
lake and carry the road water to its ultimate outlet.
I.B.2. There exists-a problem of lands being flooded along a small water-
course by large drainage operations near headwaters. Requested that
a study be made of this type of problem and recommendations made for
requiring complete review of water-shed prior to large drainage pro-
I.B.'4. Many of the primary catchment basins, such as the headwater swamps of
Boggy Creek, Shingle Creek and the Econlockhatchee, have been largely
destroyed by extensive canal systems.
I.B.4. Drainage programs have destroyed breeding and living grounds and
decimated the numbers of wildlife and game fish.
I.C.1. The development of housing and other projects creates a necessity for
establishment of certain control measures to define or limit levels
to which water table may be reduced or maintained. This likewise
involves measures to prevent possible flooding of low-lying lands
after development. ,
I.C.3. "A" has a grass pond back of his house that overflowed into his yard
during a heavy rainy season. The only drainage route was into a road
ditch, through an existing culvert, and across "B's" property.through
a small ditch to a creek. !,B" objected to "A" turning his water into
the road ditch which ultimately routed it into "B's" ditch.
II.'A.4. There is competition over the use of lake waters where lake borders
are owned by'both resident owners and grove owners. Should grove
owner use water in competition with resident owner?
II.D.I. With respect to drainage affecting lakes and streams, particularly
those lakes without visible or maintained outlets, a need exists for
control or definition of levels which should be maintained. 'This is
particularly needed in connection with the use of drainage wells where
such are proposed as lake-level control structures.
- 61 -
ORAN1GE COUNTY (continued)
II.D.l. In an effort to control the level of a lake which receives the cooling
water from two citrus concentrate plants, a drainage well is now being
II.D.2. See II.A.4. above.
Sizeable streams (e.g., the Little Econlockhatchee River) have almost
ceased to exist except for periodic floods; many ponds and a'number
of lakes are dry or dangerously low; and, many flowing wells and pump
wells have gone dry, or have been polluted, and large users are having
to go progressively lower to insure adequate supply.'
II.D.2. ;A very large grove owner now obtains approximately 50 per cent of his
Irrigation water from lakes and remaining 50 per cent from wells. A
very definite economic hardship would be imposed on grove owners if
they were restricted from using lake water for grove irrigation.
II.E.1.' With respect to discharge of either municipal or industrial wastes,
There are certain problems as to where such wastes may be disposed of
in surface waters. The disposal of treated effluents 'from municipal
or privately owned sewage treatment facilities may cause real or
imagined problems insofar as downstream residents or owners are con-
cerned. The disposal of wastes from canning plants or other indus-
trial users has created problems in the receiving waters.
II.E.1. Dumping of nonaerated effluent from municipal sewage disposal plants
into natural drainage channels whose natural flow does not sufficiently
dilute and aerate the contributed flow creates a nuisance to property
See II.E.1. (No.l) above.
Occasionally we hear the complaint from landowners wh6 depend on
flowing wells for irrigation water that someone has uncapped flowing
well that flows continuously and is wasting our underground water
supply. These complaining landowners think all flowing wells should
be regulated by a valve.
A citrus concentrate plant has experienced lowering of the water level
in its deep wells to the extent of 9-11 feet in the past five years.
'When one of two citrus concentrate plants in close proximity is oper-
ating, the levels in the other's wells are lowered.
III.A.7. See II.D.1. (Nos. 1 & 2) above.
Contamination of underground.water by drainage wells is a problem.
It is felt that some state agency should have authority over all
drainage wells, that all wells should be provided with valves and
abandoned wells plugged. There are several hundred in the county.
With respect to ground waters, there are certain areas wherein, due
to one or more causes, the quality of water is unsuitable for'human
'consumption without treatment. A problem therefore exists to provide
for the development of the area by assuring a suitable municipal type
ORANGE COUNTY (continued)
water program. Numerous small community-type water systems have been
developed, but there appears to be a need for bringing this type
system into a larger area-wide system under which suitable controls
not presently available.
III.C. See II.D.2. (No.2) above.'
III.C. See III.A.7. (No.2) above.
V. There is a lack of topographical and geological data and information
in some parts of the state with which engineers and scientists can
plan and execute broad, safe and properly conceived 'improvements.
(13 persons participating)
The County Committee reported that there were no specific recommenda-
tions or problems'presented.
PALM BEACH COUNTY
(41 persons participating)
I.B.4. The problem of indiscriminate wholesale drainage and its adverse
effects.on the catchment and storage of West Palm Beach's water system.
II.A.1. The problem .of control of discharge into and removal of water from
bodies of water that are publicly owned.
II.A.1. The problem of control of discharge into and removal of water from
canals within drainage districts and sub-drainage districts.
II.A.l. Problems of obstruction of natural drainage which cause an increased
burden on others.
II.A.4. See I.B.4. above.
II.A.4. See II.A.1. (Nos. 1 & 2) above.
II.C.3. Problems of salt water intrusion of both surface and underground
II.D.l. Problem of control of local water levels between governmental agen-
II.E.l. Problems of municipal and industrial pollution of both fresh surface
waters and tidal waters.
II.E.2. See II.E.1. above.
- 63 -
rFAL BEACH COUNTY (continued)
II.F.I. The problem of providing an effective means whereby land lying away
from the main drainage facilities may be serviced.
II.F.1. Problem of increased demand for recreational use of drainage district
facilities from those who do not pay taxes.
II.F.1. Problem of orderly development of the recreational possibilities of
the canals, lakes and conservation areas.
III.A.2. Problem of the lowering water table and its effect on well supplies.
III.A.6. See II.C.3. above.
IV.A.l. Problem of beach erosion is a state wide problem and needs to be given
IV.B. See II.E.14 above.
V. Problems arising between adjoining landowners with conflicting inter-
ests where there is no water law to bea guide in the solution of
these problems. .
V. Problem of hyacinths and aquatic weed control and eradication on a
county or state-wide basis.
V. Problem of ascertaining the proper elevation for development due:to
lack of correlation of high water records of the past.
V. Possible problems that would result from burdensome restrictions on
water use that might be created by regulations.
(22 persons participating) I
I.A.l. Ranch owner "A" dug ditch across natural barrier, which allowed water
to pour across a state road and onto an adjoining ranch owned by "B",
which was generally lower than "Ats" and did not have drainage outlets,
"A's" homesite could only be reached by boat. Prospect was that large
portions of "B's" ranch would quickly become flooded. "B" erected
large dike across one corner of his ranch and protected his land.
State road between "A" and "B" was flooded to depth of four or five
feet. State Road Department finally closed ditch, allegedly dug, by
n"A" and pumped water off road back into lakes on "A's" ranch; 1953.
I.A.1. "A" constructed a water way to divert a large quantity of water flow-
ing down slope from "B's" grove (situated higher on the slope), pro-
viding vital protection for his own grove planted on a steep slope.
This water way empties onto a county road on south property line.
The water discharged may harm road and actually do considerable damage,
to "C's" grove. ..
PASCO COUNTY (continued)
I.A.1. "State road allowed discharge of water onto pasture land owned by "A".
This discharge also carried silt and mud. 1953.
I.A.2. Water flowing off land owned by "A" uphill from property owned by
"B", flows over "IB's" property, doing considerable damage to row-crops
planted on slope.
I.A.2. "A" and "B"',own groves on.hillside above "C". The turn-row at the end
of each "A" and "B's" grove serves as collection area for runoff water
which flows down into and over grove owned by "C". "C" must practice
grove cultivation contrary to best practice to protect or:partially
protect his grove against damaging'wash-outs. 1953 to present.
I.A.3. Grove owned by "B" on slope above pasture land owned by "A'. "A" re-
ported that,,because of poor cultural practices by "B", flow-off
carried rmd and silt onto pasture, thereby damaging pasture and ruin-
ing the family fish pond.,
I.B.4. "A" constructed drainage canal near pond supplying drinking water for
cattle owned by "IB". Canal drained pondras well as land owned by
"B"..: "Ai),, at his expense, dug pond to supply water for "B's" cattle.
I.B.4.. "A" constructed drainage canal which drained bathing lake on property
owned by "B".
I.B.4. Drainage' canals placed too close to other drainage ditches or adjoin-
ing properties and result in overdrainage.
I.C.1. Uphill property owner "A" allows terrace to discharge on "B's" prop-
erty, which causes erosion damage.
II.A.l. "A" proposed to build a dam on a creek to raise water level 18 inches. L
Creek flows through a large pond on property of "B". Land generally
flat in area. Raising water level on "A's" property would raise
water level on "B's" property nearly the same amount, with resulyapt
flooding of a large area.
II.A.1. "A", who owns property along upper reaches of Hillsborough River above
Crystal Springs, requests cleaning of the river channel, Logs and,
debris left when timber was cut years ago. Due to development and
drainage of large tract of land, flooding is anticipated during heavy
II.A.1. Fallen trees in Withlacoochee River have damaged river and caused
II.A.l. Cypress Creek needs clearing of trees (standing in creek bed) and
debris. Present choked condition of stream causes flooding of State
SRoad 52, which connects Dade City with U.S.Highway 41 and U.S.Highway
19 inwestern half of county.
II.A.1. State Road Department bridge too small over Cypress Creek, causing
damage and flooding of property north of State Road 52.
_ __ ___
PASCO COUNTY (continued)
II.A.4. 'fA" is developing ranch on a slough creek and plans to construct a
dam, designed to raise water level in creek by 18 inches for increased
opportunity for fishing and irrigation water.. "B", downstream neigh-
bor, will be cut off from water supply in prolonged dry spell or
drought, or if too much water is used for irrigation.
II.A.4. "A", "B" and "C" have income property on a lake. ,"A" has cottages for
vacationers, bathing facilities, boats for rent and recreational facil-
ities. "B" has restaurant, bar, boats, etc. "C" has tavern .and
bathing facilities. Continued pumping from lake for irrigation of- .'
groves and hauling water out in tanks has not only lowered the lake"
level to a depth of 6 feet below normal, but has also muddied the
lake, creating a hardship on property owners "A", "B" and "C". ,Much
of the watbt is being hauled by people who do not own lake front
property. Other property owners who live on lake have boat basins
dried up and docks clear of any water.
II.A.4. "A", "B" and "C" own property on small lake. t"A" and "B" own most of
lake frontage. "C" owns only small corner but hauled and pumpe 'wdter
until lake is nearly dry, thereby destroying the lake for any recre-'
t;ional use by "A" and "B"; also necessitating drilling a well by "B"
for stock water, which was formerly pumped out of lake.
II.A.6, Several persons own lakefront property and:have lake dredged adjoining
their property. Later on other persons build on adjacent property or
on opposite side of lake, and dredge, which muddies the lake, kills
fish, prevents fish eggs hatching, etc. The first group of property
owners secure injunction or attempt to secure injunction preventing
II.A.6. Recent court case: Residents and property owners on a lake secured
an injunction to prevent dredging of lake bottom to fill swampy land
on property of "A", who owned no land on lake but secured access
through agreement with "B", who owned one lot on the lake. Court
ruled that dredging could only be done on property owned by one part-
ner doing dredging, using suction dredge only, without water jets or
cutting heads which would muddy the lake water. The water pumped with
sand must be impounded to prevent return flow of water, which would
return debris and muddy the lake waters. Hole made by dredging, must
have gradual slope from lake bank to deepest part, so that there would
be no sudden deepening from shallow water to overhead depth, as this
would be dangerous to waders or bathers.
II.E.1. Three municipalities in county do not have sewage systems, but use
septic tanks in areas not suited to septic tanks.
II.E.2. Former problem created by large citrus plant has been cleared up.
Waste water now flowing to river; very good, as of May 6, 1956.
II.F.l. Access to great many lakes and streams has been cut off-by fence row.-
When lake lies within the boundary of private owner, no access for
fishing is possible.
III.A.1. One artesian well seven miles west of City "A" used only for irriga-
tion of watermelons.
- 66 -
PASCO COUNTY (continued)
!III.A.3. Flow of wells in area from City "A" to City "B" has decreased. Water
level has dropped 10 to 14 feet, necessitating deepening of many
wells and drilling of new wells.
IV.A.2. Development company "A" is filling bays and bayous on west coast of
Pasco County. "B" objects, because such filling diverts and alters
natural flow of waters. Deepening of water along shore line by
dredging will increase possibility of washing and erosion of shore
(30 persons participating)
I.A.l. Land clearing by "A" and "others" for new construction, including
drainage for subdivisions, new highways, etc., change the natural
drainage pattern so as to cause flooding conditions on property be-
longing to "'B"..
I.A.l. "A" and "others" upstream are causing increased runoff from land
being cleared for farming which helps cause flooding conditions of
"B's" and other farmers' farms downstream during rainy periods. A
county road is also flooded.
I.B.l. Landowner "A" drains some low land by ditch, which during flooding
rains carries more water than road culvert and natural water way on
owner "Bvs" property can carry--consequence, damage to road and large
gully wash on "B's" land.
I.B.3. See I.B.1I above.
I.B.4. "A" digs deep drainage ditch on edge of "B's" property, which ulti-
mately lowers normal water table on large portion of "B's" citrus
I.B.4. "A" places deep tile drain at edge of "B's" property, primarily to
drain "A's" lower land being planted in a new citrus grove but re-
sults in excessive drainage and lowering of normal water table on
"B's" higher land citrus grove.
I.B.4. "A" dug a deep ditch along property line for subdivision drainage and
fill dirt, and in doing so lowered the water level in "B's" pond.
"B" owns property next to "A".
I.C.1. See I.B.4o (Nos. 1 and 2) above.
I.C.2. Need to prevent sinkhole outlets for drainage from being stopped up
-with fills at some later date. Flooding conditions result when these
I,C.3.' Property owner "A" refused to let group "B" clean out old drainage
canal across his property. ..
PINELLAS COUNTY (continued)
II.A.1. A public water reservoir dam was constructed across a creek. During
wet periods excess water from behind the dam flows overland and
floods a nursery. Considerable damage to the nursery results from
Impounding of surface water for nonagricultural use by creating
dredged lake that drains surrounding area, caused reduced flow of
natural drainage ways, in fact, eliminates flow except under surplus
water conditions. Result lowered normal water table level in wide
II.E.1. During the rainy season of the year hundreds of septic tanks overflow
and the effluent from these overflowing septic tanks gets into drain-
age ditches, canals and streams in the county.
II.E.2. One industry is discharging waste into a small creek. A small portion
of this stream is grossly polluted. However, the plant management has
considerably reduced the amount of pollution discharged into this
stream by good housekeeping.
There are a number of artesian wells in the county that flow all the
time with the water not being used, just wasted.
The worse water problems in Pinellas County are being caused by salt
water intrusion. The City of St. Petersburg and the Pinellas County
Water System have had to develop well fields as a source of water in
the northeast corner of Pinellas County and in Hillsborough County
because of salt water intrusion in the south and west sections of the
county. One city located in about the middle of the county had one
of their main wells to fail in 1955 due to salt water intrusion. The
chloride content of the water from this well increased from 200 ppm
chlorides to 3,600 ppm chlorides in 3 months. Practically all of the
municipal and community water supplies on the west side of the county
have salt water intrusion problems. Some of the people living in the
northwest section of the county are forced to use water containing
400 to 1,000 ppm chlorides because no other water is available.
A water supply well in a subdivision was found to be contaminated.
There are several drainage wells in the area and these probably are
the source of contamination.
See III.A.7. above.
- 68 -
(15 persons participating)
I.A.l. Problem of the responsibilities of persons in the disposal of water
from drainage systems or in the event of flooding lands drom diking
II.A.4. Problem of diverting irrigation water from alake for use some distance
away from the lake. Also problem of pumping from lakes and lowering
lake level to the detriment of riparian homeowners.
II.A.4. A fishing lake in the vicinity of Lakeland has been dried up as a
result of overdraining.
Problem of control and use of streams and canals, including changing
the course of streams.
Problem of lake level control to protect the surrounding groves from
Many lakes are drying up, and there has been an increasingly heavy
demand for water by both industry and municipalities. The result is
a lowering of the water table in general. The need for irrigation
water is also increasing.
The problem of pollution of a good many streams in this county is
very serious. Cattle have been killed from drinking water from
streams containing heavy concentrations of fluorides.
II.E.2. See II.E.1. above.
One industry pumps 6,000,000 gallons of water a day from our under-
ground reservoir for cooling condensers only, does not contaminate
or reuse it, then dumps it into a stream to waste into the Gulf.
This excess water is also causing a serious problem of the farmer in
the area by flooding their strawberry patches. Another plant uses
26,000,000 gallons of water per day in a similar manner.
See III.A.1. above.
There are many uncapped flowing wells that are becoming salty.
- 69 -
POLK COUNTY (continued)
The problem of proper supervision of well drilling and condemnation
of old wells. Many of these wells become drainage wells and deplete
both surface and ground water from the upper strata.
Problem of allowing springs to flow to waste, thus depleting the
ground water reservoir.
Wells improperly seated will drain water from upper strata to the
lower levels. There are several abandoned wells in the Bartow area
that act' as drainage wells. Some of this drainage is responsible for
pollution of ground water.
There is ultimate connection between forest fire control and water
resources. The burning of forest areas destroys nature's method of
restoring the underground water supply. This county is one of the
few that still does not have a fire control unit.
Problem of surface'drainage from the Green Swamp area which acts as
a recharge basin for the underground aquifer in central and southern
Problem of continuing the present water resotLrces 'stud- to g-i T f-
ficient information for intelligent legislation and water-control.
The number one problem is the lack of any kind of law or control of
water use and waste in Florida.
Problem of clarification of ownership of lakes so as to specify
whether or not a lake is public property.
- 70 -
II.F.1. Two large landowners in the county have denied the public access to
the lakes surrounded by their properties.
A local deep W'ell driller reported that there are numerous old wells
in the county and this arda that are flowing uncontrolled.
Two men reported that their artesian flowing wells were adversely
affected by the drilling and flow of many large artesian wells recently
established in their community.
It was reported that some wells located in the southeast portion of
East Palatka had shown indication of brackishness.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
(33 persons participating)
I.B.4. Problems of increased surface loss through drainage, especially of
II.E.1. In St. Johns County there are two major offenders (both municipali-
ties) to the pollution of surface streams. The effects of discharging
raw sewage 'into the rivers are many. Primarily it has eliminated the
use of these rivers for recreational purposes, and ha6 resulted in
shellfish being unfit for human consumption. A third city discharges
its sewage into a large septic tank, the,effluent of which is dis-
charged t a nearby swamp and thence to a creek.
p, of waste :
III.A.1. Problems/6f water (uncontrolled artesian flow) in farm and home use,
as well s abandoned wells.
Problems of increase in number and size of wells, with corresponding
increase in number and size of pumps for both farm and home use.
- 71 -
I.A.1. Road ditches drained diffused surface water into Dog Creel for many
years, and this was the natural drainage way for this water. In re-
building the road, the road drainage ditches were constructed one foot
higher than the main field drainage ditches. Adjacent fields of
cabbage and potatoes are damaged by flooding. ,
I.C.l. "A" mentioned the problem of overdrainage in the Florahome Drainage
I.E.l. One municipality discharges untreated sewage into the St. John's
'River, creating a public health hazard.
I.E.2. A large industrial concern has been introducing organic and chemical
wastes into a stream for a period of years, and the creek has been
ruined for recreational and other, uses.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY (continued)
III.A.3. Problems of increased use of water through industrial and population
III.A.3. It was pointed out that St. Johns County has been experiencing diffi-
culty in the past two or three years getting enough water of satis-
factory quality from the artesian aquifers. Many flowing wells ,have
quit flowing, a'd many individuals have installed pumps or wells
that once flowed in order to obtain satisfactory quantity of water.
As a result of pumping or the heavy draft oh the aquifer, many wells
have increased in chloride content to the extent that some of them
Shad to be abandoned. A perfect example of this is the City of St.
Augustine, which had to resort to shallow Wells for their water supply
in place of their artesian wells.
III.A.6. Increased salt water infiltration, particularly in some areas.
IlI.A.6. See III.A.3. (No.3) above.
III.C. A great portion of St. Johns County is underlain with hardpan. This
contributes greatly to the poor or unsatisfactory operation of septic
tank drain fields. There are many such installations in St. Johns
County, and their effect on the bacteriological quality of the ground
water is anyone's guess.
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
(30 persons participating)
I.B.2. A problem of all canal systems is yearly cleaning, both for sediment
accumulated and vegetative growth. This work is supported in this
area through a drainage tax assessment.
I.B.4. Overdrainage during periods of light or no rainfall is a distinct
I.C.2. Outside of the drainage districts no system of outlets is available,
although some relief is given through by-passes into the drainage
I.C.3. Outside the district participation by landowners is badly needed. The
very extensive dragline ditch already finished, has served to empha-
size overdrainage, and a great need for a large number of structures.
S(North St. Lucie River Drainage District already has over 40 in and
S operating as Water control gates, but many more are needed.)
I.%.l. Since a tremendous amount of overdrainage, inside and outside, of the
Drainage Districts is now a fact, the construction of numerous ponds
throughout the area would materially aid in maintaining a satisfac-'
tory water table during yearly periods of extended dry seasons. Pond
management could increase fish production and thereby improve food
ST. LUCIE COUNTY (continued)
The North Fork of the St. Lucie River emptying into Indian River at
Stuart is the natural flow outlet for much of St. Lucie County. Sedi-
mentation in that par- of the river when fresh water flow meets tide-
water, a distance of some five miles in extent, has seriously retarded
all normal flow. A dredging problem develops which is impossible for
property owners to handle. This area is also a recreational facility,
and as such is being seriously damaged.
Drainage district laws do not permit construction of structures or
work directed primarily toward conservation. This defect hampers and
prevents efforts directed toward establishing water conservation struc-
tures into the St. Lucie River.
* II.C.3. Salt water intrusion is becoming a problem on the upper reaches of the
St. Lucie River, south of White City. It is not serious at this time.
II .D, 1.
Problems of water level control, inadequate supplies for beneficial
uses, and lack of participation of landowners exist in the Indian River
II.D.2. See II.D.1. above.
II.D.3. See II.D.1. above.
II.E.1. Lack of sewage disposal facilities at towns along the river has turned
the Indian River into a giant cesspool, rated by the State Board of
Health as a health hazard. While your committee feels there is.a very
definite health problem involved, it believes the solutions are under
detailed consideration by the municipalities involved. Such a condi-
tion drastically limits healthful recreation? Many food-fish are no
longer found. 'Oysters 'hid shrimp have all but disappeared.
Wastage of artesian deep-well water occurs during dry seasons.. This
is our only remaining source, of wat-er fqor grove 'irrigation, pasture
cattle and vegetables.
Present controls are inadequate and are not enforced. Many wells are
allowed to flow unchecked even when not needed.
During seasons of extended drought the artesian head in the area
decreases in volume as much as 70 per cent. This underground source
is tapped by numerous deep wells (600 to 900 feet deep on the average).
The salt content of this ground water has varied very little during
the last 12 years and for this area runs pretty constant at 600 to
Citrus and municipalities are tapping the underground reservoir as:-
their surface sources become inadequate.
The problem of contamination of shallow well water through lack of
septic tank disposal of sewage.
Beach and shore erosion is very acute in this area. There are no
groins or sea walls. South of the Fort Pierce inlet the sea walls
protecting the channel have apparently caused serious beach erosion
- 73 -
ST. LUCIE COUNTY (continued)
on south side. Plans are on foot to form a beach erosion district,
through which means, it is hoped, methods of preventing erosion may
IV.B. Commercial pollution problems will increase in Indian River proper as
industry builds up in the area. Talk of an oil refinery at Ft. Pierce
has already aroused a storm of protest from sports fishermen, residen-
tial areas and beach residents. Sewage pollution has already been
discussed. It has already limited or stopped use of the River for
recreation (bathing, sports fishing), for certain types of commercial
fishing (oysters, shellfish, shrimp).
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
(17 persons participating)
I.C.1. Terraces emptying into roadside ditches have caused extensive damages,
particularly to county roads. Terraces have been outletted into woods
causing serious erosion and gullies, before and after timber was cut.
I.C.3. Drainage systems are no better than their outlets. Frequently this
requires construction through several property owners, any one of
which can object. Results in no relief of a permanent nature. Tem-
porary agreement, usually oral, may be recalled as a result of change
I.C.3. Vegetated outlets, both natural and constructed, often must be
extended beyond one ownership to reach a safe disposal area. Lower
ownerships usually object to any concentration or diffused surface
waters which naturally drain to their lands.
I.C.3. "A" constructs vegetated water way entirely on his land for safe dis-
posal of terrace flow. "B" terraces his land to outlet in same area,
but contributes no land, labor, seed, or maintenance to facility.
I.C.3. "A" constructs vegetated water way and terraces land to take water out
of roadside ditch. "B", situated on land above, refuses to extend water
way and continues to terrace land to carry water to county road.
I.D.1. "A" on upper end of small water-shed wishes to poison out his pond and
restock to desirable fish species. "B" on same watercourse objects;
the poison would kill his fish.
I.D.2. "A" pushes out small, shallow pond for livestock water. Neighbors
claim pond is source of mosquitoes and wish it refilled.
II.A.4. "A" constructs dam to impound waters for irrigation and in so doing
reduces flow downstream to a trickle. Downstream owners object.
II.E.1. Raw sewage is being released directly into streams flowing past fast
growing town. This constitutes health ha~ rd and discourages recrea-
tion in the locality.
- 74 -
SANTA ROSA COUNTY (continued)
Problems of installation of inadequate septic tanks and drain fields
resulting in health hazard.
II.E.2. It is reported to this committee that paper mill waste from a plant
in Alabama will be discharged into Little Escambia River.
II.A.l. A number of free-flowing or "wild" wells are reported to be in the
Holley and Floridatown areass.
An industry recently placed three large wells in operation. Local
wells have had to be deepened to 150 feet for reliable supply of water.
[II.A.4. Local well driller reports lowering of water table as a result of oil
explorations, particularly east of Milton.
Salt water intrusion was reported near tidal waters.
(31 persons participating)
I.A.I. Better drainage plans are needed to prevent flooding lands of others.
Poor or no plans have caused septic tanks to fail even before they
were expected to fail.
I.A.1. When roads and streets are constructed, normal drainage courses are
sometimes blocked causing water to back up on adjacent land. Also,
highway drainage is dumped in excessive amounts flooding adjacent
I.B.1. Problems of subdivision growth which increases runoff, thus creating
floods in overloaded drainage canals. More outlets are needed to
handle increased runoff and laws need clarification to permit better
access to existing outlets for maintenance purposes.
L.B.4. Many subdivisions are overdraining thus reducing the possibility of
obtaining drinking water for private homes and public water systems.
I.C.2. Same as I.B.1. above,
A subdivisionbproposes to alter normal drainage to provide quick run-
off in drainage canals constructed by ranchers.
Problem of property owners dyking off natural drains.
II.C.1. Farmers report overdrainage as a result of large canals constructed
as a part of a drainage district.
- 'i ,
Se.e I.B.1. above.
Property owners have not given neighboring farmers the necessary ease-
ments for properly disposing of surplus water. This problem occurs
frequently in the Sarasota area.
- 75 -
SARASOTA COUNTY (continued)
At present the water from wells is -being used in some heating and
cooling systems and is being discharged into sewers. Recirculation
of the water would aid conservation.
Numerous flowing wells are not controlled but are allowed to run con-
stantly. We believe that the flow should be controlled or the wells
Problem of flowing wells being slowed or stopped when nearby wells
The possibility of intrusion of salt water, which may be caused by
diminishing fresh water supply or uncased saline wells.
See I.A.1. (No.l) above.
IV.A.1. Problem of loss of beaches by erosion, particularly on outlets into
Problem of obtaining topographical maps in order to plan for future
Problem of not enough water in winter and too much in summer. Legis-
lation needed to clarify the responsibilities of groups to help
Problem of conservation and protective measures for our present water
supply recharge areas.
One very serious waste of water is the underground flowing springs
such as is found on Siesta Key.
Problem of needed legislation to prevent the use of future water
storage basin lands for other than agricultural purposes (flood'
Problem of failure to license well drillers.
(8 persons participating)
II.E.l. A city in adjoining county discharges sewage from its treatment plant
into a creek. Property owners who reside on the creek claim that the
fish have been killed and that the owners have been deprived of swim-
ming. They also claim that at times they are bothered by the. odor.
There are between 250 and 500 uncontrolled artesian wells in the
flowing well sections of the county.
A representative of a large farming company reported that he has had
to use pumps on the artesian wells to water crops for the first time
because of the reduced flow of water.
- 76 -
SEMINOLE COUNTY (continued)
V. A homeowner stated that he and his neighbors suffered great financial
loss and were deprived of the use of their homes when flood water in
Lake Monroe flowed over the sea wall. He and his neighbors are fear-
ful that they will be faced with this same problem whenever the lake
is at flood stage ag~in unless something is done to hold the water in
check when in excessive amount.
S: SUMTER COUNTY
1, (47 persons participating)
I.B.l. State Road Department constructed a drainage ditch to take water off
the roads and a city. Ditch is about 8 to 10 miles long. One portion
of the ditch emptied into a chain of lakes and marshes, flooding
several hundred acres in lowland pasture.
I..,B.4. Many pastures and farm lands are being drained of all water because of
the fact that Jumper Creek.Drainage District canal has not been filled
with sand, and has a smallstream running in it, thereby draining the
water from the pastures ahd farm land.
II.A.4. A chain of lakes near Lake Panasoffkee is drawing water from the lake
and lowering the water level, due to the lack of rainfall.
II.C.1. See I.B.4. above. ,
II.D.1. See II.A.4. above.
II.E.2. In the past four years, there have been three breaks in a dam retaining
wastes from a large industry. Each break allowed large volumes of
waste to flow into a river and fish kills resulted.
II.F.1. At this time the public does not have right of ingress and egress to
Lake Panasoffkee and other streams and lakes in this county. Property
is being bought privately and this can create a real problem.
III.A.2. This is a specific measuring in the Oxford area of Sumter County.
Water level is down 5 feet in a 10-inch well which had been in opera-
tion for several years. Water level had been checked for three months
(20 persons participating)
I.D.1. "'A' and "B" own pond jointly. "A" pumpsthe pond dry, leaving "B"
without use of water for stock.
I.D.l. A pond that was heretofore used principally for recreation and fishing
was pumped dry by. two irrigators.
- 77 -
SUWANNE COUNTY (continued)
.A.1. A creek runs about 10 miles through county and the flow empties into a
natural sink which normally takes care of this water; however, at
periods the sink overflows and water spills over adjacent farm land,
,A..4. A river normally flows about 10 miles through county, after which the
water disappears into sinkhole. Recently, "A" and "B" have dammed up
the river near its head drying up normal flow for most of its course.
.D.l. The most serious water shortage is evident in the drying up and lower-
ing of the water level of lakes in the county. Three large lakes all
in one area have completely dried up in the past year, and all of the
lakes have marked drop.
.D.2. See II.D.1. above.
E.l. The wastes from one town are discharged into a stream posingg incon-
venience and damage to people living along the river., ; T .
.A.7. Town "A" uses drain wells and dry wells for sewage disposal, contami-
nating underground water supply for a distance of.approximately 600
feet and an area of approximately 5 square miles.
.C. See III.A.7. above.
(20 persons participating)
.A.l. A dam which was placed across a ditch bordering an improved road was
repeatedly cut by "A", who claimed that the dam was causing damage.to
his property through backing water over his property. "B" insisted
that the dam remain intact in order to divert the water down another
stream which would aid in draining his property.
.B.1. In 1950 and 1951, several miles of canals were dug to drain a timber-
growing area, and the canals discharge drainage water into a small
river. A 5-inch rainfall in 1953 caused so much discharge into the
;river that it overflowed its banks and flooded property in the vicin-
ity that had not been flooded before. In 1954 the existing canals
were deepened and more than 10 additional miles of canals added. The
river channel has not been improved and the increased discharge will
likely flood several homes and a business establishment next to the
l.C.3. See I.A.1. above.
.C.2. See I.B.1. above.
1.E.1. The discharge of municipal wastes into a river and the creek tributary
to the river are resulting in a public health menace to those people
using the waters.
- 7 -
TAYLOR COUNTY (continued)
I.E.2. The wastes from an industry are being discharged untreated into a
river. The pollution has resulted in loss of fish and game and in the
use of the river for recreational purposes.
.A.2. A large industry pumps considerable quantities of water from its deep
wells. Immediately after pumping started a nearby spring ceased to
flow. Until this happened several families had used the spring water
for drinking purposes over a period of many years. A bottled-water
concern was also put out of business.
I.A.2. An industry has dug three or more deep wells near a residence, which
was also supplied from a well. Since the industry started pumping
the residential well went dry, and a new well had to be drilled to'
supply the family.
I.C. Discharge of both untreated domestic and industrial wastes into surface
waters has endangered the drinking supplies from a number of wells in
V.B. Insufficiently treated.domestic wastes are being introduced into
waters near a bathing beach, thus creating a public health problem.
(4 persons participating)
I.A.1. The State Road Department failed to place a culvert at a point in a
new road where it obviously was needed. By so doing, they caused
water to back up on "A's" field.
I.A.2. The State Road Department has turned road drainage across "A", "B,
and "C" farms in the county, causing considerable erosion. In at
least one case this could have been avoided by carrying the water an
j' additional 200 feet to another road ditch at a right angle to the
II.B.1. Thd State RoadDepartment arbitrarily cut a ditch through "A's" land,
thereby causing it to become water logged during wet seasons.
I.B.3. The road was built channeling water into a field. The runoff caused
a gully across a 20-acre field which rendered it impossible to culti-
vate about 3 acres in the east portion.
It.C.3. "A" is located on the lower end of a badly needed drainage ditch. "B"
and "C" located above him need the ditch to drain their land.
I.C.3. "A" was ready to terrace his severely-eroded field, but could not do
so because his neighbor below him, "B", would not give him the right
to discharge the water through his field.
[I.A.1. The railroad replaced a 16-foot trestle with an inadequate culvert,
thereby causing water to back up on the lands of "A", "B" and "C".
- 79 -
-- --- _1.... ....I
UNION COUNTY (continued)
II.A.1. '"A" builds a temporary dam on an intermittent stream. "B" builds a
well-engineered dam downstream. "A's" dam washes out on a flash
flood and takes out "B's" dam also.
"A" and "B" want to build a dam for irrigation. However, this dam
will back up on the small stream involved to the edge of "C's" land.
"C" is not willing to agree to the construction, even though none of
his crop land would be involved.
II.A.4. The flow of a stream was stopped through construction of a dam for
irrigation. Due to small amount of rainfall, the pond has not filled
and as a result no water is getting past the dam for the downstream
II.A.4. "A" constructs a dam for irrigation on a small intermittently running
stream crossing through his farm and impounds the whole flow during
; dry periods. "B", -C" and "D", who were using the stream for live-
stock water in their fields and pastures, are without water.
See II.A.1. (No.3) above.
(19 persons participating)
I.B.4. Unnecessary drainage of swamp areas is affecting farming in adjacent
areas and is upsetting the wildlife balance.
I.C.1. Proper drainage is a problem to the vegetable growers of the Samsula
The State Road Department desired to lower the water level of a lake,
so that any future overflow would not damage the new highway being
paved. Two 5-foot culverts were installed under the new highway and
allow a large quantity of water from the 24-acre lake to flow through
the natural run-way too quickly, thereby damaging the county road and
almost washing out the small culvert beneath it, and backing water on
the improved pastures of farmers.
II.A.3. See II.A.1. above.
II.C.2, At frequent intervals flood conditions in the St. Johns River Valley
cause damage that totals millions of dollars.
II.C.3. The St. Johns River water is too brackish for irrigation purposes
during periods of low water table.
II.D.2. Low lake levels are affecting the pasture lands and there is insuf-
ficient water for citrus grove irrigation.
There are some free-flowing wells that should be capped and controlled.
____ __^~__ _I___
- 80 -
VOLUSIA COUNTY (continued)
I.A.3. Municipalities along the coast are concerned over the future competi-
tion for water from the underground aquifer. Daytona Beach has
already installed a well field 5 miles to the west from which 8
million gallons per day.are withdrawn. Additional water use in the
area west of the city could decrease or pollute the water supply ,- i
damaging existing supplies. Overpumping could cause salt water in-
II.A.3. During the present drought individual wells supplying one town have
been inadequate to meet the demand.
II.A.6. Salt water intrusion:is being experienced in the water from irrigation
wells in some areas. '
I.A.6. Salt water intrusion along coastal areas has created problems for all
cities and communities with respect to obtaining adequate good-quality,
water supplies. Increasing population in this area means increasing
demands for water of suitable quality.
II.C. There is danger in one town that massed septic tanks or relatively
small, contiguous lots will result in contamination of lakes and wells.
V. There is lack of proper legislation giving a city'the authority to
protect itself against the drilling of wells in areas where such wells
might be detrimental to the municipal supply from the standpoint of
both quantity and quality..
V. There is lack of long-time records on stream flows which might indi-
cate possible sources of supply.
V. There is lack of a supervisory or regulatory authority which could
exercise control of contemplated drainage projects which might reduce
the yield from underground water supplies by reducing the amount of
water available for recharge.
(4 persons participating) a
The committee reported that no water problems are known to exist
in the county.
: ,(17 persons participating)
I.A.l. Roads, especially newly constructed roads, are turning water ohto
farm lands and woodlands doing damage to farmers.
I.A.l. Farmers are:turning water onto neighbors' property.
I.B.l. Property owners have failed to maintain drainage ditches resulting in
water .problems" for neighbors.
I.B.2. Sand from roads and farms have filled up watering holes needed for
livestock and reibreatiohal use.
I.B.3. Terrace. outlets on state and county roads are often not stabilized,
or there is too long a time lapse before proper work is done.
I.B.4. Road ditches have dried up watering holes.
I.C.3. Lack of understanding among neighbors before water outlets are
established is prevalent, causing later misunderstandings.
I.D.2. Stagnant ponds fed by diffused water have bred mosquitoes and spread
internal parasites and diseases in livestock. 'y
- 82 -
WALTON COUNTY (continued)
II.A.1. Construction of dams has raised water level in soil, killing trees
and making land too wet to cultivate even when free water did not
overflow on lands above dams.
II.A.4. Normal flow of water in streams has been curtailed or stopped due to
construction of dams upstream.
II.E.1. City sewage has been dumped in small streams, making them unsanitary
for livestock, or recreational use.
II.E.2. Saw mill wastes have killed fish in streams.
II.F.1. Larger natural lakes, on which no one pays taxes, have been fenced
depriving the public of access for recreation, and for farmers hauling
water during droughts.
III.A.1. Needless waste of water from constant flowing of artesian wells has
caused wells to stop flowing.
III.A.2. See III.A.1. above.
(9 persons participating)
I.A.1. Highway 273 was recently constructed. The drainage system used by
the State Road Department floods several farms, eroding and causing
sedimentation damage, too.
I.A.1. "A" constructed a dam between his place and "Bis". "Bvs" pasture was
flooded and he was unable to use his pasture for his cattle.
I.A.2. See I.A.1. (No.1) above.
I.A.3. See I.A.1. (No.l),above.
I.B.1. "A" filled up ditch across his place and flooded property above him.
I.B.l. Ditch was dug across,;"As" property. "A" cleared land and put in
pasture and filled ditch. During heavy rains property above is
IsC.3. "A", "B" and "C1. agreed to drainage ditch across all three's property.
Several years later "C" sells to "D" and "D" does not want outlet on
I.C.3. "A" needs to drain his land; in order to do so he must also dig ditch
across "Bs" property,. but "B" objects and does not wish to partici-
pate. .. .
I.C.3. "A", "B" and "C" constructed terraces and obtained verbal permission
from timber-landowner "D" to establish outlet opening onto "D's" wood-
land. l'D": later sold to "ES", who wanted to clear woodland for farming.
. 8- 13 -
WASHINGTON COUNTY (continued)
I.C.3. "A" built terraces and put outlet at "B's" fence. A year later "B"
put up dam and pushed water back on "A".
I.D.3. "A"l constructs dam for fish pond and irrigation. He does not get and
follow good recommendations and dam is too small. Flash floods break
dam and lands of property owners below are flooded.
II.A.4. "A" dammed up small stream and "B" downstream no longer has water for
II.F.l. Streams have been fenced and are no longer accessible for recreational
III.A.4. "A" had well (open well) to go dry when oil exploration crew set off
dynamite. "B's" drilled well was muddy several days after blast was
set off 1/4 mile from well.
V. Certain areas in county seem to be community dumping grounds for
garbage and dead animals.
- 84 -
0 C nrl C 1r4 C4 C r^ CU M 1 CU M int r-4 NC CO q r-4 C4 M im 4 ,4 C4Sr-( cq rC4 C Ctftr t C C
S I I .*
M c M M U p .e. .S.. *.* .* e 4 M
Alachua x x x x x xx x
Bayx xXx x xx xx x x xxxxx X x X
Bradford x xx Xx x x x
Brevard x x x xx x XX x x
Broward xx x xxxx xx x x x x x x x x x xx
Calhoun x x XX x x x x
Charlotte x x x x x x x x x
Citrus x x X x x x x x x
Clay xx xx x x x X X
Collier x x x x
Columbia xx xxxxx xx x x xx x xx
Dade x x x x x x x x xx x x xx x x
DeSoto x xx x x x x x xX Xxx x
Dixie x x x x x x
P Duval x x x x xx xxx x x x
SEscambia x xx x x xx x x xxx x x xx
Flagler x x. x x x x
Franklin x xx xx x
Gadsden x xx x x x x
Gilchrist x x x x x x x
Glades x x x x x x x x x x
Gulf x x x
Hamilton x x X x x
Hamllto -x x x x x x x
Hardee x x x x xx
Hendry _x x xx x x
Hernando xx x xx x x
Highlands x x x x x
x x x x x
Hillsborough x x x x -
xx x x xx x x x x x
Holmes x xx x xx x x x x
Indian River x x x x x xx x x xx x xx : x x x x
- ~ ~~~~~~~ .._ _. ___,r --:--71 -- -T-_ -- -----: ~--~- ----------- --
-- Pi C4fri ^
nnMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMWMMMMM MMMM MM MM >-l-lnl-llIM MM >>
Mn n nnwM~lw MMM I-MMIM -l-ltIM I-MM MI-t--MI-MM -l-
Jackson M x H K x
Jefferson x x X K XM X M
Lake Mx X K x X Nx
Lee N x x x x xxx x x xx x x
Leon x x x x xX K X X H N
Levy x M x x x
L jL UL erty
Madison x x x x x xx xx x
Manateexxx xx x x M xM xx x xx xN x x
Marion x x x x x X _
Martin X XXX XX Xx XX~XX X x xx
'assau x X
Okaloosa X x x x x
Okeechobee W xxx x x xxx x xx x xx x X
Orange x xx xx x x xx xx x x x
Palm Beach x x x x x xxx x x x
Pascoxxxxx x x x x
Pinellas x x x xxx M M xx x xx
Polk l X X W x W xX x x
Putnam x _x xx x x
St. Johns x x x
St. Lucie x x x xx x xx x xxx x x x X
Santa Rosa x x x x x x x x
Sarasota x x x xx x .. .
CCYS R xx #
* ^ 4*
I;I;MMM4tt4 M1; 1.1.W4MMt4t.:4MMM4-0>>>
Seminolex x M
Sumter Mx x x N X X
Suwannee M M MX N X
Taylor N N N N MM x x
Union NM N M X N X
Volusia xx M M MN M x
Walton M NN N x x Nx NM
Washington x x
*Included in Calhoun County.
**See Dade County.
***No problems reported.
*l I II
FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES STUDY COMMITTION
COUNTY COMMITTEES ON WATER PROBLEMS
COUNTY COMMITTEE MEETING
M. M. Bryant
Henry W. Bethea
J. J. Crews, Jr.
0. E. Hobbs
H. L. Berkstresser
Z. W. Hamilton
J. R. Wainwright
John V. D'Albora, Jr.
John C. Stephens
G. B. Hogan, Jr.
W. A. Savell
John D. Fuqua
E -0. Friday
Harvey L2,. Hobbs
J. P. Hall
J. T. Gaunt
W. H. Turner
J. B. Stuart
F. D. R. Park
Donald S. McKay
J. Clayton Welch
A. C. Skinner, Jr.
J. F. Marques, Jr.
R. F. Tucker
A. B. Johnston
H. G. Brown
J. A. Shuler
T. L. Maxwell
John A. Smith
Tom S. Coldewey
A. C. Hogan
Billy W. Hill
* Port St. Joe
Wi. .G. Owen
J,. R. Spratt
G. M. Nunn
Jack L. Ingle
Frank H. Moody
A. B. McMullen
Dr. J. J. Vara
B. W. Saunders
E. E. Carter
S. N. Smith, Jr.
R. L. Price
J. B. Shuman
Ben F. Thomas
W. D. Conkling
Fred J. Wesemeyer
Paul G. Franklin
John Y. Humphress
W. J. Boynton, Jr.
H. W. Arrington
E. M. Cook
W. H. Gunn
Pat S. Cantey
G. C. Valentine
Henry A. Prine
Douglas H. Oswald
Guy F. Boyd
L. M. Johnson
John P. Goggin
Thomas T. Ford
J. L. Irvin
Thomas E. Brooks
G. E. Bryant, Jr.
J. 0. Pearce, Jr.
G. E. Snow
J. R. Gunn
Charles C. Partin
Herbert C. Gee
A. T. Lohkamp
J. F. Higgins
C. M. Phillips, Sr.
H. R. Wick
A. V. Saurman
J. H. Peterson, Sr.
G. W. Mann, Jr.
B. J. Alderman
A. B. Campbell
Walter A. Dun
L. H. Kincaid
George F. Higgins
C. K. S. Dodd
Bonner L. Carter
W. W. Linz
R. E. Word
Willis 0. Tate
J. L. McMullen
J. C. Yarbrough, Jr.
S. A. Bryan
Earl W. Brown
John E. Sixma
S. A. Revell
L. E. Council
J. D. Wooten, Jr.
M. 0. Warren, Sr.
Rex T. Yates