Title: Preliminary Summary of Data on Water Problems That Have or May Have Legal or Administrative Implications BY COUNTIES
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 Material Information
Title: Preliminary Summary of Data on Water Problems That Have or May Have Legal or Administrative Implications BY COUNTIES
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Soil Conservation Districts
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - Preliminary Summary of Data on Water Problems That Have or May Have Legal or Administrative Implications BY COUNTIES
General Note: Box 12, Folder 1 ( Materials and Reports on Florida's Water Resources - 1945 - 1957 ), Item 38
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00002924
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text














PRELIMINARY SUMMARY

of

DATA ON WATER PROBLEMS


THAT HAVE OR MAY HAVE LEGAL OR ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLICATIONS

BY COUNTIES

as reported by

FLORIDA SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS

to

John E. Lambe, President

FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICT SUPERVISORS



October 1954


Number reports received 60


c r -- -- ---- -i~pr_-r --r~- ~~--~LICI~CI--r___lr_









SUMMARY OUTLINE


I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER


A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding
2. Erosion
3. Sedimentation damage
B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding
2. Sedimentation damage
3. Erosion
I. Overdrainage
C. Drainage
1. Surface
2. Sub-surface
3. Need for outlets
4. Need for participation by landowners
5. Need for control of overdrainage
D. Terracing
1. Need for properly protected outlets
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets
E. Ponds
1. For irrigation water
2. Livestock
3. Recreation and fish production
I. Need for sanitation and mosquito control
5. Flooding or drowning lands of others


II. STREAMS AND LAKES


A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding
2. Sedimentation damage
3. Erosion
4. Reducing or drying up normal flow
5. Raising water table to damaging extent on adjacent owners
6. Lack of willingness to participate
B. Obstructions and Diversions in Canals
1. Flooding
2. Sedimentation damage
3. Erosion
I. Raising water table to damaging extent on adjacent owners
5. Lack of willingness to participate
C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
1. Overdrainage
2. Flooding downstream
3. Salt water intrusion from lack of controls or tide gates
h. Sediment damage from untreated spoil banks
S. Lack of willingness to participate.
D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels too high
2. Levels too low
3. Inadequate supply for beneficial uses
4. Lack of willingness to participate











E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
1. Municipal wastes
2. Industrial wastes
3. Use of highly concentrated poison dusts and sprays for control of insects
and diseases on adjacent farm lands
4. Agricultural wastes
F. Use of Streams and Lakes by Public
1. Access

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells
3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes
4. Damage from oil exploration
5. Pollution, all causes
6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others
B. Springs
1. Dry up or reduce flow

IV. INTER-RELATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

A, Outlets (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table
2. Pollution, all causes
3. Lowering water level
4. Flooding

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (natural sink outlet)
1. Flooding
2. Lowering water level
B. Outlet (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table
2. Lowering water level


_ _i_~









SUMMARY BY COUNTIES


NOTE: Only applicable headings and sub-headings contained in the summary outline
are used in the body of this summary to classify and record problems so far reported.

Alachua County

I. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" plans to build a dike along the east side of his property to
prevent the water coming from Levy Prairie (lake) through Kanapa
Branch from entering his property and flooding several hundred
acres of pasture land. "A" contends that this water leaves the
prairie through a ditch constructed by the State Road Department.
This dike will not prevent the water from leaving Levy Prairie,
but will cause flooding of land between the dike and the prairie.

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) Little River Branch originates on "Ats" property and flows through
"B's" property and "Cls" property. "B" has constructed a dam on
this branch to impound water for irrigation purposes. During ex-
cessive dry periods "C" does not have water for domestic use. "A"
is planning to construct a similar dam on his property along this
branch to impound water for irrigation purposes. "B" has been using
this water for three years.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
1. Municipal wastes

(1) Sweet Water Branch runs through "A", which is a municipality, and on
through "B's" property, "A" empties treated sewage into the branch
and when heavy rainfall occurs the branch overflows "B's" pasture
which remains covered for long periods. This water from the treat-
ing plant makes the grass unpalatable to cattle for long periods.
"A" has been doing this for several years.

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (natural sink outlet)
1. Flooding

(1) Rattle Snake Branch originates in the watershed area west of Gaines-
ville and flows through "A s" property and empties into a sink hole
on "B's" property. With excessive rainfall the branch, overflows,
due to low intake rate of the sinkhole, and floods both "A's" and
"B's" property. "B" plans to dynamite the sink hole opening in an
effort to enlarge its capacity and thus prevent flooding. If "B"
carries out the plan and it closes the sink hole, it may permanently
flood "A's" property.


j(j _I__r







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IV. INTER-RELATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlets (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table

(1) A large land-owning company wishes to drill a series of drainage
wells to drain their woodland development. This may have adverse
effect on the level of the water table.


Bay County
II. STREAMS AND LAKES

B. Obstructions and Diversions in Canals
2. Sedimentation damage

(1) A natural pond is located adjacent to a State road. Road ditches are
not sodded; therefore, tons of sand are washed into the pond every
year.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) A landowner has a large acreage of swamp and flat wet land which is
drained into a small creek. This creek crosses other property for a
short distance before flowing into a large creek. The increased
amount and velocity of water going into the small creek causes flood-
ing of the second owner's property.


Bradford County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) A railroad constructed a fill for a track which cut off a drainage
ditch, causing a flooding of a farmer's land.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) Many instances have occurred where county and state agencies have cut
ditches from the roads into ponds without outlets, causing a flooding
of farm lands.

(2) Over a period of years the W.P.A. cut ditches into a lake, which
caused it .to flood riparian property owners during wet seasons which
has not occurred before.







-4-


C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) A drainage district was established in the County in 1917 followed by
the construction of a network of.ditches designed to control water in
the eastern section of the County. No provision was made or funds
set up for maintenance, and as a result the system has not been main-
tained in an operative condition. "A", who has property along one of
the ditches, has cleaned out the ditch that runs along his land.
Three farmers, "B", "C" and "D" below him and the outlet, refuse to
help clean out the portion of the ditch that runs through their
properties.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A" has cut a ditch back from a river to his field to supply irriga-
tion water. At low water the ditch doesn't supply enough water for
irrigation. "A" is diking the stream to force water up into the
ditch. The farmers below the dike say their water supply is not
sufficient for their stock since "A" installed the dike.

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) The county enlarged an old outlet ditch from the lake permanently
lL.we:-ing the water level of the lake approximately two feet. This
exp;lja organic scils owned by "A". "A" enclosed these organic soils
w':h cike aT,< put-s water out of the ditch area in wet seasons and
ivto thr diked area in dry seasons. "B", "C", and "D", riparian
owners on the lake, say tl.ac this pumping further lowers the lake
level during dry seasons.

U. Lack of willingness to participate

(1) A faz-:ne:. p7.&anvsd to store water in a 100-acre bay. This bay would
sup':y .I.rrig~:lon water for -the fA:mer. To store this water econom-
ic,3s y,. it ,wo-uld be necessary to build a control structure on a state
right-of-way, The -tate Road Department refused to permit the build-
ing of the structure.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
2. Industrial tastes

(1) In an area plant "A" is dumping waste into a river which is causing
damage to the water supply below the plant.

V. INTER-RELATFD SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES PND GROUND WATER

B. Outlet ('!To natuxal outlet)
1. Lower-.ng water table

(1) .?. drainage well was put down by tie. County in a 2300-acre lake to
control its level. The lake is surrounded by a number of owners with










riparian right-. A sink developed at the well. site, causing more
water to drain into-it than had been anticipated. The owners around
the lake.are o~nplaining that it is lowering the water table which
is affecting their crop. land.


Brevard County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding' : .... .

(1) "A" digs a fish pond and uses the dirt to fill in the low portion of
his property which vas a natural drdinageway, and in so doing cre-
ated & viter pond on his neighbor's land during heavy rains.

(2) A drainage outlet ditch was established by a rancher to drain a
rather large area to-be used for pasture. The new ditch emptied the
water into a natural drainageway resulting in flooding of the lower
land in citrus.

(3) Highway was constructed through an area well suited for citrus pro-
duction. The construction of this highway obstructed the flow of
surface water to the extent of causing too much water on one side of
the highway and causing too little on the other side.
B. Canals ard Ditches
1. Tooding'

<1) "A" installed a water control structure in a canal which served the
entire area, which caused "1'Bs" land to be too wet at times because
"A" was holding the water level in the canal too high.
II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) A farmer on one side of a large stream built a dike for protection
during the flood season. Another farmer on the opposite side built
a sinila, d$ke, theu causing a restriction of the flow of the stream
and water is concentrate And discharged on property of others.

S(2) A new highway is being built across a large stream. There is consid-
ekable effect qn the general drainage pattern of the sr rounding area,
especially during flood season.

(3) Large ranch Wper costr~uted dike across headwaters of a stream to
facilitate fa~riing operations bn muck. lood waters of stream back
up into drijnage district adjoining, causing overflow of ditches,
canals a~ndtands.


__ __









4. Reducing or drying up normal flow


(1) "A" diked a stream to provide himself with sufficient water but
caused a deficiency of water for "B" downstream.

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels too high

(1) Salt marsh where mosquitoes breed has been diked and flooded to pre-
vent further breeding of the pests. Seepage of salt water kept at
high level damages land adjacent.

ITI. GROUND WATER

A. Wells

1. Artesian, wasteful flow

(1) A large number of artesian wells have been abandoned in this area.
They are left to run continuously and are of no use to anyone.

2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A" has been using his artesian well for irrigation very effectively
for several years. His neighbor, "B", planted a large number of acres
adjacent to citrus and drilled several large wells, and this constant
use caused "A s" well to practically stop flowing.

5. Pollution, all causes

(1) One citrus grower has several large wells which have become too salty
to use for agricultural purposes.

6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others

(1) "A" drilled a well and filled a low portion of his field to form an
artificial pond adjacent to "B". The water was diked against "B",
but water seeped through, resulting in flooding or raising the water
table on his land.

(2) Several large wells drain into a natural waterway and landowners claim
damage from excess water and salt.

(3) "A" installed an artesian well which allowed salt water to pollute the
surface supply of "B".


Calhoun County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
2. Erosion
(1) The County Road Department by building a graded county road and road
ditches caused water from excessive rains, which ase were diffused and








-7-

widespread before the road was built, to concentrate and overflow onto
and across "Bta" farm property. The result was damage to "B's" field
by creation of extremely large and deep gullies.

(2) The State Road Department has diverted water from a road ditch onto a
steep slope across "Ats" property, causing severe erosion. "A" con-
tends that the State Road Department should have carried the water 200
yards farther down road ditch to a natural draw where a simple short
concrete structure would have carried it down to a stream bed. The
State Road Department contends that it would have been too far to
carry the water 200 more yards.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" and '"B", large landowners in a 3,000-acre watershed, drained their
lands through lateral ditches into natural small watercourses and into
a larger watercourse. This accelerated the water flow to the extent
that a flash flood washed out a State Highway bridge and a dam which
had created an artificial scenic lake in a municipality.

D. Terracing
1. Need for properly protected outlets

(1) "A" constructed a set of very large diversion terraces which emptied
onto "Bl's property. "B" was an absentee northern landowner whose
land adjoined "A". The diversion terraces caused extremely large deep
and long gullies across "B's" land. "B" sells his land to "C". "C"
asks "A" to help remedy the situation. "A" begins the sodding of water-
ways before the plowing of old terraces and having new ones laid out.
Then "A" sell his land to;"D". "D"does not wish to continue work
started by "A".


Citrus County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" owns considerable road frontage along State highway. Surface water
has been diverted along ditches by highway department concentrating
water .in low areas of pasture which had been used rather extensively
for growing clover, resulting in damage sufficient to be of much
financial concern.

(2) "A", "B" and "C" want to build dam in a drainage canal to hold water
.higher so that the water table will not be lowered in citrus groves
along the drain. "D" whose land is also in the watershed and touches
the canal, objects to the building of the dam since he anticipates that
his pasture will be damaged by flooding caused by the obstruction in
the channel.







- 8 -


C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) "A" has extensive property holdings bordering on navigable river which
he wants to drain into river for purpose of developing the area into
pasture. Adjoining property owner "B" gets court injunction contending
that the drainage will lower the water table in the lakes to the extent
of damage to groves and fishing.


Charlotte County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) U. S. Highway U4 is a barricade, or a dam, and "A" questioned the right
of the State Road Department in putting in this highway and not insist-
ing on large enough outlets for adequate drainage and disposal along the
road ditch, in driveway culverts and culverts under the road not large.
enough to take care of flood conditions when the water really hurts.
Approximately 75 farmers, ranchers or home owners are being hurt annu-
ally.

(2) The County Road Department, after "A" improved his drainage of surface
water on the up-hill side of the road, replaced a bridge with culverts
equal to about one-fourth or less the cross-sectional area of the bridge.
It is a well established fact that the bridge overflowed every year with
little or no damage. At the first flood the culverts backed water up
over 20 acres of "A's" land. There were no crops on the ladl, but water
hampered clearing.

(3) Outlets under the State roadbeds are not adequate to give proper drainage
and disposal, causing water to back up on the property holders on the
east side of the highway. Lakes are formed on the upstream side.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" put in a low earth dam in a ditch on his farm to hold up the water
level in the ditch. A flood washed out the earth dam and deposited the
dirt in the ditch on the farm of "B" downstream, obstructing drainage
and flooding "B's" land.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A" cut a ditch on the uphill side of his property, throwing the spoil
on his side. This prevented "B's" (uphill) diffused surface water from
flowing over "A's" property, thus improving "Ats" drainage, and "A" con-
tends to some extent it improved "B's" drainage, and questions whether
or not he should have to pay all the ditching cost. "B" contends that
it does not improve his drainage and questions the right of A to dike
and not provide an adequate outlet.


I .





-9-




(2) Another problem in the streams of the county is that of hyacinths es-
tablishing and jamming outlets with their excessive growth, blocking
boats and transportation through the stream whereby proper drainage is
impaired,

(3) The water from a slough on "A's" farm naturally drains onto "B's" farm
to enter an intermittent stream. "A" wishes to improve his drainage
by constructing a ditch from the slough across "B's" land to the stream.
"B" will not permit this.,

5. Need for control of overdrainage
(1) The County Commissioners, at the request of "A" and "B", cleaned out a
small intermittent stream to increase drainage. The results were satis.
factory to "A". However, "B" claimed the ditch overdrained his land.

II STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) The number one problem with the city regarding the creek water supply
is to determine who has prior rights during shortages, farmers along
the creek or the city. The city uses the entire flow during ordinary
droughts. Also, the city will double in size within a few years. The
city owns property where the dam and pump are located. uhen someone
else taps into the creek with a pump to irrigate their property, the
water level drops tremendously. The water is piped along the State
road to the town. The waste is not returned to the stream. The city
sells the water. Downstream landowners have not complained as it is
tidewater from the dam on. The city has been using this water for al-
most 20 years. Also, some of the landowners have been pumping off and
on equally as long.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
2. Industrial wastes

(1) "A" stated that the city had a recent problem with oranges and other
citrus fruit decaying in the creek, causing a bio-cbemical oxygen demand
to be formed in the water, killing many fish from suffocation. Of
course, the city is interested in this and found. the cause and corrected
it for the reason that the city water supply is taken from the creek.

3. Use of highly concentrated poison dusts and sprays for control of insects
and diseases on adjacent farm lands

(1) Another problem faced by the city -1s the insecticides used by farmers
and grove owners whose sprays (scme of which are water soluble and very
toxic to humans) drain into the creek. ith the city having no author-
ity over this, the city water supply is very much endangered. Farmers
have been using these insecticide poisons only recently.






- 10 -


III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow

(1) There is a local law that the Sheriff is responsible for controlling
the careless use of artesian wells in the county. There is a question
as to whether it is a local responsibility or the State's responsibility
It has been stated that the Sheriff could cap abandoned flowing wells in
the county and the County Commissioners could assess the cost of capping
against the property.

3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes

(1) The various substructures in Shell Creek area make the wells unpredict-
able. Some wells are i00, 800, 1,000 or 1,200 feet and obtain good
wells with very reliable flows. Some wells must go to a depth of 1,600
feet and then find only poor flows of salty water. This is a general
problem. It involves percolating underground water. The problem is a
growing amount of users decreasing the supply.

5. Pollution, all causes

(1) The salt seems to be building up in artesian wells that have been oper-
ating over long periods of time, and we have very little research data.
Many of these wells that have been drilled throughout the county are too
salty for use even at the time they were drilled. Some with surface
pools have a very high salt content because of evaporation. It was sug-
gested that a check be made to determine if deep oil wells have any in-
fluence on these wells from higher level that previously were not salty
but now have a salt content.


Clay County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" develops a large flat area which normally drains across "B's" prop-
erty through several small natural drainageways and constructed ditches
which were activated during high water. Although no additional water-
shed was added to existing outlets, the development of "Ats" property
increased the rate of runoff, temporarily flooding portions of "B's"
property.

C. Drainage
L. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A" owns a muckland farm along a State highway. The highway could serve
as a dike using an existing structure under the highway to dispose of
pumped drainage water. The road department does not wish to cooperate
to facilitate the development of the property.








- 11 -


(2) "A" wants to drain his property. The only feasible way is to utilize
a drainageway through "B's" property. "B" objects because his property
is flooded.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) Dams along a small watercourse temporarily diminish or stop flow below
them causing landowners downstream to object because they have insuf-
ficient water for agricultural and domestic purposes.

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels too high

(1) A landowner along a lake decides to develop some beach property. He
pumps in land from the lake bottoms covering up the only outlet to the
lake. Following the pumping operation the water level of the lake rises
to a considerable height, causing adjacent landowners to suffer loss of
property.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A" sinks a large number of artesian wells for irrigation on an exten-
sive area. When he turns on his wells, surrounding landowners complain
because of reduced flow in their wells.

(2) "A" allows his wells to flow constantly when not needed. This serves
to reduce pressure in other wells in-the area which are in the same
aquafier, even affecting home water supply.


Columbia County

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels too high

(1) Several owners have property which runs into an 800-acre lake. One
property owner, "A", has about 125 acres which he has diked off and
which raises the water level of the lake. In periods of extremely heavy
rainfall, the lake outlet will have to carry more' water and over a longer
period of time due to the decreased capacity of the lake. It is'a rare
S occasion that water is ever discharged from the lake, and property owners
along this outlet grow crops to the edge of the outlet. The property
owners around the lake had no objection to the dike since it helped keep
water at a higher level and improved fishing and hunting conditions.
However, recent rains caused the lake discharge to flood land which had
never flooded before "A" built his dike.


II 1 IIIIII _llllll--P-lll 11-II







- 12 -


III. GROUND WATER

B. Springs
1. Dry up or reduce flow

(1) "A" has a spring which flows constantly through a well defined channel
onto the property of "B". He wishes to impound the water and use it
for irrigation purposes. If this is done during dry periods when ir-
rigation is being practiced, all the water will be utilized by "A" and
there will be no water for "B'ts livestock.

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (natural sink outlet)
1. Flooding

(1) A stream runs through the property of "A" and disappears into a sink
before it leaves the property. In times of high water when the sink
will not take the flow, the excess follows a well defined course on to
the Suwannee River. "A" would like to re-route the stream from the
sink so he could have use of it further downstream. When this is done,
adjacent property owner "Bls" field will be flooded due to the increased
flow.

B. Outlet (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table

(1) A 300-acre lake is owned by "A", "B", "C" and "D", with "A" owning
about 95 per cent. In 1946 "A" drilled four wells in the lake to drain
it, and one well in a constantly flowing stream to intercept it before
it reached the lake. A sink located on the property of "B" apparently
is of limestone formation and has been known to open and drain the lake
in years past. In 1946 also, this sink was dynamited by persons un-
known and the lake was drained. Since then the wells have taken care
of the excess water coming into the area. The property owned by "A"
was sold to "E". Owners "B", "C" and "D" would like to have the water
back in the lake bed to its original height.

(2) Several wells were drilled in a 120-acre lake for drainage purposes by
two property owners. "A" owned only a small corner of the lake and
drilled only one well while "B" drilled several. "B" sold his property
to "C". Now owner "A" says that these wells are lowering the water
table and damaging adjacent crop land. He has recently drilled an" 8"
well to provide irrigation water on this land. He would like now to
have. all drainage wells plugged up and the lake allowed to refill.
Property owner "C" says he believes it would be to his advantage to
add a couple of feet on the well casing and keep the water at this
height.

The water involved in the lake was surface water from well defined
draws and. also diffused water. Riparian rights were involved since
there were several other property owners affected by the drainage of
this lake. The drainage was done seven years ago.


~- -~-- --- -------







-13 -


DeSoto County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A", "B" and "C" have insufficient openings in railroads and county
and state highways to allow fast runoff of excess water during flood
for sufficient drainage.

B. Canals and Ditches
3. Erosion

(1) "A" and "B" are draining their properties. This water goes across
"C's" property at a high velocity, creating a serious erosion problem.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A" and "B" have excess amount of surface water. The natural drain
runs through "Cts" property. "C" will not give necessary easement for
drainage of water.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams.
1. Flooding

(1) The major drainage outlet for DeSoto County is now obstructed by rail-
road bridges and sunken barges. These obstructions hold up floating
debris and hyacinths which hinder movement of water during the rainy
season.

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A" upstream pumps sufficient amount of water from stream to stop flow,
thus depriving "B" and "C" below him from being able to get sufficient
water supply.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
2. Industrial wastes

(1) "A" and "B" want to fish and hunt in a river and its tributaries, but
a manufacturer upstream has polluted the stream with material toxic to
wildlife and fish.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow.

(1) "A" has an artesian well and allows well to flow at all times. "B" has
well at same depth, but has a cap and casing on it to conserve on it.






- 14 -


2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A" can pump sufficient water from the well on his property to com-
pletely stop "B" and "C", farmers around him, from getting sufficient
water supply.


Dixie County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

B. Canals and Ditches
4. Overdrainage

(1) In draining his farm "B" ran the canal across "Ats" property. The
route of this canal follows no streams or sloughs. This water from
"B's" farm did not originally cross "Ats" property. "A" believes this
canal over-drains his property by being too deep. He bases his belief
on the fact that in severely dry weather, water is running out of the
end of the canal and dry where it begins on his property.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) Two groups of farms are in a drainage area. Group A will be on the
lower end of drainage area, and group B will be on the upper end.
Group Ats farm land was being damaged by surface water, and they asked
for assistance. This problem was helped by diking and digging a drain-
age ditch. This has relieved group A of damage in normal rainfall
years. Group B has similar problem and asked for assistance. Some of
the farmers in group A object to having corrective measures done on
their farms. The water from group B drainage area now crosses group
A's property by following sloughs.


Duval County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1, Flooding

(1) "A" is damaged by excess diffused surface water. "A" purchased his
farm five years ago. The farm is practically flat with natural drain-
age to the north from about half of his farm. Railroad B runs along
the north side of the farm. U. S. Highway C runs parallel to the rail-
road on the north. There is a small culvert under each road. They
were there when "A" purchased his farm. The culverts are at too high
an elevation and are of too small size to allow proper drainage of "A's"
property. There is no defined channel on "Ats" farm, but a drainage
ditch does lead away from the highway culvert going north across "D s"
property. "A" is attempting to Improve and intensively utilize his
land, but excess water is seriously hindering his operations.


- -P 1








- 15 -


B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) An old drainage ditch is to be cleaned out and improved in channel
design from its beginning to where it goes under a railroad track on
the north side of "A". All the landowners upstream from the railroad,
including "A", improved their individual farm drainage systems. "A"
owns the land on both sides of the ditch where it hits the railroad.
The channel capacity under the railroad and the natural waterway across
"B's" property are not adequate to carry off the increased volume of
water. "A" is flooded out.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
2. Dryup or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A", a dairy producer and distributor, has a deep well which provided
water for his milking barn and the processing plant. A nearby suburban
town was using an 8-inch well for domestic water supply. The town had
a very rapid growth and put down a field of several 14-inch deep wells
pumped with turbine pumps. The water pressure on "A's" well dropped
immediately from a minimum average of 12 pounds to approximately five
pounds. He had to rebuild his water system and install a pump on his
well.

(2) "A" has been using an artesian well for livestock water and irrigation.
It ran constantly in dry weather and whenever turned on during the rest
of the year. It had been most reliable for a long number of years until
recently when it went dry. It is 200 feet deep. Hundreds of wells with
pumps for individual home and lawn use have been drilled into this par-
ticular rock layer within the last two or three years. These wells are
in a nearby suburban area of a large city. "A" has examined his well
for structural failure and can find nothing wrong. Apparently, the
water is gone.

3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial .purposes

S(1) Company A has purchased a city block and intends to build an.air con-
ditioned office building. Water for the air conditioning system is to
be provided by a deep well. City B uses deep wells as its source of
water. The city has caused the passage of legislation giving it author-
ity to grant or refuse permission to property owners to drill deep wells
* within a radius of three miles of the city. Company A requested permis-
Ssion for their proposed well and were refused by the city. Company A
re-examined their plans.and altered them to provide for reuse of the
I well water after it went through the air conditioning unit. Permission
for drilling the well was then granted.

* (2) Company A, a manufacturing concern, is in the city limits of City B.
SThe company uses a large artesian well 1,100 feet deep as its source
of water for its cooling towers. This water, according to the com-
pany, is too hard for use in the manufacturing plant. The water is


1.~_--. --------- --- ~a







- 16 -


not reused and is discharged into a river. The company uses a h-inch
well, 200 feet deep, as its source of water for use in its manufactur-
ing processes. The water produced by this 4-inch well has undergone a
gradual decline during the past 20 years until the gallons per minute
are approximately half the original rate. The company is drilling an
8-inch well 200 feet deep to get the water it needs for present use
and future expansion. Neighboring water users have petitioned the
city to force Company A to utilize water now wasted from the deep well
before the company is allowed to use its new 8.inch well.


Flagler County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) The Highway Department has established outfall ditches from culverts a
few hundred feet from the highway and dumped the water on pasture land
and woodland of several farms, causing flood damage.

C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) Twenty-five years ago, a drainage district was organized for the pur-
pose of draining a large trucking area. The project affecting 24,500
acres, was designed for complete drainage. For several years, there
have been complaints by landowners both within the drainage district
and for several miles nearby that the water table has been lowered over
a wide area by over-draining. Some landowners desire to install water
control structure, others do not. This leads to some legal questions.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

P. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams=
1. Flooding

(1) A pulp company is ditching its timberland while in the process of
building grades through the timber. The ditches empty into a creek.
During periods of high water, these ditches cause the creek to over-
flow farmers' land downstream.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
4. Agricultural wastes

(1) A large pulp and paper corporation wishes to drain several thousand
acres of land for development of timber. The shortest route to an out-
let is a river which is controlled by tidewater from the Atlantic Ocean
and coastal inlet. Scenic tours are conducted on this stream, and salt
water fishing is permitted. It is contended that dumping fresh water
into this creek will injure salt water fisheries.


--s~=--f;-~-











(2) Farmers who live near a salt water inlet canal wish to drain water
firom their farms into it and develop the land into improved pasture
grasses. It is contended that this addition of fresh water will in-
Jure salt water fisheries.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
2. Dry u'por reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A" has a flowing well for the purpae'of irrigat'crp~s and water-
ing stock. Neighboring farmers have to pump water. fmom tkiir wells for
Irrigation, When they pump for irrigation the flowing wel ceases to
flow.


Escambia Coqunty
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions -.
2. Erosion

(1) The.,diffused surface water from a farmer's field drained into a county
road ditch. This excess water contributed to considerable erosion dam-
age to the road and caused the county to spend a lot of time and money
S making repairs. The field needed terraces and waterways that would
drain through a natural draw and thereby keep the excess water out of
road ditch.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners,

(1) A farmer has a 1 w wet area. I his field,.ext.to ,Sate hi ghway. The
highway d.-tch grew up in weeds and accumulated ail. .until it would no
longer diradn the difftised surface water. This caused. the water to
stand on the tarxier's ind, destroying his crops. The highway depart-
ment agreqd:$o cleanp.the ditch, but where it crossed a county road
after it had left the highway, there was a culvert too small to dispose
Sof the water as rapidly as desirable. The highway department claimed
'.. :th, cou~~y should install a larger culvert, but the county thought it
was the state's respqnsibilityViatce it was an outlet ditch for the
highway. -- .

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

E. Pollution in :Streaps, Cala and Lakes:
2. InIsxtrial,.as es .... .

(1) A gravel company was puipin gravel-and sand fcr commercial use near a
river. The river is navigable and used for fishing and recreation. In
the operation, the undesirable sand and gravel were pumped to a point
where some of it went.into the river. This caused some of the nearby
deep holes in the river to be filled with sand and gravel, thereby in-
juring the fishingin that area.








- 18 -


(2) A paper mill dumps its waste into a creek, causing it to be polluted
until it reaches a bay. This kills all the fish and most other wild-
life on the creek, and also creates a disagreeable odor to people
living near the creek.

Franklin County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) "A" has several hundred acres of poorly drained land that he wishes to
drain in order to encourage natural reseeding of the land to pine. It
is contended *hat by so doing he will lower the water table on adjacent
lands to the point that "Bls" and "Cts" pasture is going to be affected
since this is diffused surface water.

Gadsden County

II. STREAMS AND IAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" built a dam at the head of a stream that furnished water to the
city. The city asked him to release the water due to flood hazard to
low-lying residence houses on the stream. "A" hired a private engineer
to survey this structure to see if it was safe. The private engineer
reported he was within his rights. Water is impounded, and the city
has not taken any more action in three years.

I. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) Brothers A and B pump water from the same stream. There is no impound-
ment on either farm. The natural flow of water is not enough to fur-
nish both. Neither farmer wants to go to the expense of building a
dam. These brothers continue to cut off each other's pump motors when
they want to irrigate. Consequently, both are short of water.

Glades County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" diked and ditched a section for the growing of vegetable crops.
This section is a flat prairie and has no slough or watercourse through
or adjacent to it. Owner installed a pump at one corner and pumped out
his surface and seepage water, This concentration of water destroyed


-C







19 -


a culvert on a county road and caused the flood-over of a stocked and
fertilized fish pond belonging to "B".

( #2) "A" diked around a section of. land. This dike crossed two small natu-
ral sloughs in which surface water normally moved during periods of
rain. The constructed dike caused the flooding of 150 acres of newly
planted clover on "B's" land, thereby causing him to have to replant.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" plans to improve surface drainage on his lands. He is to construct
a large shallow ditch to his south boundary and use a natural slough
for an outlet. He will run numerous lateral ditches out from his main
ditch. This will speed up.rate of discAarge and increase quantity for
a short peak. "B" below him contends that he will receive some damage
,from this discharged water.

(2) A 10-year old canal, which is no longer maintained but which affords a
limited amount of drainage, is blocked by an individual landowner.

(3) "A" installed water control system on his land. Part of this system
-. was a large canal which was an *.improvement of, the SRD highway ditch.
"A" .installed several turnouts with culverts in place. During rainy
season, lands owned.by. "B", "C" -and "D" were covered by water backed up
,by the small 'culverts.

2. Sedimentation damage

(1) Landowner digs a new ditch and opens it into public canal. Silt or
.sediment from the new ditch forms a bar in main canal.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation ry landowners

(1) A group of :10 landowners' propose -awatershed program to, effect improved
drainage, One'of the owners backs out and, won't agree for main outlet
crossing his lands. The small. natural outlet crosses him now.

5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) "A",digs.a-six-foot deep drainage canal on his property but immediately
adjacent to property owned by "B". One year later "B" claims that the
canal is overdraining his pasture for a distance of 300 feet from the
canal. '

II. STREANE AND. LAMXS:i, -. "

C. Improving. Stream.;Chsreis 'and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) "A" improved'a natural watercourse by canaling to south boundary of his
land. 'This collected and dischargedrun-off at a faster rate and great-
er quantity. This caused the natural watercourse on "B" to overflow







- 20 -


and damaged his pastures, put water under his house and washed out a
farm road culvert.

5. Lack of willingness to participate

(1) A group of landowners improved a natural watercourse by enlarging the
stream channel. Owner D, whose land is astride the stream at about
midpoint, failed to maintain his stretch by allowing fallen trees and
collected debris to remain in channel.

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels too high

(1) Owners around the west shore of a large lake are flooded by lake waters
at least every other year. In addition, high lake levels retard canal
run-off from these private properties. Do private landowners have any
rights concerning the regulation of stages in a navigable body of water?


Gulf County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" owned a large tract of land from which he drained the surface water
onto "B's" property. "B" considered his property damaged because ex-
cess surface water was drained onto it.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) A navigable stream was tapped for several million gallons of water
daily by "A". "B", a large landowner through whose property this canal
ran, feared overdrainage although he consented and gave easement rights.


Hamilton County

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) During the 1948 flood the Morgan Mill Pond spillway on the farm of"A"
broke, upsetting the 70-year-old mill building into the channel. A
torrent of water from the 100-acre.pond ruined stored corn, fertilizer
and equipment on the farm of "B". Normally, these waters follow a
well defined channel for approximately a half mile, then disappear
into a sink. Far exceeding the capacity of this sink, these flood







- 21 -


waters overflowed adjacent farms, then'into a draw without a well de-
fined channel. Flowing down this draw, the water damaged over a hun-
i dred feet of Highway #6. At this point serious erosion occurred on
the farms of "C1" and "D". "D" .is considering legal action to prevent
S" "A" from repairing this structure unless it is made foolproof. The
a extraordinary flood of 1948 is the only time waters from this source
have damaged "B", "C" and "D". "A" owns this dam site and several
acres of the pond area. Neighbor X owns nine-tenths of this pond area
which now has valuable growth of young pines. "X" will agree to the
rebuilding of "Als" dam only with a stipulation that the dam shall be
without removable gates. This is so that "A" or subsequent owners can-
not lower the water level in the pond materially by pulling out gates.

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow
(1) Irrigation dams are being built by constructing dams across small
streams. These dams have the effect of decreasing or stopping the
flow of water through neighboring properties. Farmers have asked
about the rights of their neighbors to thus impound water in these
* spring-heads and small branches. This is particularly true of inter-
mittent branches and/or while large volumes of water are being pumped
from the ponds.
| (2) "A" complained of excessive flood waters flowing through a well de-
fined channel from a swamp dammed up by "B" to increase water storage.
S "B" constructed additional storage structures to store irrigationwater.
"A", now in need of irrigation water, raises objections because no
water flows from the ponds of "B" during "B's" heavy irrigation opera-
tibns.
C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream:'

(1) More than 50 swamps varying in size from 10 to several hundred acres
present possibilities of drainage. These swamps in the north and
.northeastern sections of the county would drain into branches and
creeks.. Timber corporations and other landowners have questioned the
.legal :aspect of turning loose large amounts of water into branches or
..smaIll streams that flow through properties of other owners. Some of
these small streams are well defined and others may not be.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
1. Municipal wastes

(1) Raw sewage from a hotel was discharged into the Suwannee River for 50
years. After c.hsiderable educational work by the local State Board
of Health officials, the situation was corrected during 1954. The ef-
fluent from the Emhoff tank, however, is still.discharged into the
Suwainee'River and is a source of *contamination.
III. GROUND WATER .
A. Wells
3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes
(1) Individual tobacco acreages ranging up to 75 acres are being irrigated









- 22 -


from deep wells. This practice is increasing each year, and it is
claimed that this will result in competition for this underground
water as well as damage to sources of farm well water.

5. Pollution, all causes

(1) Well drilling contractors agree to furnish an adequate supply of water.
Ordinarily, there is no guarantee that the water will be potable. "A"
and "B" both had wells drilled only to find that their water was con-
taminated. They have never been able to use water from these wells,
but cannot require the contractor to produce potable water.

IV. INTER-REIATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlets (no natural outlet)
2. Pollution, all causes

(1) During the 1948 flood, which lasted for weeks, County Commissioners
applied for a permit to drill two 6-inch drainage wells to remove dif-
fused surface water off the roads and so permit passage of school
busses and mail delivery. During the Board of Health's delay in con-
sidering the request, the Commissioners ordered the wells drilled,
which effectively ended the emergency. No legal action was taken, but
the Commissioners incurred the ire of the Board of Health. The two
drainage wells were within five miles of a municipality and therefore
violated a State statute.

3. Lowering water level

(1) "A" drained 2,000 acres of swamp timberland (diffused water) through
drainage wells. "B" instituted a law suit claiming that he suffered
damage from this project removing diffused water off his (B's) adja-
cent woodland.

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (natural sink outlet)
2. Lowering water level

(1) A 500-acre lake periodically drains through a bottom cavity. This
lowers the water level over seven feet and reduces the surface area
about 70 per cent. About 30 years ago, "A" eliminated this loss of
water by dividing the lake with a dam. "B" obtained an injunction
and required "A" to cut his dam. All owners now agree that they would
benefit from this ty,. of water :xI',rol, which is technically feasible.
The project, however, 'ias been h. rI u; to this day.

(2) During dry weather there is a total loss of water in several miles of
the Alapaha River immediately above its confluence with the Suwannee
River. This loss occurs through subterranean cavities and possible
corrective measures are complicated by unknown factors and the legal
aspect of the problem. The possibility of property owners being af-
fected if the loss of water was diverted back into the river channel
proper presents legal questions.








S23. '-

:.... Hardee County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER :

A. Obstructions. and Diversions .
1. Flooding; : .,

(1) "A" built a dike to protect his pasture from runoff abov.. This
causes "precipitation runoff" to back up on the lands fi, "'1"? for cer-
tain periods, making the soil unproductive.' "B" claims 'h is entitled
to have his runoff water pass down oyer. the land of "A" and asks that
the dike be removed.. ."A" holds to the contrary,

(2) In three or four cases in the county, there are cflveris which aren't
low enough or large enough, coupled with poor and obstructed outlets,
causing damage to roadways and backing up of water on farmers lands,
making the soil unproductive.
II. STREAMISAND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding *. .. .

(1) Another problem in-the county isr that the streams and canals are so
obstructed with vegetation and debris that they are not giving proper':"
drainage in areas they are. supposed to serve.

(2) A wet weather pond existed almost completely on the land of "A", ex-
tending partly, at. high water, onto: "B!s" land,, in. which direction
there emanated a natural drain directly across the land of "B" This
drain, when kept clean and clear of obstruction, was sufficient to
carry off most of the water from the pond. "A", desiring to more ful-
ly drain the pond So that the land covered thereby could be used for
farming, requested but was refused permission from "B" to clean out the'
draith. "A4, thereupon dug a large basin parallel to the border line
between "A" and "B's"-.property, across the farthest corner of the pond.
and threw up the dirt' onbthe far :side of the basin from the pond anid '
ailaced a culvert, through (this earthwork dam.so, that- a.Tig, wat. r the
water would naturally flow through the drain in the direction of the
dam. ; The basin, being the lowest point of the pond at low water, all
'of- the water would collect in the basin, from which it was pumped over
the dam. It then proceeded down the natural drain, the dam (100 yards
long- -preventing the water from:backing up into the basin or pond.

III. GROUND WATER

A. 1ells -^-t^': .- : ::..
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A" established a well for irrigating his groves, the depth being ap-
proximately 500 feet. "B", late ;, also established a well for the same
purpose, the depth being approximately the same. "C" came in and es-
tablished a well at a depth of approximately 1,100 feet. When "C"
irrigates his grove, "A" and "B" have to wait until "C" has finished.







- 2t -


Hendry County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) Landowner digs a new ditch and opens it into public canal. Silt or
sediment from the new ditch forms a bar in main canal.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) One landowner cuts ditch down slope until he has his water moving to-
wards a natural outlet, but stops ditch on own property. Water con-
tinues toward outlet and damages other persons' property between ditch
and outlet.

(2) "A" plans to improve surface drainage on his lands. He is to construct
a large shallow ditch to his south boundary, He will run numerous
lateral ditches out from his main ditch. This will speed up rate of
discharge and increase quantity for a short peak. "B" below him will
receive some damage from this discharged water.

C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage canal on his property, but immediate-
ly adjacent to property owned by "B". One year later "B" claims that
the canal is overdraining his pasture for a distance of 300 feet from
the canal.

I. STREAM AND LIKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) A group of landowners improve a natural watercourse by enlarging the
stream channel. "D", whose land is astride the stream at about mid-
point fails to maintain his stretch by allowing fallen trees and col-
lected debris to remain in channel.

(2) "A" diked around a section of land. This dike crossed two small natural
sloughs in which surface water normally moved during periods of rain.
The constructed dike caused the flooding of 150 acres of newly planted
clover on "Bls" land, thereby causing him to have to replant. What re-
course does "B" have against "A" for his additional fertilizer, seed
and possibly one month later grazing?
C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
5. Lack of willingness to participate

(1) A group of 10 landowners propose a watershed program to effect improved
drainage. One of the owners backs out and won't agree for main outlet
to cross his lands. The small natural outlet crosses him now.


__ ___ ____ ___ __











D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels-too high

(1) Owners around the west shore of a large lake are flooded by lake waters
I at least every other year. In addition, high lake levels retard canal
runoff from these private properties.
III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow

(1) Four artesian wells on "A's" property are installed with valves. "A"
allows wells to flow freely at all times with no system to spread water
for useful irrigation.

(2) An old well on "As" .property has rusted out and.valve has fallen off,
thereby letting well flow freely year around.


Hernando County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER
A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) Culverts are inadequate to carry;excess surface water in the rainy
season. The approaches are such that sediment fills up the culverts.
The results are that a large acreage of crop and pasture land is flooded
causing considerable damage to "B" by surface water backed up by this
artificial dam, .

(2) State Road Department diverts excess diffused surface water from the
property owned by "A" onto the property of "B" by means of ditches and
culverts, resulting in considerable damage tqosome property and complete
loss of cultivation of other property of "B". ... .:."

(3) "Al digs ditch across-property draining water .1nto sink. Later "A"
sells the portion of land nearest the sink to "B". "B" fills up ditch
on his property line. This floods "A's" land.

3. Sedimentation damage

(1) "A" runs water from a limerock crusher into a large lake of which "A"
owns only-.a portion. Results ,are that lake is gradually filling up with
lime-.sludge, causing the water to contain an extremely high lime content
to which "B" and "C", whose properties border on the lake, object.
B. Canals and Ditches
4. Overdrainage
(1) State Road Department digs a deep canal along the side of a newly con-
structed road. As the result, excess water from property of "A" is


I II I









- 26 -


removed, lowering the water table. The water table of "Bts" property
on other side of the road is also lowered.

IV. INTER-RELATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlets (no natural outlet)
2. Pollution, all causes

(1) "A" owns a canning plant which dumps refuse into a lime sink, which has
an outlet that drains into pasture land of "B", several miles from the
plant of "A". The pasture land is damaged by deposits of refuse, and
the water supply is contaminated by the overflow of the refuse. "B"
has no other source of water supply.

(2) "A" runs refuse into surface streams that enter into sinks thereby
polluting the drinking water supply of "B", "C", "D", etc.

4. Flooding

(1) "A" has a lime sink in the corner of his property. "A" closes the
sink, thereby flooding adjacent property owned by "B".


Highlands County

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) Several landowners along a creek which is the main tributary to a large
lake want to construct dikes on their property along the creek which
will take several hundred acres of land out of the flood plain of the
creek. The flood plain that will be within the bounds of the dikesis
flooded by the creek only during high water. It is thought that the
construction of these dikes will cause a slight increase in the high
water. Other landowners along the creek who do not wish to dike their
property contend that diking out part of the present flood plain, there-
by causing a slight increase in high water, will cause damage to their
property.

(2) Lake Huntley is located south of the Istokpoga Road and Lake Clay is
located north of said road. There is a drainage canal from Lake Hunt-
ley to Lake Clay which is the outlet.

A group of landowners some few years ago wanted to hold the elevation
of Lake Huntley up to a higher elevation so this small group of land-
owners took it on themselves to construct a dam at the outlet of Lake
Huntley which cut off all the water to Lake Clay. The 1948 hurricane
came and flooded out most of the low land which was planted to Easter
lilies and caladiums. During the time of this high water a landowner
on Lake Huntley blew out this dam to relieve the high water in his
field. The landowners on Lake Clay did not like for all of the water
from Lake Huntley to hit them at one time and destroy their crops.


____~_ __ II___ ~___i~___







- 27 -


(3) "A" diked around his land. This dike crossed the natural sloughs in
which surface water normally moved during periods of rain. The con-
structed dike caused the flooding of pasture on. B's" land, thereby
causing him to have to replant.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) In. the upper watershed of a creek, "A" improved a natural watercourse
by canaling to boundary of his land. This collected and discharged
runoff at a faster rate and greater quantity. This caused the natural
watercourse on "B" to overflow and damaged his pastures, put water in
his house and washed out a county bridge.

5. Lack of willingness to participate

(1) A group of 10 landowners propose a watershed program to effect control-
of lake stages. One of the owners backs out and wonrt agree for main
outlet to cross his lands. The small natural outlet crosses him now.

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) Four grove dwners'whose properties abutt a lake use the lake water for
irrigation. In so doing, they lower the level of the lake, to which a
h(meowner objects, because it leaves his dock and beach dry.

I. Lack of willingness to participate

(1) Several landowners around Lake Grassy would like to deepen the outlet
for the lake to flow east through the course that it now follows only
during flood stage. The plan Would call for a control dam at the lake
so the lake stage could be regulated. The owners of the overflow muck
land contend that the landowners around the lake do not have the right
to deepen the outlet and fif6dotheir'land for a longer period of the
year. The grove owner who irrigates 600 acres of grove in another
watershed contends that deepening the outlet would lower the lake
level and endanger the supply of irrigation water. The landowners ad-
jacent to the lake who get flooded contend that the grove owner uses
more than his fair share of the water since he irrigates grove in
another watershed from the lake, and it is unfair for them to be un-
able to take the flood peak off the lake so that the grove owner will
-be assured of an adequate supply of water.. The landowners who get
flooded further contend that the man who owns the muck land would not
receive any more water because the low stage of the lake would be un-
affected. Furthermore, the improvement would be all on one of the
landowners' property who desires the improvement done.

Hillsborough County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER '
A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding
(1) A small farm is adjacent to dike built by a company for impounding


_ ____I







- 28 -


water for mining operations. Seepage through dike sufficient to pre-
vent successful fanning. Drainage complicated by uncooperative neigh-
bors.

(2) Road grades in several places in county upsetting natural drainage
pattern.

2. Erosion

(1) Concentration of water at outlets for road ditches causing erosion and
damage to property owners where road water is turned loose.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) A citrus grower, "A", has a 40-acre grove. A company bought land com-
pletely surrounding him and started mining operations. "A" has three
wells for irrigation of grove. Fears having withdrawal of water from
deep wells for mining deplete ground water supply sufficiently to
leave him short of w.ter.


Holmes County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) Culverts under highway are set so high that "A", "B" and "C" are unable
to adequately drain their farm land. Needed drainage involves diffused
surface water.

(2) "A" builds a dam across a natural draw impounding a large head of water.
During excessive rains dam blows out, cutting road and causing damage to
"Bts" crop below the road.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) A city changed the.original flow of a drainage ditch causing the small
stream into which it discharged to overflow during periods of high rain-
fall. This excess water washes debris from garbage dump onto "A's" pas-
ture land.

2. Sedimentation damage

(1) A new road was constructed.' Silt from road ditches raised the bed of a
small stream, backing up water on "A", causing spring to become pol-
luted. "A" had been using spring as a source of water for dairy, but
it was condemned. "A's" dairy cows were forced to wade impounded water
to get to the milk barn. This caused abnormally high bacteria count in
"A's" milk.


_ _.,__.__ _II__








-29 -


C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) A pond is so situated that it lies across the property line between
"A" and UB". "A" owns the larger portion of the pond. "A" wishes to
drain the pond,"B" objects.

D. Terracing
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) Terrace water on A'*c" fatni is discharged into natural draw, which also
crosses "Bts" land. "B" objects to increased flow of water across his
property.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
L. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) Mill pond impounds water from creek and watershed. During dry season
water ceases to flow in creek. Farmers downstream complain that mill
pond has eliminated their source of stock water during periods of
drought.


fIndian River County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions.
1. Flooding .. *

(1) "A" diked and ditched a section for the growing of vegetable crops.
This section is a flat prairie and has no slough or watercourse through
or adjacent to it. Owner installs a pump at one corner and pumps out
his surface and seepage water. This concentration of water destroyed a
culvert.on a county road and caused the flood-over of a stocked and
fertilized fish pond belonging to "B".

(2) "A" plans to improve surface drainage on his lands. He is to construct
a large shallow ditch to his south boundary. He will run numerous lat-
eral ditches out from his main ditch. This will'speed up rate of dis-
charge. and increase quantity for a short peak. "B" below him will re-
ceive some damage from this discharged water.

(3) "A" diked around a section of land...This dike crossed two small natural
sloughs in which surface water normally moved during periods of rain.
The. constructed dike caused the :flooding of 150 acres of pasture on "B's"
land, thereby causing him to have to replant.

(4). The St. Johns Marsh flows north. Diking and pumping developments on
Both sides of north end have restricted outlet creating serious threat
of flood damage to drainage district and landowners on the east and
west sides and at the south end of the marsh.


_





- 30 -


B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" installed water control system on his land. 'Part of this system
was a large canal which was an improvement of the SRD highway ditch.
Landowner installed several turnouts with culverts in place. During
rainy season, lands owned by "B", "C" and "D" were covered by water
backed up by the small culverts.

(2) "A" constructs sizable canal and discharges same into small highway
roadside ditch causing flooding of highway in storm period.

2. Sedimentation damage

(1) Landowner digs a new ditch and opens it into public canal. Silt Rr
sediment from the new ditch forms a bar in main canal.

C. Drainage
L. Need for participation by landowners

(1) A group of 10 landowners propose a watershed program to effect improved
drainage. One of the owners backs out and wontt agree for main outlet
to cross his lands. The small natural outlet crosses him now.

5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage canal on his property, but immediate-
ly adjacent to property owned by "B". One year later "B" claims that
the canal is overdraining his pasture for a distance of 300 feet from
the canal.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) "A" improved a natural watercourse by canaling to south boundary of his
land. This collected and discharged runoff at a faster rate and greater
quantity. This caused the natural watercourse on "B" to overflow and
damaged his pastures, put water under his house and washed out a farm
road culvert.

5. Lack of willingness to participate

(1) A group of landowners improve a natural watercourse by enlarging the
stream channel. "D", whose land is astride the stream at about mid-
point fails to maintain his stretch by allowing fallen trees and col-
lected debris to remain in channel.
III. GROUND WATER
A. Wells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow
(1) Four artesian wells on "A's" property are installed with valves. "A"


) Il----s~








- 31 -


allows wells to flow fre:elyat all times with no system to spread water
Sfor useful irrigation. This results in a misuse and waste of water.

6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others

(1) Water from ttAs" free-flowing artesian wells causes a corner of "Bts"
S flower farm to remain excessively wet. This causes "B" to pump seep-
age water throughout the year at an added operational cost.


Jackson County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
2. Erosion

(1) "A" owns the upper slope where the surface water ultimately crosses the
farm lands of "B". "A" constructed a system of terraces outletting in-
to a ditch of a county road on the property line. The road ditch car-
ried the water to a low place where it flowed across the road and across
"B.!s" land. "B" claimed he was damaged by concentrated and diverted
water from "A's" farm.

(2) "A" constructed a system of terraces where the runoff water emptied into
a vegetative waterway and flowed into a depression on the property line
of both "A" and "B". "B" agreed for this concentrated water emptying
into the depression. Later 'B" claimed that the excess diverted water
damaged his property.

D. Terracing
.2.Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) "A" and "B" own farmland on the upper slope of a fairly steep and long
slope. Runoff water from these farms naturally flows across "B's" prop-
erty. The contour of the land prohibits "B" from diverting the water
off his farm lend. "B" has proposed to buy the property of "A" in order
to control erosion on the entire slope, but "A" refuses to sell or in-
stall erosion control practices.

(2) "Al' proposed to shape up and vegetate a natural draw on his farm that
is on the upper slope. "B", adjoining landowner on lower slope, refuses
to cooperate to carry water to a road ditch across his land and notified
"A" not toi release concentrated water at the land line.

E. Ponds
5. Flooding or drowning lands of others

(1) Under a W,.P.A. project an earthen dam was.constructed to increase the
surface &areage of a natural pond and present drainage of additional im-
pounding water through the lime sink. In 1948 with extremely'heavy rain-
fall the water level rose to the point of damaging farm land and homes
above the dam. To Telieve this condition, an effort was made by explod.
ing dynamite below the dam to open the sink which had been closed. The







- 32 -


Federal Agent who supervised the explosion of the dynamite was jailed
by a State agency for violating the State fresh water game and fish
laws.

I. STREAMS AND IAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" owns farm transversed by a permanent but unnavigable stream. He
constructed a dam on his own property for impounding water. In periods
of excessive rainfall the impounded water flooded acreage on farms "B",
"C" and "D". This was backwater. Dam was dynamited by parties unknown.


Lafayette County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" ditched several hundred acres of flat woodland. The water was
dumped i To a s:Pall natural draw. "Bts" farm is downstream from "A".
During the rainy season the excess water dumped into the draw from
"Ats" ditches floods the property on farm B.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

F. Use cf Streems and Lakes by Public
1. Access

(1) "A" fenced a 100-acre lake, cutting off public passage to the lake,
which had been fished by the public prior to the fencing by "A". Does
the public have any recourse against "A" for a public road to the lake
which is navigable?


Lake County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) During Periods of excessive rainfall, surface water from "A's" land
runs _owv- tL_ rcugh pastare belonging to "B". Before "B" put in shallow
ditriha to take care cf a normal anount of surface water, the water
from "A" came over his land and on into swamp area below, but not in a
well defined channel, Now, since "B" put in ditches the water from "A"
has badly eroded these ditches. Therefore, to eliminate any future ex-
cessive washing "B" has constructed a dike between "A" and himself, said
dike being entirely on property of "B". "E" claims that the natural


__







- 33 -


contour of the land will enable "Als" water to go around the dike and
around "B's" pasture now instead of through it. "A" is of the opinion
that "B" did not have- the right to obstruct the flow of water. Of
course, "B" feels that "Ats" water was causing him damage.

(2) "A" throws up small dike and pumps water out of his field onto his onW
land, but this water flows out over onto his neighbor's land, thus
causing a temporary higher water table. The general area is very flat,
there being no well defined channels. This is surface water from ex-
cessive rainfall.

(3) "A" dikes swamp area along a river, clears the swampland, pumps the
surface water into the river. This excessive pumping during periods
of natural heavy rainfall causes "B" downstream to suffer damage that
he would not otherwise suffer if the river water had been allowed to
spread out over the swamp belonging to "A" like it did before he diked
it. .

C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

'(1) "A" drains a meadow of.some 800 acres and is planting to pasture.
Other farmers in the area who own high ground around the meadow and
have groves are of the opinion that he should not be allowed to lower
the water table in this marsh area, first because it might lower the
water table under their grove land and second, it will have a tendency
to make the groves colder in the winter months.

(2) Green Swamp area, headwaters for three different watersheds, is being
drained by "A" to the point that bay heads that normally have water in
them year round are now dry. It is necessary to dig holes to provide
water for the stock, due to lowering water tables. Citizens interested
in our water supplies are deeply concerned about this and think that
drainage of land should be controlled. Important water storage areas
such as this might be publicly owned and kept as natural water reser-
voirs.- -

II. STREAMS AND LAKES .: .

B. Obstructions and Diversions; in Canals
1. Flooding

(1) Water control structure in navigable canal has caused considerable con-
'cern to farmers on upstream side. They claim that inadequate provisions
were mado in. its.:structure to allow sufficient water to pass through it
during high stages. Those in control of the structure had to cut off
.*some of.the top of the dam to allow for more water to pass through.
E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
3. Use of highly concentrated'poison dusts and sprays for control of insects
and diseases on adjacent farm lands

(1) When farmer finishes spraying his grove he takes his spray tank to the
lake and washes it out with lake water, dumping poisonous sprays back in-
to the lake. Fish and other aquatic life are killed by the pollution.








- 34 -


Lee County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) A group of landowners along a U. S. Highway have insufficient drainage
due, in part, to the road grade. Also, a State-owned canal from the
trail to the bay needs cleaning out badly. Driveways across the road
ditch on both sides of the road put in by the State have insufficient
culverts under them and they will not carry as much water as the ditch
will. This causes water to back up over the adjoining land and holds
it there for long periods of time. This general condition is very wide-
spread and has caused health hazards in a nearby residential area and
elementary school.

(2) A city street obstructs the natural drainage of homeowners into the
Canal Street canal and floods their yards and in some cases causes
damage to their homes.

(3) A common practice among truck farmers in the area is to dike completely
around a field and during wet periods to pump over the dike. As the
county becomes more and more settled and more pastures are improved,
damage could result.

C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) The mosquito control district recently purchased a new dragline and is
using it to clean out many stopped up ditches. One case on the city
liMits they deepened a ditch to from 10 to 12 feet. The yard directly
adjacent to the ditch could easily be ruined by excessive drainage.

(2) A State-owned and constructed ditch along a street was so deep that it
killed a grove adjacent to the ditch.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) Several landowners. depend on a State-owned canal for drainage. It needs
cleaning badly and is not an adequate outlet. Also, two landowners have
been cut off from the canal by railroad grades with inadequate culverts.

(2) A group of landowners suffer from excess water each summer. A railroad
grade has been constructed running north and south across natural drains
running..southwest with insufficient culverts and no provision for remov-
ing the diverted water.

(3) A fairly well defined stream goes through "A's" property. "A" diked
his land off and diverted the stream around his property back to the


_~_____ ~____1__11~







- 35-


natural watercourse. In doing so, he flooded out "B". "B" wants "A"
to clean out the existing water course and break the dike and allow the
:water to resume its natural flow.

6. Lack of willingness to partteipate

(1) One landowner threatens to dike his property. He has a creek running
through his land that is the natural outlet for the surrounding area,
and he intends to all.o only as nrach water to come through as will stay
in the creek without cleaning it out.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
1. Overdrainage

(1) A State canal was constructed alongside a landowners' property. The
ditch exceeded its specifications considerably, and the landowner com-
plains of overdrainge.

III. GROUND AFTER,

A. Wells
2. Dry up or. reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) Irrigation from deep wells is a common practice in the county. Digging
new wells often cuts the flow of nearby older wells, thus compelling
the established farmer to cut down on the amount of land he can irri-
gate from, his well. Clearing and preparing this land for farming repre-
sents a considerable capital outlay.

3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes

(1) The city is running short of water for municipal.use, They get their
water from arwell field outside of town in a farming area. It is feared
that farmers irrigating from shallow wells in the area will cut down on
the city's supply of water even more. Many of the farmers own the land.

(2) The manager of a city water works fears that private individuals may dig
wells and go through-a strata of rock which he believes holds fresh water
.up.and salt-water down.


Leon County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions : .
3. Sedimentation damage : :

(1) "A's" dam breaks and silts ponds owned by "B" and -"C".

B. Canals and Ditches .: .. ,
2. Sedimentation damage

(1) A; new State road was constructed through property belonging to "A".
.. : .. ,. -. . ', .


_ __s___~~ mpl __










- 36 -


The right-of-way was purchased, but when the road ditches were con-
structed, the road water drained into a bottom owned by "A". Also,
much silt was washed into the low area.

D. Terracing
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) A water disposal area begins on "A's" farm and extends down through a
farm belonging to "B". "A" sowed his portion of the disposal area to
grass, but when he began constructing terraces that drained into the
area, "B" objected to the water being drained on his land.

E. Ponds
S 1. For irrigation water

(1) "A" constructs dam on a drainageway. The water had no definite stream
bed when it flowed. "B" and "C" whose farms were located below "A" com-
plained to "A" about the loss of water supply to their ponds which had
been dug below"Ass" dam on the same watershed. The water from the
three ponds was used for irrigation.

3. Recreation and fish production

(1) "A" and "B" have artificial ponds on the same drainageway which is not
a stream. "AIs" pond is located above "Bts". "A" applies heavy appli-
cations of rotenone and weed killing sprays.

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND IAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (natural sink outlet)
1. Flooding

(1) A natural sink has been used to drain excess water from a large lake.
This sink was plugged with concrete to prevent overdrainage. "A", "B"
and "C" own land bordering this lake. During the rainy season, a large
portion of the land belonging to these farmers is flooded.

B. Outlet (no natural outlet)
2. Lowering water level

(1) "A", "B" and "C" are joint owners of a lake. "A" sinks a large well
for draining the lake of which he owns only a part. As a result the
whole lake is completely drained. "B" and "C" had been using the water
from this lake for livestock purposes.

Levy County 1
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) A ranch borders a river on the south and lies about 1/8 of a mile from
the highway on the north. Due to a pond close to the highway which in








- 37 -


high water flooded the highway, the State Road Department put in a
large culvert which took the excess water under the highway and ulti-
mately onto the property of the ranch owner. -This water floods two
low areas of pastureland for considerable lengths of time.

(2) "A" having several hundred acres of improved pasture constructed sur-
face drainage ditches to take care of excess surface water during the
rainy season. As a result, considerable flooding takes place on Ranch
"B".

(3) A truck farmer desires to construct proper drainage ditches to handle
diffused water which sometimes causes loss of crops. In so doing, he
will deposit excess water onto a large tract of timberland belonging
to a large company.

CA Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "B" having a large acreage of woodland pasture does not choose to sur-
face drain. However, he objects to "A" throwing excess water onto his
property damaging both trees and grasses. "C" below has over 100 acres
of prairie land which he desires to develop, but must first control the
surface water. He has sufficient fall to make surface drainage feasible.
But due to the large watershed above, without the cooperation of "B", it
is very doubtful that he can economically construct a surface drainage
system to handle the surface water adequately unless he has the coopera-
tion of landowner.

II. STREAMS AND IAKES

F. Use of Streams and Lakes by Public
1. Access

(1) A landowner fenced a large tract of land for a game reserve and posted
same. He placed a caretaker on this property-with instructions to pro-
hibit anyone from entering without his permission. In so doing, he closed
an old road which leads to a boat landing where a number of people kept
their boats tied up in a river. He requested that all boats be removed
within a given time.

Liberty County
II. STREAMS AND LAKES

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels too high
) (1) During the 1948 flood, a lake rose to a height that damaged a business
establishment on the west shore of the lake. However, the level of the
lake was lowered by digging an overflow ditch across the adjacent prop-
erty. There was no legal problem involved since the owner of the busi-
ness also owned the land through which the overflow ditch was dug. But
suppose that the same man had not owned the adjacent land through which


__,I-~-;. -~F




U ~ -- ~~.~-- ~-


- 38 -


the overflow ditch was dug. what recourse would the owner of the bus-
iness establishment have to get rid of this excess surface water? The
lake does not have a natural outlet.

Madison County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

D. Terracing
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) "A" owns a field above "Bts"t farm. There is a large gully down across
"A's" farm that crosses "B's" farm and drains into the woods. "A" wants
to make a terrace outlet channel out of this gully so that he can ter-
race the field and have a safe water disposal area. "B" objects to the
water crossing his land.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" owns a pond. "B" owns a pond above. Both ponds go dry at times.
There is a definite stream bed below that crosses "C's" land. "A" wants
to put in a dam to raise the water level in his pond, which would back
water onto "BTs" land. To build a dam on "Ats" land would impound
enough water for him to irrigate and supply his livestock. The water
would back up on "B" and "Cls" water would be delayed by the dam or
cut off.

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A" wishes to put in a dam to raise the level of a pond at the head of
a stream. In so doing water would be delayed in reaching "Bts" farm.

Manatee County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" operates dairy on State road. Following rains of any duration,
water ponds and stands on his improved pasture as much as 8-10 days,
apparently due to inadequate road -culvert or grade.

(2) "A" utilizes natural outlets for drainage of excess surface water. "B"
operates truck farm below "A" and to prevent damage to tomato crop dur-
ing heavy rains dikes his property. "B" installed small culvert through
dike to allow normal drainage waters to pass, but during extreme rains
closes culvert, resulting in water impoundment on'"Ats" grazing lands.




-l__ _


39 -


(3) County constructed new grade on "Als" property for access to fields.
New grade crossed natural well defined outlet for "B's" drainage of
40-acre pasture. Culvert installed of insufficient size and set too
high causing flooding on "B".

(4) "A" cleared and ditched land for cultivated crops. Rim ditches were
constructed within his property lines rather than on the line as is
common. In wet season "B" connected h:s drainage ditches to "Ata"
without his knowledge, resulting in overloading of the ditches and
crop damage to "A".

($) "A" purchased property near bay and planned to use indicated salt water
slough for drainage. Investigation revealed that "B", between "A" and
the bay, had dike and control gate which he operated to fit his needs
6 for gladiola production and had done so for 8-10 years. This required
"A", at great expense, to construct alternate drainage outlet.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A" is developing high ground pasture requiring surface drainage. "B"
on lower side will not agree to right-of-way for outlet ditch unless
"A" bears all expense for "his" water being transported across "Bts"
property and puts said ditch where "B" desires it. Lack of surface
drainage will mean loss of any developed grasses for "A".

(2) "Als" pasture land is adjacent to dwellings of "B" and "C". "A" closed
surface drainage ditches constructed by him resulting in flooding of
"B" and "CWs" backyard areas with surface waters. "A" also owns a
narrow strip of property on natural outlet route direct from "B" and
"C" to canal but has indicated non-cooperative attitude for drainage.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" has been ranching in area drained by a river for 50 years. Twenty
years ago the State Park constructed a spillway dam below him on the
river to raise the Park Lake level and/or maintain it for fishing and
recreation. Due to slight gradient and frequent flood stages, grass-
lands, normally highly productive, have been sanded over and clogged
with hyacinths and water weeds, resulting in loss of grazing and cur-
tailment of cattle program.

(2) "A" has developed improved pasture along old drainage canal maintained
by county. Apparently due to lack of maintenance in rainy season, ap-
proximately 20 acres of pasture are flooded from canal overflow result-
ing in food loss.

(3) "A" purchased land for development of improved pastures. Improvement
of land not feasible unless surface waters can be removed. Railroad
culverts on outlet route insufficient in size and setting to perform
drainage. Lack of development in the area when the track was laid
made present culverts sufficient.




~1


- 40 -


2. Sedimentation damage

(1) A city secures part of its water supply from a lake created by a dam in
a river. Sedimentation and filling in of the stream above dam poses as
a problem to future development in that area to farmers and ranchers.

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A" farms on a stream utilizing water for supplemental irrigation. "B"
fermirg upstream diverts water flow through his property resulting in
insaTflcient water for "A" below.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
2. Industrial wastes

( (1) Large citrus processing plant dumps washings, etc., into small creek,
resulting in offensive odors to landowners and reported damage to
foliage and fish life also.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A" drills well for irrigation of truck crops, causing stoppage of
"B's" flowing well which has been in use for years.

(2) "A" lives in suburban development adjacent to large truck crop opera-
tion. "A" gets water from own well which almost dries up when turbines
are used for irrigation waters from field wells in droughts.

(3) "A", "B" and "C" farm on adjacent lands. Irrigation the first years
was from flowing wells. With additional land clearing demands for water
caused "A" to resort to turbine pumps, "B" and "C" had to do likewise
resulting in curtailment of flow in "DIs" well on adjoining farm.

3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes

(1) "A", an experienced farmer and citrus grower, in the northeastern part
of the county, notes marked decrease in available water from wells dur-
ing drought. He feels pumping by other far ers and phosphate plants is
lowering water table.

Marion County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" had diked an area of land along an old river bed for pasture devel-
opment. The river had previously been diverted from its old channel
through a Federally constructed canal. Diffused surface water on the












diked area is being collected in a series of ditches and pumped over
the dike onto the farm belonging to "B" which also lies along the old
river channel, below "A's" property, causing damage to "B's" pasture.

II. STREAMS AND LATES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A",-"B" and "C" own highly developed land with riparian rights to a
lake, The State Road Department has constructed a road across a creek
which drains the excess water from the lake to a river. The bridge
over the creek is inadequate to handle the runoff during periods of
excessive rainfall causing the lake level to rise above normal and
damage the properties of "A", "B" and "C".

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A", "B" and "C" own the land bordering both sides of a spring-fed
navigable stream. "B" proposes to construct a manufacturing plant on
his property and draw large quantities of water from the stream and
return only a small portion along with the waste from the factory.
"A" has made large investments on his property in developing the
recreational facilities of the. stream.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) "A" owns a ranch on nearly level lying land from which widely diffused
water in the rainy season very gradually moves into several vaguely
defined water courses that join and empty into a well defined water
course at-the property line of "B". "A" has, by ditching,, greatly
increased the runoff in the water courses on his property causing
flooding of a portion of "B's" property because of inadequacy of the
water course crossing his property.

D. hater Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) "A" operates a large crate mill on property with' riparian rights .to
a small lake. ivater is drawn from the lake for:the manufacture of
the products of the mill, none is returned. A municipality owns the
remaining land with riparian rights around the lake, a portion of
which has been developed into a public park. The draw-down of the
lake water by.the mill during a portion of the year is so excessive
that the park is damaged by insufficient water.


Martin County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE W1TER
A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" dikes a section of land for vegetable growing. He installs a


I II





10,000 g.p.m. pump at one corner for pumping out excess rain and
seepage water. There are no natural waterways or sloughs touching
his land. His discharge water damages a county road and causes
water to run through "B's" yard and garden.

C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage ditch along his property line.
One year later his neighbor, "B", claims that his land is being
overdrained for a strip of 400 feet adjacent to ditch.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" dikes two sections of land. The dike crosses several sloughs
which would normally form runoff channels during periods of high
water. This caused water to back up and stand on "B's" pasture,
thereby causing injury to "B's" grass.

(2) "A" cuts a diversion ditch which channels the water from several
watersheds into one watershed which cannot take care of the addi-
tional water without flooding "B" below.

(3) A railroad builds a fill for road bed across a well defined slough
area and provides only three small culverts for passage of water.
Daring rainy season this causes water to stand over a large area for
two or three months damaging improved pasture on two ranches.

(4) An old canal which is no longer maintained but which affords a limited
amount of drainage is blocked by an individual landowner.

(5) Private landowners by permit open their drainage outlets into a public
canal. Sediment bars form in public canal.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
5. Lack of willingness to participate

(1) A group of landowners propose a watershed program for improved drain-
age. One owner finally backs.out and won't agree for main channel
improvement to come through his property. This improved channel is
to follow natural waterway.

III. GROUND UATER

A. kells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow

(1) A former owner drilled a six-inch flowing well and casing has rusted
off at ground line letting well flow continuously.


i


- 42 -











6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others

(1) "A" secures a three-year lease on l00 acres from "B". "A" has an
artesian well drilled at one corner of the field which is next to
"C". "A" goes broke, leaves and abandons field and leaves well
"free flowing." Unmaintained ditches spill water from well over
onto "C" creating an area which is a breeding place for liver flukes.
"C's" herd becomes infected with consequent loss of some animals and
marked loss of weight in others.


Nassau County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) A canal on "A's" property carries surface water to a natural drain
outlet on "B's" property. The natural drain is carrying more water
at a greater velocity than before the canal was dug. This is flood-
ing "C'ist property lower down.

B. Canals and Ditches
4. Overdrainage

(1) A .mile-long canal was dug by "A" to remove excess surface water on
his large ranch. It was necessary to carry water from one watershed
to another in order to find a satisfactory outlet for both watersheds
.on tA ts" ranch. "B", an adjoining landowner, owning property in the
Super part of the watershed common to a portion of "A's" property,
claims that the canal has overdrained his property which has slowed
down the growth of his pine woodland and prevented reproduction from
becoming established. .'C", another adjoining woodland landowner in
the same watershed, claims he has received benefits.

C. Drainage
5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) A large pulp companyplans, to drain a 2,000 acre swamp. Draining the
swamp will in turn lower the water table in the surrounding area.
Many of the farmers in the area depend on shallow wells for domestic
use.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A" is planning to build a fish pond by damming up a small branch
which starts on his property. He plans to use the impounded water
for irrigating his pastures during dry periods and will use all the
water that would naturally flow in the branch at such time. "B", "C"
and "D", below "A", would not have sufficient water for their livestock.






44 -



III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) City "A" gets its water from flowing wells. A new industry "B" moves
into the area and sinks several large wells. This has lessened the
pressure in wells belonging to the city, necessitating the installa-
tion of expensive pumping equipment.


Okaloosa County

I. DIFUSED SURFPAC WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
2. Erosion

(1) "A" claims he has suffered damage by erosion, caused by the State
Highway Department draining some ponds and putting U-ditch across his
farm. The farmer has at different times tried to check the gullies
by putting in Check dams of logs and earth.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A" is on the west side of a county road with a natural draw going
across his field on Class I land. "B" is on the east side of the road.
During heavy rains the water drowns out four or five acres of his crops.
The County has tried several times to get "A" to permit the County to
shape a waterway across the field so that the road can be kept passable
in rainy weather and also keep the water from drowning out "B's" crops.
What right do the county road and "B" have?

D. Terracing
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) A natural draw starts in "A's" field and goes down across "Bts." "A"
terraces his field and puts the water in this draw. After the draw
reaches "B", "A" stops his terraces 75 feet from the fence.

Okeechobee County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE LATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" diked and ditched a section for the growing of vegetable crops.
This section is a flat prairie and has no slough or watercourse
through or adjacent to it. Owner installs a pump at one corner and
pumps out his surface and seepage water. This concentration of water
destroyed a culvert on a county road and caused the flooding of a
stocked and fertilized fish pond belonging to "B".












(2) New road has too small or too few culverts in places. This backs
water up on adjoining land.

C. Drainage
5. Need for.control of overdrainage

(1) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage canal on his property but immediate-
ly adjacent to property owned by "B". One year later "B" claims that
the canal is overdraining his. pasture for a distance of 300 feet from
the canal.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) A group of landowners improve a natural watercourse by enlarging the
stream channel. "D", whose land is astride the stream at about mid-
point, fails to maintain his stretch by allowing fallen trees and col-
lected debris to remain in channel.

(2) "A" diked around a section of land. This dike crossed two small natu-
ral sloughs in which surface water normally moved during periods of
rain. The constructed dike caused the flooding of 150 acres of newly
planted clover on "Bts" land, thereby causing him to have to replant.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) "A" improved .a natural watercourse by canaling to south boundary of
his land. This collected and discharged run-off at a faster rate and
greater quantity. This caused the natural watercourse on "B"' to over-
flow and damaged his pastures, put water under his house, and washed
out a farm road culvert.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
1. Municipal wastes

(1) A city dumps raw sewerage into a creek, thereby creating a health
hazard and odor nuisance:.

Orange County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE ,ATER

C.'Drainage.
3. Need for outlets

(1) During periods of heavy rainf.all..'A" has land that is subject to flood-
ing from a large natural water storage area. without proper water
management, it is not practical for him to-develop pasture on this
land. Knowing this "A" diked off a part of this swamp area, planning


- 45 -






- 46 -


to obtain water management on it with a drainage well. He then dis-
covered that he could not put down a drainage well without a permit
from the County Board of Health. The County health officer refuses a
permit for a well of any size or depth.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) A county graded clay road has two culverts which are above the bottom
of a ditch previously dug in a natural, well defined drainage channel.
In times of heavy rainfall this road and culverts hold back almost two
feet of water, which causes flooding of several property owners who
are adjacent to the lake which is at flood stage.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) "A" discovered that arise in the land and native growth was a bottle-
neck in the drainage of a large cypress swamp on his property. This
swamp had a well defined natural drainage outlet which passed through
culverts under a county road at the boundary of his property. kith a
dragline "A" cut a ditch through the "rise of land" and along the edge
of the drainageway to the boundary of his property at the county road.
This released large quantities of water in a short period of time,
which resulted in washing out the county road so that it could not be
used until it was filled in, and flooding considerable acreage of "B's"
land which was adjacent to the drainageway after it crossed the road.

D. Uater Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) "A", a city, wished to obtain a water supply from a large chain of
lakes which consisted of several thousand acres of surface water. "A"
has purchased land adjacent to this body of water. Other landowners
are of the opinion that "A" will pump excessively large amounts of
water from the lake and permanently lower its water level.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
3. Use of highly concentrated poison dusts and sprays for control of insects
and diseases on adjacent farm lands

(1) "A" and "B" are located so that the boundary between their property
is a drainage canal. This canal is not a natural drainage system or
stream, but since it has been dug it is now a well defined body of
surface water with a definite current of water in times of heavy rain-
fall. At other times the water level in the canal is determined by
the level of the lake into which it empties. It is under County ease-
ment of lease for permanent installation and maintenance by the County
because it drains part of a county road. "A" desires to spray the
growth in this..canal to kill it, thus improving the drainage and ap-
pearance of his property. "B" uses this canal as a source of irriga-
tion water for several acres of very valuable ornamentals and flowers


I .












and he is of the opinion that residue from this spray material is very
likely to kill or damage his plants.

IV. INTER-RELATED DIFFUSED SURFACE W.TER AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlets (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table

(1) "A" has an eight inch drainage well on his property. It was original-
ly designed to give water management and control on a large low area
entirely on his property. In recent years this well has rusted out
about 14 feet below the designed intake of the well. Farmers in adja-
cent areas thin that this may be causing overdrainage of a large
acreage, which is affecting them, too.

Osceola County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) The State Highway Department cuts short outfall ditch onto private
property. The ditch does not;extend far enough to reach a defined
drainageway. The concentration of water caused by the ditch floods
improved pasture on the land of the private owner.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" borders on a medium-sized lake on which a group of home owners has
developed properties by building docks and planting gardens and lawns.
The rancher dips a canal, draining large areas into the lake. The
lake's outlet is inadequate to take care of the added water, causing
the lake to rise, resulting in extensive damage to the property owners'
improvements.

(2) A canal and drainage system is technically designed on the basis of '
the amount of water a box culvert under a State road will handle safe-
ly. The landowner constructs additional laterals not recommended in
the technical design. The.additional water causes damage to the high-
-way and inconvenience to traffic on the highway.

C. Drainage
1. Surface

(1) P group of citrus growers, by agreement, drain their groves through
property of "B" who gave verbal permission for the owners-to do so.
The property of "B" was a marsh which he did not develop. "B" sells
his property to "C" who develops the marsh by diking and pumping. "C"
does not wish to pump the extra water from the citrus groves.


II


- 47 -










5. Need for control of overdrainage

(1) "A" digs a diversion ditch on his own property to intercept surface
and seepage water from the lands of "B" who joins "A". "A" digs the
diversion ditch so deep that it lowers the water table on the property
of "B", so as to adversely affect grove trees near the ditch.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) County "A" develops a drainage district on a large area of flat lands.
The main crnals of the district discharge into a stream which empties
into a large lake in County "B". The excessive water from the drain-
age district causes the lake in County "B" to flood out pastures and
damage citrus groves.

D. Water Level Control in lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) A citrus grower irrigates his groves from a 250-acre lake on which his
property borders. On the opposite shore, private owners have built
homes, put in lawns and docks and landings. The citrus grower, who
had been using the water for irrigation prior to the development of
the homes, uses so much water on his groves in the dry season that the
lake level is materially lowered.

F. Use of Streams and Lakes by Public
1. Access

(1) in organized sportsmen's club sues a rancher for access to a large
lake entirely enclosed in the ranch. This lake is set up as real
property on county tax books. The county tax assessor, knowing of the
lake, prorated taxes so as to compensate for water. The ranch owner
publicly offered easement to the lake if the county or sportsmen would
build fences on each side of the road to be constructed to the lake.
This proposition was refused.

III. GROUND WRITER

A. hvells
6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others

(1) P citrus cannery disposes of waste from the plant into an underground
stream, polluting the water of private wells used for domestic purposes.

Pasco County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER
A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) A ranch recently became flooded over such large areas that the homesite


; __ __ I___ ~ _;I;~l_~l_ _III__ CI I___ ~I~_ __ _1__1_


- 68 -








- 49 -


could be reached:only by boat. The owner, I"i", allegedly dug a ditch
across a natural barrier, and water began to pour from his ranch across
a State road and ontb an adjoining ranch operated by "B". Since "B's"
ranch lies generally lower than "A's" and does not have drainage out-
lets, the prospect was that large portions of "B's" ranch would quickly
become flooded. "B" brought in two bulldozers and threw up a large
dike across a corner of his ranch. This was sufficient to protect
"B's" land. The State road between properties of "A" and "B" was
flooded to a depth of four or five feet. Finally, the State Road De-
partment closed the ditch allegedly dug by "A" and pumped the water
off the road back into the lakes on "A's" ranch.

(2) "A" constructed a waterway to divert a large quantity of water coming
downslope from "B's" grove situated higher on the slope, thus providing
vital protection for his own grove planted on a steep hillside. The
waterway empties into a county road on the south property line, and the
water from the waterway may actually do considerable damage to "C's"
grove on the south side of the hill.

3. Sedimentation damage

(1) "A" reported that grove owner "B" above him did not use proper cul-
tural practices, and as a result "Ats" farm was damaged by excess mud
on pasture grass and the ruining of the farm fish pond. One additional
contributor to the damage, according to "A", was a State road which
collected and brought water to the edge of the farm by road ditches.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A" has constructed a control-drainage system affecting 10,000 acres
and funneled the water under a U. S. highway. Seasonally, a large
volume of water moves a little north of west until it enters "B's"
property where it flows leisurely through cypress heads until it flows
under a railroad and enters "C's" property on the west. "B" seems to
assume that "A!s" concentration is not unreasonable and he is proceed-
ing with efforts to obtain the drainage and water control he needs by
work done on his own property, but conceivably he could need the coop-
eration of the railroad and landowner "C", including an expensive chan-
nel through "C's" land.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" proposes to build a dam on a creek to:raise the water level some
18 inches. The creek flows through a large pond on property belonging
to "B". Due to the general flatness of-the land in this general area,
it is presumed that raising the level of the water on "A's" property
would raise the level of the pond on "B's" property to approximately
the same extent.


____









h. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "I" is developing a ranch on a slough creek, and he plans to construct
a dam designed to raise the water level in the creek about 18 inches.
He expects this to give him increased opportunities for fishing and
sufficient quantities of water for a very small irrigation project.
The dam is not needed to increase the water supply for cattle. If a
prolonged dry period follows the construction of the dam, or if too
much water is used in irrigation, a downstream neighbor, "B", may be
cut off entirely from his water supply during periods of drouth.

D. vater Level Control in lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) A lake is an important recreational site and its swimming and boating
facilities, operated by "A", "B" and "C", are very popular. There
are also several groves near this lake, and some of them, "X", "Y"
and "Z", are irrigated with water from the lake. Assume that "X",
"Y" and "Z" pump large quantities of water from the lake for irriga-
tion, materially lowering its level.

(2) "A" has developed a ranch around the last in a series of lakes. A
U. S. highway bounds the ranch on the east and a railroad on the west.
when the lake became flooded last fall, too much of the pasture was
covered, and "A" cut a ditch on his own land across a natural barrier,
giving his lake an outlet to a culvert under the highway. The extent
to which he could lower his water level, however, was limited by the
level of the highway culvert and by the depth of a ditch through "B's"
ranch on the east side of the highway. "A" petitioned the State High-
way Department and the County Commissioners to lower the culvert under
the highway. Residents "C", etc., on the lake west of the railroad
then counter-petitioned that they had invested in lakeside residential
property and that they would be damaged by "PA s" proposal. "A" replied
that the railroad culvert is lower than the highway culvert, that the
western lake could not be lowered more than the diameter of the rail-
road culvert, and that "C", etc., would suffer no material damage.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
2. Industrial wastes

(1) A large packing company, "A", has a waste substance which is poisonous
to fish. Originally this waste found its way slowly to a river through
natural waterways and in this process the poison was so diffused and
diluted that apparently no harm was done to the fish in the river.
"A's" land probably is not contiguous to a natural stream. Eventually
"B", who owns most of the land between the packing plant and river,
began to develop his property as a ranch, partly by digging large
drainage ditches. Thus the poisonous waste was carried directly to
the river in such a highly concentrated form that serious damage to
fish resulted. f parallel ditch was dug, either by "A" or "B" for the
purpose of diverting the waste, but later this ditch was closed at the
head and "A" began impounding the waste in a pool near the plant.
Occasionally, however, it is alleged that quantities enter the direct
channel with the resultant loss of thousands of fish.


_~ _


- 50 -









- 51 -


Pinellas County

II. STREAMS AND IA`ES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" built a dam across a creek, creating a reservoir for municipal
water. The dam causes water to flow westward over property owned by
"B", causing damage.

III. GROUND WATER

A. hells
5. Pollution, all causes

(1) Deep wells used for citrus irrigation are being threatened by encroach-
ment of salt water caused by heavy pumping for municipal and industrial
users. A number of wells in the county are too salty to be used for
irrigation purposes.


Pol County

I. DIFFUSED SURFPCE WATERR

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) Citrus grower "A" claims damage from diffused surface water draining
on him from industrial and county, and state development. Party "A 's"
contention.is that runoff has greatly increased because of increased
roof and paved areas above his property.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" dug a drainage ditch on his east property line, receiving written
permission to drain through "B" to an outlet, "A" granted "C" permis-
sion to drain diffused surface water from approximately five acres into
his ditch. During high water in 1953 a lake on "C's" property over-
flowed, draining into "C's" ditch thence to "A's ditch. "A" claims
damage to his property because of overloading of main outlet preventing
adequate drainage of "A's" property. "C" refused to close his ditch.

(2) "A" was suffering from high water in a citrus grove because of abnor-
mal rainfall and inability of the normal drainageway to take care of
excess surface water. "A" and the county deepened existing road ditch
through a higher ridge, diverting excess water on 'B" who claims he is
having to handle water which never flowed on him in the past.

(3) "A" is diking and pumping water from about 160 acres into an existing
drainage ditch between "A" and "B". "B" receives more water and at
a fester rate than previously, resulting in flooding of "B's" land.




E l--- ---;------e;~_.


- $2 -


II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" constructed an earth dam in a natural water course, diverting water
through a constructed canal to a second natural water course. "B"
claims damage from high water being backed upstream in the first natu-
ral water course.

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A" diverted a natural stream into a storage pond for irrigation.
During extended dry periods farmers lower on the stream are short of
water which they formerly had for livestock.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
1. Overdrainage

(1) "A" had land at about the same elevation as a 225-acre lake adjacent
to his property. A large drainage canal ran through his property but
stopped about 275 feet from the lake. A natural small shallow flood
stage stream connected the lake and the canal. "A" deepened and en-
larged this natural stream, lowering the lake to about its nonral low
state. Property owners on the lake above "A" protested, claiming
lowering of water table.

2. Flooding downstream

(1) Property owners below "A", who had deepened and enlarged a natural
stream which connected a lake with a canal, protested because of flash
flood when lake was lowered and increased flow through canal during
rainy season.

(2) "A", "B" and "C" dug a large drainage canal through their property
following a natural water course. "D", located lower down, claimed
damage because of increased quantity and rate of flow.

III. GROUND VATER

B. Springs
1. Dry up or reduce flow

(1) "A" owned a large natural spring which was used for recreation pur-
poses. An industrial company installed a large deep well nearby.
"A's" spring ceased to flow sufficiently to maintain the pool for
recreation purposes.

Putnam County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE IPTER
A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" had been using the ditch along a State highway for drainage of








- 53 -


diffused surface water from his truck farm for many years. This was
the natural drainageway for this water. It drained into a creek and
finally into a river. The State Road Department rebuilt this road
and when they did, the road ditch bottom was one foot higher than the
field ditch bottom.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

P. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
4. Reducing or drying up ncrmwl flow

(1) "A", who has riparian rights to canal belonging to a drainage district,
desires to put a dike in the canal so he can use the water to irrigate
his farm. The canal has been established about 30 years and is well
defined surface stream. During drought, cattlemen below him who also
have riparian rights would not have water for their cattle and other
livestock.

* D. Later Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too. low

(1) "A" desires to drain a well defined lake which covers about 35 acres.
I He desires to plant the area now in the lake to improved pasture for
livestock. In order to drain this lake, another lake would have to
t have its water level lower by about two feet. This lake has a natural
* drainageway which leads into a well defined surface stream. The gen-
eral public uses the lake for fishing, boating, swimming and other
recreational uses.

E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
2. Industrial wastes

(1) A large pulp and paper corporation empties its waste products into a
creek which is a well-defined surface stream. The waste products kill
Small the fish in the creek. It empties into the St. Johns River. The
I creek and the St. Johns River have been used by the general public for
fishing and other recreational uses for many years. The paper company
Shas been dumping its waste products into the creek for about 7 years.

SIll. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

(1) "A" drilled his flowing wells deeper, causing the wells of his neigh-
bor "B" to stop flowing. These wells are drilled into percolating
ground water. The water from these flowing wells is used for irriga-.
ting truck crops, using a seepage system.

Santa Rosa County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER
A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding
(1) "A", adjoining cross county road, had portion of field drowned out


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each year due to impounding of water between road and field. Requested
State Road Department to lower culvert under field road to avoid damage
to croplwnd. State Road Department culverts are found to be undersize
for discharge of surface waters from cultivated land were probably
adequate at time of construction when watershed area was all in woods.

D. Terracing
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) f farmer terraced his land, emptying the water in adjoining wooded area
belonging to non-resident owner. Later non-resident owner decided to
clear land and requested that terrace system be rearranged so as not
to empty water on him.

(2) i farmer at outlet end of k-type waterway objects to water being con-
centrated and going in on him even though this is the natural direc-
tion of surface drainage. Higher owner offers to prepare waterway to
natural draw 100 feet beyond his property line to protect lower owner
to fullest possible extent. Lower owner objects and wants waterway
done away with.

Sarasota County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" constructed an earthen dam across a natural drain, causing exces-
sive surface water to back up on a county road and onto properties
owned by "B", "C" and "D". Although it has been a proven fact that it
is a natural drain, "A" maintains that he has a right to prevent "B",
"C" and "D" from draining their excessive water through the natural
drain. The county road is covered with water after heavy rains, but
it has not acted.

(2) Surface water crossing the Manatee-Sarasota county line and a State
road resulted in flooding "A's" property. State road ditches are in-
adequate to prevent this occurrence.

(3) The natural slope of the soil on farms "A" and "B" carries excessive
seasonal waters to State road. Road acts as a dam and inadequate road
ditches prevent, entirely, the removal of this water. The water backs
up, thereby causing many acres of pasture and range land to suffer from
excessive standing water.

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) within a city "A" owns a home and lots. "A" would like to get some
drainage of these lots, which would probably necessitate several ditch-
es across properties owned by the city. The city refuses to dig, or
allow "A" to dig, ditches in order to provide the necessary drainage.


- 5l -









- 55 -


II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) In the year 1928 the State Road Department constructed canals across
a ranch owned by "A"'. This series of canals carried water which
gathered from thousands of acres across the property owned by "A".
The canals emptied into a creek. For years this worked well until
the creek silted up and has grown up in bushes, etc.

2. Sedimentation damage

(1) A municipality has more or less dammed up a creek by dumping huge
rocks into the creek in order to protect a bridge. It is claimed
that the bridge would wash out if this had not been done. Conse-
quently, the creek has silted considerably and periodically backs
water for several miles along the creek, thereby preventing suffi-
cient drainage for some 20 farms along the creek.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
1. Overdrainage

(1) "A" complains of overdrainage by deep canals constructed as a part of
a drainage district.

Seminole County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE W1TER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) A few years ago the State Road Department built a new road from San-
ford to Mime. The road cut across the northeast corner of "Ats" farm,
leaving approximately five acres on the north side of the road. Be-
fore the road was constructed the farmer verbally agreed on the pro-
posed right-of-way providing the Road Department would provide suffi-,
cient outlet under the highway. However, the road was built and no
outlet was provided along the north property adjacent to the road. A
culvert of insufficient capacity was installed under the road approxi-
mately 1/l mile east of this farm; however, a county road running
north and south along the east boundary of this fari prevents the
surface water from this farm from reaching the culvert. n"A" has
approximately forty acres of Class II land on the northeast portion
of the farm that has practically no value since it is covered with
surface water all during the rainy seasons.:
II. STREAMS AND LAKES
D. Water Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too low
(1) "A" owns about 80 acres of citrus on the south and east side of a lake.







- 56 -


"A" has installed a pump house and irrigation system for irrigating
his grove. This system was installed about five years ago and has
been frequently used during the dry seasons. There is a small low
area lying about 100 feet west of the lake and is owned by "B". "B"
removed the muck and grass out of the low area, sub-divided the land
into building lots, and constructed a large ditch or canal connecting
the low area with the lake. Three days later the water level in the
lake dropped about two feet, leaving "Ats" pump and pump house in too
shallow water.

III. GROUND WATER

A. ellss
6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others

(1) Many of the old flowing wells in an area are now broken off, rusted
out, or left flowing continuously year in and year out. Consequently,
a sizable area around each of these unplugged wells is becoming satu-
rated with mineral salts that settle out of the water. In some cases
as much as an acre of land is ruined, as far as agricultural purposes
are concerned, from this build-up of salts. Some areas which have in
the past produced good crops of celery and grass are now completely
bare of vegetation.

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

B. Outlet (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table

(1) "A" purchased a 10-acre grove on the" south side of a lake. "A" was
more interested in fishing and cabins than in citrus, so he cleared
away many of the trees near the lake, which is on a rather steep
slope, dug a small boat basin, and connected it with the lake about
75 feet away. About 12 feet of earth was removed from the basin area.
After the earth was removed a flowing spring developed which expels
approximately 1-1/2 millions of gallons of water each day. The water
level on "Bts" adjoining land dropped about two feet.


St. Lucie County

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(:1) "A" diked around his property. This dike crosses several natural runs
in which water flows during rainy season. The dike obstructs flow of
water and neighbor is flooded by backed-up water.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
2. Flooding downstream

(1) "A" improves drainage on his property. Improvement is in one water-
shed and discharge is into a natural watercourse. Increased discharge
damages property of neighbor below him.


____ __ s~ml_~_ _I~_~~n









57 -

E. Pollutions in Streams, Canals and Lakes
1. Municipal wastes

(1) A city and individuals outside of city limits dump raw sewerage into
a river, a tidewater lagoon, thereby creating a health hazard, odor
nuisance, polluting oyster beds and destroying fishing.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow"

(1) Artesian wells on "A's" property are installed with valves. However,
owner permits wells to flow freely at all times with no system to
spread water for useful irrigation.

(2) An old well in an abandoned grove has rusted out and valve has fallen
off, letting well flow freely year around.

6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others

(1) Continuous flow from artesian wells on "Ats" property causes portion
of ,Bts" property to remain excessively wet.

Sumter County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) "A" constructs a dike around that part of his land extending into a
flat low marsh area to prevent flow of diffused surface water into his
part of the marsh. "B" and "C" find that surface water accumulates on
their land and is prevented from flowing away by the obstructing dike.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) "A" constructs a drainage channel to collect and convey diffused sur-
facewater in'what he considers the run of a natural water course dis-
charging into "Bts" land. "B" claims the natural watercourse is.in-
another location not running into his land, and his land is flooding
by action of "A". The country is so flat that watercourses are numer-
ous, not well defined and water does flow in each of the watercourses
preferred by "A" and "B".

(2) During a prolonged rainy season, a large portion of a town was flooded,
threatening contamination of the city's water supply. The city in-
stalled chlorination facilities. The flooded condition was due to the
topography of the area and to the fact that nearby farmlands and high-
ways brought surplus diffused surface water into the town.






- 58 -


II. STREAMS AID LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "B", whose land lies along a canal upstream from "A", claims the water
stage maintained in the canal by a dam is so high as to flood and dam-
age some of his land.

(2) There are several instances in the county where the culverts under-
neath railways or public roads are of such dimensions as to restrict
water flow, making impractical the expansion of water control or
drainage systems upstream.

4. Reducing or drying up normal flow

(1) "A" owns a tract of land touching on both sides of a constantly flow-
ing surface watercourse in which an old (+ 20 years) drainage canal
was constructed. "A" built a dam in the canal to hold water higher
than it would be naturally and at times no water flows over the dam.
"C", whose land touches the canal downstream from "A", has no water
in the canal for his cattle to drink at times when all flow is stopped
by the structure, so he, "C", would like to force "A" to permit some
flow through the dam. "Cls" riparian rights are involved.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
1. Overdrainage

(1) A quarter century past, a drainage district was formed for the purpose
of draining a large trucking area. The project, affecting some 25,000
acres, was designed for complete drainage. For many years there have
been complaints by landowners both within the drainage district and
for several miles nearby that the water table has been seriously low-
ered over a wide area by overdrainage. There have been repeated at-
tempts by landowners to dam up the canal, but all dams have been washed
out by flood waters. The drainage district has recently been dissolved.

(2) Lying eastward and northward of a community and alongside the northeast
boundaries of a drainage district is a second drainage system, almost
as extensive as the first. Designed for complete drainage, it poses
the same general problems of overdrainage. It is also claimed that
its waterways bring in waters from another county which would have gone
elsewhere.

2. Flooding downstream

(1) "A" and "B" whose lands adjoin a natural outlet, improved natural
watercourses by constructing canals adequate for the removal of sur-
plus diffused surface waters and conveyance to the natural outlet.
"C", "D" and "E", whose lands are higher and separated from the out-
let by the lands of "A" and "B", propose to improve the watercourses
by constructing canals which will empty into the canals of "A" and "B".
These canals of "A" and "B" are inadequate to carry the extra load of
water added to that already draining from lands of "A" and "B".


_____~___~ __ I __I~~ _II__












(2) waters from a State Park are drained through a canal into a large
marsh locally called a lake. The canal has been in operation several
years. In recent years several other nearby marshes have been drained
into the same area, and these waters all combined move northwestward
along a natural waterway from the lake through several farms and ranch-
es, then meander southwestward to empty into a river. It is claimed
that the waters sometimes become a nuisance to these landowners from
flooding.

(3) Around a lake there is a low-lying area which acts as a sort of alter-
nate route for some of the waters of a river during flood seasons.
Years ago landowners constructed a small canal from the lake south-
westward to facilitate the flow of these waters back to the river fur-
ther downstream where the channels were more ample to carry the waters.
These canals served their purpose so well that landowners have added
additional canals and laterals further upstream on other properties.
The result is that the system is now inadequate and its purposes
largely defeated. The landowners who constructed the initial system
cannot afford to enlarge or maintain the system since the possibili-
ties of development upstream are unlimited,

D. Water Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) "A" and "B" each own land around and in a small lake which is supplied
only by diffused surface flow and percolating groundwater. Their own-
erships constitute all of the lake and its riparian lands. The lake
is used for fishing, recreation and irrigation supply. "A" enlarges
his irrigation system and this increased draft lowers the lake to the
detriment of fishing and other recreational use.

3. Inadequate supply for beneficial uses

(1) A 1,000-acre muckland marsh has been drained and an engineer has men-
tioned possibilities of irrigating the area by flooding it from the
waters of a lake, a half mile to the west of the marsh. The normal
level of the lake is about six feet in elevation above the level of
the marshland. There are also other marshlands nearby which may be
situated so as to be irrigated from the same lake and a grove along-
side the lake is already being irrigated by sprinkler irrigation. The
combined areas of these irrigable lands are four times the surface of
the lake. It is.easy to imagine that full irrigation of these adjoin-
ing lands would appreciably lower the level of the lake, thus limiting
development of sports camps. This might also endanger the wildlife
population.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal arid industrial purposes

(1) The southern portion of the county is devoted largely to truck farming
with some large cattle ranches interspersed. The truck farmers have
pioneered the use of shallow wells for sprinkler irrigation. The water


__ ._.__


- 59 -






- 60 -


table is relatively high throughout the area. WIth portable irriga-
tion becoming available, more water is and will be used for the irri-
gation of pasture lands plus many additional acres of truck and crop-
land. It is anticipated that the favorable water table may be appre-
ciably lowered, bringing disappointment to all users of this water.


Suwannee County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) State diverts water from highway rightway into lake on "A's" land,
causing the lake level to rise and keep under water a number of acres
of land around the lake. No outlet was made for excess water being
diverted into lake.

3. Sedimentation damage

(1) State concentrates and diverts water on secondary road from shoulders
and up slopes into low area on "Ats" farm. Water is causing sanding
in on land to which it was diverted. Similar cases occur on county
roads.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

D. hater Level Control in Lakes
2. Levels too low

(1) Several farmers own land bordering a lake. "A" and "B" begin pumping
water for irrigation and have lowered the level of the lake consider-
ably.


Union County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) The State Road Department did not place a culvert at a point in a new
road, where it seemed to be needed. This caused water to back up on
"A's" field.

B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding

(1) The State .Road Department cut a ditch through "Ats" land, thereby
causing it to become waterlogged during wet seasons.


__~~_II




V *


61 -


C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A" is located on the lower end of a badly needed drainage ditch.
"B" and "C" located above him need the ditch to drain their land.

D. Terracing
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) "A" was ready to terrace his severely eroded field, but could not do
so because his neighbor below him, "B", would not give him the right
to discharge the water through his field.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" and "B" want to build a dam for irrigation. However, this dam
will back water up the small stream involved to the edge of "C's"
land. "C" is not willing to agree to the construction even though
none of his cropland would be involved.

(2) A railroad replaced a 16-foot trestle with an inadequate culvert,
thereby causing water to back up on the lands of "A", "B" and "C".

Volusia County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

C. Drainage
4. Need for participation by landowners

(1) "A", "B" and "C", the three larger muck owners involving 100 acres of
muck land and a one-mile-long ditch dug in 1947, have agreed to assume
the cost of a clean-out job by a dragline at an estimated cost of
$1,200. "D" agreed to let the dragline clean out the ditch, but in-
sisted that the ditch follow its previous route through a muck pond.
"A", "B" and "C" want the dragline to go around muck area for economy
in digging. Original ditch through muck area was dug by hand; drag-
line operator says his machine cannot go through this muck even on
mats. "A",' "B" and nC" say hand-digging through muck area is too ex-
pensive at this time.

kakulla County

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others

(1) "A" drills a large exploratory oil well on his land, but the well was
located a short distance from a natural pond owned by "B". The water
in this pond dropped about four feet shortly after the well was drilled.




- 62 -


Walton County

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
2. Erosion

(1) State and county roads concentrate run-off water in roadway ditches
and turn loose this water in a natural draw that runs across the field
of "B", causing sore gullies. If "A" terraces his field so that the
water is dumped from these terraces on "B's" land, can "B" require "A"
to prepare a waterway on his own property and prevent the water from
crossing property boundaries even though some of the run-off normally
drained across "A's" land before terracing?

D. Terracing
1, Need for properly protected outlets

(1) "A", a renter, runs terraces on a field and dumps them into an improp-
erly constructed, unseeded waterway of his own construction.
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) "Ats terraces concentrate water in a natural draw that runs across
the property of "B". "B" complains about the concentration and extra
water depositing sand and silt on his pasture.
E. Ponds
3. Recreation and fish production

(1) "A" has a cesspool located on his own property but drains in the direc-
tion of "B's" farm pond. "B" believes this contaminates his fish and
therefore does not use the fish for food.
II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) "A" and "B" have farm ponds located on the same stream. Due to faulty
construction "A's" dam goes out in a heavy rain and takes out the well-
constructed dam of "B".
E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
1. Municipal wastes

(I) A city or municipality dumps raw sewage in a drainageway that crosses
several property lines.

Washington County
I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding

(1) Concreted highway ditch diverted and also concentrated run-off water.




7 A


63 -



carrying a lot of force in a westerly direction and causing damage to
fields, pasture fences and country roads. Fence at "A s" farm was
completely washed and pushed down for 200 yards during heavy periods
of rainfall.

D. Terracing
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets

(1) Two hills are located near each other. They are very steep hills with
long slopes. On a big proportion of these hills the soil is very shal-
low; therefore, run-off is heavy since there is not much absorption of
rainfall on these slopes. The water comes on down from the south and
west sides of these two hills crossing "A's" field, then through "B's"
field and on into "tCs" field. By the time this reaches "Cs" farm,
there is an accumulation sufficient to cause severe damage in erosion,
silting and flooding out good agricultural land. This problem will be
somewhat less damaging when the proposed water disposal area is con-
structed and sod is sufficiently established on the farms above men-
tioned. Two of the farmers are already in agreement with the plan.
The water disposal area will be nearly 3/4 of a mile long if it is
constructed according to plans.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding

(1) A branch in a watershed of approximately 2,000 acres accumulates water
all the way from beginning point which is between two highways, cross-
es one highway, goes through several farms in westerly direction with
the final accumulation from the farms of "A", "B" and "C". During
heavy rainfall last December, several hours after a four or five-inch
rain had ceased, the branch overflowed several acres of good pasture
land, covered the road leading out from "Ats" and "B's" on the highway
to the extent that a boat was paddled up and down the road. This water
impounded against highway fills and culverts much faster than could be
moved on; therefore, fields were made boggy for several weeks and this
happens quite often.


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