Title: Preliminary Summary of Data on Water Problems That Have or May Have Legal or Administrative Implications
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002923/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preliminary Summary of Data on Water Problems That Have or May Have Legal or Administrative Implications
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Soil Conservation Districts
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - Preliminary Summary of Data on Water Problems That Have or May Have Legal or Administrative Implications
General Note: Box 12, Folder 1 ( Materials and Reports on Florida's Water Resources - 1945 - 1957 ), Item 37
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00002923
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text
.














PRELIMINARY SUMMARY

of

DATA ON WATER PROBLWIS

THAT HAVE OR MAY HAVE LEGAL OR ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLICATIONS



as reported by

FLORIDA SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS

to-

John E. Lambe, President

FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICT SUPERVISORS



October 1954


Number reports received 60











SUMMARY OUTLINE


IC~fC if~l Le~
(bs. \C. L ./cf-t& wJ
LILA,-
t^M^^ ^ eL- '


I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER


A. Obstructions and Diversions
i1. Flooding
2. Erosion
S 3. Sedimentation damage
B. Canals and Ditches
1 II3 3 .C. Flooding
3- 6 C 2 2. Sedimentation damage
Z635 3. Erosion
"' 4. Overdrainage
C. Drainage
pC(j-1- 1. Surface
2. Sub-surface
S3 Need for outlets
S. Need for participation by landowners
5. Need for control of overdrainage
D. Terracing
r i3 _- 1. Need for properly protected outlets
2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets
%,Oc. E. Ponds
il:p-4L 1. For irrigation water
y,(-,- 48 2. Livestock
,c-,- 4 3. Recreation and fish production
1fr~ -- 4. Need for sanitation and mosquito control
-g- mi 5. Flooding or drowning lands of others


-YC I -


II.. STREAMS AND LAKES


-. A. Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
S7 7- 1. Flooding
,.c 2. Sedimentation damage
.A-.- -3. Erosion
:VV JPT4&-h. Reducing or drying up normal flow
P c27 5* Raising water table to damaging extent on adjacent owners
....... .. 6. Lack of willingness to participate
B. Obstructions and Diversions in Canals
0i~2 3 1. Flooding
1r.- 2 2. Sedimentation damage
27-C 3. Erosion
rS$3 4. Raising water table to damaging extent on adjacent owners
5. Lack of willingness to participate
1 C 0 C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
S 3 1. Overdrainage
.&. 2. Flooding downstream
S1FZ; C- 3. Salt water intrusion from lack of controls or tide gates
SA cc.-4. Sediment damage from untreated spoil banks
r 5. Lack of willingness to participate


__ __


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gg


1 -











-D. Water Level Control in Lakes
I JtTp) 1. Levels too high
>"c<- 2. Levels too low
j0JI y923. Inadequate supply for beneficial uses
I 4. U. Lack of willingness to participate
2g5j E_ E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
-- 1. Municipal wastes
---- 2. Industrial wastes
3. Use of highly concentrated poison dusts and sprays for control
of insects and diseases on adjacent farm lands
Agricultural wastes
ryp -7r) F. Use of Streams and Lakes by Public
1. Access

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
e3Z T( 5 -1. Artesian, wasteful flow
20DZ X 2 2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells
,, 3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes
S, 4-4---.* Damage from oil exploration
25 p --.' $. Pollution, all causes
.jL 8) 6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others ( B. Springs
~0 3 1i Dry up or reduce flow

Ila IV. INTER-RELATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlets (no natural outlet)
St 1. Lowering water table
S 2. Pollution, all causes
3. Lowering water level
U. Flooding

N C- V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (natural sink outlet)
S 1. Flooding
2. Lowering water level
B. Outlet (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table
2. Lowering water level


___










SUMMARY BY TYPES OF PROBLEMS


NOTEs Only applicable headings and sub-headings contained in the summary
outline are. used in the body of this summary to classify and record problems
so far reported*

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions

1. Flooding

Problem County

(1) Highway drainage concentrates drainage waters Baker
and dumps it onto fields of Farmer "Ae"

(2) Farmer "A" .has a natural. drain through his Baker
land. A highway is built and water is concen-
trated through this natural drain so as to make
the surrounding fields unusable. This situation
has been.going on for some years.

(3) Farmer "A" has cropland which adjoins a tract of Baker
timber owned by Farmer "B." tfB" plows fire lanes
which turn water onto Farmer "A's" cropland.e

(4) Culverts under the highway are too small, causing Baker
part of Farmer "Als" cropland to be flooded.
This situation has been going on for some time.

($) A railroad constructed a fill for a track which Bradford
cut off a drainage ditch, causing a flooding of
a farmer's land.

(6) Farmer "A" digs a fish.pond and uses the dirt to Brevard
fill in the low portion of his property which was
a natural drainageway, and in so doing created a
water pond on his neighbor's land during heavy
rains,

(7) A drainage outlet ditch was established by a Brevard
rancher to drain a rather .large area to be used
for pasture. The new ditch emptied the water
into a natural drainageway, resulting in flodoing
of the lower land in citrus.

(8) Highway was constructed through an.area well Brevard
suited for citrus production.. The construction
of this highway obstructed the flow of surface
water to the extent of causing too much water on
one side of the highway, and causing too little
on the other side.

(9) U. S. Highway 41 is a barricade, or a dam, and "A" Charlotte
questioned the right of the State Road Department
in putting in this highway and not insisting on


---- =~1






-2-


I. A. 1.


large enough outlets for adequate drainage and dis-
posal along the road ditch, in driveway culverts
and culverts under the road not large enough to
take care of flood conditions when the water really
hurts* Approximately 75 farmers, ranchers, or home
owners are being hurt annually.


(10) The County Road Department, after Farmer "A" im-
proved his drainage of surface water on the up-.
hill side of the road, replaced a bridge with
culverts equal to about one-fourth or less the
cross-sectional area of the bridge. It is a well
established fact that the bridge overflowed every
year with no, or little, damage. At the first
flood the culverts backed up water over 20 acres
of "A's" land. There were no crops on the land,
but water hampered clearing.

(11) Outlets under the state roadbeds are not adequate
to give proper drainage and disposal, causing
water to back up on the property holders on the
east side of the highway. Lakes are formed on
the upstream side.

(12) "A", "B" and "C" have insufficient openings in
railroads and county and state highways to allow
fast runoff of excess water during flood for suf-
ficient drainage.


(13) Farmer "A" is damaged by excess diffused surface
water. "A" purchased his farm five years ago.
The farm is practically flat with natural drain-
age to the north from about half of his farm.
Railroad "B" runs along the north side of the
farm. U. S. Highway "C" runs parallel to the
railroad on the north. There is a small culvert
under each road. They were there when "A" pur-
chased his farm. The culverts are at too high
an elevation and are of too small size to allow
proper drainage of "A's" property. There is no
defined channel on 'Ie# farm, but a drainage
ditch does lead away from the highway culvert
going north across Farmer "D's" property. "A"
is attempting to improve and intensively utilize
his land, but excess water is seriously hindering
his operations.

(14) Owner "A" diked and ditched a section for the
growing of vegetable crops. This section is a
flat prairie and has no slough or watercourse
through or adjacent to it. Owner installed a
pump at one corner and pumped out his surface
and seepage water. This concentration of water
destroyed a culvert on a county road and caused


Charlotte


Charlotte


DeSoto


Duval


Glades







-3-

I. A. 1.

the flood over of a stocked and fertilized fish
pond belonging to owner "B."

(15) Landowner "A" diked around a section of land. Glades
This dike crossed two small natural sloughs in
which surface water normally moved during periods
of rain. The constructed dike caused the flood-
ing of 150 acres of newly planted clover on "B's"
land, thereby causing him to have to replant.

(16) "A" owned a large tract of land from which he Gulf
drained the surface water onto "B's" property.
"B" considered his property damaged because ex-
cess surface water was drained onto it.

(17) "A" built a dike to protect his pasture from run- Hardee
off above. This causes "precipitation runoff" to
back up on the lands of "B" for certain periods,
making the soil unproductive. "B" claims he is
entitled to have his runoff water pass down over
the land of "A" and asks that the dike be removed.
"A" holds to the contrary.

(18) In three or four cases in the county there are Hardee
culverts which aren't low enough or large enough,
coupled with poor and obstructed outlets, causing
damage to roadways ard backing-up of water on
farmers' lands, making the soil unproductive.

(19) Landowner digs a new ditch and opens it into Hendry
public canal. Silt or sediment from the new
ditch forms a bar in main canal.

(20) Culverts are inadequate to carry excess surface Hernando
water in the rainy season. The approaches are
such that sediment fills up the culverts. The
results are that a large acreage of crop and
pasture land is flooded, causing considerable
.damage to "B" by surface water backed up by this
artificial dam.

(21) State Road Department diverts excess diffused Hernando
surface water from the property owned by "A" on
to the property of "B" by means of ditches and
culverts, resulting in considerable damage to
some property and complete loss for cultivation
of other property of "B."

(22) "A" digs ditch across property draining water Hernando
into sink. Later "A" -sells the portion of land
nearest to sink to "B." "B" fills up ditch on
his property line. This floods "Ats" land.


(23) A small farm is adjacent to dike built by a


Hillsborough










company for impounding water for mining oper-
ations. Seepage through dike sufficient to pre-
vent successful farming. Drainage complicated
by uncooperative neighbors.

(24) Road grades in several places in county upsetting
natural drainage pattern.

(25) Culverts under highway are set so high that "A",
"B" and "C" are unable to adequately drain their
farm land. Needed drainage involves diffused
surface water.


Hillsborough


Holmes


(26) "A" builds a dam across a natural draw impounding Holmes
a large head of water. During excessive rains
dan blows out, cutting road and causing damage
to "B's" crop below the road.


(27) "A" died and ditched a section for the growing
of vegetable crops. This section is a flat
prairie and has no slough or watercourse through
or adjacent to it. Owner installs a pump at one
corner and pumps out his surface and seepage
water. This concentration of water destroyed a
culvert on a county road and caused the flood
over a stocked and fertilized fish pond belong-
ing to "B."

(28) "A" plans to improve surface drainage on his
lands. He is to construct a large shallow ditch
to his south boundary. He will run numerous
lateral ditches out from his main ditch. This
will speed up rate of discharge and increase
quantity for a short peak. "B" below him will
receive some damage from this discharged water.


Indian River









Indian River


(29) "A" diked around a section of land. This dike Indian River
crossed two small natural sloughs in which surface
water normally moved during periods of rain. The
constructed dike caused the flooding of 150 acres
of pasture on "B's" land, thereby causing him to
have to replant.


(30) The St. Johns Marsh flows north. Diking and
pumping developments on both sides of north end
have restricted outlet creating serious threat
of flood damage to drainage district and land-
owners on the east and west sides and at the
south end of the marsh.

(31) "A" ditched several hundred.acres of flat wood-
land. The water was dumped into a small natural
draw. "B's" farm is downstream from "A." Daring
the rainy season the excess water dumped into the
draw from "A's" ditches floods the property on


Indian River






Lafayette


I. A. 1.


_ ___I____ ~








I. A. 1.

farn "B."

(32) Daring periods of excessive rainfall surface Lake
water from "A's" land runs down through pasture
belonging to "B." Before "B" put in shallow
ditches to take care of a normal amount of sur-
face water, the water from "A" Came over his
land and on into swamp area below, but not in
a well defined channel. Now, since "B" put in
ditches the water from "A" has badly eroded
these ditches. Therefore, to eliminate any
future excessive washing "B" has constructed
a dike between "A" and himself, said dike be-
ing entirely on property of "B," "B" claims
that the natural contour of the land will enable
"A's" water to go around the dike and around
"B's" pasture now instead of through it. "A"
is of the opinion that "B" did not have the
right to obstruct the flow of water. Of course
"B" feels that "A's" water was causing him
damage,

(33) "A" throws up small dike and pumps water out of Lake
his field onto his own land, but this water
flows out over onto his neighbor's land, thus
causing a temporary higher water table. The
general area is very flat, there being no well
defined channels. .This is surface water from
excessive rainfall.

(34) "A" dikes swamp area along the St. Johns River, Lake
clears the swampland, pumps the surface water
into the river. This excessive pumping during
periods of natural heavy rainfall causes "B"
downstream to suffer damage that he would not
otherwise suffer if the river water had been
allowed to spread out over the swamp belonging
to "A" like it did before he diked it.

(35) A group of landowners along a U. S. Highway have Lee
insufficient drainage due, in part, to the road
grade.` Also.a state-owned canal from the trail
to the bay needs cleaning out badly. Driveways
across the road ditch on both sides of the road
put in by the state have insufficient culverts
under them and they will not carry as much water
as the ditch will. This causes water to back up
over the. adjoining land and holds it there for
long periods, of time. This general condition is
very widespread and has caused health hazards in
a nearby residential area and elementary school.

(36) A city street obstructs the natural drainage of Lee
home owners into the Canal Street canal and
floods their yards and in some cases causes


--






-6-

I. A. 1.

damage to their homes.

(37) A common practice among truck farmers in the Lee
area is to dike completely around a field and
during wet periods to pump over the dike. As
the country becomes more and more settled and
more pastures are improved, damage could result.

(38) "A" operates dairy on state road. Following Manatee
rains of any duration, water ponds and stands
on bii provedd paetuem as. much as 8-10 days,
apparently due to inadequate road culvert or
grade,

(39) "A" utilizes natural outlets for drainage of ex- Manatee
cess surface water. "B" operates truck fann be-
low "A" and to prevent damage to tomato crop
during heavy rains dikes his property. "B" in-
stalled small culvert through dike to allow
normal drainage waters to pass, but during ex-
treme rains closes culvert, resulting in water
impoundment on "A's" grazing lands.

(0O) County constructed new grade on "A's" property Manatee
for access to fields. New grade crossed natural
well defined outlet for "B's" drainage of 40-
acre pasture. Culvert installed of i~eaffinint
size and set too high, causing flooding on "B."

(41) "A" cleared and ditched land for cultivated crops.Manatee
Rim ditches were constructed within his property
lines rather than on the line as is common. In
wet season "B" connected his drainage ditches to
"A's" without his knowledge, resulting in over-
loading of the ditches and.crop damage to "A."

(42) "A" purchased property near bay and planned to Manatee
use indicated salt water slough for drainage.
Investigation revealed that "B", between "A"
and the bay, had dike and control gate which he
operated to fit his needs for gladiola produc-
tion and had done s6 for 8-10 years. This re-
quired "A", at great expense, to construct
alternate drainage outlet.

(43) "A" had diked an area of land along an old river Marion
bed for pasture development. The river had pre-
viously been diverted from its old channel
through a Federally constructed canal. Diffused
surface water on the diked area is being col-
lected in a series of ditches and pumped over
the dike onto the farm belonging to "B", which
also liae along the old river channel, below "A's"
property, causing damage to "B's" pasture.




































(s





rr





t
P


r
r-
c


S r

-7-

I, A. 1.
(h4) "A" dikes a section of land for vegetable grow- Martin
ing. He installs a 10,000 g.p.m. pump at one
corner for pumping out excess rain and seepage
water. There are no natural waterways or
sloughs touching his land. His discharge water
* damages a county road and causes water to run
through "B's" yard and garden.

S(45) A canal on "A's" property carries surface water Nassau
to a natural drain outlet on "B's" property.
The natural drain is carrying more water at a
r greater velocity than before the canal was dug.
This is flooding "C's" property lower down.

(46) "A" diked and ditched a section for the growing Okeechobee
of vegetable crops. This section is a flat
prairie and has no slough or watercourse through
or adjacent to it. Owner installs a pump at one
corner and pumps out his surface and seepage
water. This concentration of water destroyed a
culvert on a county road and caused the flooding
of a stacked and fertilized fish pond belonging
to owner "B."

(47) New road has too small or too few culverts in Okeechobee
places. This backs water up on adjoining l-nd.

(48) The State Highway Department cuts short outfall Osceola
ditch onto private property. The ditch does not
extend far enough to reach a defined drainageway.
The concentration of water caused by the ditch
floods improved pasture on the l-nd of the pri-
vate owner.

(49) A ranch recently became flooded over such large Pasco
areas that the homesite could be reached only by
boat, The owner, "A", allegedly dug a ditch across
a natural- barrier, and water began to pour from
his ranch across a State Road and onto an adjoin-
ing.ranch operated by "B". Since "B's" ranch lies
generally lower than "A's" and does not have drain-
age outlets, the prospect was that large portions
of "B's" ranch would quickly become flooded. "B"
brought in two bulldozers and threw up a large
dike across a corner of his ranch. This was suf-
ficient to protect "B's" 1'nd. The State Road
between properties of "A" ahd "B" was flooded to
a depth of 4 or5- feet. Finally the State Road
Department closed the ditch allegedly dug by "A"
and pumped the water off the road back into the
lakes on "A's" -ranch,

(50) "A" constructed a waterway to divert a large Pasco
quantity of water coming-downslope from "B's"
grove situated higher on the slope, thus pro-
viding vital protection for his own grove





-8-

I. A. 1.

planted on a steep hillside. The waterway
empties into a county road on the south property
line, and the water from the waterway may actu-
ally do considerable damage to "C's" grove on
the south side of the hill.

(51) Citrus grower "A" claims damage from diffused Polk
surface water draining on him from industrial
and county, and state development. Party "A's"
contention is that runoff has greatly increased
because of increased roof and paved areas above
his property.

(52) During abnormal rains in 1953 farmer "A" suffered Polk
from excess ground and surface water. Farmer
"A's" property was located in a shallow basin.
"A" installed a pump discharging water into a
natural drain on "B." "B" protested, claiming
increased damage because of "A's" water.

(53) "A" had been using the ditch along a state high- Putnam
way for drainage of diffused surface water from
his truck farm for many years. This was the natural
drainage way for this water. It drained into a
creek and finally into a river. The State Road
Department rebuilt this road and when they did,
the road ditch bottom was one foot higher than
the field ditch bottom.

($5) "Au, adjoining cross county road, had portion of Santa Rosa
field drowned out each year due to impounding of
water between road and field. Requested State
Road Department to lower culvert under field road
to avoid damage to cropland. State Road Depart-
ment culverts are found to be undersize for dis-
charge of surface waters from cultivated land -
were probably adequate at time of construction
when watershed area was all in woods.

(5$) Cooperator "A" of a soil conservation district Sarasota
constructed an earthen dam across a natural
drain, causing excessive surface water to back
up on a county road and onto properties owned
by "B", "C" and "D.O Although it has been a
proven fact that it is a natural drain, "A" main-
tains that he has a right to prevent "B", "C" and
"D" from draining their excessive water through
the natural drain. The county road is covered
with water after heavy rains, but it has not
acted.

(56) Surface water crossing the Manatee-Sarasota Sarasota
County line and a state road resulted in flood-
ing SCD cooperator "A's" property. State road
ditches are inadequate to prevent this occurrence.








I. A. 1.

(57) The natural slope of the soil on farms "A" and Sarasota
,B" carry excessive seasonal waters to state
road. Road acts as a dam and inadequate road
ditches prevent entirely the removal of this
water. The water backs up, thereby causing many
acres of pasture and range land to suffer from
excessive standing water.

(58) A few years ago the State Road Dopartment built Seminole
a new road from Sanford to Mims. The road cut
across the northeast corner of "Ats" farm, leav-
ing approximately five acres on the north side
of the road. Before the road was constructed
the farmer verbally agreed on the proposed right-
of-way providing the road department would pro-
vide sufficient outlet under the highway. How-
ever the road was built and no outlet was pro-
vided along the north property adjacent to the
road. A culvert of insufficient capacity was
installed under the road approximately 1/4 mile
east of this farm; however, a county road running
north and south along the east boundary of this
farm prevents the surface water from this farm
from reaching the culvert. "A" has approximately
forty acres of Class II land on the northeast
portion of the farm that has practically no value
since it is covered with surface water all dur-
ing the rainy seasons.

(59) Farmer "A" constructs a dike around that part of Sumter
his land extending into a flat low marsh area to
prevent flow of diffused surface water into his
part of the marsh. Farmers "B" and "C" find that
surface water accumulates on their land and is
prevented from flowing away by the obstructing
dike.

(60) State diverts water from highway right-of-way Suwannee
into lake on "A's" land, causing the lake level
to rise and keep under water a number of acres
of land around the lake. No outlet was made
for excess water being diverted into lake.

(61) The State Road Department did not place a cul- Union
vert at a point in a new road, where it seemed
to be needed. This caused water to back-up on
"Ats" field.

(62) Concreted highway ditch diverted and also con- Washington
centrated run-off water, carrying a lot of
force in a westerly direction and causing
damage to fields, pasture fences and country
roads Fence at "A's" farm was completely
washed and pushed down for 200 yards during
heavy periods of rainfall.






(10)

I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER

A. Obstructions and Diversions

2. Erosion

Problem County

(1) The County Road Department by building a graded Calhoun
county road and road ditches caused water from
excessive rains, which once were diffused and
widespread before the road was built, to concen-
trate and overflow onto and across "B's" farm
property. The result was damage to "B's" field
by creation of extremely large and deep gullies.

(2) The State Road Department has diverted water from Calhoun
a road ditch onto a steep slope across farmer
"A'ss property, causing severe erosion. "A" con-
tends that the State Road Department should have
carried the water 200 yards farther.down road
ditch to a natural draw where a simple short con-
crete structure would have carried it down to a
stream bed. The State Road Department contends
that it would have been too far to carry the
water 200 more yards.

(3) The diffused surface water from a farmer's field Escambia
drained into a county road ditch. This excess
water contributed to considerable erosion damage
to the road and caused the county to spend a lot
of time and money making repairs. The field
needed terraces and waterways that would drain
through a natural draw and thereby keep the ex-
cess water out of road ditch.

(4) Concentration of water at outlets for road ditches Hillsborough
causing erosion and damage to property owners
where road water is turned loose.

(5) *A" owns the upper slope where the surface water Jackson
ultimately crosses the farm lands of "B." "A"
constructed a system of terraces outletting into
a ditch of a county road on the property line.
The road ditch carried the water to a low place
where it flowed across the road and across
farmer "B's" land. "B" claimed he was damaged by
concentrated and diverted water from "A's" farm.

(6) "A" constructed a system of terraces where the Jackson
runoff water emptied into a vegetative waterway
and flowed into a depression on the property
line of both "A" and "B.* "B" agreed for this
concentrated water emptying into the depression.
Later, "B" claimed that the excess diverted
water damaged his property.







(r)


I. A. 2.

(7) "A" claims he has suffered damage by erosion, Okaloosa
caused by the State Highway Department draining
some ponds and putting U-ditch across his farm.
The farmer has at different times tried to check
the gullies by putting in check dams of logs and
earth.

(8) State and county roads concentrate run-off of Walton
water in roadway ditches and turn loose this
water in a natural draw that runs across the
field of "B", causing some gullies. If "A"
terraces his field so that the water is dumped
from these terraces on "BIts land, can "B9 re-
quire "AM to prepare a waterway on his own
property and prevent the water froa crossing
property boundaries even though some of the run-
off nonually drained across "Als" land before
terracing?

3. Sedimentation damage
Problem Coun

(1) 4A" runs water from a lime rock crusher into a Hernando
large lake of which "A* owns only a portion. Re-
sults are that lake is gradually filling up with
lime sludge, causing the water to contain an ex-
tremely hi&g lime content, to which "B" and "C",
whose properties border on the lake, object.

(2) "A's" dam breaks and silts ponds owned by "B" Leon
and ,C9

(3) "A" reported that grove owner "B" above him did Pasco
not use proper cultural practices, and as a re-
suit "A's" farm was damaged by excess mud on
pasture grass and the ruining of the farm fish
pond. One additional contributor to the damage,
according to "A", was a State Road which collected
and brought water to the edge of the farm by road
ditches.

(4) State concentrates and diverts water on Secondary Suwannee
road from shoulders and up slopes into low area
on *A'sg farm, Water is causing sanding in on
land to which it was diverted. Similar cases
occur on county roads.

B. Canals and Ditches

r1 Flooding

Problem County


(1) Mary instances have occurred where county and


Bradford





(12)


I. B. 1,

state agencies have cut ditches from the roads into
ponds without outlets, causing a flooding of farm
lands.

(2) Over a period of years the W.P.A. cut ditches into Bradford
a lake, which caused it to flood riparian property
owners during wet seasons which had not occurred
before.

(3) Farmer "A" installed a water control structure in Brevard
a canal which served the entire area which caused
Farmer "B's" land to be too wet at times because
Farmer "A" was holding the water level in the
canal too high.

(4) "A" and *B", large landowners in a 3,000-acre Calhoun
watershed, drained their lands through lateral
ditches into natural small watercourses and into
a larger watercourse. This accelerated the water
flow to the extent that a flash flood washed out
a State Highway bridge and a dam which had created
an artificial scenic lake in a municipality.

(5) "A" owns considerable road frontage along state Citrus
highway. Surface water has been diverted along
ditches by highway department concentrating water
in low areas of pasture which had been used
rather extensively for growing clover, resulting
in damage sufficient to be of much financial con-
cern,

(6) "A", "B" and "C" want to build dam in a drainage Citrus
canal to hold water higher so that the water table
will not be lowered in citrus groves along the
drain. Farmer "DI whose land is also in the water-
shed and touches the canal, objects to the building
of the dam since he anticipates that his pasture
will be damaged by flooding caused by the obstruc-
tion in the channel.

(7) "A" put in a low earth dam in a ditch on his farm Charlotte
to hold up the water level in the ditch. A flood
washed out the earth dam and deposited the dirt
in the ditch on the farm of "B" down stream, ob-
structing drainage and flooding 'B's" land.

(8) Farmer "A" develops a large flat area which nor- Clay
mally drains across Farmer "B's" property through
several small natural drainageways and constructed
ditches which were activated during high water.
Although no additional watershed was added to
existing outlets, the development of Farmer "A's"
property increased the rate of runoff, temporarily
flooding portions of Farmer aB's" property.







(1.3)

I, B. 1.

(9) An old drainage ditch is to be cleaned out and Duval
improved in channel design from its beginning to
where it goes under a railroad track on the north
side of Farmer "A." All the landowners upstream
from the railroad, including Farmer "A", improved
their individual farm drainage systems. Farmer
"Ai" owns the land on both sides of the ditch where
it hits the railroad. Farmer "B" owns the land on
the other side.of the railroad. The channel ca-
pacity under the railroad and the natural water-
way across Farmer "B'su property is not adequate
to carry off the increased volume of water,
Farmer "A" is flooded out.

(10) The Highway Department has established outfall Flagler
ditches from culverts a few hundred feet from the
highway and dumped the water on pasture land and
woodland of several farms, causing flood damage.

(11) Owner "A" plans to improve surface drainage on Glades
his lands. He is to construct a large shallow
ditch to his south boundary and use a natural
slough for an outlet* He will run numerous
lateral ditches out from his main ditch. This
will speed up rate of discharge and increase
quantity for a short peak. Owner "B" below him
contends that he will receive some damage from
this discharged water,

(12) A 10-year old canal, which is no longer maintained Glades
but which affords a limited amount of drainage, is
blocked by an individual landowner.

(13) Landowner "A" installed water control system on Glades
his land. Part of this system was a large canal
which was an improvement of' the SRD highway ditch.
Landowner installed several turnouts with culverts
in place. During rainy season lands owned by "B",
"C" and, "D" were covered by water backed up by
the small culverts.

(14) One landowner cuts ditch down slope until he has Hendry
his water moving towards a natural outlet, but
stops ditch on own property. Water continues
toward outlet and damages other persons' property
between ditch and outlet.

(15) "A" plans to improve surface drainage on his Hendry
lands. He is to construct a large shallow ditch
to his south boundary. He will ran numerous
lateral ditches out from his main ditch. This
will speed up rate of discharge and increase
quantity for a short peak* "B" below him will
receive- some damage from this discharged water.





(14)

I. B. 1.

(16) The city changed the original flow of a drainage Holmes
ditch, causing the small stream into which it
discharged to overflow during periods of high
rainfall. This excess water washes debris from
garbage dump on to "A's" pasture land.

(17) "A" installed water control system on his land. Indian River
Part of this system was a large canal which was
an improvement of the SRD highway ditch. Land-
owner installed several turnouts with culverts
in place. During rainy season lands owned by
"B", "C" and "D" were covered by water backed up
by the small culverts.

(18) Landowner "A" constructs sizable canal and dis- Indian River
charges same into small highway roadside ditch,
causing flooding of highway in storm period.

(19) A ranch borders a river on the south and lies Levy
about 1/8 of a mile from the highway on the
north. Due to a pond close to the highway which
in high water flooded the highway, the State Road
Department put in a large culvert which took the
excess water under the highway and ultimately onto
the property of the ranch owner. This water floods
two low areas of pastureland for considerable
lengths of time.

(20) "A", having several hundred acres of improved pas- Levy
ture, constructed surface drainage ditches to take
care of excess surface water during the rainy
season. As a result, considerable flooding takes
place on Ranch "B."

(21) A truck farmer desires to construct proper drain- Levy
age ditches to -ndle diffused water which somd-
times causeEI.ic3z.of crops. In so doing, he will
deposit exc.esp water onto a large tract of timber-
land belonging to a large company.

(22) "A" borders on a medium-sized lake on which a Osccola
group of home owners has developed properties by
building docks and planting gardens and lawns.
The rancher digs a canal, draining large areas
into the lake* The lake's outlet is inadequate
to take care of the added water, causing the lake
to rise, resulting in extensive damage to the
property owners' improvements.

(23) A canal and drainage system is technically de-. Osceola
signed on the basis of the amount of water a box
culvert under a State road will handle safely.
The landowner constructs additional laterals not
recommended in the technical design. The addi.
tional water causes damage to the highway and








(15)
I. B. 1. inconvenience to traffic on the highway

(24) Party "A" dug a drainage ditch on his east prop- Polk
erty line, receiving written permission to drain
through party "B" to. an outlet. Party "A"
granted "C" permission to drain diffused surface
water from approximately five acres into his
ditch. During high water in 1953 a lake on "Cts"
property overflowed, draining into "C's" ditch,
thence to "A's" ditch. Party "A" claims damage
to 'his property because of overloading of main
outlet preventing adequate drainage of "As"-
property. Party "C" refused to lose his ditch.

(25) Farmer "A" was suffering from high water in a Polk
citrus grove, because of abnormal rainfall and
inability of the normal drainageway to take care
of excess surface water. Farmer "A" and the
county deepened existing road ditch through a
higher ridge diverting excess water on Farmer
"B" who claims he is having to handle water
which never flowed on him in the past.

(26) Farmer "A" is diking and pumping water from about Polk
160 acres into an existing drainage ditch between
"A" and "B." "B" receives more water and at a
faster rate than previously, resulting in flooding
of "B's" land.

(27) Farmer "A" constructs a drainage channel to col- Sumter
lect and convey diffused surface water in what
he considers the run of a natural water course
discharging into farmer "Bts" land. "B" claims
the natural watercourse is in another location
not running into his land, and his land is flood-
ing by action of "A." The country is so flat
that watercourses are numerous, not well defined
and water does flow in each of the watercourses
preferred by "A" and "B."

(28) During a prolonged rainy.season, a large portion Sumter
of a town was flooded, threatening contamination
of the city's water supply. The city installed
chlorination facilities. The flooded condition
was due to the topography of the area and to the
fact that nearby farmlands and highways brought
surplus diffused surface water into the:town.

(29) The State Road Department cut a ditch-through Un;ia
"A's" land, thereby causing it to become water-
logged during wet seasons.

2. Sedimentation damage-

Problem County


(1) Landowner digs a new ditch and opens it into


7


Glades





(16)

I. B. 2.

public canal. Silt or sediment from the new
ditch forms a bar in main canal*

(2) A new road was constructed. Silt from road Holmes
ditches raised the bed of a small stream, back-
ing up water on "A", causing spring to become
polluted. "A" had been using spring as a source
of water for dairy, but it was condemned. "A's"
dairy cows were forced to wade impounded water
to get to the milk barn. This caused abnormally
high bacteria count in "A's" milk.

(3) Landowner digs a new ditch and opens it into Indian River
public canal. Silt or sediment from the new
ditch forms a bar in main canal.

(4) A now state road was constructed through prop- Leon
erty belonging to "A." The right-of-way was
purchased but when the road ditches were con-
structed, the road water drained into a bottom
owned by "A." Also, much silt was washed into
the low area.

3. Erosion

Problem County

(1) "A" and "B" are draining their properties. This DeSoto
water goes across "C's" property at a high veloc-
ity, creating a serious erosion problem.

4. Overdrainage

Problem unty

(1) In draining his farm "B" ran the canal across Dixie
"A's" property. The route of this canal follows
no streams or sloughs. This water from "B's"
farm did not originally cross "A's" property.
"A" believes this canal over-drains his property
by being too deep. He bases his belief on the
fact that in severely dry weather water is run-
ning out of the end of the canal and dry where
it begins on his property.

(2) State Road Department digs a deep canal along the Hernando
side of a newly constructed road. As the result,
excess water from property of "A" is removed,
lowering the water table. The water table of "B's"
property on other side of the road is also lowered.

(3) A mile-long canal was dug by "A" to remove excess Nassau
surface water on his large ranch. It was neces-
sary to carry water from one watershed to another








(17)

I. B. 4.

in order to find: a satisfactory outlet for both
watersheds on "A's" ranch. "B", an adjoining
landowner, owning property in the upper part of
the watershed common to a portion of "A's" prop-
erty, claims that the canal has overdrained his
property, which has slowed down the growth of his
pine woodland and prevented reproduction from be-
coming established. Farmer "C", another adjoining
woodland landowner in the same watershed, claims
he has received benefits.

C. Drainage

1. Surface

Problem County

(1) A group of citrus growers, by agreement, drain Osceola
their groves through property of "B" who gave
verbal permission for the owners to do so. The
property of "B" was a marsh which he did not
develop. "B" sells his property to "C", who
develops the marsh by diking and pumping. "C":
does not wish to pump the extra water from the
citrus groves.

3, Need for outlets

Problem County

(1) During periods of heavy rainfall "A" has land Orange
that is subject to flooding from.a large natural
water storage area. Without proper water manage-
ment it is not practical-for him to develop pas-
ture on this land. Knowing this, "A" diked off
a part of this swamp area, planning to obtain
water management on it with a drainage well. He
then discovered that he could not put down a
drainage well without a permit from the County
Board of Health. The county health officer re-
fuses a permit for a well of any size or depth.

4. Need for participation by landowners

Problem County

(1) Farmer *A* needs an outlet for his drainage Baker
system through the land.of Farmer "B."

(2) A drainage district was established in the County Bradford
in 1917, followed by the construction of a net-
work of ditches designed to control water in the
eastern section of the County. No provision was
made, or funds set up, for maintenance, and as a


I_ _








(18)


I. C. 4.


result the system has not been maintained in an
operative condition. "A", who has property along
one of the ditches, has cleaned out the ditch that
runs along his land. Three farmers, "B", "C" and
"D" below him and the outlet, refuse to help clean
out the portion of the ditch that runs through
their properties.

(3) Farmer "A" cut a ditch on the uphill side of his
property, throwing the spoil on his side. This
prevented Farmer "Bts" (uphill) diffused surface
water from flowing over "A1s" property, thus im-
proving *A's" drainage, and "A" contends to some
extent it improves "B's" drainage and questions
whether or not he should have to pay all the
ditching cost. Farmer "B' contends that it does
not improve his drainage and questions the right
of "A" to dike and not provide an adequate outlet.

(4) Another problem in the streams of the county is
that of hyacinths establishing and jamming out-
lets with their excessive growth, blocking boats
and transportation through the stream whereby pro-
per drainage is impaired.

(5) The water from a slough on "A's" farm naturally
drains onto "Bls" farm to enter an intermittent
Stream, "A" wishes to improve his drainage by
constructing a ditch from the slough across "B's"
land to the stream. "B" will not permit this.

(6) Famer "A" owns a muckland farm along a State
highway. The highway could serve as a dike, us-
ing an existing structure under the highway to
dispose of pumped drainage water. The road de-
partment does not wish to cooperate to facilitate
the development of the property.

(7) Farmer "A" wants to drain his property. The only
feasible way is to utilize a drainageway through
"B's" property. Farmer "B" objects because his
property is flooded.

(8) '"A and "B" have excess amount of surface water.
The natural drain runs through OC's" property.
"C" will not give necessary easement for drainage
of water.

(9) Two groups of farms are in a drainage area.
Group "A" will be on the lower end of drainage
area, and Group "B" will be on the upper end.

Group "A's" farm land was being damaged by sur-
face water and asked for assistance. This prob-
lem was helped by diking and digging a drainage


Charlotte










Charlotte





Charlotte





Clay






Clay




DeSoto




Dixie








(19)

I, C. h.

ditch. This has relieved Group "A" of damage in
normal rainfall years. Group "B" has similar prob-
lem and asked for assistance. Some of the farmers
in Group "A" object to having corrective measures
done on their farms, The water from Group "B's"
drainage area now crosses Group "A's" property by
following sloughs.

(10) A farmer has a low wet area in his field next to Escambia
State highway. The highway ditch grew up in weeds
and accumulated silt until it would no longer drain
the diffused surface water. This caused the water
to stand on the farmer's land, destroying his
crops. The highway department agreed to clean the
ditch, but where it crossed a county road after it
had left the highway, there was a culvert too small
to dispose of the water as rapidly as desirable.
The hithway department claimed the county should
install a larger culvert, but the county thought
it was the state's responsibility since it was an
outlet ditch for the highway.

(11) A group of 10 landowners propose a watershed pro- Glades
gram to effect improved drainage. One of the
owners backs out and won't agree for main outlet
crossing his lands. The small natural outlet
crosses him now.

(12) A pond is so situated that it lies across the Holmes
property line between "A" and "B*" "A" owns the
larger portion of the pond. "A" wishes to drain
the pond; "B" objects.

(13) A group of 10 landowners propose a watershed pro- Indian River
gram. to effect improved drainage. One of the
owners backs out and won't agree for main outlet
crossing his lands. The small natural outlet
crosses him now.

(14) "B", having a large acreage of woodland pasture, Levy
does not choose to surface drain. However, he
objects to "A" throwing excess water onto his
property, damaging both trees and grasses. "C",
below, has over 100 acres of prairie land which he
desires to develop, but must first control the
surface water. He has sufficient fall to" make
surface drainage feasible. But due to the large
watershed above, without the cooperation of "B",
it is very doubtful that he can economically con-
struct .a surface drainage system to handle the
surface water adequately unless he has the cooper-
ation of the landowner.


(15) "A" is developing high ground pasture requiring


~I I^-----~-. I


Manatee





(20)


I. 4.

surface drainage. "B", on lower side, will not
agree to right-of-way for outlet ditch unless
"A" bears all expense for "his" water being trans-
ported across "B's" property and puts said ditch
where "B" desires it. Lack of surface drainage
will mean loss of any developed grasses for "A."

(16) "A's" pasture land is adjacent to dwellings of "B" Manatee
and "C." "A" closed surface drainage ditches con-
structed by him, resulting in flooding of "B" and
"C's" back yard areas with surface waters. "A"
also owns a narrow strip of property on natural
outlet route direct from "B" and "C" to canal, but
has indicated non-cooperative attitude for drain-
age.

(17) "A" is on the west side of a county road with a Okaloosa
natural draw going across his field on Class I
land. "B* is on the east of the road. During
heavy rains the water drowns out four or five
acres of his crops. The county has tried several
times to get "A" to permit the county to shape a
waterway across the field so that the road can
be kept passable in rainy weather, and also keep
the water from drowning out "B's" crops. What
right does the county road and "B" have?

(18) "A" has constructed a control-drainage system af- Pasco
fecting 10,000 acres and funneled the water under
a U. S. Higiway. Seasonally, a large volume of
water moves a little north of west until it enters
"B's" property, where it flows leisurely through
cypress heads until it flows under a railroad and
enters "C's" property on the west. "B" seems to
assume that "A's" concentration is not unreason-
able and he is proceeding with efforts to obtain
the drainage and water control he needs by work
done on his own property, but conceivably he
could need the cooperation of .the railroad and
landowner "C", including an expensive channel
through "C's" land.

(19) Within a city "A" owns a home and lots. "A" Sarasota
would like to get some drainage of these lots,
which would probably necessitate several ditches
across properties owned by the city. The city
refuses to dig, or allow "A" to dig, ditches in
order to provide the necessary drainage.

(20) WA. is located on the lower end of a badly needed Union
drainage ditch, "B" and "C", located above him,
need the ditch to drain their land.

(21) "A", "B" and "C", the three larger muck owners in- Volusia
volving 100 acres of muck land and a one-mile-long


_ _____ ___ ~_ _I~_ _~1_1 ~___ _~CI(II








(21)


I. c. h.

ditch dug in 1947, have agreed to assume the cost
of a clean-out job by a dragline at an estimated
cost of $1,200. "D" agreed to let the dragline
clean out the ditch, but insisted that the ditch
follow its previous route through a muck pond.
"A", "B" and "C" want the dragline to go around
muck area for economy in digging. Original ditch
through muck area was dug by hand; dragline oper-
ator says his machine cannot go through this muck
area even on mats. "A", "B" and "C" say hand-dig-
ging through muck area is too expensive at this
time.

$. Need for control of overdrainage

Problem County

(1) Property owner 'A" has extensive property hold- Citrus
ings bordering on navigable river which he wants
to drain into river for purpose of developing the
area into pasture. Adjoining property owner "B"
gets court injunction contending that the drainage
will lower the water table in the lakes to the ex-
tent of damage to groves and fishing.

(2) The County Commissioners, at the request of farm- Charlotte
ers "A" and "B", cleaned out a small intermittent
stream to increase drainage. The results were
satisfactory to "A," However, "B" claimed the
ditch overdrained his land.

(3) Twenty-five years ago, a drainage district was Flagler
organized for the purpose of draining a large
trucking area. The project, affecting 24,500
acres, was designed for complete drainage. For
several years, there have been complaints by land-
owners, both within the drainage district and for
several miles nearby, that the water table has
been lowered over a wide area by over-draining.
Some landowners desire to install water control
structure, others do not. This leads to some
legal questions.

(4) Farmer "A" has several hundred acres of poorly Franklin
drained land that he wishes to drain in order to
encourage natural reseeding of the land to pine.
It is contended that by so doing he will lower
the water table on adjacent lands to the point
that Farmers "B's" and "C's" pasture is going to
be affected, since this is diffused surface water.

(5) Owner "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage canal on Glades
his property, but immediately adjacent to property
owned by "B.% One year later, "B" claims that the
canal is overdraining his pasture for a distance


, 7 _1~ _: --- -, -__





(22)

I. C. 5.

of 300 feet from the canal.

(6) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage canal on his Hendry
property, but immediately adjacent to property
owned by "B." One year later, "B" claims that
the canal is overdraining his pasture for a dis-
tance of 300 feet from the canal.

(7) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage canal on his Indian River
property, but immediately adjacent to property
owned by "B." One year later, "B" claims that the
canal is overdraining his pasture fbr a distance
of 300 feet from the canal.

(8) "A" drains a meadow of some 800 acres and is Lake
planting to pasture. Other farmers in the area
who own high ground around the meadow and have
groves are of the opinion that he should not be
allowed to lower the water table in this marsh
area, first because it might lower the water table
under their grove land, and second, it will have a
tendency to make the groves colder in the winter
months,

(9) Green Swamp area, headwaters for three different Lake
watersheds, is being drained by "A" to the point
that bay heads that normally have water in them
year around are now dry. It is necessary to dig
holes to provide water for the stock due to lower-
ing water tables. Citizens interested in our
water supplies are deeply concerned about this
and think that drainage of land should be con-
trolled. Important water storage areas such as
this might be publicly owned and kept as natural
water reservoirs.

(10) The mosquito control district recently purchased Lee
a new dragline and is using it to clean out many
stopped up ditches. One case on the city limits
they deepened the ditch to from 10 to 12 feet.
The yard directly adjacent to the ditch could
easily be ruined by excessive drainage.

(11) A state-owned and constructed ditch along a street Lee
was so deep that it killed a grove adjacent to
the ditch.

(12) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage ditch along his Martin
property line. One year later his neighbor, "B",
claims that his land is being overdrained for a
strip of o00 feet adjacent to ditch.

- (13) A large pulp company plans to drain a 2,000 acre Nassau
swamp. Draining the swamp will in turn lower the








(23)



water table in the surrounding area. Many of the
farmers in the area depend on shallow wells for
domestic use.

(14) "A" digs a six-foot deep drainage canal on his Okeechobee
property, but immediately adjacent to property
owned by "B." One year later, "B" claims that
the canal is overdraining his pasture for a dis-
tance of 300 feet from the canal.

(15) "A" digs a diversion ditch on his own property to Osceola
intercept surface and seepage water from the lands
of "Bg who joins "A." "A" digs the diversion ditch
so deep that it lowers the water table on the prop-
erty of "B", so as to adversely affect grove trees
near the ditch.

D. Terracing

1. Need for properly protected outlets.

Problem County

(1) "A" constructed a set of very large diversion Calhoun
terraces which emptied onto "B's" property. "B"
was an absentee northern landowner whose land
adjoined "A.* The diversion terraces caused ex-
tremely large, deep, and long gullies across "B's"
land. ."B" sells his land to "C." "C" asks "A" to
help remedy the situation. "A" begins the sodding
of waterways before the plowing of old terraces
and having new ones laid out. Then "A" sells his
land to "D,". "D" does not wish to continue work
started by "A."

(2) "A", a renter, runs terraces on a field and dumps Walton
them into an improperly constructed, unseeded
waterway of hi own construction.

2. Need for cooperation in establishing joint outlets.

Problem County

(1) Terrace water on "A's" farm is discharged into Holmes
natural draw, which also crosses "Bts" land.
"B" objects to increased flow of water across his
property.

(2) "A" and "B" own farmland on the upper slope of a Jackson
fairly steep and long slope.' Runoff water from
these farms naturally'flows across "Bt's property.
The contour of the land prohibits "B" from divert-
ing the water off his farm land. "B" has proposed
to buy the property of "A" in order to control


~li___ __~_1_~ ________1__1___11_____.__._ I_-.__ ._._11
































1


I. D. 2.
eros
sell


iion on the entire slope, but "A" refuses to
or install erosion control practices.


(3) "A" proposed to shape up and vegetate a natural
draw on his farm that is on the upper slope. "B",
adjoining landowner on lower slope, refuses to co-
operate to carry water to a road ditch across his
land, and notified "A" not to release concentrated
water at the land line.


Jackson


(U) A water disposal area begins on "A's" farm and ex- Leon
tends down through a farm belonging to "B." "A"
sowed his portion of the disposal area to grass,
but when he began constructing terraces that
drained into the area, "B" objected to the water
being drained on his land.


(5) "A" owns a field above "B's" farm. There is a
large gully down across "Ats" farm that crosses
"B's" farm and drains into the woods. "A" wants
to make a terrace outlet channel out of this
gully so that he can terrace the field and have
a safe water disposal area. "B" objects to the
water crossing his land.


Madison


(6) A natural draw starts in "A's" field and goes down Okaloosa
across "B's." "A" terraces his field and puts the
water in this draw. After the draw reaches "B",
"A" stops his terraces 75 feet from the fence.


(7) A farmer terraces his land, emptying the water in
Adjoining wooded area belonging to non-resident
owner. Later, non-resident owner decided to clear
land and requested that terrace system be re-ar-
ranged so as not to empty water on him.
(8) A farmer at outlet end of W-type waterway objects
to water being concentrated and going in on him,
even though this is the natural direction of sur-
face drainage. Higher owner offers to prepare
waterway to natural draw 100 feet beyond his
property line to protect lower owner to fullest
possible extent. Lower owner objects, and wants
waterway done away with.


Santa Rosa

Santa Rosa


(9) "A" was ready to terrace his severely eroded field Union
but could not do so because his neighbor below him,
"B", would not give him the right to discharge the
water through his field.
(10) "A's" terraces concentrate water in a natural draw Walton
that runs across the property of "B." OB" com"-
plains about the concentration and extra water de-
positing sand and silt on his pasture.


~_I_~ __ ~


(24)








(25)


I. D. 2.


(11) Two hills are located near each other. They are
very steep hills with long slopes. On a big pro-
portion of these hills the soil is very shallow;
therefore, runoff is heavy since there is not
much absorption of rainfall on these slopes. The
water comes on down from the south and west sides
of these two hills, crossing "A's" field, then
through "B's" field and on into *C's" field. By
the time this reaches "C'sr farm, there is an
accumulation sufficient to cause severe damage in
erosion, silting and flooding out good agriculo
tural land. This problem will be somewhat less
damaging when the proposed water disposal area
is constructed and sod is sufficiently estab-
lished on the farms above mentioned. Two of the
farmers are already in agreement with the plan.
The water disposal area will be nearly 3/4 of a
mile long if it is constructed according to plans.


Washington


E. Ponds

1. For irrigation water


Problem

(1) *A" constructs dam on a drainageway. The water
had no definite stream bed when it flowed. "B"
and "C", whose farms were located below "A", com-
plained to "A" about the loss of water supply to
their ponds which had been dug below "A's" dam on
the same watershed. The water from the. three
ponds was used for irrigation.

3. Recreation and fish production

Problem


County


Leon


(1) "A" and "B" have artificial ponds on
drainageway, which is not a stream.
is located above "B's." "A" applies
cations of rotenone and weed killing


the same
"A's" pond
heavy appli-
sprays.


(2) "A" has a cesspool located on his own property
but drains in the direction of "B's" farm pond.
"B" believes this contaminates his fish, and
therefore does not use the fish for food.

5. Flooding or drowning lands of others

Problem

(1) Under a W.P.A. project, an earthern dam was con-
structed to increase the surface acreage of a
natural pond and prevent drainage of additional


Leon




Walton


county

Jackson


-~~: ~ ~r~~..... ~.__-~_--Li~l=i-~-~-__l__~i~ __~~ __





(26)


I. E. 5.

impounding water through the lime sink. In 1948,
with extremely heavy rainfall, the water level
rose to the point of damaging farm land and homes
above the dam. To relieve this condition, an
effort was made by exploding dynamite below the
dam to open the sink which had been closed. The
Federal Agent who supervised the explosion of the
dynamite was jailed by a state agency for violat-
ing the state fresh water game and fish laws.

II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A. Obstructions and diversions of natural streams

1. Flooding

Problem County

(1) "A" plans to build a dike along the east side of Alachua
his property to prevent the water coming from
Levy Prairie (lake) through Kanapa Branch from
entering his property and flooding several hun-
dred acres of pasture land. "A" contends that
this water leaves the prairie through a ditch
constructed by the State Road Department. This
dike will not prevent the water from leaving
Levy Prairie, but will cause flooding of land
between the dike and the prairie.

(2) A farmer wishes to dam a stream, but in order to Baker
get enough depth in the pond, he must back water
onto a county graded road over a space about 20
feet.

(3) Farmer "A" builds a low dike along a stream to Baker
protect his land from overflow. Farmer "B",
above Farmer "A", whose property is on a tribu-
tary to the stream that flows through "A's" prop-
erty, builds a dike to protect his pasture from
overflow waters of the stream, which rose to a
higher elevation as the result of "A's" dike.
Farmer "B's" dike causes Farmer "A's" dike to
break, flooding his land.

(4) A farmer on one side of a large stream built a Brevard
dike for protection during the flood season.
Another farmer on the opposite side built a sim-
ilar dike, thus causing a restriction of the flow
of the stream, and water is concentrated and dis-
charged on property of others.

(5) A new highway is being built across a large Brevard
stream. There is considerable effect on the
general drainage pattern of the surrounding area,
especially during flood season.


_ =_I______~ ~___ ~I____








(27)

II. A. 1.

(6) Large ranch owner constructed dike across head- Brevard
waters of a stream to facilitate farming opera-
tions on muck. Flood waters of stream back up
into drainage district adjoining, causing over-
flow of ditches, canals and lands.

(7) The major drainage outlet for DeSoto County is DeSoto
obstructed by railroad bridges and sunken barges.
The obstructions hold up floating debris and
hyacinths which hinder movement of water during
the rainy season.

(8) A pulp company is ditching its timberland while Flagler
in the process of building grades through the
timber. The ditches empty into a creek. During
periods of high water, these ditches cause the
creek to overflow farmerst land downstream.

(9) Farmer "A" built a dam at the head of a stream Gadsden
that furnished water to the city. The city asked
him to release the water due to flood hazard to
low-lying residence houses on the stream. Farmer
"A" hired a private engineer to survey this struc-
ture to see if it was safe. The private engineer
reported he was within hisrights. Water is im-
pounded, and the city has not taken any more action
in three years.

(10) During the 1948 flood, the Morgan Mill Pond spill- Hamilton
way on the farm of "A" broke, upsetting the 70-
year-old mill building into the channel. A tor-
rent of water from the 100-acre pond ruined stored
corn, fertilizer and equipment on the farm of "B."
Normally, these waters follow a well defined chan-
nel for approximately a half mile, then disappear
into a sink. Far exceeding the capacity of this
sink,-these flood waters overflowed adjacent
farms, then into a draw without a well defined
channel. Flowing down this draw, the water dam-
aged over a.hundred feet of Highway #6. At this
point, serious erosion occurred on the farms of
"C" and *D. ID" is considering legal action to
prevent "A" from repairing this structure unless
it is made foolproof. The extraordinary flood of
1948 is the only time waters from this source
have damaged "B", "C" and D. "A" owns this damsite
and several acres of the pond area. Neighbor "X"
owns nine-tenths of this pond area, which now has
valuable growth of young pines. "X" will agree
to the rebuilding of "A's" dam only with a stipu-
lation that the dam shall be without removable
gates. This is so that "A", or subsequent owners,
cannot lower the water level in the pond materi-
ally by pulling out gates.





(28)

II. A. 1.

(11) Another problem in the county is that the streams Hardee
and canals are so obstructed with vegetation and
debris that they are not giving proper drainage
in areas they are supposed to serve.

(12) A wet weather pond existed almost completely on Hardee
the land of "A", extending partly, at high water,
onto "B's" land, in which direction there emanated
a natural drain directly across the land of "B."
This drain, when kept clean and clear of obstruc-
tion, was sufficient to carry off most of the
water from the pond. "A", desiring to more fully
drain the pond so that the land covered thereby
could be used for farming, requested, but was re-
fused, permission from "B" to clean out the drain.
"A" thereupon dug a large basin parallel to the
border line between "A" and 'B's" property,
across the farthest corner of the pond, threw up
the dirt on the far side of the basin from the
pond, and placed a culvert through this earthwork
dam so that at high water the water would natur-
ally flow through the drain in the direction of
the dam. As the basin was the lowest point of the
pond at low water, all of the water would collect
in the basin, from which it was pumped over the
dam. It then proceeded down the natural drain;
the dam (100 yards long) preventing the water
from backing up into the basin or pond.


(13) A group of landowners improve a natural water-
course by enlarging the stream channel. "D",
whose land is astride the stream at about mid-
point, fails to maintain his stretch by allowing
fallen trees and collected debris to remain in
channel.

(lh) "A" diked around a section of land. This dike
crossed two small natural sloughs in which sur-
face water normally moved during periods of rain.
The constructed dike caused the flooding of 150
acres of newly planted clover on "B's" land,
thereby causing him to have to replant. What re-
course does "B" have against "A" for his addi-
tional fertilizer, seed, and possibly one month
later grazing?

(15) Several landowners along a creek, which is the
main tributary to a large lake, want to construct
dikes on their property along the creek, which
will take several hundred acres of land out of
the flood plain of the creek. The flood plain
that will be within the bounds of the dike is
flooded by the creek only during high water. It
is thought that the construction of these dikes


Hendry






Hendry


Highlands







(29)


II. A. 1.

will cause a slight increase in the high water.
Other landowners along the creek who do not wish
to dike their property contend that diking out
part of the present flood plain, thereby causing
a slight increase in high water, will cause damage
to their property.

(16) Lake Huntley is located south of the Istokpoga Highlands
Road and Lake Clay is located north of said road.
There is a drainage canal from Lake Huntley to
Lake Clay which is the outlet.

A group of landowners some few years ago wanted
to hold the elevation of Lake Huntley up to a
higher elevation so this small group of land-
owners took it on themselves to construct a dam
at the outlet of Lake Huntley which cut off all
the water to Lake Clay. The 1948 hurricane came
and flooded out most of the low land which was
planted to Easter lilies and caladiums. During
the time of this high water, a landowner on Lake
Huntley blew out this dam to relieve the high
water in his field. The landowners on Lake Clay
did not like for all of the water from Lake Hunt-
ley to hit them at one time and destroy their
crops*

(17) Landowner "A" diked around his land. This dike Highlands
crossed the natural sloughs in which surface
water normally moved during periods of rain. The
constructed dike caused the flooding of pasture
on "B's" land, thereby causing him to have to re-
plant.

(18) "A" owns farm transversed by a permanent but un- Jackson
navigable stream. He constructed a dam on his
own property for impounding water. In periods
of excessive rainfall, the impounded water flooded
acreage on farms "B", "C" and *D." This was back-
water. Dam was dynamited by parties unknown.

(19) Several landowners depend on the Ten Mile Canal, Lee
a state-owned canal, for drainage. It needs
cleaning badly and is not an adequate outlet.
Also, two landowners below Page Field have been
cut off from the canal by railroad grades with
inadequate culverts.

(20) A group. of landowners suffer from excess water .Lee
each summer. A railroad grade has been con-
structed running north and south across natural
drains running southwest, with insufficient cul-
verts and no provision for removing the diverted
water.


7






(30)
II, A. 1.
(21) A fairly well defined stream goes through "A's" Lee
property. "A" diked his land off and diverted
the stream around his property back to the natural
watercourse. In doing so, he flooded out "B."
"B" wants "A" to clean out the existing water-
course and break the dike and allow the water to
resume its natural flow.

(22) "A" owns a pond. "B" owns a pond above. Both Madison
ponds go dry at times. There is a definite
stream bed below that crosses "C's" land. "A"
wants to put in a dan to raise the water level
in his pond, which would back water onto "B's"
land. To build a dam on "A's" land would im-
pound enough water for him to irrigate and sup-
ply his livestock. The water would back up on
"B", and "C's" water would be delayed by the
dam, or cut off.

(23) "A" has been ranching in area drained by a river Manatee
for fifty years. Twenty years ago the State Park
constructed a spillway dam below him on the river
to raise the Park lake level and/or maintain it
for fishing and recreation. Due to slight gra-
dient and frequent flood stages, grasslands, nor-
mally highly productive, have been sanded over
and clogged with hyacinths and water weeds, re-
sulting in loss of grazing and curtailment of
cattle program.

(24) "A" has developed improved pasture along old Manatee
drainage canal maintained by county. Appar-
ently due to lack of maintenance in rainy season,
approximately 20 acres of pasture are flooded
from canal overflow, resulting in food loss.

(25) "A" purchased land for development of improved Manatee
pastures. Improvement of land not feasible un-
less surface waters can be removed. Railroad
culverts on outlet route insufficient in size
and setting to perform drainage. Lack of devel-
opment in the area when the track was laid made
present culverts sufficient.

(26) "A", "B" and "C" own highly developed land with Marion
riparian rights to a lake. The State Road De-
partment has constructed a road across a creek
which drains the excess water from the lake to a
river. The bridge over the creek is inadequate
to handle the runoff during periods of excessive
rainfall, causing the lake level to rise above
normal and damage the properties of "A", "B" and
"C.*

(27) "A" dikes two sections of land. The dike crosses Martin
Several sloughs which would normally form runoff


___._.








(31)


II. A. 1.


channels during periods of high water. This caused
water to back up and stand on "B's" pasture, there-
by causing injury to "B's" grass.


(28) "A" cuts a diversion ditch which channels the
water from several watersheds into one watershed
which cannot take care of the additional water
without flooding "B" below.

(29) A railroad builds a fill for road bed across a
well defined slough area and only provides three
small culverts for passage of water. During
rainy season this causes water to stand over a
large area for two or three months, damaging im-
proved pasture on two ranches.

(30) An old canal which is no longer maintained, but
which affords a limited amount of drainage, is
blocked by an individual landowner.

(31) Private .landowners, by permit, open their drain-
age outlets into a public canal. Sediment bars
form in public canal.


-Martin



Martin





Martin



Martin


(32) A group of landowners improve a natural water-
course by enlarging the stream channel. "D",
whose land is astride the stream at about mid-
point, fails to maintain his stretch by allowing
fallen trees and collected debris to remain in
channel.

(33) "A" diked around a section of land. This dike
crossed two small natural sloughs in which sur-
face water normally moved during periods of rain.
The constructed dike caused the flooding of 150
acres of newly planted clover on "B's" land,
thereby causing him to have to replant.

(34) A county-graded clay road has two culverts which
are above the bottom of a ditch previously dug
in a natural, well defined drainage channel. In
times of heavy rainfall, this road and culverts
hold back almost two feet of water, which causes
flooding of several property owners who are ad-
jacent to the lake which is at flood stage.

(35) "A" proposes to build a dam on a creek to raise
the water level some 18 inches. The creek flows
through a large pond on property belonging to "B."
Due to the general flatness of the land in this
general area, it is presumed that raising the
level of the water on "A's" property would raise
the level of the pond on "Bts" property to approx-
imately the same extent.


Okeechobee





Okeechobee





Orange






Pasco


71





(32)


II. A. 1.

(36) "A" built a dcn across a creck, creating a reser- Pinellas
voir for municipal water. The dam causes water to
flow westward over property owned by "B", causing
damage.

(37) Farmer *A" constructed an earth dam in a natural Polk
watercourse, diverting water through a constructed
canal to a second natural watercourse. Farmer "B"
claims damage from high water being backed up*
stream in the first natural watercourse.

(38) In the year 1928 the State Road Department con- Sarasota
structed canals across a ranch owned by "A."
This series of canals carried water which gath-
ered from thousands of acres across the property
owned by "A." The canals emptied into a creek.
For years this worked well until the creek silted
up and has grown up in bushes, etc.

(39) Landowner "A" diked around his property. This St. Lucie
dike crosses several natural runs in which water
flows during rainy season. The dike obstructs
flow of water and neighbor is flooded by backed-
up water.

(40) Farmer "B", whose land lies along a canal up- Sumter
stream from "A", claims the water stage main-
tained in the canal by a dam is so high as to
flood and damage some of his land.

(Il) There are several instances in the county where Sumter
the culverts underneath railways or public roads
are of such dimensions as to restrict water flow,
making impractical the expansion of water control
or drainage systems upstream.

(42) "A" and "B" want to build a dam for irrigation. Union
However, this dam will back water up the small
stream involved to the edge of "C's" land. "C"
is not willing to agree to the construction,
even though none of his cropland would be in-
volved.

(43) A railroad replaced a 16-foot trestle with an in- Union
adequate culvert, thereby causing water to back
up on the lands of "A", "B" and "C."

(44) "A" and "B" have f~Im ponds located on the same Walton
stream. Due to faulty construction "A's" dam
goes out in a heavy rain and takes out the well
constructed dam of "B."

(45) A branch in a watershed of approximately 2,000 Washington
acres accumulates water all the way from begin-


___._








(33)

II, A. 1.

ning point which is between two highways, crosses
one highway, goes through several farms in west-
erly direction with the final accumulation from
the farms of "A", "B. and "C." Daring heavy rain-
fall last December, several hours after a four or
five-inch rain had ceased, the branch overflowed
several acres of good pasture land, covered the
road leading out from "A's" and "B's" on the high-
way to the extent that a boat was paddled up and
down the road. This water impounded against high-
way fills and culverts much faster than could be
moved onj therefore, fields were made boggy for
several weeks, and this happens quite often.

2. Sedimentation damage

Problem County

(1) A city secures part of its water supply from a Manatee
lake created by a dam in a river. Sedimentation
and filling in of the stream above dam poses as
a problem to future development in that area to
farmers and ranchers.,

(2) A municipality has more or less dammed up a creek Sarasota
by dumping huge rocks into the creek in order to
protect a bridge. It is claimed that the bridge
would wash out if this had.not been done. Conse-
quently, the creek has silted considerably and
periodically backs water.for several miles along
the creek, thereby preventing sufficient drainage
for some 20 farms along the creek.

U. Reducing or drying up normal flow

Problem County

(1) Little River Branch originates on "A's" property Alachua
.and flows through "Bts" property and "C's" prop-
erty. "B" has constructed a dam on this branch
to. impound water for irrigation purposes. During
excessive dry periods, "CO does not have water
for domestic use. "A" is.,planning to construct
a similar dam on his property along this branch
to impound water for irrigation purposes. "B"
has been using this water for three years.

(2) Farmer "A" has cut a ditch back from a river to Bradford
his field to supply irrigation water. At low
water, the ditch doesn't supply enough water for
irrigation. Farmer "A" is diking the stream to
force water up into the ditch. The farmers below
the dike say their water supply is not sufficient
for their stock since Farmer "A" install d the dike.


_ s~ _~ __ I





(34)

II. A. U.

(3) Farmer *A" diked a-stream to provide himself with Brevard
sufficient water, but caused a deficiency of
water for Farmer "B" downstream.

(4) The number one problem with the city regarding the Charlotte
creek water supply is to determine who has prior
rights during shortages, farmers along the creek
or the city. 'The city uses the entire flow dur-
ing ordinary droughts. Also, the city will double
in size within a few years. The city owns prop-
erty where the dam and pump are located. When
sonmone else taps into the creek with a pump to
irrigate their property, the water level drops
tremendously. The water is piped along the state
road to the town. The waste is not returned to
the stream. The city sells the water. Down-
stream landowners have not complained as it is
tidewater from the dam on. The city has been
using this water for almost 20 years. Also,
some of the landowners have been pumping off and
on equally as long.

(5) Dams along a small watercourse temporarily dimin- Clay
ish or stop flow below them, causing landowners
downstream to object because they have insufficient
water for agricultural and domestic purposes.

(6) Fprmer "A" upstream pumps sufficient amount of DeSoto
water from stream to stop flow, thus depriving
"B" and "C" below him from being able to get suf-
ficient water supply.

(7) Brothers "A" and "B" pump water from the same Gadsden
stream. There is no impoundment on either farm.
The natural flow of water is not enough to fur-
nish both. Neither farmer wants to go to the
expense of building a dam. These brothers con-
tinue to cut off each others pump motors When
they want to irrigate. Consequently, both are
short of water.

(8) A navigable stream was tapped for several million Gulf
gallons of water daily by "A." "B*, a large land-
owner, through whose property this canal ran,
feared overdrainage, although he consented and
gave easement rights.


(9) Irrigation dams are being built by constructing
dams across small streams. These dams have the
effect of decreasing or stopping the flow of
water through neighboring properties. Farmers
have asked about the rights of their neighbors
to thus impound water in these spring-heads and
small branches. This is particularly true of
intermittent branches and/or while large volumes


Hamilton


_ _1 _I~ _~__ __ ~~ __I_______ __I~~__I_ _1








(35)

II. A. 4.

of water are being pumped from the ponds.

(10) Farmer "A" complained of excessive flood waters Hamilton
flowing through a well defined channel from a
swamp danmed up by "B" to increase water storage.
"B" constructed additional storage structures to
store irrigation water.' "A", now in need of ir-
rigation water, raises objections because no water
flows from the ponds of "B" during "B's" heavy
irrigation operations.

(11) Mill pond impounds water from creek and watershed. Holmes
Daring dry season water ceases to flow in creek.
Farmers downstream complain that mill pond has
eliminated their source of stock water during
periods of'drought.

(12) "A" wishes to put in a dam to raise the level of Madison
a pond at the head of a stream. In so doing,
water would be delayed in reaching "B' s" farm.

(13) "A" farms on a stream utilizing water for supple- Manatee
mental irrigation. "B", fanning upstream, diverts
water flow through his property, resulting in in-
sufficient water for "A" below.

(14) "A", '"B and "C" own the land bordering both sides Marion
of a spring-fed navigable stream. "B" proposes
to construct a manufacturing plant on his prop-
erty and draw large quantities of water from the
stream and return only a small portion, along
with the waste from thefactory. "A" has made
large investments on his property in developing
the recreational facilities of the stream..

(15) "A" is planning to build a fish pond by damming Nassau
up a small branch which starts on his property.
He plans to use the impounded water for irri-
gating his pastures during dry periods, and will
use all the water that would naturally flow in
the branch at such time. "B", "C" and "D", be-
low rancher "A", would.not have sufficient water
for their livestock..

(16) "A" is developing a ranch on a slough creek, and Pasco
he plans to construct a dam designed to raise the
water level in the creek about 18 inches. He ex-
pects this to give him increased opportunities for
fishing and sufficient quantities of water for a
very small irrigation project. The dam is not
needed to increase. the water supply for cattle.
If a prolonged dry period follows the construction
of the dam, or if too much water is used in irri-
gation, a downstream neighbor, "B", may be cut
off entirely from his water supply during periods


_ __





(56)

II. A. 4.

of drought.

(17) Farmer "A" diverted a natural stream into a stor- Polk
age pond for irrigation. During extended dry
periods, farmers lower on the stream are short of
water which they formerly had for livestock.

(18) "i", who has riparian ri its to canal belonging Putnam
to a drainage district, desires to put a dike in
the canal so he can use the water to irrigate his
farm. The canal has been established about 30
years, and is a well defined surface stream. Dur-
ing drought, cattlemen below him, who also have
riparian rights, would not have water for their
cattle and other livestock.

(19) "1A" owns a tract of land touching on both sides Sumter
of a constantly flowing surface watercourse in
which an old (/ 20 years) drainage canal was con-
structed. VA" built a dam in the canal to hold
water higher than it would be naturally, and at
times no water flows over the dam. "C", whose
land touches the canal downstream from "A", has
no water in the canal for his cattle to drink at
times when all flow is stopped by the structure
so he, "C", would like to force "A" to permit some
flow through the dam. "C's" riparian rights are
involved.

6. Lack of willingness to participate

Problem County

(1) One landowner threatens to dike his property. Lee
He has a creek running through his land that is
the natural outlet for the surrounding area, and
he intends to allow only as much water to come
through as will stay in the creek without clean-
ing it out.

B. Obstructions and Diversions in Canals

1. Flooding

Problem County

(1) Water control structure in navigable canal has Lake
caused considerable concern to farmers on up-
stream side. They claim that inadequate pro-
visions were made in its structure to allow suf-
ficient water to pass through it during high
stages. Those in control of the structure had to
cut off some of the top of the dam to allow for
more water to pass through.


1__~ --11._.-__.__1___~-PIII- ~1--~ ---II~--







(37)

II. STREAMS ;MD LAKES

B. Obstructions and Diversions in Canals

2. Sedimentation damage

Problem- County

(1) A natural pond is located adjacent to a State Bay
road. Road' ditches are not sodded; therefore,
tons of sand are washed into the pond every year.

C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge

1. Ovordrainage.

Problem County

(1) A state canal was constructed alongside a land- Lee
owners property. The ditch exceeded its spec-
ifications. considerably, .and the landowner com-
plains of overdrainage.

(2) Farmer "A" had land at about the same elevation Polk
as a 225-acre lake adjacent to his property. A
large drainage canal ran through his property
but stopped about 275 feet from the lake. A
natural small shallow flood stage stream connected
the lake and the canal. "A" deepened and en-
larged this natural stream, lowering the lake to
about its normal low state. Property owners on
the lake above "A" protested, claiming lowering
of water table.

(3) Farmr "A" complains of overdrainage by deep Sarasota
canals constructed as a part of a drainage dis-
trict.

(4) A quarter century past, a drainage district was Sumter
formed.for the purpose of draining a large truck-
ing area. The project, affecting some 25,000
acres, was dpesiied for complete drainage. For
many years there have been complaints by land-
owners, both within the drainage district and for
several miles nearby, that the water table has been
seriously lowered over a wide area by overdrain-
age. There have been repeated attempts by land-
owners to dam up the canal, but all dams have
been washed out by flood waters. The drainage
district has recently been dissolved.

(5) Lying eastward and northward of a community, and Sumter
alongside the northeast boundaries of a drainage
district, is a second drainage system, almost as
extensive as the first. Designed for complete
drainage, it poses the same general problems of





(38)

II. C. 1.

overdrainpage. It is also claimed that its water-
ways bring in waters from another county which
would have gone elsewhere.

2. Flooding downstream

Problem County

(1) A landowner has a large acreage of swamp and flat Bay
wet land which is drained into a small creek.
This creek crosses other property for a short
distance before flowing into a large creek. The
increased amount and velocity of water going into
the small creek causes flooding of the second
owner's property.

(2) Landowner "A" improved a natural watercourse by Glades
canaling to south boundary of his land. This col-
lected and discharged runoff at a faster rate and
greater quantity. This caused the natural water-
course on owner "B" to overflow and damaged his
pastures, put water under his house, and washed
out a farm road culvert.


(3) More than 50 swamps varying in size from ten to
several hundred acres present possibilities of
drainage. These swamps in the north and north-
eastern sections of the county would drain into
branches and creeks. Timber corporations and
other landowners have questioned the legal aspect
of turning-loose large amounts of water into
branches or small streams that flow through prop-
erties of other owners. Some of these small
streams are well defined, cid others maynet. be.

(4) In the upper watershed of a 'creek, "A" improved
a natural watercourse by canaling to boundary of
his land. This collected and discharged runoff
at a faster rate and greater quantity. This
caused the natural watercourse on "B" to overflow
and damaged his pastures, put water in his house,
and washed out a county bridge.

(5) "A" improved a natural watercourse by canaling
to south boundary of his land. This collected
and discharged runoff at a faster rate and
greater quantity. This caused the natural water-
course on "B" to overflow and damaged his pas-
tures, put water under his house, and washed out
a farm road culvert.

(6) "A" owns a ranch ch nearly level lying land from
which widely diffused water in the rainy season
very gradually moves into several vaguely defined
water courses that join and empty into a well


Hamilton










Highlands







Indian River







Marion


- -- S-f---=-~=~-l---f-~.~~T--i-_ll~~ _----~----r~---L-----__-~_








(39)


II. C. 2.

defined watercourse at the property line of "B."
"A" has, by ditching, greatly increased the runoff
in the water courses on his property, causing
flooding of a portion of "B's" property because of
inadequacy of the watercourse crossing his prop-
ertyr

(7) "A" improved a natural watercourse by canaling to Okeechobee
south boundary of his land. This collected and
discharged runoff at a faster rate and greater
quantity. This caused the natural watercourse on
"B" to overflw and damaged his pastures, put
water under his house, and washed out a farm road
culvert.

(8) "A" discovered that a rise in the land and native Orange
growth was a bottleneck in the drainage of a
large cypress swamp on his property. This swamp
had a well defined natural drainage outlet which
passed through culverts under a county road at the
boundary of his property. With a dragline, "A" cut
a ditch through the "rise of land" and along the
edge of the drainage-way to the boundary of his
property at the county road. This released large
quantities of water in a short period of time,
which resulted in washing out the county road so
that it could not be used until it was filled in,
and flooding considerable acreage of "B's" land
which was adjacent to the drainage-way after it
crossed the road,

(9) County "A" develops a drainage district on a Osceola
large area of flat lands. The main canals of the
district discharge into a stream which empties
into a large lake in County "B." The excessive
water from the drainage district causes the lake
in County "B" to flood out pastures and damage
citrus groves.

(10) Property owners below "A", who had deepened and Polk
enlarged a natural stream which connected a lake
with a canal, protested because of flash flood
when lake was lowered and increased flow through
canal during rainy season.

(11) Farmers "A", "B" and "C" dug a large drainage Polk
canal through their property following a natural
watercourse. Farmer "1D, located lower down,
claimed damage because :f increased quantity and
rate of flow.

(12) Landowner "A" improves drainage on his property. St. Lucie
Improvement is in one watershed and discharge is
into a natural watercourse. Increased discharge
damages property of neighbor below him.





(ho)

II. C. 2.

(13) "A" and. "B", whose lands adjoin a natural outlet, Sumter
improved natural watercourses by constructing
canals adequate for the removal of surplus dif-
fused surface waters and conveyance to the natural
outlet. "C", "D" and E"*, whose lands are higher
and separated from the outlet by the lands of "A"
and "B", propose to improve the watercourses by
constructing canals which will empty into the
canals of *A" and "B." These canals of "A" and
"B" are inadequate to carry the extra load of water
added to that already draining from lands of "A"
and "B."

(14) Waters from a State Park are drained through a Sumter
canal into a large marsh locally called a lake.
The canal has been in operation several years.
In recent years, several othcr nearby marshes
have been drained into the same area and these
waters all combined move northwestward along a
natural waterway from the lake through several
farms and ranches, then meander southwestward to
empty into a river. It is claimed that the waters
sometimes become a nuisance to these landowners
from flooding.

(15) Around a lake there is a low-lying area which acts Sumter
as a sort .f alternate r,.uto for some of the
waters of a river durinR flood seasons. Years
ago landowners constructed a small canal from the
lake southwestward to facilitate the flow of these
waters back to the river further downstream where
the channels were more ample to carry the waters.
Those canals served their purpose so well that
landowners have added a ~liticnal canals and lat-
erals further upstream on other properties. The
result is that the system is new inadequate and
its purposes largely defeated. The landowners
who constructed the initial system cannot afford
to enlarge or maintain the system, since the pos-
sibilities of developmentt upstream are unlimited.

5. Lack of willingness to participate

Problem County

(1) A group -f landowners improved a natural water- Gla 'es
course, by enlarging the stream channel. Owner
"D", whose land is astride the stream a about
midpoint, failed to maintain his stretch by al-
lowing fallen trees and collected debris to re-
main in channel.

(2) A group -f 10 landowners propose a watershed pro- Hencry
gram to effect improve.:' drainage. One of the
owners backs out and won't agree for main outlet









(4l)


II 5.


crossing his lands. The small natural outlet
crosses him now.


(3) A group of 10 landowners propose a watershed pro- Highlands
gram to effect control of lake stages. One of
the owners backs out and won't agree for main out-
let crossing his lands. The small natural outlet
crosses him now.

(4) A group of landowners improve a natural water- Indian River
course by enlarging the stream channel. "D",
whose land is astride the stream at about mid-
point, fails to maintain his stretch by allow-
ing fallen trees and collected debris to remain
in channel.

(5) A group of landowners propose a watershed program Martin
for improved drainage. One owner finally backs
out and won't agree for main channel improvement
to come through his property. This improved chan-
nel is to follow natural waterway.


D. Water Level Control in Lakes

1. Levels too, high


Problem


(1) Salt marsh where mosquitoes breed has been
and flooded to prevent further breeding of
posts. Seepage of salt water kept at high
damages land adjacent.


diked
the
level


(2) A landowner along a lake decides to develop some
beach property. He pumps in land from the lake
bottoms covering up the only cutlet to the lake.
Following the pumping operation, the water level
of the lake rises to a considerable height, caus-
ing adjacent landowners to suffer loss of prop-
erty.

(3) Several owners have property which runs into an
800-acre lake. One property -wner, "A", has
ab.ut 125 acres which he has diked off and which
raises the water level f the lake In periods
of extremely heavy rainfall, the lake outlet will
have to carry more water and over a longer period
of time due to the decreased capacity of the lake.
It is a rare occasion that water is ever dis-
charged from the lake, and property owners along
this outlet grow crops to the edge of the outlet.
The property owners around the lake had no objec-
tion to the dike, since it helped keep water at
a higher level and improved fishing and hunting
conditions. However, recent rains caused the


County

Brevard


Clay






Columbia





(42)

II. D. 1.

lake discharge te floe:d land which har never
flooded bef-re "A1" built his dike,

(4) Owners around the west shcre of Lake Okeechobee Glades
are flo, ded by lake waters at least every other
year. In a",iti n, high lake levels retard canal
runoff from these private properties. Dc private
landowners have any rights concerning the regula-
tion of stages in a navigable boyr -f water?

(5) Owners around the west shore of a large lake are Hendry
flooded by lake waters at least every other year.
In addition, high lake levels retard canal runoff
from these private properties.

(6) During the 1948 flood, a lake rose to a height Liberty
that damaged a business establishment on the west
shores -f the lake. However, the level cf the
lake was lowered by digging an overflow ditch
across the adjacent property. There was no legal
problem involved, since the owner -f the business
also owned the land through which the overflow
ditch was dug. But suppose that the same man had
not owned the adjacent land through which the
overflow ditch was dug. What recourse would the
owner ;f the business establishment have to get
rid of this excess surface water? The lake does
not have a natural outlet.

2. Levels tc~ low

Problem County

(1) The county enlarged an old outlet ditch from the Bradford
lake permanently lowering the water level 'f the
lake approximately two feet. This exposed or-
ganic soils owned by "A." "A" enclosed these or-
ganic soils with a dike and pumps water out of
the ditch area in wet seasons and into the diked
area in dry seasons. "B", "C" and "DU, riparian
owners on the lake, say that this pumping further
lowers the lake level during fry seasons.

(2) F ur grove -wners whose properties abutt a lake Highlands
use the lake water f:r irrigation. In so doing,
they lower the level -f the lake, to which a home-
owner -bjects, because it leaves his .ock and
beach dry.

(3) "A" operates a large crate mill on property with Marion
riparian rights to a small lake. Water is drawn
from the lake for the manufacture of the products
cf the mill; none is returned. A municipality
owns the remaining land with riparian rights a-
round the lake, a portion ;f which has been de-








(43)

II. D. 2.

veloped into a public'park. The Iraw-downcof the
loke water by the mill .during a portion of the
year is so excessive that the park is damaged by
insufficient water.

(4) *A", a city, wished to obtain a water supply from Orange
a largo chain of lakes which consisted of several
thousand acres of surface water. "A" has purchased
land adjacent to this body of water. Other land
owners are cf the opinion that "A" will pump ex-
cessively large amounts of water from the lake and
permanently lower its water level,

(5) A citrus grower irrigates his groves from a 250- Osceola
acre lake on which his property borders. On the
opposite shore, private owners have built homes,
put in lawns and docks and landings. The citrus
grower, who had been using the water for irriga-
tion prior to the development of the homes, uses
so much water on his groves in the dry season that
the lake level is.materially lowered.

(6) A lake is an important recreational site, and its Pasco
swiming and boating facilities, operated by "A",
"B" and "C", are very popular. There are also
several groves near this lake, and some of them,
'"", "y and "Z", are irrigated with water from
the lake. Assume that "X", "Y" and "Z" pump
large quantities of water from the lake for ir-
rigation, materially lowering its level.

(7) "A" has developed a ranch around the last in a Pasco
series of lakes. A U. S. Highway bounds the
ranch on the east, and a railroad on the west.
When the 'ake became flooded last fall, too much
of the pasture was covered, and "A" cut a ditch
on his own land across a natural barrier, giving
his lake an outlet to.a culvert under the high-
way. The extent to which he could lower his
water level, however, was limited by the level
of the highway culvert and by the depth of a
ditch through "B's" ranch on the east side of
the highway. "A" petitioned the State Highway
Department and the County Commissioners to lower
the culvert under the highway. Residents "C",
etc., on the lake west -'f the railroad, then
counter-petitioned that they had invested in
lakeside residential property, and that they
would be damaged by "A's" proposal. "A" replied
that the railroad culvert is lower than the high-
way culvert, that the western lake could not be
lowered more than the diameter of the railroad
culvert, and that "C", etc., would suffer no
material damage.





(4)

II. D. 2.

(8) "A" desires to drain a well defined lake which Putnam
covers about 35 acres. He desires to plant the
area now in the lake to improved pasture for live-
stock. In order to drain this lake, another lake
would have to have its water level lower by about
two feet. This lake has a natural drainageway
which leads into a well defined surface stream.
The general public uses the lake for fishing, boat-
ing, swimming and other recreational uses.

(9) "A' owns ab':ut 80 acres of citrus on the south and Seminole
east side of a lake. "A" has installed a pump
house and irrigation system for irrigating his
rWove. This system was installed about five years
ago, and has been frequently used during the dry
seasons. There is a small low area lying about
100 feet west of the lake and is owned by contrac-
tor "B." "B" removed the muck and grass cut of
the low area, sub-divided the land into building
lots, and constructed a large ditch or canal con-
necting the low area with the lake. Three days
later, the water level in the lake dropped about
two feet, leaving "A's" pump and pump h.-use in
t-o shallow water.

(10) "A" and "B" each own land around and in a small Sumter
lake which is supplied only by diffused surface
flow and percolating groundwater. Their owner-
ships constitute all -f the lake and its riparian
lands. The lake is used for fishing, recreation
and irrigati n supply. "A" enlarges his irriga-
tion system and this increased draft lowers the
lake, tc the detriment of fishing and other rec-
reational use.

(11) Several farmers own land bordering a lake*. "A" Suwannee
and "B" bedin pumping water for irrigation and
have lowered the level of the lake considerably.

3. Ina:dequate supply for beneficial uses

Problem County

(1) A 10,000-acre muckland marsh has been drained Sumter
an! an engineer has mentioned possibilities of
irrigating the area by flooding it from the
waters of a lake, a half mile to the west of the
marsh. The normal level cf the lake is about
six feet in elevation above the level of the
marshland. There are also ether marshlands near-
by which may be situated so as to be irrigated
from the same lake, and a grove alongside the
lake is already being irrigated by sprinkler ir-
rigation. The combined areas of these irrigable
lands are four times the surface of the lake.


____I_________________l~______i_~___l








(45)

II. D. 3.

It is easy to imagine that full irrigation of
these adjoining lands would appreciably lower the
level -f the lake, thus limiting development of
sports camps. This mij-ht also endanger the wild-
life population.

4. Lack ff. willingness to participate

Problem

(1) A farmer planned to store water in a 100-acre
bay. This bay would supply irrigation water for
the farmer. To store this water economically,
it would be necessary to build a control struc-
ture on a state right-of-way. The State Road De-
partment refused to permit the building of the
structure.


Bradford


(2) Several landowners around Lake Grassy would like Highlands
to deepen the outlet for the lake to flow east
through the course that it now follows only dur-
ing flood state. The plan would call for a con-
trol dam at the lake so the lake stage could be
regulated. The owners of the overflow muck land
contend that the landowners around the lake do
not have the right to deepen the outlet and flood
their land for a longer period of the year. The
grove owner who irrigates 600 acres of grove in
another watershed contends that deepening the
outlet would lower the lake level and endanger
the supply of irrigation water. The landowners
adjacent to the lake who get flooded contend that
the grove owner uses more than his fair share of
the water, since he irrigates grove in another
watershed from the lake, and it is unfair for them
to be unable to take the flood peak off the lake
so that the grove owner will be assured of an
adequate supply ,f water. The land owners who
get flooded further content that the man who owns
the muck land would not receive any more water
because the low stage rf the lake would be un-
affecte., Furthermore, the improvement would be
all.on ne of the landowners' property who de-
sires the improvement done.


E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes

1. Municipal wastes


Problem

(1) Sweet Water Branch runs through "A", which is a
municipality, and on through "B's" property. "A"
empties treated sewage into the branch and when
heavy rainfall occurs, the branch overflows "B's"


County

Alachua





(46)


II. E. 1.


pasture, which remains c-verod for long periods.
This water from the treating plant makes the grass
unpalatable tc cattle Tor long periods. "A" has
been doing this for several years.

(2) Raw sewage from a hotel was discharged into the
S~wannee River for 50 years. After considerable
educational work by the local State Board cf
Health -fficials, the situation was corrected dur-
ing 1954. .The effluent from the Emhoff tank, how-
ever, is still discharged into the Suwannee River
and is a source of contamination.

(3) A city dumps raw sewerage into a creek, thereby
creating a health hazard and odor nuisance.

(4) A city and individuals outside of city limits dump
raw sewerage into a river, a tidewater lagoon,
thereby creating a health hazard, odor nuisance,
polluting oyster beds, and destroying fishing.

(5) A city nr municipality dumps raw sewage in a
drainageway that crosses several property lines.

2. Industrial wastes

Problem

(1) In an area, plant "A" is dumping waste into a
river, which is causing damage to the water sup-
ply below the plant.


(2) "A" state-' that the city had a recent problem
with oranges and ether citrus fruit decaying in
the creek, causing a bio-chemical oxygen demand
to be formed in the water, killing many fish from
suffocation. Of course, the city is interested
in this an. found the cause and corrected it for
the reason that the city water supply is taken
from.the creek.

(3) "A" and "B" want to fish and hunt in a river and
its tributaries, but a manufacturer upstream has
polluted the stream with material toxic to wild-
life and fish.

(4) A gravel company was pumping gravel and sand for
commercial use near a river. The river is navi-
gable and used for fishing and recreation. In
the operation, the undesirable sand and gravel
were pumped to a point where some *f it went into
the river. This caused s-me of the nearby deep
holes in the river to be filled with sand and
gravel, thereby injuring the fishing in that area,


Hamilton


Okeechobee


St. Lucie




Walton


Bradford


Charlotte








DeSoto




Escambia


_ ~m
__ _~_I___ _~__








(L7)

II. E. 2.

(5) A paper mill dumps its waste into a creek, caus- Escambia
ing it to be polluted until it reaches a bay.
This kills all the fish and most other wildlife
on the creek, and also creates a disagreeable
odor to people living near the creek.

(6) Large citrus processing plant dumps washings, Manatee
etc., into small creek, resulting in -ffensive
odors to landowners, and reported damage to
foliage and fish life also.

(7) A large packing company, "A", has a waste sub- Pasco
stance which is poisonous to fish. Originally,
this waste found its way slowly to a river through
natural waterways, and in this process the poison
was so diffused and diluted that apparently no
harm was done to the fish in the river. "A's"
land probably is not contiguous to a natural
stream. Eventually "B", who owns most of the
land between the packing plant and the river, be-
gan to develop his property as a ranch, partly
by dining large drainage ditches. Thus the
poisonous waste was carried directly to the river
in such a highly concentrated frnn that serious
damage to fish resulted. A parallel ditch was
dug, either by "A" or "B", for the purpose of
diverting the waste, but later this ditch was
closed at the head and "A" began impounding the
waste in a podl near the plant. Occasionally,
however, it is alleged that quantities enter the
direct channel with the resultant loss of thou-
sands -f fish.

(8) A large pulp and paper corporation empties its Putnam
waste into a creek which is a well-defined sur-
face stream. The waste products kill all the
fish in the creek. It empties into the St. Johns
River. The creek and the St. Johns River have
been used by the general public f:,r fishing and
other recreational uses f:r many years. The
paper company has been dumping its waste pro ducts
into the creek for about seven years.

3. Use of highly concentrated poison dusts and sprays for control
of insects and diseases on adjacent farm lands

Problem County

(1) Another problem faced by the city is the insecti- Charlotte
cides used by farmers and grove ownerss whose
sprays (some cf which are water soluble and very
toxic to humans) drain into the creek. With the
city having no authority rver this, the city water
supply is very much endangered. Farmers have been
using these insecticide poisons only recently.





(48)

II. E. 3.

(2) When farmer finishes spraying his grove, he Lake
takes his spray tank to the lake and washes it
out with lake water, dumping poisonous sprays
back into the lake. Fish and other aquatic
life are killed by the pollution.

(3) "A" and "B" are located so that the boundary be- Orange
tween their property is a drainage canal. This
canal is not a natural drainage system or stream,
but since it has been dug it is now a well defined
body of surface water with a definite current of
water in times of heavy rainfall. At other times
the water level in the canal is determined by the
level of the lake into which it empties. It is
under County easement of lease for permanent in-
stallation and maintenance by the County, because
it drains part of a county road, "A" desires to
spray the growth in this canal to kill it, thus
improving the drainage and appearance of his
property. "B" uses this canal as a source of
irrigation water for several acres of very valu-
able ornamentals and flowers, and he is of the
opinion that residue from this spray material
is very likely to kill or damage his plants.

4. Agricultural wastes

Problem County

(1) A large pulp and paper corporation wishes to Flagler
drain several thousand acres of land for devel-
opment of timber. The shortest route to an out-
let is a river which is controlled by tidewater
from the Atlantic Ocean and coastal inlet.
Scenic tours are conducted on this stream and
salt water fishing is permitted. It is contended
that dumping fresh water into this creek will in-
jure salt water fisheries.

(2) Farmers who live near a salt water inlet canal Flagler
wish to drain water from their farms into it and
develop the land into improved pasture grasses.
It is contended that this addition of fresh water
will injure salt water fisheries.

F. Use of Streams and Lakes by Public

1. Access

Problem County

(1) "A" fenced a 100-acre lake, cutting off public Lafayette
passage to the lake, which had been fished by
the public prior to the fencing by "A." Does the
public have any recourse against "A" for a public
road to the lake, which is navigable?








(49)

II. F. 1

(2) A landowner fenced a large tract of land for a Levy
game reserve and posted same. He placed a care-
taker on this property with instructions to pro-
hibit argone frca entering without his permission.
In so doing, he closed an old road which leads to
a boat landing where a number of people kept their
boats tied up in a river. He requested that all
boats be removed within a given time.

(3) An organized sportsmen's club sues a rancher for Osceola
access to a large lake entirely enclosed in the
ranch. This lake is set up as real property on
county t4x books. The county tax assessor, know-
ing of the lake, prorated taxes so as to compen-
sate for water. The ranch owner publicly offered
easement to the. lake if the county or sportsmen
would build fences on each side of the road to
be constructed to the lake. This proposition was
refused.

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells

1. Artesian, wasteful flow

Problem County

(1) A large number of artisian wells have been aban- Brevard
doned in this area. They are left to run con-
tinuously, and are of no use to anyone.

(2) There is a local law that the Sheriff is respon- Charlotte
sible for controlling the careless use of arte-
sian wells in the county. There is a question
as to whether it is a local responsibility or the
State's responsibility. It has been stated that
the Sheriff could cap abandoned flowing wells in
the county and the County Commissioners could as-
sess the cost of capping against the property.

(3) "A" has an artesian well and allows well to flow DeSoto
at all times. "B" has well at same depth, but
has a cap and casing on it to conserve on it.

(4) Four .artesian wells on "At's property are instal- Hendry
led with valves.' "A" allows wells to flow freely
at all times, with no system to spread water for
useful -irrigation.

(5) An old well on "A's"'property has rusted out and Hendry
valve has fallen off, thereby letting well flow
freely year around.


(6) Four artesian wells on "A's" property are instal-


F_"


Indian River





(50)

III. A. 1.

led with valves.. "A" allows wells to flow freely
at all times, with no system to spread water for
useful irrigation. This results in a misuse and
waste of water.

(7) A former owner drilled a six-inch flowing well and Martin
casing has rusted off at ground line, letting well
flow continuously.

(8) Artesian wells on Rancher "X's" property are in- St. Lucie
stalled with valves, However, owner permits
wells to flow freely at all times, with no system
to spread water for useful irrigation.

(9) An old well in an abandoned grove has rusted out St. Lucie
and valve has fallen off, letting well flow freely
year around.

2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells

Problem County

(1) Farmer "A" has been using his artesian well for Brevard
irrigation very effectively for several years.
His neighbor, Farmer HBO, planted a large number
of acres, adjacent, to citrus and drilled several
large wells, and this constant use caused Farmer
"A's' well to practically stop flowing.

(2) Farmer "A" sinks a large number of artesian wells Clay
for irrigation on an extensive area. When he
turns on his wells, surrounding landowners com-
plain because of reduced flow in their wells.

(3) Farmer "A' allows his wells to flow constantly Clay
when not needed. This serves to reduce pressure
in other wells in the area which are in the same
aquafier, even affecting home water supply.

(4) Farmer "A" can pump sufficient water from the DeSoto
well on his property to completely stop "B" and
"C" farmers around him from getting sufficient
water supply.

(5) Farmer "A", a dairy producer and distributor, has Duval
a deep well which provided water for his milking
barn and the processing plant. A nearby suburban
town was using an eight-inch well for domestic
water supply. The town had a very rapid growth
and put down a field of several 1?-inch deep
wells, pumped with turbine pumps. The water
pressure on Farmer "A"'s well dropped immediately
from a minimum average of 12 pounds to approxi-
mately five pounds. He had to rebuild his water
system and install a pump on his well.


_ .. __1_1_1_~(___ ; _
~ql~








(51)
III. A. 2.
(6) Farmer "A" has been using an artesian well for
livestock water and irrigation. It ran con-
st7ntly in dry weather and whenever turned on
during the rest of the year. It had been most
reliable for a long number of years, until re-
cently when it'went dry. It is 200 feet deep.
Hundreds of wells with pumps for individual home
and lawn use have been drilled into this partic-
ular rock layer within the last two or three
years. These wells are in a nearby suburban area
of a large city. Farmer "A" has examined his
well for structural failure and can find nothing
wrong. Apparently the water is gone.


Duval


(7) Farmer "A" has a flowing well for the purpose of Flagler
irrigating crops and watering stock. Neighboring
farmers have to pump water from their wells for
irrigating. Jihen they pump for irrigation, the
flowing well ceases to flow.

(8) "A" established a well for irrigating his groves, Hardee
the depth being approximately 500 feet. "B",
later, also established a well for the same pur-
pose, 'the depth being approximately the same.
"C" came in and established a well at a depth of
approximately 1,100 feet, -.hen "C" irrigates
his grove "A" and "B" have to wait until "C" has
finished.
(9) A citrus grower, "A", has a 40-acre grove. A Hillsborough
company bought land completely surrounding him
and started mining operations. "A" has three
wells for irrigation of grove. Fears having with-
drawal of water from deep wells for mining will
deplete groundwater supply sufficiently to
leave him short of water.
(10) Irrigation from deep wells is a common practice Lee
in the county. Digging new wells often cuts the
flow of nearby older wells, thus compelling the
established farmer to cut down on the amount of
land he can irrigate from his well. Clearing and
preparing this land for farming represents a con-
siderable capital outlay.
(11) "A" drills well for irrigation of truck crops, Manatee
causing stoppage of "B's" flowing well which has
been in use for years.
(12) "A" lives in suburban development adjacent to Manatee
large truck crop.operation.. "A" gets water from
own well, which _almost dries up when turbines are
used for irrigation waters from fijld wells in
droughts.

(13) "A", "B" and "C" farm on adjacent lands. Irri- Manatee
gation the first year was from flowing wells.
With additional land clearing, demands for water






























I


(52)
III. A. 2.
caused "A" to resort to turbine pumps. "B" and
"C" had to do likewise, resulting in curtailment
of flow in "D's" well on adjoining farm.
(14) City "A" gets its water from flowing wells. A new Nassau
industry, "B", moves into the area and sinks sev-
eral large wells. This has lessened the pressure
in wells belonging to the city, necessitating the
installation of expensive pumping equipment.
(15) "A" drilled his flowing wells deeper, causing the Putnam
wells of his neighbor, Farmer "B", to stop flow-
ing water. These wells are drilled into perco-
lating ground water. The water from these flow-
ing wells is used for irrigating truck crops, us-
ing a seepage system.
3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes
Problem County
(1) The various substructures in Shell Creek area make Charlotte
the wells unpredictable. Some wells are 400, 800,
1,000 or 1,200 feet, and obtain good wells with
very reliable flows. Some wells must go to a
depth of 1,600 feet, and then find only poor flows
of salty water. This is a general problem. It
involves percolating underground water. The prob-
lem is a growing amount of users decreasing the
supply.
(2) Company "A" has purchased a city block and in- Duval
tends to build an air-conditioned office build-
ing. Water for the air conditioning system is to
be provided by a deep well. City "B" uses deep
wells as its source of water. The city has
caused the passage of legislation giving it au-
thority to grant or refuse permission to property
owners to drill deep wells within a radios of
three miles of the city. Company "A" requested
permission for their proposed well and was re-
fused by the city. Company "A" re-examined its
plans, and altered them to provide for reuse of
the well water after it went through the air con-
ditioning unit. Permission for drilling the well
was then granted.
(3) Company "A", a manufacturing concern, is in the Duval
city limits of City "B." The company uses a
large artesian well 1,100 feet deep as its source
of water for its cooling towers. This water, ac-
coria.g to the company, is too hard for use in
the manufacturing plant. The water is not reused
and is discharged into the river. The company
uses a four-inch well, 200 feet deep, as its







(53)

III. A. 3*

source of water for use in its manufacturing pro-
cesses. The water produced by this four-inch well
has undergone a gradual decline during the past
20 years until the gallons per minute are approxi-
mately half the original rate. The company is
drilling an eight-inch well 200 feet deep to get
the water it needs for present use and future ex-
pansion. Neighboring water users have petitioned
the city to force Company "A" to utilize water now
wasted from the deep well before the company is
allowed to use its new eight-inch well.

(4) Individual tobacco acreages ranging up to 75 Hanilton
acres are being irrigated from deep wells. This
practice is increasing each year, and it is
claimed that this will result in competition for
this underground water, as well as damage to
sources of farm well water.

(5) The city is running short of water for municipal Lee
use. They get their water from a well field out-
side of town in a farming area. It is feared
that farmers irrigating from shallow wells in
the area will cut down on the city's supply of
water even more. Many of the farmers own the
land,

(6) The manager of a city water works fears that pri- Lee
vate individuals may dig wells and go through a
Strata of rock which he believes holds fresh
water up and salt water down,

(7) "A", an experienced farmer and citrus grower, in Manatee
the northeastern part of the county, notes marked
decrease in available water from wells during
drought. He feels pumping by other farmers and
phosphate plants is lowering water table.

(8) The southern portion of the county is devoted Sumter
largely to truck farming with some large cattle
ranches interspersed. The truck farmers have
pioneered the use of shallow wells for sprinkler
irrigation. The water table is relatively high
throughout the area. With portable irrigation
becoming available, more water is and will be used
for the irrigation of pasture lands, plus many ad-
ditional acres of truck and cropland. It is an-
ticipated that the favorable water table may be
appreciably lowered, bringing disappointment to
all users of this water.

5. Pollution, all causes

Problem County


(1) One citrus grower has several large wells which


_C_ I *i


Brevard




(54)

III. A. 5.

have become too salty to use for agricultural
purposes.


(2) The salt seems to be building up in artesian
wells that have been operating over long periods
of time, and we have very little research data,
Many of these wells that have been drilled
throughout the county are too salty for use even
at .the time they were drilled.. Some with surface
pools have a very high salt content because of
evaporation. It was suggested that a check be
made to determine if deep oil wells have any in-
fluence on these wells from higher level that
previously were not salty but now have a salt con-
tent.

(3) Well drilling contractors agree to furnish an
adequate supply of water. Ordinarily, there is
no guarantee that the water will be potable. "A"
and "B both had wells drilled, only to find that
their water was contaminated* They have never
been able to use water from these wells, but can-
not require the contractor to produce potable
water.

(k) Deep wells used for citrus irrigation are being
threatened by encroachment of salt water caused
by heavy pumping for municipal and industrial
users. A number of wells in the county are too
salty to be used for irrigation purposes.

6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others


Problem

(1) Farmer "A" drilled a well and filled a low portion
of his field to form an artificial pond adjacent
to Farmer "B." The water was diked against Farmer
"B" but water seeped through, resulting in flood-
ing or raising the water table on his land,

(2) Several large wells drain into a natural water-
way and landowners claim damage from excess water
and salt.

(3) Farmer DA" installed an artesian well which al-
lowed salt water to pollute the surface supply
of Farmer "B."

(I) Water from "A's" free flowing artesian ellss
causes a corner of "B's" flower farm to remain
excessively wet.. This causes "B" to pump seep-
age water throughout the year at an .added oper-
ational cost.


Brevard


Brevard



Brevard


Indian River


(5) "A" secures a three-year lease on 00 acres from Martin


Charlotte











Hamilton







Pinellas.







(55)

III. A. 6.

"B." "A" has an artesian well drilled at one
corner of the field, which is next to "C." "A"
goes broke, leaves and abandons field and leaves
well "free flowing." Unmaintained ditches spill
water from well over onto "C", creating an area
which is a breeding place for liver flukes. "C's"
herd becomes infected, with consequent loss of
some animals, and marked loss of weight in others.

(6) A citrus cannery disposes of waste from the Osceola
plant into an underground stream, polluting the
water of private wells used for domestic pur-
poses*

(7) Many of the old flowing wells in an area are now Seminole
broken-off, rusted-out, or left flowing contin-
uously year in and year out. Consequently, a
sizable area around each of these unplugged wells
is becoming saturated with mineral salts that
settle out of the water. In some cases, as much
as.an acre of land is ruined, as far as agricul-
tural purposes are concerned, from this build-up
of salts. Some areas which have in the past
produced good crops of celery and grass are now
completely bare of vegetation.

(8) Continuous flow from artesian wells on "Als" St. Lucie
property causes portion of "Bts" property to re-
main excessively wet.

(9) *A" drills a large exploratory oil well on his Wakulla
land, but the.well was located a short distance
from a natural pond owned by "B." The water in
this pond dropped about four feet shortly after
the well was drilled.

B. Springs.

1. Dry up or reduce flow

Problem County

(1) Property owner "A" has a spring which flows con- Columbia
stantly through a well defined channel onto the
property of owner "B." He wishes to impound
the water and use for irrigation purposes. If
this is done during dry periods when irrigation
is being practiced, all the water will be util-
ized by owner "A" and there will be no water for
"B's" livestock.

(2) "A" owned a large natural spring which was used Polk
for recreation purposes. An industrial company
installed a large deep well nearby. "A's" spring
ceased to flow sufficiently to maintain the pool





(56)

IfM. B. 1.

for recreation purposes*

IV. INTER-RELATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

AI Outlets (no natural outlet)

1. Lowering water table

Problem County

(1) A large land owning company wishes to drill a Baker
series of drainage wells to drain their wood-
land development. This may have adverse affect
on the level of the water table.

(2) 'A" has an 8" drainage well on his property. It Orange
was originally designed to give water management
and control on a large low area entirely on his
property. In recent years this well has rusted
out about I feet below the designed intake of
the well. Farmers in adjacent areas think that
this may be causing overdrainage of a large
acreage, which is affecting them, too.

2. Pollution, all causes

Problem County

(1) During the 1948 flood, which lasted for weeks, Hamilton
Hamilton Couity Commissioners applied for a per-
mit to drill two six-inch drainage wells to re-
move diffused surface water off the roads and so
permit passage of school busses and mail delivery.
During the Board of Health's delay in considering
the request, the commissioners ordered the wells
drilled, which effectively ended the emergency.
.No legal action was taken, but the commissioners
incurred the ire of the Board of Health. The two
drainage wells were within five miles of a munic-
ipality, and therefore violated a.State statute.

(2) "A" owns a-canning plant which damps refuse into Hernando
a lime sink, which has an outlet that drains into
pasture land of "B", several miles from the plant
of "A." The pasture land is damaged by deposits
of refuse and the water supply is contaminated by
the overflow of the refuse. "B" has no other
source of water supply.

(3) "A" runs refuse into surface streams that enter Hernando
into sinks, thereby polluting the drinking water
supply of "B", "C", "D", etc.


~ _I~~1__P i_____ ~i_~_ _r




- ~I


(57)

IV. INTER-RELATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlets (No Natural Outlet)

3. Lowering water level

Problem Count

(1) "A" drained 2,000 acres of swamp timberland (dif- Hamilton
fused water) through drainage wells. "B" insti-
tuted a law suit claiming that he suffered damage
from this project removing diffused water off his
("B s") adjacent woodland.

4. Flooding

Problem Co

(1) 'A" has a lime sink in the corner of his prop- Hernando
perty. "A" closes the sink, thereby flooding
adjacent property owned by "B."

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (Natural Sink Outlet)

1. Flooding

Problem County

(1) Rattle Snake Branch originates in the watershed Alachua
area west of Gainesville, flows through "A's'
property, and empties into a sink hole on "B's"
property. With excessive rainfall, the branch
overflows, due to low intake rate of the sink.
hole, and floods both "A's" and "B's" property.
"B" plans to dynamite the sink hole opening in
an effort to enlarge its capacity and thus pre-
Vent flooding. If "B" carries out the plan and
it closes the .sink hole, it may permanently
flood "A's" property.

(2) A stream, runs through the property of owner "A" Columbia
and disappears into a sink before it leaves the
property, In times of high- water when the sink
will not take the flow, the excess follows a well
defined course on to "the Suwannee River. Property
owner "A" would like to re-route the stream from
the sink so he could have use of it further down
stream. When this is done, adjacent property
owner "Bts" field will be flooded due to the
increased flow,

(3) 'A natural sink has been used to. drain excess Leon
water from a large lake. This sink was plugged
with concrete to prevent overdrainage. "A",
"B", and *C" own land.bordering this lake. Dur-





(58)

V. A. 1.

ing the rainy season, a large portion of the land
belonging to these farmers is flooded.

2. Lowering water level

Problem County

(1) A 500-acre lake periodically drains through a Hamilton
bottom cavity. This lowers the water level over
seven feet and reduces the surface area about
70 percent. About 30 pears ago, "A" eliminated
this loss of water by dividing the lake with a
dam. "B" obtained an injunction and required "A"
to cut his dan. All owners now agree that they
would benefit from this type of water control,
which is technically feasible. The project, how-
ever, has been held up to this day.

(2) During dry weather there is a total loss of water Hamilton
in several miles of the Alapaha River immediately
above its confluence with the Suwannee River.
This loss occurs through subterranean cavities,
and possible corrective measures are complicated
by unknown factors and the legal aspect of the
problem. The possibility of property owners be-
ing affected if the loss of water was diverted
back into the river channel proper presents legal
questions.

B. Outlet (No Natural Outlet)

1. Lowering water table

Problem County

(1) "A" has drilled several deep drainage wells in Alachua
Cooter Pond to prevent damage to tung oil trees
during excessive high water* "B", whose prop-
erty joins "A's" on the south, is a truck farmer
and the lowering of the water level in this pond
has lowered the water table on "B's" property to
the extent that it is almost impossible to pro-
duce truck except in an unusually wet season.

(2) A drainage well was put down by the County in a Bradford
2300-acre lake to control its level. The lake is
surrounded by a number of owners with riparian
rights, A sink developed at the well site, caus-
ing more water to drain into it than had been
anticipated. The owners around the lake are com-
plaining that it is lowering the water table,
which is affecting their crop land.

(3) A 300-acre lake is owned by "A", "B", "C", and Columbia
aD", with "A" owning about 95 percent. In 1946








(59)
V. B. 1.
"I1" drilled four wells in the lake to drain it, and
one well in a constantly flowing stream to inter-
cept it before it reached the lake. A sink located
on the property of "B" apparently is of limestone
formation, and has been known to open end drain the
lake in years past. In 1946 also, this sink was
dynamited by persons unknown, and the lake was
drained. Since then, the wells have taken care
of the excess water coming into the area. The
property owned by "A" was sold to "E." Owners "B",
"C' and "D" would like to have the water back in
the lake bed to its original height.

(4) Several wells were drilled in a 120-acre lake for Columbia
drainage purposes by two property owners. Prop-
erty owner "A" owned only a small corner of the
lake, and drilled only one well, while owner "B"
drilled several. Owner "B" sold his property to
"C". Now owner "A" says that these wells are
lowering the water table and damaging adjacent
crop lnd. He has recently drilled an eight inch
well to provide irrigation water on this land.
He would like now to have all drainage wells
plugged up and the lake allowed to refill. Prop-
erty owner "C" says he believes it would be to
his advantage to add a couple of feet on the well
casing and keep the water at this height.

The water involved in the lake was surface water
from well defined draws, and also diffused water.
Riparian rights were involved, since there were
several other property owners affected by the
drainage of this lake. The drainage was done seven
years ago.
(5) "A" purchased a 10-acre grove on the south side Seminole
of a lake. "A" was more interested in fishing
and cabins than in citrus, so he cleared away
many of the trees near the lake, which is on a
rather steep slope, dug a small boat basin, and
connected it with the lake about 75 feet away.
About 12 feet of earth was removed from the basin
area, Aftur the earth was removed a flowing spring
developed which expels approximately one and
one-half millions of gallons of water each day.
The water level on "B's" adjoining land dropped
about two feet.
2. Lowering water level
Problem County
(1) "A", "B" and "C" are joint owners of a lake. "A" Leon
sinks a large well for draining the lake, of which
he owns only a part. As a result, the whole lake
is completely drained. "B" -nd "C" had been using
water from this lake for livestock purposes.








Brief Summary of
Data on Water Problems
That Bae' sa N save Legal ImliCtioabns
as tjperted Wby
Florida Sa& ilCaonwration Distfrits'

At the request of the Florlda Association of Soil Conservation District Supervisors,
soil: conservation distriUet during the latter part of 1954, sponsored local water
problem inventories at the ,county level.
In counties where studies were' made, famnirs, agency and organizational representa-
S tives, and business and professional men cooperated with district supervisors in
studies of the local situation.

More than 60 reports were sent to John E. Lambe, President of the Association.
S i is r rt cited clear-out exapes of local water problem that have
or may hae leal Matt than p M war @La -Some of these
related, and others were reported as occurring in several counties.
A wide variety of problems were reported that included problems ranging from those
connected with diffused surface water (surface water moving to well-defined streams)
through those reIali" 4 ... f- t reaches and becomes a part of natural
watercourses (well-defined streams and lakes) and situations relating to ground
water. (See outline at the end of this summary.)

Sof oblem portd the greatest number of counties had to do with
/ diffused aree wi where obstru ons and 'v onM Ma o loodi of
proper rovements. eity-three cunti re it y ro ems of

Three rather typical examples are given below by way of illustrations

The Baker County report included this: "Farmer A!' has a natural drain through
his land. A highway is built and water is concentrated through this natural
drain so as to make the surrounding fields unusable. This situation has been
going on for some years,"

From Brevard County comes this problems "A drainage outlet ditch.was estab-
lished by a rancher to drain a rather large area to be used for pasture. The
new ditch empties the water into a natural drainageway, resulting in flooding
of the lower land in oitrasm"

Hernando County cited this "'At digs ditch across property, draining water
into sink. T4 r At theportion of land nearest m ink to t'B tB1 fills
up itch on s prt line, This floods ''s land' & '---
Sixteen distinct types of problems involving diffused surface water were reported.
In addition to the type mentioned above, three other types were' faily common.
S Flo ra fr eationd tno repor sad haf..vow "rtiodg n no seventeen counties,
with a to_.al o ~r 9 ey no+e problems cited..
Bradford County report said that's "Many instances have occurred wheounty and
Stf i ea haMve -te diihs.n from, ro&ds into ponds without ,ts -4aalP ng a
i rimotag of farmlgadlnd." ,








-,2 -


According to the Polk County report, "Farmer t'A Laiktng and pumping water from
about 160 acres into an existing drainage ditch between tA' and 'B'. 'Bt receives
more water and at a faster rate than previously, riulting in flooding of 'Bts
land."

Sixteen counties mentioned need for participation by randrriersB a. type of
problem in connection with drainage of diffused surface mater. .' Mor than twenty
individual problems were reported by these sixteen wmnnties;, ;,. .

Here is an example: "UAt, tB' and tCt, three larger'Bmbac owner involving 100
acres of muck land and a one-mile-long ditch dug in 1947, h~ve"agreed tp assume the
cost of a clean-out job by a dragline at an estimated cos oat 3 i00.00. ,DW
agreed to let the dra;gln lea, n -t tha ditch, but insisted that the ditc~-follow
its iaroue trou mk ond tAtt i *is a fM toogo
around muck area i or ,economy in digging. Original ditch tbrou g' miak urea was dug
by hand; dragline operator eays his machine cannot go through .thias m- k areae even
on mats. 'A', B', and 6C' say hand-digging through munck weai:.bexpensive at
this time."

ThIrteen counties listed problems in connection with need for control o-
drainage of diffused surface water as another type. A'ot,=i.'ox .a -r iBn problems


The Osceola County group mentioned this: "'A' digs a diversion ditch on his
property to intercept surface and seepage water from th~e langBf 1t' who adjoins
'At. IAt dies the diversltn Ai t -h A -a that iU l ^ ikie on the
property of ','. aas to adversely affect grove tresa n-MWrcptaii.ch*"

The secnr~A m t ^"^" jyp ^%f -hblem cited was flooding resulting from obstruc-
tions to, or diversions of- naturAljg ru J"'

Some +_tnn+y-i.aean anntm grwpS. included examrales o f__t.h- rfhI i r sports,
and a total of forty-five individual problems was tabula.b y theM

DeSbY6'6P unty reports: "The major drainage outlet for DeSQo- e mntr is obstructed
by railroad brdge and sunken barges. The obstructions hold up floating debris
and hyacinths Bwhih hinder vMW, oT water during rainy seasOlU P

Another report gave this example: "At and 'B' have farm prca loeted on the
same stream. Due to faulty construction, 'A's dam goes ot inil-heavy rain and
takes out the well-constructed dam of 'B'."

edun or d n up normal flow as a result of .bg :diversions of

ported a total ofnineteen problems of t s n.~
-- -. n-' *- ---- -- .... .. ,rr. s, ):Z- .
S"Farmer 'A'," according to one re tdirt m- _r a .nre
pond for rraon. ng extended dryperio fr on the stream a
short of watag Mhier u h ihei orl .smpwuple of a
problem arising out of use, as contrasted with problems # edbi8g gabti f damage
situations due to excess water, or those connected with drainage.

In Clay County "Dams along a small watercourse tempcrar-lr-:?al.tt r stop flow
below them, causing landowners downstream to object be*rI tigY ~gveA.4sufficient
water for agricultural or domestic purposes."


_ ~___I______~~_ ~_ __ ___~~~I~ _








33..
3i

Manatee County listed the following problem among those in their report: "'At farms
on a stream utilizing water for supplemental irrigation. tB?, farming upstream,
diverts water flow through his property, resulting in inisuffcient water for 'A
below."

In addition to the two types of problems already discussed under natural water-
courses (well-defined streams and lakes) sixteen other types came in for considera-
tion.

Water level control in lakes, especially where levels.were too low, seemed fairly
common, with ten counties ls g ow la evels.

Here is an example from Seminole County: "nAt owns about 80 acres of citrus on the
southeast side of a lake. tAt has installed a pump house and irrigation system for
irrigating his grove. This system was installed about five years ago, and has been
frequently used during the dry season. There is a small 16w area lying about 100
feet west of the lake, and is owned by contractor tBV. Bf -removed the muck and
grass out of the low area, sub-divided the land into building lots, and constructed
a large ditch or canal connecting the low area with the lake. Three days later,
the water level in the lake dropped about two feet, leaving WAs pump and pump
house in water too shallow."

r d o came in for .consideration, most relating to wells and
spr 8. Problems were reported under six types, or classes. Two of these types
reBdiscussed below.

Seven counties reported nine problems in connection with wasteful flow of artesian
wells.

One report listed the following problem: "Four artesian wells on A's property are
installed with valves. t'A allows wells to flow freely at all times, with no
system to spread water for useful irrigation. This results in a misauseaiird waste
of water."

From the St. Lucie County Report "An ldna iLJbanndaBde na
out and valve has fallen off, letting well flow freely ymarar.ound'?

SEleven counties reported fifteen problems concerning wells which 'dr up or reduce
flow significantly in other wells.*"" "" "
An example from the Putnam Couny report will serve to iitustrates Af drilled
his flowing wells deeper, causing the wells of his neighbor, Farmesi' IBt, to stop
flowing water. These wells are drilled into percolating gfrotnd'vater, The water
from these flowing wells is used for irrigating truck cops, usiii a -seepage
(furrow) system '

This brief summary represents only a part of the material contained in the 58 re-
ports mentioned above. The Florida Association of Soil Conservation District
Supervisors has compiled three complete sumvasries of the material it received:
(1) a chart which indicates graphically the number of 'counties reporting various
types problems and the occurrence of these problsii in the 58 coiiities, (2)
summary, by counties, of the types of problems reported, and (3) a summary by
types of pblemsI. ,-t headings and sub-headings used foaf all three summaries
follow









-4-


SUMMARY OUTLINE


I. DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER


A, Obstructions and Diversions
1. Flooding
2. Erosion
3. Sedimentation damage
B. Canals and Ditches
1. Flooding
2. Sedimentation damage
3. Erosion
4. Overdrainage
C. Drainage
1. Surface
2. Sub-surface
3, Need for outlets
4. Need for participation by landowners
5. Need for control
D. Terracing
1. Need for properly protected outlets
2. Need for cooperation in establishing
E. Ponds
1. For irrigation water
2. Livestock
3. Recreation and fish production
4. Need for sanitation and mosquito con
5. Flooding or drowning lands of others


joint outlets


trol


II. STREAMS AND LAKES

A, Obstructions and Diversions of Natural Streams
1. Flooding
2. Sedimentation damage
3. Erosion
4. Reducing or drying up normal flow .: .
5. Raising water table to damaging extent on adjacent owners
6. Lack of willingness to participate
B. Obstructions and Diversions in Canals
1. Flooding
2. Sedimentation damage
3. Erosion
4. Raising water table to damaging extent on adjaoat owners
5, Lack of willingness to participate
C. Improving Stream Channels and Canals for Increased Discharge
1. Overdrainage
2. Flooding downstream te
3, Salt water intrusion from lack of controls or tde gates
4. Sediment damage from untreated spoil banks
5. Lack of willingness to participate
D. Water Level Control in Lakes
1. Levels too. high
2. Levels too low
3. Inadequate supply for beneficial uses
4. Lack of willingness to participate


.. ~~ -I- ~~~ ~ "~--c---------- ---











E. Pollution in Streams, Canals and Lakes
1. Municipal wastes
2. .Industrial wastes
3. Use of highly concentrated poison dusts and sprays for control
of insects and diseases on adjacent farm lands
4. Agricultural wastes
F. Use of Streams and Lakes by Public
1. Access

III. GROUND WATER

A. Wells
1. Artesian, wasteful flow
2. Dry up or reduce flow significantly in other wells
3. Increased use for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes
4. Damage from oil exploration
5. Pollution, all causes
6. Flooding or other damage to lands of others
B. Springs
1. Dry up or reduce flow

IV. INTER-REATED DIFFUSED SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlets (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table
2. Pollution, all causes
3. Lowering water level
4. Flooding

V. INTER-RELATED SURFACE STREAMS AND LAKES AND GROUND WATER

A. Outlet (natural sink outlet)
1. Flooding
2. Lowering water level
B. Outlet (no natural outlet)
1. Lowering water table
2. Lowering water level

Either of the last two summaries mentioned above forms a comprehensive catalog of
the water problems which occur in the state, as reported by Florida soil conserva-
tion districts. It is not to be supposed, a by any
means complete since racca all o e problems listed were related to a -
cul ure terests reaaltes industry recreation and nav g on
did not contribute materially to the survey.. "*i*- ---

Copies of the summaries may be secured from John E. Lambe, President, Florida
Association of Soil Conservation District Supervisors, Route I4, Box 110,
Marianna, Florida.




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