Title: The General Situation: The Project
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002920/00001
 Material Information
Title: The General Situation: The Project
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Richard Hamann's Collection - The General Situation: The Project
General Note: Box 12, Folder 1 ( Materials and Reports on Florida's Water Resources - 1945 - 1957 ), Item 34
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: WL00002920
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text





FACTS ABOUT FCD

FLORIDA'S MULTIPLE PURPOSE WATER CONTROL PROJECT
CENTRAL & SOUTHERN FLORIDA FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT



I. THE GENERAL SITUATION


SFederal.State
perative Project







th Project
|tershed Area







Scope of Problem


Initial Benefit-Cost
Retio


THE PROJECT

The Central and Southern Florida Project is a full-
scale answer to a mounting water control problem in an
area which plays a major part in the economy of the
whole state. (See Fig. 1) The importance of this area
to Florida's prosperity more than justifies State assis-
tance in its protection and development. Its importance
as a national asset has enlisted major Federal support.

Part or all of 17 counties are included in the 15, 570
square miles within District boundaries. In addition, 5
other counties are located within the watershed area and
are thus directly affected by District activities. The 22
county watershed area and the remaining 45 counties of
the State are therefore the geographic areas shown in
their economic relationship in Fig. 1 opposite page 2.

More than a hundred years of effort in an area which
until recently was a sparsely populated, waterlogged fron-
tier demonstrated that the problem is not one which could
be attacked piecemeal or on a small scale, The job proved
too big and to complex for private development companies,
or for individual cities, counties or Drainage Districts.

With major growth in central and southern Florida,
the need for a coordinated program of water control in-
creased. It is still increasing as development continues.

In 1948, when the first steps were taken in the present
full-scale effort to meet already critical problems, engineers
estimated that demonstrable benefits exceeded costs of con-
trol by a ratio of more than 2-to-l.

Since 1948, population growth in the area has accelerated,
cities have spread, and more and more land has been put into
agricultural production as high-income producing farms and
ranches.


1










Project Benefits
Urgently Needed


Benefit-Cost Ratio
Modification










Present 6 to 1 Ratio
Still Rising


Protection and
Controls Needed


Potential damage from flooding has grown as areas sub-
ject to flooding have changed from wilderness to pastures,
farmlands or cities. Potential damage from drought has be-
come greater and has brought more insistent demands for
augmented water supplies by urban areas, farms and ranches
as well as by commercial and industrial interests. Poten-
tial damage from salt-water intrusion into domestic and in-
dustrial supplies has assumed even greater importance as the
number of wells and the consumption of water has increased
in coastal areas.

By no means is all of the damage merely potential. In
each wet period and in each dry period since 1948, there have
been very real losses and expenses which would have been
avoided if the water-control system had been in full operation.

Growth and investment in the area since 1948 and higher
costs have made necessary a modification of benefit-cost
ratio. One of the two major factors in this ratio, the costs
of control, had followed the upward trend of general price
levels. The increased amount of protection made necessary
by new developments in the area mn6re fully t~it6eet local-
needs is one of the most important factors influencing mount-
ing costs of control works. Rising costs of labor and com-
modities in general and the marked rise in the cost of land for
rights of way are also major factors in these higher costs.

This higher cost factor has, however, been more than
offset by the even greater rise in the value of the benefits to be
derived from the system. At the present time, these benefits
for the planned portion of the project are estimated at six times
the cost and this 6-to-1 ratio is expected to go still higher un-
der the influence of anticipated future growth and increased
investment in the area.



THE PROBLEMS AND THE ANSWER

The interlocking problems of the area include: control of
floods across vast flatlands; water storage for use in droughts;
prevention of saltwater intrusion into domestic, industrial and
agricultural fresh water sources; preservation, creation or
improvement of navigable waterways, wild life areas, develop-
ment of recreational potential; and minimizing of shrinkage and
burning of the rich Everglades soils.











(Figure 1)





WATERSHED AREA RELATED TO STATE'S ECONOMY


SUMMARY OF RECENT CHANGES IN ECONOMIC BALANCE BETWEEN THE 22-COUNTY WATERSHED AREA AND THE 45 COUNTIES
IN THE REMAINDER OF THE STATE. YEARS COVERED VARY SOMEWHAT ACCORDING TO THE AVAILABILITY OF STATISTICS.

FIGURES. SHOWN AS PER CENT OF STATE



POPULATION EFFECTIVE BUYING INCOME VALUE OF ALL PROPERTY

70 70


60 60


50


40

30 --


20 -


10 -

0-


45 22







1948


45


CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA 4-56
FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
WEST PALM BEACH, FLORIDA


50


40 -


30
45 22 22 45
20


10


1948 1953


1











j|ect to Supply
Ads of Area






Zegram of
*egress


The Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Plan,
with locally-constructed additions where needed, is an an-
swer to these problems. It calls for a major coordinated
system of water storage or conservation areas, levees,
canals, pumping stations, culverts and spillways, salt
water intrusion barriers, and other structures.

These structures and facilities, working together, will
provide the answer to the water control problems. The
general plan for all of the area has been outlined and the
entire project has been authorized. Some of the protective
facilities have been completed or are in the course of con-
struction and detailed plans have been prepared for a large
part of the remaining works. Priorities have been esta-
blished for orderly initiation of work to be begun as funds be-
come available. The program progresses with planning well
in advance of construction.

When plans for any portion of the project works reach
the stage of completion at which a reasonably reliable es-
timate of cost is made, the Corps of Engineers classify such
work as a planned item. Using this classification, the plan-
ned portion of the comprehensive project and all works thus
far completed or under construction are shown on the map
facing page 4.


WIDE GOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION INVOLVED


AI. Level s
involved


Corps of Engineers
F. C. D.



County
Committees


Other Agencies



Division of
Responsibilities


The all-out attack on the water control problems of the
area involves Federal, State, county, municipal and special
district levels of government working together.

The Federal agency most intensively involved is the Corps
of Engineers. The State and the people of the area are repre-
sented by the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Dis-
trict.

County committees and local advisory groups, and spe-
cial district organizations within the area play an important
part in helping to make broadscale plans fit local needs. Other
agencies, Federal, State and local, also play important parts,
particularly with respect to conducting studies and investiga-
tions which provide the basic information needed during the
planning stage.

By Congressional action, the Corps of Engineers was
charged with major responsibility for planning, engineering
and design, and supervision of construction. The District was
to be primarily concerned with acquiring needed land, relocation


'I














The District's
Mojor Role


District Activities


of improvements which had to be moved, and the operation
and maintenance of completed works.

In practice, the District has had a broader role. In
the course of carrying out its responsibilities to the State
and to those who live in the area, it has taken a dominant
part in this Federal-State-local cooperative enterprise and
has participated fully in all aspects of the planning, con-
struction and operation of project facilities.

By its initiative and its understanding of the needs of
the area and the potentialities of the project to serve these
needs, the District has sponsored and has been influencial
in securing the acceptance by the Corps of Engineers of a
number of features which will considerably extend the scope
and effectiveness of the project as originally conceived.

At present, the District works very closely with the
Corps of Engineers in planning construction, continues to
carry on its work on land acquisition and relocation,
operates and maintains completed works, and develops
over-all plans of secondary works not part of the joint State-
Federal agreement but needed to enable maximum local
benefits to be obtained from the over-all program. The
District also makes its engineers available to advise Sub-
diajnage districts and other local planning units in making
studies and developing designs related to the general water-
control scheme.


THE NEED. FOR RAPID ACTION


Progress Logs


Mounting Right of
Way Costs


In the first years of operation of this program, much
has been accomplished, but the rate of progress has not kept
pace with growth and needs. Rapid urban and agricultural
development since the comprehensive plan was drafted have
increased the need for protection and magnified the penalties
for incomplete or inadequate water controL.

Continued rapid development is constantly raising the
value of that which is to be protected, but it is likewise in-
creasing the costs of protective measures particularly with
respect to land and improvements. Prompt and fore-sighted
action is required to avoid very serious consequences to the
program from this cause.

The value of lands which will be needed for rights of way
and water storage areas rises from year to year. The net-
work of public and private roads which may have to be moved


I~
























L-50 -,49 LAKE c-44

S-76 S-46
L- 3 OKEECHOBEE T

-47A C-18
C-1 7 LI L-D9 L-8 S-45

sufi S-47D S-4
LOCK L-2 -17


-S-5A-E, w -43
-WEST
L-25L-14 PALM
LL L0 BEACH

L- .


OL-5 L- 40
5-6

L-23 L L-39
L-3R
L--8
I- - -S -- 5L6 S-39
L-41A Js-
LL-5 S-7
L-36




TYE L-35OF W




BOUNDARY OF DISTRICT L-37 C-l 4 -- 3
I S-iA
TYPE OF WORK
CANAL OR LEVEE 32 L-33 C-9
a SPILLWAY I1111111K
CULVERT I -32A L \-8L2
C- PUMP STATION

WORK STATUS \ -30
COMPLETED S\ \ S-27
111lllll UNDER CONSTRUCTION
00 PLANNED(COST ESTIMATE HAS -----
BEEN PREPARED) S-24 MIA
SS ~ MIAMI
S $S-24A ,,,, C2

L-3/' 4 v
scALE IN MILES I S-22
5 0 5 10 12







STATUS OF PROJECT WORKS
AS OF JUNE 30, 1955
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDk
FLOOD CONTROL DISTRICT
WEST PALM BEACH, FLORIDA





















Accelerated
Progress Needed
to Meet Goal For
1965 Completion


in connection with the construction program becomes more
complex and the cost of moving them grows. The relocation
or purchase of improvements on the lands to be taken is re-
quired in connection with acquiring privately owned rights of
way. These improvements are increasing so rapidly in some
areas as to make the acquisition of rights of way almost pro-
hibitive.

The goal set for completion of the project is 1965. To
meet this deadline, it will be necessary to move ahead at a
much faster rate than heretofore. Whatever hastens progress
provides protection sooner and at a lower over-all cost.
Whatever delays orderly construction limits the protection
available from the project, raises its ultimate cost, increases
the scope and amount of damage, or invites the ever-recurr-
ing costs of hasty emergency action in times of crisis which
are sure to come.

The following chart illustrates the District's goal for com-
pletion of the project under an appreciably accelerated pro-
gram as compared to probable progress at the rate of construc-
tion during the first five years.


MIN COMPLETION DEPENDS ON APPROPRIATIONS
DOLLARS

300


RATE NEEDED
250 --- TO COMPLETE
BY DEADLINE


200


COMPLETION PROGRAM
/ ,i UNDER PRESENT
150 APPROPRIATION RATE



100





Q FEDERAL AND STATE
APPROPRIATIONS
THROUGH 1955
0 1
1950 1955 1960 19651 1970 1980 1990 2000




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