Title: A Guide to the SWFWMD
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00002766/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Guide to the SWFWMD
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Publisher: SWFWMD
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: A Guide to the SWFWMD
General Note: Box 11, Folder 2 ( 17th Annual Water Management Seminar - 1998 ), Item 3
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00002766
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

A Guide to the

Southwest Florida Water

SManagement District

0 printed on
recycled paper



Table of Contents

Chapter 1
District Overview ........... ............................ 1-1 1-7
Chapter 2
The Water Resource .............. .... ............2-1 2-10
Chapter 3
Resourceanag ent.............. .... ....
Chapter 4
Flood Protection...........................................41 4-6
Natural Systems ........................................ 5-1 56
Chapter 6
Water Quality...............................................6-1 -6-6
Chapter 7
Water Supply ...................................... ...... 7-1 -7-10
Chapter 8
Fluid Relationships ..........................................8-1 -8-2
Chapter 9
Education............. ..........,,..................... 9-1 9-3
Chapter 10
Organization and Management...................... 10-1 -10-13
Chapter 11
District Financial Information ......................11-1 -11-3
Chapter 12
Basin Boards.....................................12-1 -12-14
Key Terms.............. .............. ................. Key Terms 1-4
Acronyms........ ..... ... .......... ................... Acronyms -1-6
Index ................................... ...... ............... Index 1
Issue Papers..................................................... Appendix

Statement From The

Executive Director

The Southwest Florida Water Management District is charged by Florida statutes with protecting
the water and water-related resources of west central Florida. We hope this Guide will provide the
reader with basic information about who we are and how we carry out our responsibilities, which are
varied and complex.
The District's responsibilities include, for example, ensuring an adequate quantity and quality water
resource for millions of people living across approximately 10,000 square miles. But we must also
preserve a balance between the needs of a rapidly growing population and the sensitive environmental
systems that also need water now and in the future. Our duties require us to coordinate efforts with
more than a hundred government organizations, from the smallest municipalities to state and federal
agencies. We frequently deal with highly technical issues involving both policy and science.
Our task is made even more complex by the many competing points of view toward how the resource
should be managed.
This Guide was designed to provide a basic introduction to the District, while guiding readers to
additional District information that may prove helpful. For the most part, it has been written free of
jargon and acronyms that often present barriers to genuine understanding. Its streamlined contents will
hopefully save you many hours searching through volumes of information elsewhere to find what you
need to know about the Southwest Florida Water Management District.
Should you need additional information, please call our Public Communications Department,
(800) 423-1476, ext. 4757. We will provide you information in as
complete and timely a manner as possible, or, if we can't answer your
questions, we'll refer you to those who can. v Soterm t Fb


Protecting Yr
Water Resources
E.D. "Sonny" Vergara
Executive Director Mission Statement
"The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is
to manage the water-related resources for the people through
regulatory and other programs Central to he mission is maintaining
the balance between the water needs of the current and future
residents, while protecting and maintaining the natural systems."

*1P ?j- r

The Southwest Florida Water Management District (District) does not discriminate upon the basis of any individual's
disability Statis.This nondiscrimination policy involves every aspect of the District's functions including one's access
to, participation, employment, or treatment in its programs or activities. Anyone requiring reasonable accommodation
as provided for in the Americans With Disabilities Act, should contact 1-800-423-1476 (Florida only), extension 4757;
TDD no. only: 1-800-231-6103 (Florida only); fax (352) 754-6883, Suncom 628-4150, Suncom fax 663-6883 or view our
Web Site on the World Wide Web at http://www.dep.state.fl.us/swfwmd.

(1 _

District Overview

Florida seems awash in water. The Atlantic
and the Gulf of Mexico surround the peninsula.
Florida also sits atop another huge body of water,
the Floridan aquifer, containing trillions of gallons
of fresh water, yet despite that seeming
abundance, unrelenting pumping has had
devastating environmental impacts.
For all water's benefits, man has not always
regarded Florida's water kindly. When Florida
became a state in 1845, two-thirds of it was
wetlands much of it considered a nuisance to be
drained and filled so property beneath the water
could be used for agriculture and other
In 1960, heavy seasonal rains, followed by
Hurricane Donna, caused massive flood damage to
southwest Florida, prompting the state
Legislature to create the Southwest Florida Water
Management District. The District, which
encompasses all or part of 16 west central Florida
counties, extends north to Levy County and south
to Charlotte County. It also stretches from the Gulf
east to Polk and Highlands counties.
The region the District serves is diverse and
includes some of the state's most productive
agricultural lands. It also contains some of the
state's most densely populated land, including fast
growing urban areas along the Gulf Coast. Within
the District are some of the nation's largest
phosphate mining operations. It also encompasses
the Green Swamp, headwaters for the Peace,
Hillsborough, Withlacoochee, Kissimmee and
Oklawaha rivers, and numerous lakes, springs,
and streams.


About The District

An or part of 16 counties in west central
Florida Charlotte, Ctus, DeSoto Hardee,
Hemno H~hands, Hllsborough,
Lake. Levy, Manatee Marion, Pasco,
Pinelas, Polk, Sarasota and Sumter

10,000 square miles

Population in 1996:3.6 million (about
one-quarter of state's population)

Projected population in 2010-4.6 million

Nine watershed basins, including the
Green Swamp which forms the
headwaters for the Peace, Hisfborough.
Withacoochee Kissimmee and
Oidawaha rivers

19 major surface water drainage basins
or watersheds which are separated by
divides (high areas of land)

Originally a flood control agency

When created, the District was to serve as a
flood control agency and local sponsor of the "Four
River Basins, Florida Project," a plan developed by
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reduce
flooding in the Tampa Bay area through dam
building and construction of water retention areas.

The Souhwest Forida Water Managment District
Compries Al or Part of 16Countis
hi West Cetral Flori

Currently, the District operates 73 water
control structures, including basic water
management and flood control structures. The
District's award-winning Supervisory Control and
Data Acquisition program includes an early-
warning system that provides constant monitoring

of the water levels at control structures and other
key locations.
Since the creation of the District in 1961,
Florida has experienced massive population
growth, changing rainfall patterns and
dramatically increased demand for fresh water.
Fortunately, man's awareness of the complexity
and interrelationship of ecosystems has also

District's responsibilities expand

Today the responsibilities of the District have
grown to include management of the water supply,
water quality and the protection of natural
systems related to the water supply.
The Legislature has given the water districts
the authority to develop water policies, and to
create and implement water management plans.
The District also issues permits for underground
water well construction, and it regulates activities
affecting surface water and the use of water.
The District has the authority to limit how
much water is taken from the aquifer. Long-range
planning and coordination with other agencies
have become a primary focus of the District's
efforts to accomplish its mission, which requires it
to manage the resource for current and future
users, while still protecting the environment.
In 1990, the population of the District had
grown to 3.3 million people, up from 2.5 million in
1980. By 2010, 4.6 million people are expected to
be living within the District. All those people need
fresh water. In 1994, an average of about 1.468
billion gallons was used each day in the District for



agriculture, public supply, industry, recreation and
other purposes. That demand is expected to
increase to about 1.821 billion gallons a day in
2020, up 24 percent. Careful management of the
supply and safe, creative alternatives will be
In 1990, 80 percent of the fresh water
consumed here came from underground water
supplies. When more water is withdrawn from an
area than is replaced by
rainfall, the
underground water IN BRIEF
supply becomes
stressed. As pumping Dstrict
has increased, a clear REPOsgIiIJti
trend of lower water
levels in wells and Develop water police
nearby surface waters
has been documented in Create and implernt
management plans
various parts of the ma
District. Lakes and Issue permit for gou
wetlands have dried, construction

causing trees and
plants to die and Regulate activities a~e
putting the water water andAth seea
supply and water
quality in jeopardy.
Three such areas in the District are designated
Water Use Caution Areas. The District has
established, or is in the process of establishing,
special rules or management plans for these areas,
including using the District's permitting authority
to regulate how much water can be taken.

Developing alternative sources of water

With substantial demand increases projected
and an already-stressed water supply, the District
has undertaken comprehensive programs to
encourage development of alternative sources of
supply. A program called the New Water Sources
Initiative (NWSI) provides local governments 50
percent of the money needed to develop alternative
sources of water.
Additionally, federal funds
have been allocated for five
of the NWSI projects. New
sources include reuse,
S repurification, rehydration
and desalination. Most
importantly, the use of
alternative supplies will
mean the District and its
water users will no longer
water well be held hostage to rainfall.
One of the greatest
challenges facing the
surface District is to enlist
Residents and businesses as
partners in the
management and
protection of water resources. A key aspect of that
effort is to educate the public, business and
industry about the limits of the water supply and
the complexities of water supply management.
This can be accomplished by using educational
programs in coordination with public school
systems, local governments and private industry.
The educational efforts focus heavily on the







a: I 1 q.1-1 r.',-. -.. .....- --: -,-* U .. -

benefits of conservation because conservation is the
fastest, cheapest way to extend the drinkable
water supply.

Comprehensive long-range planning

It seems ironic that the District, which was
created to alleviate the problems caused by too

much water, now
struggles with problems
caused by too little. A
central part of the
District's mission today is
to manage the resource so
there is enough water for
all who may need it,
without damaging the
ecosystems that protect
the supply.
To help achieve these
goals, the District has
increasingly emphasized
comprehensive long-range
planning and
communication with other
government agencies. The

District Water Plan is a 20-year program to develop
and implement strategies which will provide an
ample and stable supply of fresh water for all
appropriate users. The plan also includes
protection of ecosystems, restored water quality in
water bodies, and a partnership between the
District and other appropriate agencies in efforts to
deal with natural disasters.

Among the most significant difficulties is that
neither the population nor the existing water
supply is distributed uniformly throughout the
approximately 10,000 square miles which fall
under the District's jurisdiction. Further, the
majority of the people served by the District are
concentrated along the Gulf Coast, removed from
the bulk of the existing fresh water supply. Much of

that supply comes from
wellfields in rural areas
which is pumped to densely
populated coastal
communities. As demand
for fresh water rose with
supply of fresh population, increased
pumping at those wellfields
and below-normal rainfall
antainaned; from May 1988-May 1994
began to adversely affect
natural the available supply and
s that affect the environment. Battles
over water between
sparsely populated "have"
proecio and densely populated
"have not" counties ensued.

Local Sources First

As part of its aggressive plan to help ensure
safe and secure water supplies, the District has
adopted a "Local Sources First" policy. The policy
specifies that local sources of water will be
developed to the greatest reasonable extent before
water is imported from a distant source. This



* Maintain an adequate

* Ensure water quality is
enhance it where poss

* Preserve and restore n
environmental system
freshwater supply

SProvide region flood



* 1961 SWFWMD created by Legislature asflood
control agency and ocal sponsorof the"Four River
Basins, Florida Projecta plandeveloped by U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers to alleviate flooding in the Tampa
Bay area.

* Mid to late 1960sThe District began regulating
wellfields, where hugepumps draw substantial
amounts of water from the aquier.Thee significant
trendks:creased awareness of the Iportance of
natural systems, soaringpopuition, and federal
pressureto improvewater quality and control

* 1970s Transition to broad-based management of the

*1972: Legislature passed the Water Resources Act as a
result of severe drought and.the need fora more
comprehensive approach to water managementThe
act divided the state nto six water management

districts, changed to five in 1976. Overall supervisory
authority at the state level was vested in the Florida
Department of Natural Resources.

* 1975: The Environmental organization Act
transferred supervisory authority over the water
management distrits to the Department of Pollution
ControlThat authority is now vested in the
Department of Environmental Protection (DEP).

* "t198 Responsibilities expanded to include water
conservationwater quality Improvement and
protection of wedands through a variety of programs.

*1981: Save Our Rivers pogragm.Offcially the Water
Management LandsTrust Fundllthis statute
provides moneyfor the acruImstonmaitenance and
management of lanfor water supply prection.The
fund is administered statewideby OEP and obtains
money from documentary stamptaxes on real estate.
The money is distributed among1he five water
management districts.

common-sense approach ensures that as a
community uses water, it is aware of the source of
the water. Further, it encourages communities that
are heavy water users to conserve and develop new,
alternative supply sources.
District employees work within this
atmosphere to meet the District's goals to protect
the public's water resource. District staff members
possess skills and training of wide diversity,
including engineers, planners, mechanics,

hydrologists, environmental scientists, computer
professionals, secretaries, surveyors, graphic
artists, attorneys, auditors, land planners,
economists, educators and many more.

District organization

The District is organized into four management
areas: Executive, Resource Regulation, Resource
Management and Management Services.

U sa a r.. a -- -- -- --




* 1984 The Warren G.enderson Wetands Act
authorized the District to protect underground water
quality by regulating agricultural water systems,
including their discharge. By putting the District in
charge of issuing or denying permits for agricultural
water systems, the District assumed greater
responsibility in protecting sensitive wetlands and
other natua resources.

* 1987: SurfaceWater provement and Management
Act (SWM established fund the cleanup and
restoration of pouted lakes, steams, rivers and
estuaries. DEP delegated responsibility for
implementing the program to the water management
districts.Within the District one of themost
challenging SWIM project has been the cotiuing
and significantly successful efforts to retoreTamnp
Bay's water quatlty.

The executive branch oversees the other three.
District policy is set by an 11-person Governing
Board. Board members are District residents
appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the
Senate to serve four-year terms. They are unpaid,
citizen volunteers. The board's responsibilities
focus on those issues that are Districtwide in
nature. The board also appoints the executive
director, who conducts the business of the District,
hires staff, and manages day to day operations.

* 1990 Legislature adopted the Florida Preservon
2000 Act known as Pz200,which expanded the
Disdcts land acquisition efforts. Under the act, 30
percent of a fund administered by the Department of
Environmental Protection is distributed among the five
water districts to purchase land that otherwise could
not be acquired under the Save Our Rver orsnimar
progms.The act established no specic long-term
funding source, and funding must be designated
annualyby the Legislatureunds available for
Preservation 2000 purchase can fluctuate

* 1997: More than 268,000 acres of public land were
under Disrict managementhaving been acquired
through Preservation 2000, Save Our Rivers and similar
prrams.The vast majority ofthat land open to the
pubifor variousforms of receatmkn

The executive branch also administers the
District's budget. In 1997, the District budget
stands at approximately $150 million. Of that, 24
percent comes from intergovernmental sources: the
Save Our Rivers and Preservation 2000 land
acquisition and management programs. Most of
the budget, 57.7 percent, comes from ad valorem
taxes on real estate. That taxing ability was set by
the Legislature in 1976 following a statewide voter
referendum which approved ad valorem taxing



powers for water management districts. The
Legislature established a limit of one dollar for
each thousand dollars of assessed value. Fifty
cents of each of those dollars can be used by the
District to fund regulatory activities and projects of
regional significance. The other 50 cents can be
used by the Basin Boards (see below) to support
projects that directly benefit the basin where the
money was collected. Historically, the actual tax
rates levied have been far less than the maximum

Basin Boards

Each of the District's eight basins is
administered by a Basin Board whose boundaries
are based upon the natural flow of water,
watershed areas, rather than county lines. Another
basin, the Green Swamp, is administered directly
by the Governing Board.
Basin Board members are appointed by the
governor and confirmed by the Senate, and like

Governing Board members they serve as unpaid
citizen volunteers. Each of the eight boards must
include one representative from each county within
the basin and have at least three members. The
chairman of each Basin Board also is one of the 11
members of the District's Governing Board. Basin
Board members serve staggered three-year
volunteer terms.
The Basin Boards provide local perspective to
water management and focus on water-related
issues and projects within their basins. They
support planning and projects specific to their local
Further, the Basin Boards are essential
partners with the District in the New Water
Sources Initiative, one of the most important
programs the District sponsors. The Basin Boards
work with local governments to complete projects
that have direct and measurable impact in local
communities. Together, the District and the Basin
Boards provide 50 percent of the funds for these

Southwest Florida
Water Management

Protecting Your
Water Resources

--.- --r- ts- -i-i*-r

The Water Resource

The District identifies two broad sources of
fresh water: traditional and alternative.
Traditional sources include underground water
and surface water and are the subjects of this
section. Alternative sources include conservation,
reuse, repurification, rehydration and desalination
and will be described in this Guide's Water Supply
section. In several of the areas of the District,
demand is projected to exceed what can be safely
taken from conventional sources without damage
to the environment. The District promotes
aggressive use of alternative sources to
supplement the traditional supply.
However, underground water is now and will
remain the mainstay of the freshwater supply in
west central Florida. It includes only water
beneath the surface of the earth. More than 80
percent of all water used within the District comes
from this source. It provides a dependable year-
round supply and is available throughout much of
the District, but it has increasingly been
recognized as a limited resource. These limitations
mean that the only way to maintain this resource
is to withdraw no more than what is needed,

helping to sustain our fragile ecosystem. This is
known as sustainability. Rainfall is the sole source
of natural replenishment of the aquifer or
underground water resource.


There are three aquifers within the District,
generally layered upon one another. The deepest
- the Floridan aquifer provides 10 times the
water as the other two aquifers combined. In the
coastal areas of the District, a zone of "transition"
from fresh to salt water exists. Under the
southwestern part of the District, the Floridan
aquifer has moderate to relatively high
concentrations of sulfate, which limit its use.
Toward the coast, concentrations of sulfate and
chloride approach that of seawater.
The Floridan aquifer is made up largely of
porous limestone and dolomite rocks saturated
with water. It includes two main sections, the
upper and lower Floridan aquifers, which are
separated by a layer of dense material. The middle
layer and the lower aquifer contain water with a






* Definitio: Porous rock which stores arge
quantities of water underground

* lhree in District: F rmddMa Iemad Surfidal

* Floridam Deepest of three; provides 10 times as
much as other w combined;thickess ranges
from 500 feet to 1,400

* Itermedhatme Thicness 50 feet to 400 Chariote
and Sarasota ae the two counties which rely
heavily on this aquier, howeverWManate DeSote
Hardee, Pok and Hibrough cmuties asotake
water from the Intermediate source.

significant amount of chlorides and sulfates and
are not usable sources of fresh water. But the
upper Floridan aquifer generally is fresh, and
varies in thickness from less than 500 feet in Levy
County to about 1,400 feet in southern Manatee
In the northern part of the District, the upper
Floridan aquifer comes very close to the surface
and is readily replenished by rainfall. That also
makes the aquifer in this area very susceptible to
contamination. However, the geology begins to
change beginning around Hillsborough County. At
the DeSoto and Charlotte county line it begins
approximately 600 feet below the surface. The
space between the Floridan aquifer and the surface
is filled by two aquifers, the largest of which is the

SSurfcida Closes to the surface; thickness 25 feet to
250 feet; limited as dependable supply of water
except in the southern part ofthe District Surfdcal
aqufer supplies Venice, Englewood, and Rotunda
service areas.

*The closer to the surface the more asiy the aquifer
is replenished, but t's also more susceptible to

* Threatsfrom overpumping: water quality
deteriorate saltwater intrusion reduced flow of
fresh water springs; wetlanndand lake levels;
impacts to ecosystems.

Intermediate aquifer system, made up of
permeable, water-bearing material between semi-
permeable layers of clay.
Because the Floridan aquifer in the south is
much farther below the surface and separated from
the surface clay, it is much more difficult for
rainfall or surface water to seep through the
ground and replenish the underground water. This
is especially true along the Gulf coast.
The Intermediate aquifer is about 50 feet thick
in central Hillsborough and Polk counties. The
thickness generally increases toward the south,
becoming about 400 feet in Charlotte County.
Five counties in the southern part of the
District Polk, Sarasota, Highlands, Hardee and
DeSoto rely on the Intermediate aquifer for

public supply, private domestic supply and
agricultural use. In coastal Charlotte and
Sarasota counties, there is brackish water, which
is treated by reverse osmosis before it is used for
public supply. In other areas, the water
receives only minimal treatment before being
distributed for use.
In the southern part of the District, the
Surficial aquifer rests above the Intermediate
aquifer. The two are separated by dense clays. In
some areas, the Surficial system rests directly
upon the upper Floridan aquifer. The Surficial
system is generally quartz sand, clay sand, shell,
and other materials saturated with water. It
extends to the land surface, but it also varies
considerably in thickness, from about 25 feet near
the coast and low-lying areas to about 250 feet in
Highlands County. Because it is so close to the
surface, it is highly
susceptible to contamination. Hydrogeo
The Surficial system is
limited as a dependable NWC F
water supply, except in the O
southwestern part and along
the central ridge, which is I
high land running through
the eastern portions of Polk
and Highlands counties.
Along the central ridge the T
sand is thick, so the
Intermediate aquifer there is
better able to serve as a
source for water.
Taken as a whole, all the
variations in geology form

three large underground water basins within the
District: the northern, central and southern. All
three come together at a geological junction in
northern Polk County. (see graphic below)

Effects of pumping

The differences in geology in the three basins
alter how pumping from the underground water
supply affects the quality of the underground
water and the nearby surface water sources.
Underground water can be pumped so much that
the surface water levels drop. Like putting a straw
in a drink, as you drink the liquid down, the
beverage exposes the ice. Likewise, as the aquifer
is drawn down, lakes and streams on the surface
can go dry. Declining water levels cause numerous
adverse effects, including deterioration of water

logic Cross Section of the SWFWMD

quality, especially along the coast in the southern
groundwater basin, and surface water decline in
Northern Tampa Bay and the Highlands Ridge.
Florida's aquifer system is surrounded by seawater,
and permanently lowering water levels can cause
that salty water to creep into areas that previously
held fresh water. In areas not directly threatened
by saltwater intrusion, excessive pumping of

underground water can
reduce the flow of
freshwater springs and
lower wetland and lake
levels. This also has
occurred, and has been
documented in parts of
the central groundwater
As the population in
the District grew,
demand on the
underground water
supply increased. By
1989, the District
recognized distinct areas
in which water resources
were stressed due to
withdrawals. Those
areas are known by two
names. Water Use
Caution Areas, commonly

referred to as WUCAs, is the designation adopted
in 1989 when the District began establishing them.
However, the District gradually is changing over to
Water Resource Caution Area WRCA as the

areas are known in State Water Policy documents.
The change is being made in the interest of
statewide consistency. Because the areas are
widely known by the public as WUCAs, the change
is being made carefully to avoid confusion.
All of the southern part of the District now falls
within the boundaries of one WUCA or another,
and some of the central and northern parts of the
District receive the same
designation. We will provide
extensive information on
these areas in the Water
Supply section of this Guide,
but for now suffice it to say
are urre used that special rules and
d water suppl management plans for water
w Rimw consumption have been
atee River Peace
: m established in the areas.

Surface water
habitat Rivers, lakes, estuaries
w reductions as a and wetlands are all surface
water resources. They are
t a uure among Florida's most
nof-,domestc valuable resources, not only
nd treatment for their obvious aesthetic
y indury; and ecological values, but
OtmosphMe. also for their significant
economic contributions to
tourism, sport and

commercial fishing, and quality of life.
Currently, surface water has a significant role
as a public water supply source. And rivers are
regarded as a significant source of water in the


* Se enrivrsend crks
for miuncdpa or industry
-tdhV flbmioroughf

* Mar t s to river e
result f withdrawal

* vew watr qu litylwe
and urban stonwar ru
waste from sepdc tanks a
iants;efruentfrro hemw
depositfalling from the

b ,:(- t 98.,~,r il~~ rlan- em b.-~rrr i~-i~~ 0 r n*Sl-c-r i *e i a. ll sea - - -. -';

future, but withdrawals need to be carefully
managed to avoid environmental damage.
The District's rivers are very different in
geologic settings, origin, water quality and ecology.
The flows of the rivers are very different also, in
large measure because of the great range of
combinations of underground water and surface
water runoff that contribute to each river. The
relative contribution of underground water affects
flow, water chemistry, and the plants and animals
of each system.
The effects of underground water flow, tides,
and the transition from temperate to subtropical
climates create a rich diversity of habitats
associated with river systems within the District.
Major threats to river ecosystems include habitat
destruction in floodplains and along shorelines,
pollution, and flow reductions as a result of
withdrawals. Water quality generally is regarded
as good throughout the District's rivers, although
some sections need improvement. Water quality
threats include agricultural and urban stormwater
runoff, domestic waste from septic tanks and
treatment plants, effluent from heavy industry,
and deposits falling from the atmosphere.


This District has lots of lakes. The shape and
size of lakes within the District are tremendously
diverse, varying from shallow wet-weather ponds
to very deep lakes formed by sinkholes. They range
in size from small ponds to several in excess of
4,000 acres such as Crooked Lake and Lake
Hancock, both in Polk County, 5,538 acres and



S1800 lakes, 10 acres or larger,in the
District represent 23 percent of lakes in

SPolk County has the greatest number of
lakes in the District; ranked fourth among
all counties in the state

Limited u as publc water supply. Lakes
are very suspectible to fluctuations in level
based on rainfall Also, n evaluating lakes,
one technicalcriterion requires that
aumulative withdrawals not remove
more than one foot of volume from the
lake per year.Based on this, only a few
rnural lakes in the District would be able
to supply more than 3 mgd, and then only
during wet yeas. Lakes are used for a
numberof domestic small agricultural and
recirculating industrial uses.

4,519 acres, respectively, and Lake Panasoffkee in
Sumter County, 4,460 acres
Actually, the number and variety of lakes may
deceive the casual observer interested in them as a
source of water. The District limits the amount of
water that can be withdrawn from a lake. Only a
few lakes, excluding reservoirs, could supply
millions of gallons per day during wet years and
stay within safe environmental standards. Though
lakes are used for domestic, small agricultural and
recirculating industrial purposes, their value as a


significant source of public supply is extremely
Nevertheless, the District is responsible for
ensuring that lakes within its boundaries remain
healthy. Established in the mid-1970s, the
District's Lake Level program incorporates
substantial citizen participation and provides
enhancement of public
awareness on the roles B
and values of these water
bodies. The Lake Levels
Annual Report provides CEm v
an updated listing of De&io- o
lakes in the District with wh an open co
adopted levels. fresh water (spri
The Surface Water with salt water.
Improvement and
Management program Three-quartrs of sp
has designated the species in the uf
estuaries at some p
following lakes as priority
waterbodies: 80 percent of conm
catch comes from e
* Lake Panasoffkee in species
Sumter County
* Lake Tarpon in Pinellas
* Lake Thonotasassa in Hillsborough County
* Winter Haven Chain of Lakes in Polk County.

This designation means a special emphasis is
placed on protecting the lake's quality and


Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay and Charlotte
Harbor are the largest estuaries in the District.
Like other estuaries, they are transitional zones
and are especially valuable because of their role in
marine fisheries production. Estuaries often serve
as a hatchery for juvenile
fish which move into deeper
water as they mature. If
the quality or quantity of
estuaries is degraded, the

d water bodies, ability of certain species to
n to the sea, where reproduce can be seriously
rasstream mixes damaged.
The cycle of fresh water
flowing into estuaries is a
and commercial fish primary concern in
axico depend on
Wo depend on managing their health. The
in their lives
timing and volume of fresh
a and creational water coming into estuaries
ryependent are probably the most
important factors
controlling the physical,
chemical and biological
characteristics of these
water bodies. Among other things, the fresh water
establishes circulation patterns, regulates salinity
levels and delivers nutrients and sediments to the
estuaries and their dependent species. Many
species that depend on estuaries use them
primarily during immature larval or juvenile
stages. These early life stages require the lower
salinity created by the fresh water mixing with
salty seawater. The immature creatures are thus




a a .;. p t~ii--~ *t~i= ~B- c.,,ri : *nFiir r-n. it-i-i.~( .-ii as .-- a~ e ~m




* Defiition: Water resource that supports aquatic
and transitional vegetation and species.

SExamples Swamps, marshes, bayhead bogs,
cypress domes and stands, sloughs, wet prairies,
riverines, swamps and marshes,hydric seepage
slopes, tidal marshes, mangrove swamps.

* 1.2 nmlon aces, approximately 18. percent of
District Wetland hardwood forests are the primary
category. In the 1780s, Florida had an estimated 203
million acres of wetlands, covering about 54 percent
of the state. n the mld-1970s,there were an
estimated 11.2 million acres of wetands in the state.
By the mid-1980s, It was esthted that Florda had
11 million acres of wetlands, covering 30 percent of

able to take advantage of the rich food sources
found in low and moderately salty water.
Therefore, a direct ecological link exists between
fresh water flowing into an estuary and fishery
Fresh water that flows into an estuary often
originates many miles away. For that reason,
managing the water quality in an estuary involves
management of the entire watershed that drains
into it. There are 11 watershed management areas
comprising the District. Ten of them ultimately
drain into the Gulf or an estuary feeding the Gulf.
Approximately 2,200 square miles, or 24 percent of

the state, a loss of about 260,000 acres to agriculture,
urban and other development since 10 years earlier.
The 1980sfigure represents a loss of 93 million acres
statewide, or a 46 percent decrease, compared to the
1780s estimate. Florida has 20 percent of the
remaining wetlands in the US.

* Senitts

-Serves as filtering system;
-Stores water to reduce flood potential
-Provides critical habitat forfish and wildlife;
-Acts as shoreline storm buffer;
-Recharges underground water;
-Produces aesthetic values

lands in the District drain into Tampa Bay.
Therefore, integrated watershed management is an
important initiative for priority estuaries in the
District. Integrated management is implemented
through the planning and programs of the
National Estuary Program (NEP) and the Surface
Water Improvement and Management (SWIM)
program. The NEP was established in 1987
through the Federal Water Quality Act, which
authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency to
develop management plans for estuaries of
national significance that are threatened by
pollution, development or overuse. Tampa Bay,


Sarasota Bay and Charlotte Harbor are included
in the National Estuary Program, as is the coastal
area between the Weekiwachee and Withlacoochee


Wetlands comprise nearly one-fifth of the
District. What is a wetland, and what is not, can
be a subject of great controversy because use of
wetlands is regulated and limited by statute.
Generally, the District defines wetlands as areas
that are inundated or saturated by surface water
or underground water at a frequency and duration
sufficient to support, and under normal
circumstances do support, vegetation typically
adapted for life in wet soils.
The ecological and economic values of wetlands

Water quality protection Wetlands filter
sediments, nutrients and other materials from
surface runoff into water bodies.

Floodwater storage, lessening the risks and
degree of flooding Wetlands act as water storage

and flood detention areas. They are natural
reservoir systems.

Fish and wildlife habitat Wetlands serve
as critical habitat for a variety of important game
species, such as waterfowl, as well as many other
species of wildlife. They also serve as nursery
habitat for a variety of commercially and
recreationally important fish species, and as a
critical habitat for a number of wildlife species
with protected status, such as gopher frogs, white
Ibis, wood storks, sandhill cranes, gopher tortoises,
long-tailed weasels and Eastern Indigo snakes,
among others.

Shoreline storm buffering Coastal
wetlands mitigate damage to inland areas from
hurricanes and other large storms. Moreover,
coastal marshes damaged by a hurricane repair
themselves at no cost, whereas waterfront
development usually must
be repaired at great cost.



The Green Swamp

* Location Polk, Hillsborough, Pasco, Sumter, and
Lake Counties

* Sie: More than 500,000 acres

SPublic Ownersilp The District, about 100,000
acres. Other public agencies, about 64,000 acres in
the District area

Natural value:

* Flood Protecdti Extensive wetlands store
storm/food waters.Through District management,
over 90,000 acres of land with surface water
storage capacity have been protected.

* Water Quaty improvement. Wetlands
vegetation filters sediments and other unwanted

Underground water recharge Certain
types of wetlands fulfill important underground
water recharge functions. Because wetlands store
or slow the movement of water, the water has more
time to percolate into the ground and refill the
surficial aquifer.

Aesthetic benefits -Wetlands have a
number of intrinsic, aesthetic values including
scenery and passive recreational opportunities,
like hiking and photography.

elements from water before it flows downstream
in rivers or recharges into aquifer.

* Recharge. Since water isstoredin the vast
wetlands, more water has more time to percolate
into the aquifer.

* Prsure. The Green Swamp provides the pressure"
for the aquifer system, forcing water to flow outward
toward the population centers that depend on

* Headwaters for five river: the Hilsborough,
Oklawaha, Peace, Wthlacoochee and Kissimmee
rivers Kissimmee River Is in the South Florida Water
Management District).

* Threats Imminent land development

Wetlands can be damaged by significant
changes in either surface water or underground
water systems that supply water to them.
Inappropriate dredge and fill projects are one
common way that adverse changes are made in the
surface water supply to wetlands. When this
occurs, water that normally would flow to a
wetland is routed elsewhere. Or the wetland itself
is filled with soil, raising its elevation so that
water no longer flows to it. Underground water
supplies to wetlands can be reduced by excessive
pumping from the aquifer under or near wetlands.


-~Cer'-i r^- ~I -;-nirrxY-~~ll*LrrUiYer~i

When this occurs, the underground water level is
lowered so much that underground water can no
longer reach and seep into the wetland.
Protecting wetlands means taking into account
all of the functions of wetlands and their benefits.
Protection does not consist just of preventing
wetlands destruction by development, or requiring
mitigation by developers for wetlands that are lost.
It also must include protection of those periods in
the wetlands natural cycle when they should be
wet in order to preserve their structure and
function. It could also include providing water of
suitable quality to wetlands during periods of
The District maintains wetland information for
all the counties within its boundaries. This data is
available to local governments, which use it when
evaluating proposed developments. The District
also uses the information as part of its evaluation
of property proposed for public purchase.

The underground water/surface water

Nature provides conventional water supplies in
two forms, and at first glance underground water
and surface water may appear to be distinctly
separate. However, in many areas a strong
relationship exists between the two, and the
complexity of the relationship is such that
reductions in underground water can affect surface
water levels and quality several miles away.
For instance, lake levels often are a direct
reflection of underground water levels. If the level
of the underground water drops, because of

overpumping or other reasons, water levels in
nearby lakes may drop also because the higher
underground water level was supporting the lake
level. It is important to remember that lakes
fluctuate naturally. Not all low lake levels are due
to overpumping, though some clearly are.
Also, underground water provides the base
flow of streams from springs. If reductions in
underground water lower spring flow, that will cut
back stream flow. This can have many negative
effects. Reduced stream flow can raise the salinity
in estuaries many miles from the area where the
underground water level dropped, causing the
estuary to be less habitable for wildlife.

Southwest Florida

Protecting Your
Water Resources

.~lrl~C~--i-_1C~~ _L -.. .----- Ir-L,

-Uj: .;;i-u d.i* (lri-Lli.rr.rr; l P n ll""' x'YrIrrr~rl1-il~y ~~-_ II__-- -

Resource Management


In the 1960s, the challenge was "simply" to
control flooding no small task in an area
approximately the size of New Jersey that is
frequently buffeted by major tropical storms. That
responsibility was a small fraction of those
confronted by the District today.
Now, the District also must ensure there is
enough water for current and future users. It must
make sure that the quality of water is adequate to
meet the needs of the user and the environment.
And it must protect the natural systems that
protect the water supply.
Some of those challenges conflict with each
other. For instance, it might be possible to supply
adequate water for current users simply by
pumping all that is needed from the aquifers, but
that would cause such damage to the natural
systems that it simply isn't acceptable.
Making the job even more complex is that it
must be accomplished across a vast region of
varying geography with nine distinct hydrologic
basins. It must take into account the needs of a
population of almost 3.6 million, represented by 98
local governments. This growing population is
expected to reach 4.5 million people by 2010. As
the population grows, so does the demand for
water, from 419 mgd in 1990 to 655 mgd in 2010
- a 56 percent increase in 20 years.
Clearly, careful planning and coordination are
vital. The District in conjunction with private
citizens, other state agencies and local
governments embarked in January 1992 upon
an effort to develop a comprehensive plan to
manage the resource. After a careful process
including public and governmental workshops,

The District Water Plan was published in March of
1995. The District Water Plan outlines the
District's goals in the areas of flood protection,
water quality, water supply, and natural systems
All of the areas of responsibility are related
and affect each other; and as the District's
responsibilities have grown, so has understanding
of the relationships between the responsibilities.
The District Water Plan represents the District's
increasing attempt to treat the natural systems in
a comprehensive way.
The District Water Plan also outlines the
statutory requirements the District must fulfill,
while at the same time pointing out the limits of
the District's authority that sometimes make it
difficult to accomplish the mission. And The
District Water Plan identifies a host of issues that
affect the District's resource management efforts,
proposes strategies for dealing with those issues
and establishes a schedule extending 20 years to
implement those strategies.

Southwest Florida

Protecting Your
Water Resources


Flood Protection

Goal: To minimize potential damage
from floods by protecting and restoring Water Management
the natural water storage and Structures
transportation functions of flood-prone LEVY and Facilities
areas. The District will give preference, in the Southwest Florida
wherever possible, to non-structural j Water Management District
surface water management methods.-


A Salinity Barriers ---- SU
1 La Tearpon S 3 hweG 'G
2 OsnelA 4 Alpaow Cr.
o Flood Protection Structures 10 10 "
5 S-3 1 S-159 o1 S-fB
a S-5561 11 S-162 LAK
7 S-155 12 8-160 PASCO
a S-163 3[

Water Management Structures
3 FairfSSmk 33 WC-3 53 LCanrl 1; so
14 MVanas 34 S-1M 54 LEW*ne 7 : *
15 Brogen Bndg 35 WC-2 55 WhI Trout L 1[" .
16 BegdeCn DQ r 36 CYpBSS 56 IToutr. POLK
17 ByanWiSlough 37 Antll Park 57 FInlCr.. PINELLS A L.LL '.LSBOROUGH
is GolfCourse 38 CrescenIL 58 MedardRes
19 FWialCiy 39 Istnd Fard L 59 Sagrss L
20 LConsuell 40 KeystoneL so0 L Gton
21 LBlufrey 41 LPeitly 61 L Paf r
22 OangeSSate 42 LKaII 62 SCOf L.
23 LesleelHBer 43 L Kene#2 e3 banana L. ANATE E
24 S-10 44 KeeneL#1 64 LHancocd HAFR DEE
25 S-13 45 L HMana e LAriet HIGHLAND
26 S-11 46 Keene L e6 LLena
27 S-12 47 LStemnper 67 LSmart -
28 W-4 48 LChlart 68 LFmnie i:. :..'
29 S-18 49 SaddslebadL 69 LHeny
30 WC-7 so L Magd*ne 70 L Hamilton SA O D
31 W;6 51 BayL 71 G-90
32 WC-5 52 L EBn-Lpsey 72 Moccasin Sloug--

-- ._ ......

Protection against floods comes in two forms:
build structures (ditch, dam and dike) to control
water, and avoid developing land that floods, also
known as "structural" and "non-structural"
approaches, respectively.

by th
LEVY Southwest Florid

.RN... Water Managemen
10 0 10 20
.. .. ...-----
Ibala Apopka



Lake Taipen
Outfall Canal

N o E -i AEL
: Byss Cana l



SARAS A.............. ... .. ..

\ i OT":




Traditionally, people have opted for a
structural approach. However, modern methods -
and District policy favor non-structural
The structural approach involves building
ditches, canals, dams and control structures to
ensure that formerly flood-prone areas are
reasonably safe from flooding. This is often a long,
costly process with significant environmental
impacts, including changing, and sometimes
destroying, natural aquatic and land-based

Flood control structures

The District presently operates and/or
maintains 73 surface water management
structures; however, only 10 of them are designed
for flood protection. Of the other structures, 60
manage lake levels for environmental purposes
and three act as salinity barriers. Though often
mistaken as flood control structures, they provide
very limited flood protection.
The largest flood control project undertaken in
the District was also the first. The Four River
Basins, Florida Project (U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers), was designed in response to flood
damage by Hurricane Donna in 1960. If fully
implemented, it would have included canals,
retention areas, pumps and other water control
structures that would have moved billions of
gallons of water during floods. Most of the flood
control facilities owned, operated and/or
maintained by the District originated with this


Although significant portions of the Four River
Basins Project were completed, most notably the
Tampa Bypass Canal and associated works, the
project was scaled back considerably as negative
environmental impacts became obvious. Those that
were completed are still used to divert flood water
from the Hillsborough River. Excess water from
the river is sent through canals into McKay Bay,
sparing large areas of Tampa and Temple Terrace
from potentially disastrous
flooding. Designed and
built mostly in the 1960s
and 1970s, the Bypass
Canal also protects the
Rowlett Dam and reservoir
on the Hillsborough River,
which provides drinking
water for the City of
Other District flood
control facilities include
the Lake Tarpon Outfall
Canal in Pinellas County, the Masaryktown Canal
in Pasco and Hernando counties, and Structure
353 on the Tsala Apopka system in Citrus County.
There are 10 of these structures altogether.

Water management structures

Water management structures maintain water
levels in lakes, and their ability to reduce flooding
is quickly exceeded during storms because of
limitations of ditches and canals external to the
structure. Most of these structures were built years

ago by other governmental agencies before
continued development increased water flow to
them. The District operates only the structures.
Typically, local governments are responsible for
maintenance of local area drainage systems. If
they are not maintained, flooding can occur even
when the structure is fully open. These devices
typically are small stop-log or hand-operated gate
devices. Their primary function is to control the
level of a lake or other
upstream body of water for
environmental purposes.
Water control
structures are sometimes
Found in residential
neighborhoods. But their
capability of controlling
the lake level is limited to
one or two feet.
Many people
mistakenly believe these
structures were designed
for flood protection rather than to maintain lake
levels. This belief prompts people to think the
District should be able to better manage flooding in
areas where these structures exist.
The three salinity barriers in the District are
also frequently confused with flood control
structures. They are designed to prevent saltwater
from flowing into freshwater channels. The gates
on them automatically rise with the tide. Two are
on channels in western Hillsborough County; the
third is on Alligator Creek in Charlotte County.


b n a, a s n- m a i i n .- 'l"i"---"' ~ .'" "~-"; -" -`"'8

Award-winning SCADA system

Many of the physical structures are linked
through an award-winning and technologically
innovative telemetry system that collects data and
provides early warning of rising water levels.
The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) system is the primary reason that the
District's ability to collect flood control
information has improved greatly in the past
several years. Seventy-two data collections stations
have instruments that automatically and
immediately provide water levels for surface water
and well levels to District staff. If preset high-
water levels are reached, a 24-hour
computerized telephone list is activated to
notify District staff, allowing staff the time to
act to open structures to lower water levels
and make room for the additional water. This
system allows flood problems to be
anticipated by watching water level and
rainfall trends. SCADA includes fail-safe
systems to keep operating during major storms
when normal communications may be disrupted.
The District also uses permitting rules as a
tool to protect against flooding. Environmental
Resource Permits regulate construction and
operation of surface water management systems
associated with new development.

Campbell Scientific ET site
SCADA well site
Handar well site
SCADA surface water site
Handar surface water site

Southwest Florida
Water Management
District Supervisory
Control and Data
(SCADA) sites

* SCADA structure site
O Remote gate control structure site
* Radio repeater tower
U Base station
V Service office




A .


Emergency Operations

For years the District had an Emergency
Operations Manual that outlined specific actions to
be taken in the event or threat-ofa flood. The
manual, however, was primarily aimed at protocols
for operating District flood control and water
management structures.
Following Hurricane Andrew in 1992, District
staff helped the South Florida Water Management
District in their recovery operations. Following
that, the Southwest District launched an effort to
prepare a more comprehensive emergency plan.
The plan is updated annually.
The District also helps prepare stormwater
plans that deal with the more routine events.
Known as Stormwater Management Master Plans,
they typically are developed at the request of, and
in cooperation with, local governments. They
include hydrologic models and detailed flood maps
for 10-, 25- and 100-year floods for the entire study
area, which is usually a drainage basin
experiencing local area flooding.

Non-structural flood protection methods

Though the District's origin was rooted in
structural flood protection, our emphasis has
shifted to planning for the future using non-
structural methods. Areas that flood naturally
provide a host of water management functions that
have only been recognized in the last 10 years.
These benefits include water storage, which helps
limit flooding in other areas, and improvements in
water quality, for example, by

naturally filtering water to reduce pollutants.
They also serve as important natural habitats.
Much of the growth and development in
southwest Florida occurred in coastal areas or
adjacent to rivers, streams, and lakes. Indeed, it
has been attraction to the water that has spurred
much of the development. The damage to those
developments caused by sporadic flooding
prompted construction of many of the flood control
structures existing today. We now understand
better the importance of flood-prone areas and how
development in them can cause harm in many
However, it is important to note that local
governments, not the District, control land use
planning and development. The District can
provide advice and information to local
governments to aid them in their land-use
development decisions. District permitting rules
are designed to minimize the impact that
development can have on flooding.

Comprehensive Surface Water Management

The District currently has several efforts
under way to identify, protect and restore the
natural functions of flood-prone areas. The most
significant is the Comprehensive Surface Water
Management (CSWM) program. Still in
development, this program will identify and rank
by importance the existing and potential surface
water issues of west central Florida within the
context of the District's primary areas of
responsibility: water supply, flood protection, water
quality management and natural systems

Identified problems will be addressed in an
integrated fashion. For instance, information
collected in the Withlacoochee River watershed is
used by a work group established to study flooding
problems in Sumter and Lake counties. This
program is designed to become more proactive and
comprehensive in addressing surface water issues,
providing the chance to anticipate problems and
take preventive actions, rather than reacting to
situations as they occur. It also recognizes
connections with other issues. Flood problems, for
example, should no longer be resolved by
channeling runoff more efficiently into the nearest
water body without consideration of its effect on
water quality, the loss of potential water supplies,
and the effect on natural aquatic systems.

Floodplain analysis

Aerial mapping

The Aerial Mapping Program supports the
mapping of land surface elevations throughout the
District. The program began in the early 1970s
and has been funded primarily by Basin Boards.
About 7,800 square miles of the District's 9,700-
square-mile land mass was mapped as of 1995.
The program is the primary source of
information for floodplain analysis and the
stormwater master plans, which also play a role in
minimizing flood damage due to development. The
District aerial mapping program is a cooperative
effort with local governments. Aerial mapping is
now funded through cooperative funding with the
Basin Boards.

Other efforts

It is essential to know floodplain boundaries to
minimize flood damage. The District is involved in
floodplain identification, along with the National
Flood Insurance Program. Almost all major rivers,
streams, and lakes in the District were analyzed in
the 1970s and 1980s, and flood levels were
identified for various flood probabilities, such as
the 10-, 25- and 100-year floods.
Currently, the District works with local
governments on cooperatively funded stormwater
management master plans, aerial mapping and
floodplain analysis projects all of which lead to
floodplain identification. The District provides
floodplain information to local governments for
planning purposes.

Five other District initiatives affect the non-
structural flood protection program, but in each
case their primary function is more directly related
to other elements of the District's goals. They
include the Stormwater Management Master
Plans, Management and
Storage of Surface
Southwst Flonda
Waters Permitting, the VbterMa& ment
Lake Levels Program,
Local Government
Planning Assistance,
and land acquisition

Protecting Your
Water Resources


Natural Systems

Goal: To preserve, protect and restore
natural systems in order to support their
natural hydrologic and ecologic functions.

If people or communities damage or destroy
the delicate natural systems that protect the water
supply, it's obvious that the supply suffers. What is
obvious now was not known and understood for
many years. Consequently, for many years
development policies in Florida did not take
environmental impact into account.
In 1972, the passage of the federal Clean
Water Act began the change in philosophy and
evolution of legislation which has led to today's
efforts to ensure comprehensive land and water
At the District, management of natural
systems is focused in two broad efforts. One is the
preservation, protection and restoration of natural
Florida ecosystems, referred to as ecosystems
management. The other is the establishment of
minimum water flows in rivers and streams, and
minimum water levels in lakes and aquifers.

Ecosystem management

Ecosystem management is a
method of protecting environmental
resources. The Department of
Environmental Protection is required by
the Environmental Protection Act of
1993 to develop and implement measures
to "protect the functions of entire ecological
systems through enhanced coordination of
public land acquisition, regulatory and

planning programs."
The goal is to restore and protect the
environment and its natural systems for present
and future generations.
The District encompasses a wide variety of
land and water ecosystems that all depend to some
degree upon fresh water. Ecosystems are complex
and dynamic living systems.

Land acquisition

One significant way the District protects whole
ecosystems is through land acquisition. Two
statewide programs guide the District's land
acquisition: the Water Management Lands Trust
Fund (commonly known as Save Our Rivers, or
SOR), and Preservation 2000 (P2000). These
programs target the protection of natural
resources at the local and regional level. Lands of
importance to water resources and water
management are acquired along with lands of
unique environmental value

S a fl S S e e, aa twa hint a. w a n f aminin .W -

endangered by development. The District protects
more than 265,000 acres of public land, most
bought through SOR or P2000. Ninety-five percent
of this land is open for public recreation.
Both P2000 and SOR lands are widely used for
recreational purposes. The District has produced a
Recreational Guide for the public that describes 24
areas open for activities like biking, hiking,
camping, bird watching, and so on.

Five-year plan

Each year the District, like all the water
management districts, is required to file a five-year
plan of acquisition for SOR and P2000 property
with the Legislature and the Secretary of the
Department of Environmental Protection (DEP).
The 1997 Five-Year Plan identified more than
600,000 acres for potential purchase.
Once a site is identified, the proposed
purchase passes through various stages of review
until it is either approved for purchase by the
Governing Board and appropriate Basin Board or
is rejected. If the property is purchased, a
management plan is developed and implemented,
and the District's SOR/P2000 Five-Year Plan is

Surface Water Improvement and
Management (SWIM)

Another significant program to preserve and
protect natural systems is the Surface Water
Improvement and Management (SWIM) program.
Created in 1987 by the Legislature, this program


Surface Water
& Management (SWIM)

The Surface Water Improvement and
Management (SWIM) program, created in
1987 by the Legislature, addresses a
waterbody's health as a system of connected
resources, rather than as an isolated natural
system Working as a part of the water
management districts, the program restores
and preserves our water resources. Below are
the priority water bodies designated by the
SWFWMD's SWIM program.

PriorityWlater Bodies
*Tampa Bay watershed
Rainbow River
Crystal River
Lake Pansoffkee
Charlotte Harbor watershed
Lake Tarpon
Winter Haven chain of lakes
Sarasota Bay watershed
SBanana Lake

addresses a waterbody's health as a system of
connected resources, rather than as an isolated
natural system. The state's five water districts and
the Department of Environmental Protection are
directly responsible for SWIM, but they work with
many other agencies, local governments and
private citizens to develop plans for at-risk



programs, such as SOR, to help make land-buying
decisions, and by local government to help make
land-use management decisions.
Funding for SWIM has fluctuated. Initially
(1987), the state pledged $15 million annually, to

* Tampa Bay in Hillsborough County
SRainbow River/Blue Run in Marion County
SCrystal River/Kings Bay in Citrus County
SLake Panasoffkee in Sumter County
* Charlotte Harbor in Charlotte County
O Lake Tarpon in Pinellas County
SLakeThonotasassa in Hillsborough County
Q Winter Haven Chain of Lakes in Polk County
O Sarasota Bay in Sarasota County
G Banana Lake in Polk County

be matched by
the water
districts, from the
general fund.
Since then, the
districts have had
to increase their
share of dollars to
continue the
program. In the

Those plans generally direct the work needed
to restore damaged ecosystems, prevent pollution
from runoff and other sources, and educate the
public. SWIM plans also are used by other state

District, the basin boards have provided solid
funding support for SWIM and related programs
for several years. In fiscal year 1996, the
Legislature did not fund SWIM. Instead, it
authorized the water management districts to fund
SWIM projects using Save Our Rivers funds.

Priority waterbodies

The District has ten SWIM priority
waterbodies. Tampa Bay has been central to the
District's SWIM efforts. Many local governments,
agencies and citizens have worked to identify the
bay's problems and solutions for its restoration.
SWIM activities in Tampa Bay focus on
restoring habitat and reducing the effects of
stormwater runoff. Restoring the bay will take

" ;. ~'Y"i

km S C earn m mew a as e c'. as ec e a am a .""~

considerable time and work by a lot of people, but
the efforts are already beginning to show positive
results. Water quality is improving, and sea grasses
are making a comeback. A 1990 survey showed 500
more acres of sea grass in
Tampa Bay than the IN BRIEF
previous 1988 survey. By
1992, an additional 730 Minimum F
acres had returned.
The other eight and Levels
priority water bodies m
The minimum flow or le
initially included in the which further water wit
SWIM program are: significant harm to the
* Rainbow River/Blue ecoogy.The District is i
Run in Marion County setting these limits.
* Crystal River/Kings Bay
in Citrus County
in Citrus County All 14 rivers n the Dist
* Lake Panasoffkee
* Lake Panasoflkee flow studies complete
in Sumter County
* Charlotte Harbor Minimum flows establ
* Lake Tarpon Little Manatee, Manate
in Pinellas County
* Lake Thonotasassa Minimum flow evaluat
part of water use perm
in Hillsborough County Hillsbou. atee
Hiltsborough, Manatee
* Winter Haven Chain and Shell Creek.
of Lakes in Polk County
* Sarasota Bay in
Sarasota County.
* Banana Lake in Polk County.

Banana Lake was once identified as the most
polluted lake in the state. During the lake's
restoration, more than 800,000 cubic yards of
sludge was dredged from the lake's bottom and
pumped into former phosphate pits along the

northern edge of the lake. The lake now supports a
healthy sport fishery. Nothing more is proposed to
be done to Banana Lake.
It is expected that as waterbodies are
successfully restored by the
SWIM program that they
may be removed from the list
and other sites added.
Minimum flows and levels

el is the limit at
rawals will cause District management of
ter resources and natural systems also includes
possible for the establishment of
minimum water flows and
levels for rivers, lakes and
.e m m aquifers. The minimum flow
t have minimum
r er way. or level is the limit at which
or under way.
further water withdrawals
ied by permit for will cause significant harm to
and Peace rivers. the water resources and
ecology. Lakes and aquifers
n under way as have minimum levels.
for the Braden,
St B Minimum flows are set for
nd Peace rivers
rivers and streams. The
District uses this information
when determining how much
water an applicant may be allowed to withdraw
from the water body.
Ecological minimum flow studies have been
completed on 13 of the 14 named rivers in the
District, with a study under way on the 14th river.
Minimum flows have been established through
permits on three rivers: Little Manatee, Manatee
and Peace.








When a minimum flow is established through a
permit, withdrawals from that river cannot cause
the river's flow to drop below the specific flow rate.
Minimum flow levels are based on studies of
downstream requirements for aquatic plants and
animals. Based on
minimum flow studies,
four rivers the Anclote, N BREF
Homosassa and MMiWMmcwl f
Pithlachascotee are not Led Lvh
considered sources of
drinking water because La
their flows are too low to Snce 1977, lake level
regulatory eels fr
allow withdrawals.
percent in Dlitrict).
The District also
establishes management 150 lakes identified f
levels for lakes. The object
of this program is to Aqudfs
identify a series of levels SWUCA rules establs
levels for Floridan aq
representing a healthy for
fluctuation range for each le
lake. As ofAugust 1997,
levels had been adopted In northern Tampa Ba
on nearly 400 lakes (about aqufer levis are bei
70 percent in the withdeadIlies pro
District), with 150 lakes state tis um &d
and Water Adjudicato
identified for future (rheWG orand h
The Southern Water
Use Caution Area
(SWUCA) Management Plan includes rules and
water use permitting regulations to establish a
minimum level for the Floridan aquifer in the
southern half of the District. (See Water Use






Caution Areas section of Water Supply chapter.)
Here, pumping from any one area of the southern
Floridan aquifer affects the level across the region,
which is why one minimum level can be applied to
the aquifer in that region. The SWUCA rules were
challenged, resulting in a
nine-month hearing. A
decision in March 1997
upheld portions of the rule
5 but invalidated others. The
decision is currently under
The hydrogeology of the
9ram hasset Floridan aquifer changes at
arty 400o akes (70
its central and northern
sections, where clay layers
future studies separating the Floridan,
intermediate aquifer and
surface lakes and wetlands
minimum aquifer have many holes, making it
an a "leaky" system. The
to reach those
aquifer also becomes more
minimum resembling more a series of
set in keeping pockets than a continuous
d bythe body of water. The leaky
Soa Lnd nature of the Floridan in the
Ci ssn north means pumping from
that aquifer readily affects
surface waters, causing
lowered lake levels and dry
wetlands around the areas of withdrawal. The
compartmentalized nature of the aquifer makes it
difficult to apply one minimum aquifer level across
the entire region as is done in the south.

The 1996 Legislature directed the District to
set minimum flows and levels for priority water
bodies in the northern Tampa Bay area by Oct. 1,
1997. The Governor and the Cabinet, meeting as
the Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory
Commission (FLAWAC), had earlier that year
provided the same deadline for setting the levels,
while acknowledging that the Southwest District
was further along than the other water
management districts in completing this statutory
At the time of this Guide's publication, District
staff has spent hundreds of hours

issue of determining an environmentally safe
pumping level.
To refocus the hearing on the main issue, the
District removed the Environmental Protection
Standards from the permits and reconsidered the
applications. Without EPS, the permits would have
continued environmental damage. State law
prohibits the District from granting a permit that
will cause adverse environmental impacts, so the
District denied the four permits. The District had
never before denied a public supply permit
renewal application.
The administrative law judge ruled

working on the complex task on
setting the minimum flows and
levels by the Legislature's deadline.

Pumping tied to aquifer level

In December 1995, the District
developed Environmental Protection
Standards (EPS) on four permits

Southwest Foida

Protecting Your
Water Resources

on May 30, 1997 that pumping from
well fields in the northern Tampa Bay
area is the main cause of adverse
environmental impacts there.
However, the judge's Recommended
Order fell short of requiring the
restoration of the environment
damaged by the pumping.
The judge recommended that no

involving the Central System
Wellfield in the northern Tampa Bay area. The
standards were developed after the District
completed an eight-year study called the Northern
Tampa Bay Water Resources Assessment Project.
Two of the permit applicants St. Petersburg
and West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority
- along with Pinellas County, immediately
challenged the EPS restrictions. In July 1996, as
the administrative hearing date on the permit
challenges approached, the petitioners attempted
to expand the scope of the hearings beyond the core

new quantities be allowed and that
unused quantities be cut. Beyond that, the Hearing
Officer recommended additional conditions be
included within the permits, adding more
extensive environmental monitoring and an
expansion of St. Petersburg's reuse program.
The District had originally proposed phased-
down permit quantities to address environmental
impacts while still meeting the applicants' water
needs. However, the applicants insisted on renewal
of their permits at full quantity.



Water Quality

Goal: To protect water quality by preventing
further degradation of the water resource
and enhancing water quality where possible.

The District's efforts to ensure water quality
and manage natural systems share a common
theme: overcoming the ignorance of the past.
Ignorance leading to water quality
degradation include: the discharge of untreated
stormwater runoff, direct contamination of water
bodies, and over-pumping of underground water.
For management purposes, the District divides
its efforts to improve and protect water quality
into two areas: surface water and underground
water. However, hydrologically, the two are very
closely related, especially in the northern half of
the District where underground water rises,
breaks the surface and is not protected by layers of

A shared responsibility

The District shares
responsibility for water
quality protection with
eight other federal, state,
and regional agencies, plus
a host of local governments. However, the
District's involvement in water quality
management is relatively recent. In 1984, the
state delegated to the water management districts
the responsibility for stormwater quality
regulations. These regulations are intended to
reduce non-point pollution associated with
stormwater runoff. In 1987, passage of the Surface

Water Improvement and Management (SWIM)
program greatly expanded the District's role in
water quality efforts, and it continues to do so by
several means, including restoring wetlands and
other coastal habitats, stormwater improvement
or retrofit projects, and extensive monitoring of
prioritized water bodies.
For Tampa Bay, SWIM's number one priority
waterbody, SWIM has 24 habitat restoration
projects, covering 111 acres, with 26 additional
projects under development, and 12 completed
stormwater retrofit projects, with nine more under
design. Between 1990-1991, all of Banana Lake in
Polk County was dredged, the first lake in the
state to have this technique used as a restoration
strategy. In Charlotte Harbor, SWIM has several
diagnostic and monitoring projects completed and
ongoing which are leading to a better
understanding of the present health and trends of
water quality in the
harbor. A trend of
increasing nitrates in
spring discharges to
coastal rivers was
discovered that would not
have been seen without
SWIM's monitoring.
The still-developing Comprehensive Surface
Water Management (CSWM) program, launched
by the Governing Board in 1994, will attempt to
identify where surface and groundwater problems
exist and to determine their nature, i.e. flooding,
point and non-point pollutants, etc. The program
also will develop a method to anticipate problems
for preventive action.




Comprehensive Surface Water Management (CSWM)

* Definition: The District's Comprehensive Surface
Water Management (CSWM) program takes
a watershed approach to surface water
management and is the District's response to the
federal and state ecosystem management focus.
CSWM watersheds coincide with the Ecosystem
Management Areas (EMA) of the Department of
Environmental Protection's program.The pilot
watershed area chosen to evaluate the CSWM
approach is the Hitsborough River Basin because
all types of surface water systems are present:
rivers, lakes, estuaries, wetlands; and all types of
water users are present: industrial, public,
agricultural, recreational. Also, the DEP has
designated the Htilsborough River watershed as
one of its EMAs.

Threats from stormwater runoff

One of the greatest threats to surface water
quality is untreated stormwater runoff. A
comprehensive strategy to manage stormwater
runoff and its quality has repeatedly emerged as a
major means to accomplish a host of District goals.
The Comprehensive Surface Water Management
program will address the entire watershed
ecosystem, including water quality, flood
protection, natural system protection, water
supply protection and the connection between
surface and underground water systems.

* Identify and prioritize existing and potential
surface water issues within the District relating to
water quality, flooding, water supply and natural
* Develop strategies for restoring and protecting
systems based on the issues identified
* Develop strategies for 13 major watersheds within
the District
* Implement the strategies and monitor their
* Identify problem areas
* Prioritize watersheds
* Identify and prioritize water bodies
* Re-evaluate management goals for watersheds

Further, Florida Water Policy requires that all
water management districts develop goals for
watersheds that are consistent with the state
SWIM program and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System program. The District
encompasses 11 different major watersheds, and
the District has established goals for water quality,
water supply, flood protection and natural systems
management in each. The District's CSWM
program reflects EPA's watershed planning
approach and the state Department of
Environmental Protection's Ecosystem
Management initiative.



Comprehensive Surface Water Management (CSWM)

* Management plans forth top five watersheds
have been, or are cunetly beingdeveloped.
Those five watersheds arethe Hsbomugk Peace
and Withiacochee rivers,Tampa Bay/Andce River
and Sarasota Bay.
* In the HIsborough River watershed. Basin Board
cooperative funding support is focused on
projects In that wteshedinks have been
etabshed with other agents and orgaizatons,
such as the Hilsborough County Environmental
Protection Commission,the Tampa Bay National
Estuary Program and the Hisborough River
Greenways Task Force.
* Infom on aocoiectdin the Wlthacoochee River
watershed will be used by a work group to study
flooding problems in Sunter and Lake counties.

District staff has formulated three specific
goals for the program:

* Identify and prioritize existing and potential
surface water issues within each major
watershed in the District relating to water
quality, flooding, water supply and natural
* Develop strategies for corrective or protective
actions to address the issues identified.
* Implement the strategies and monitor their

Outstanding orda Waters in the District:

* Chassahowitzka River n Citrus County
* Crooked Lake in Polk County
SCrystal River / Kings Bay n Citrus County
* Upper Hihsborough River in Hisborough County
* Homosassa River in Citrus County
* Lemon Bay estuary in Sarasota County
* little Manatee River n Manatee County
* Lnwer Myakka River in Sarasota County
* Rainbow River in Marion County
* Saasota Bay in Sarasota County
* Withiacoochee River, including the Tsala Apopka
chain of lakes and Lake Panasoffkee in Citrus,
Marion and Surter counties

Working with National Estuaries Program

The Comprehensive Surface Water Manage-
ment initiative also supports the District's
activities with the National Estuaries Program
(NEP). Established in 1987, NEP authorized
development of comprehensive plans for estuaries
of national significance that are threatened by
pollution, development or overuse. Sarasota Bay
was added to the program in June 1989, Tampa
Bay in April 1990 and Charlotte Harbor in July
1995. District Surface Water Improvement and


S f i~, 0.*.S t.t 0,, S ,,,no. em,..sl pa 6* ,: ***. r. .


protection programs

* Ambet Ground WAn t leSQ ters w y ing
Pmgram (AWQMPb A cooperative program
between the five water management districts and
the Department of Environmental Ptection to
characterize the quality of ground water in the
major aquifers in Florida.Accomplshed through
the analysis of groundwater samples obtained
from an extensive network of monitor wells.

* Regional Observadon and enitor WeFlPrognm
(ROMP): A District program to accurately define the
aquifers and confining beds in the District,
determine the hydroogic characteristics of the
aquifers and the freshwatr/satwater interface
Accomplished through a network of monitor wels
that record water levels and quality.

Management staff are involved in the programs to
ensure close coordination, planning and
Stormwater runoffis a major contributor to
surface water pollution. Urban and agricultural
development can increase runoff and pollution into
rivers, lakes and streams if adequate treatment is
not provided. Increased awareness of stormwater
problems and new legislation have created a
demand for reliable local stormwater data. The
District conducts considerable research as part of a
statewide coordinated effort to find effective and
cost-efficient treatments for stormwater runoff.

* Water Resource Assessment Proects(WRAPs) A
regional study that focuses on the cause and effect
relationships among gmundwater w raal
aquier water evel dedirnederiorating werand
and lae environmental quality, and saltwater
intrusion.The detailed study includes data
analysis, mansion of the data base,modeling of
existing conditions and predictive modeling Each
elementof the study is designed to better
understand the dynamicsof te hydrologic system
with emphasis on the major resource concems.

* WA UsCautin Areas (WUCAs. A geographic
region withie Distct which has resource
problem or is predicted to have resource problems,
and for which special regulations are enacted bythe
Governing Board.in order to use the same
terminology as DEP,the Districtwll be changing
the termWater Use Caution Aa"or WUCA'to the
termWater Resource Caution Areseor'WRCA.

These studies also identify and quantify the
freshwater requirements of natural systems.

Monitoring water quality

At least eight District programs monitor,
protect or improve the quality of underground
water, the primary source of drinking water here.
Underground water contamination can be caused
by a number of things, including: nitrates from crop
fertilizer or other sources, injection wells, drainage
wells, underground storage tanks, pesticides, septic
tanks, landfills, industrial waste sites, lawn and





protection programs

S ter Use Permit (W tA permit issued by
the District authorigthe ue of wt eromman
underground or surface soue. Fora permit to be
issued it must meet there criteria
reasonable and benefidal use;
in the public interest;
not interfere wth other exting ega users

Wer CostrKtinPIermit A District permit
obtained prorto construction,repainodikcadon
or abandonment ofany water wel

*Q Nof W-elr mpmrwamme.ag.m ._~aP
A District program designedtaresee hydrologic

landscape maintenance, polluted surface waters,
and chemical spills. Drought and overpumping can
cause surface water to be pulled down into the
underground water system, sometimes doing harm
to water quality there. Reductions in underground
freshwater levels can lead to saltwater intrusion,
adversely affecting water quality.
The primary sources of information about
underground water are the Ambient Ground Water
Quality Monitoring Program, the Regional
Observation and Monitor Well Program and permit
data. Several local governments in the District
collect their own underground water data as
conditions of water use permits.

conditions altered by impropery constructed or
deteriorated well casings.is wll prevent or
reduce rteraqufer contaminaon of potable water,
degradation of surface water qualtyfam the
uncoroed discharge of artesIanwa and
chemical contmintion. One wa the program
accomplishes this is by reim rising well owners
part of th cost to plug abandoned wets

a* Wdl~ Protecio Local government are
encouraged to develop and implement welhead
protection odiances to protect dwwater quality in
the area that contribtes to therechrge ofa
potable welThe District is provdin funding
asstancetolocigovernments through the
CooperatiwvFnding program to hire a ydrologic
constantto determinethe welhead pmtection
areas. n particulate Dstrict has piovidedfunding
to+temando and Polk counties.

The Ambient Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program is a cooperative effort of the
DEP and the five water management districts. In
the Southwest District, the program determines
the quality of underground water in the major
aquifers through the use of four networks of wells
that monitor different underground water factors.
The Regional Observation Monitor Well
Program increased the density of the underground
water monitoring network by constructing
additional monitor wells. The data from these sites
are used to evaluate seasonal and long-term
changes to the underground water system, and
the interaction and connectivity with surface
water bodies.

4a4m~.a~,~i *.5$~*w~nrSi~.me#sfiM.~

Saltwater intrusion

Monitoring has detected a significant and
growing problem in water quality: saltwater
intrusion into the aquifers. High pumping rates in
low recharge areas along the coast, especially in
the southern part of the District, allow salt water
to creep inland, contaminating fresh water.
Saltwater intrusion has been identified in southern
Hillsborough, Manatee and northern Sarasota
counties. Impacts to the surface environment and
saltwater intrusion have also been identified in
Pinellas County and other parts of the Tampa Bay
Another issue of underground water quality is
recharge protection: ensuring an adequate
quantity of good quality water is available to
recharge when and where aquifers need it. A
principal method by which the District achieves
regional recharge protection is through
Environmental Resource Permits. These permits
regulate how development impacts the water
supply in a variety of ways.

Abandoned wells

Contamination from deep, abandoned wells
also is a problem. These wells, many constructed
prior to current standards, often do not have
adequate casing and allow contaminants to move
from one aquifer to another, and from area to area.
The Quality of Water Improvement Program
(QWIP) has plugged 800 abandoned wells to date
and identified 627 more that need to be plugged.
Plugging the wells prevents contaminated runoff

on the surface from moving directly to the aquifers,
allowing the water to be cleansed by filtering
through the soils.
Prior to 1994, District staff looked for wells
that needed to be plugged, resulting in about 50
wells per year being plugged. In January 1994,
QWIP was restructured into a funding assistance
program that reimburses owners for plugging the
abandoned artesian wells, in which the water rises
naturally above the top of the well. Most of this
occurs in the southern half of the District where
pressure differences exist between aquifer layers,
creating the artesian effect, which occurs when
hydrologic pressure from underground forces water
to the surface.
The shift to funding assistance resulted in well
contractors contacting more owners about the
program, increasing the annual number of wells
being identified for plugging to 400. This program
is voluntary, and these wells cannot be plugged
without owner cooperation.
Underground water protection is also
accomplished through wellhead protection
ordinances, thereby preventing contaminants from
entering the water near the well. Additionally, well
construction permits and rules require wells to be
located, constructed, maintained, used and
abandoned in a manner that protects the water




Water Supply

Goal: To ensure an adequate supply of the
water resource for all reasonable and
beneficial uses, now and in the future, while
protecting and maintaining water and
related resources.

The more people in an area, the more water
they will need. That is the core of the water supply
problem in west central Florida. Anticipated
population growth clearly shows that demand for
water will outstrip the traditional supply. In
some areas it already has. Estimates are
that by 2010, the District's population
will grow to 4.6 million, a 39 percent
increase since 1990.
Currently, more than 80 percent S
of the fresh water used in the
District is underground water,
mostly drawn from the Floridan
aquifer. The balance of what is
used today comes from
surface water mainly from
rivers reclaimed water (for
irrigation), and small, brackish
water desalination facilities.
All of those sources, as well as
repurified or recycled water, and
rehydration, are expected to play a role in the
future water supply, but underground water will
remain the primary source. Surface water use will
probably expand, but that is limited. The reuse of
treated wastewater will grow. Desalination could
become a major new source of supply. But the
fastest, cheapest way to accommodate increasing
demand is through conservation. Again,

unfortunately, in some areas demand has already
exceeded what nature can provide without
sustaining environmental damage.

Underground water supplies

For years, water delivery systems have been
constructed based on the belief that underground
aquifers provide a virtually inexhaustible supply.
Today, pumping from well fields is coming under
intense scrutiny. In the Northern Tampa Bay
area alone, seven well fields operated by
the West Coast Regional Water Supply
Authority and its member
governments Pinellas,
Hillsborough and Pasco
counties, and the cities of
St. Petersburg, Tampa and
New Port Richey -
produce approximately
110 million gallons per
day. Three of them, Cross
Bar in north central Pasco,
Cypress Creek in central
Pasco, and Eldridge-Wilde in
north Pinellas and
Hillsborough, each produce
between 25 mgd and 30 mgd.
In the southern part of the District, large well
fields do not play nearly as large a role in meeting
the needs for public supply. Smaller, dispersed well
fields Verna, Venice, Englewood and Rotunda -
tap the intermediate aquifer. In coastal Charlotte
and Sarasota counties, the intermediate aquifer
contains some salt, and water from the Venice and


Water Supply Sources

* Ground water, (underground water) which is
water pumped through underground aquifers,
accounts for 76 percent of water supply.

SSurface water, obtained from rivers, streams,
creeks, springs and canals, accounts for 24 percent
of water supply.

* Conservation Using water-saving technology and
educating for behavior which saves water.

* Altenative Water Soures currently in
development include:

- Reaimedwater treated water that has
received at least secondary treatment and is reused
after flowing out of a domestic treatment plant
- Reue: The deliberate application of reclaimed
water, in compliance with Department of
Environmental Protection and District rules, for a
beneficial purpose.
- RepurificatnWastewater that has undergone
six to seven treatment processes befoe being
introduced into a drinking water systemnThe
wastewater undergoes tertiaryadvanced treatment

and disinfection, then receives additional or
supplemental treatment It is then blended with river
water.The river water then undergoes treatment prior
to going into the municipal drinking water system.
This practice is verycommon.Think of all the cities and
towns along the Mississppi and Colorado rivers: one
town takes water from the riveruses t,treats the
wastewater and puts it back into the river; the city
downstream does the same; and it happens all the
way down the river.
- Rehyrltlons Increasing the amount of water in
the aquifer by applying stormwater or reclaimed
waterto the surface of welfield areas or to wetlands
and letting that water filter downto the aquifer, being
cleansed naturaly.
- DesaBnanii Treating saltwater to remove
minerals and other dissolved solid Water may vary in
satlnity from slightly more than drinking water to sea
water.Two major methods of desa are distitation and
membrane process. In the U.S., the two most
common membrane processes are reverse osmosis
(O) and electrdialysis. n Florida and Caifornia, RO is
rnostcommon.In this Districtthereare 18
desalination plants

Englewood well fields is treated by reverse osmosis region, the vast majority of this pumping is used
before being used for public supply. for agriculture.
Though the well fields in the southern part of Desalination currently plays only a minor role
the District are fewer and smaller than in the in water supply in the District. Though 18
central section, pumping from scattered privately desalination plants exist in the District, their
owned wells is extensive. While these wells provide combined production capacity is only
water for household use in the inland, largely rural approximately 20 mgd.


J-.- -L


Surface watr use

* Definitioe Rivers and creeks that augment the
water supply.

* How many: Six currently provide a significant
source of water for the water supply.
They are:

* The Hilsborough River. Supplies Tampa from a
328-acre reservoir 10 miles upstream from the
river mouth.The District permits the city to
withdraw an average of 82 mgd.

* The Peace Rie, which will provide up to 32.7
mgd for the Peace River/Manasota Regional Water
Supply Authority. Current and proposed water
recipients include Sarasota, DeSoto and Charlotte

The plants, locations and capacity (mgd) are as
* Sarasota County; Sarasota; 12.0
* City of Dunedin; Dunedin; 7.5
* City of Sarasota; Sarasota; 4.5
* City of Venice; Venice; 4.0 mgd
* Englewood Water District RO Plant;
Englewood; 2.5
* Venice Gardens Utility Corp.; Venice; 1.0
* City ofWauchula; Wauchula; 0.95
* Englewood Water District; Sarasota; 0.5
* Rotunda West Utilities; Rotunda West; 0.5
* The Plantation; Venice; 0.5
* Charlotte Harbor Water Assoc.;
Harbor Heights; 0.45

counties and the Ciy of North Port.

* The MBant Rivr. A dam created Lake Manatee,
which supplies waterto more that 200,000 people in
Manatee and Sarasota counties. Annual average
withdrawal of 34.9 mgd s permitted

* The Bnden River. A da-created reservoiwhich
supplies water for Bradenton.The city is allowed to
withdraw an annual average of 5.5 mgd.

* Shall Creek A dam built on this creek created a
reservoir that supplies Punta Gorda about 3 mgd.

* The Myak&uhatdcheeC rekg Sough drainage
Pstn. This canal system is tapped for an annual
average of 2.2 mgd to supply potable water for the
City of North Port.

* Southern States/Burnt Store Utilities;
Port Charlotte; 0.36
* Sorrento Utilities; Nokomis; 0.25
* Southbay Utilities; Sarasota; 0.25
* Gasparilla Pines; Englewood; 0.2
* Sun 'n Fun Resort, Inc.; Sarasota; 0.127
* Camelot Lakes; Sarasota; 0.1
* Spanish Lakes MHP; Nokomis; 0.1

Surface water

Another significant source of fresh water in the
District is surface water. Six creeks and rivers
within the District are used for municipal water
supplies, serving Tampa, Bradenton, Punta Gorda,

* **. ; *I.. .

m$~La. a~i,~. a a a fl,~,,,~,,, *;.. aet a a a ,; .,,. ,. uU1,,~,g,,,w wa ~i C ~ ~ ~ ;'" ~ *'';ii"' `~ SW V ***



Reclaimed water

* Definition: Taking water from a wastewater
treatment facfity and reclaiming it by treating it so
that it can be used for a variety of purposes.This
water is not treated to ful drinking water

Common Uses
* Landscape irrigation for golf courses, parks,
highway medians, playgrounds, residential
properties and other purposes
* Agricultural irrigation, nduding for edible crops
SAesthetic uses, such as decorative ponds, pools,
and fountains

Port Charlotte, North Port, and Manatee and
Sarasota counties. Following are the surface water
sources, area served, and permitted mgd for each:
* Hillsborough River; City of Tampa; 62 mgd
* Manatee River, Manatee County; 34.9 mgd
* Peace River; Charlotte, DeSoto, Sarasota
counties, City of North Port; 32.7 mgd
* Braden River; City of Bradenton; 5.6 mgd
* Shell Creek; Punta Gorda; 4.2 mgd
* Myakkahatchee / Big Slough; City of North Port;
2.1 mgd

Reuse and conservation

The District strongly advocates reuse, and it
has programs in place to encourage development of
it. There are a variety of regulations designed to

* Underground water recharge
Industrial uses
* Environmental enhancement, such as wetland
* Other uses
* Volume-Currenty, approximately 200 mgd is
Offsets the need to use drinkable water for less
important purposes t.owest quality water for
the use)
Cheaper than full water treatment
Cheaper for users than drinking water

promote large water consumers to adopt reuse,
recycling and conservation practices. The District's
Cooperative Funding program and the New Water
Sources Initiative provide financial assistance for
the development of reuse facilities.
Easily, the largest system of reclaimed water in
the District is the City of St. Petersburg. The 26
mgd system, in operation since 1977, provides for
residential and other irrigation, and accounts for
more than 25 percent of the reuse consumption in
the District. Even though it's the largest reclaimed
system, St. Petersburg cannot keep up with the dry
season demands which exceed the city's available
supply of reclaimed water. One option will be for
the city to develop a system to store excess water
during the rainy season to be later used in the
drier months.


The District also encourages a variety of
conservation methods to augment the water
supply. Significant programs are under way to
educate the public, business and industrial
communities about ways to conserve.
Conservation efforts also include requiring
agricultural users of more than 100,000 gallons per
day to install flow meters in much of the District.
The flow meters monitor water used and encourage
All of these sources help meet current needs.
But current demands and withdrawals have
already stressed the supply in some areas.

Water Use Caution Areas (WUCAs)

The Floridan aquifer in the southern part of
the District is much farther below the land surface
and is shielded from the surface by layers of clay.
Rainfall doesn't quickly replenish what people
pump out. Indeed, previous pumping already has
lowered the aquifer more than 60 feet in some
parts of the District. As a result, the
District has created special Water Use Nort
Caution Areas (the state refers to these Tamp
areas as Water Resource Caution Areas, or
Initially, there were three such areas
established in the District. The northern
Tampa Bay WUCA includes northern
Hillsborough, Pinellas and southwestern Pasco
counties, where underground water levels have
dropped due to the increased demand from public
water supply. The Highlands Ridge WUCA,
including portions of Highlands and Polk counties,

was established because of lowering lake levels
over the past 20 years. And the Eastern Tampa
Bay WUCA encompasses southern Hillsborough,
most of Manatee and the northern portion of
Sarasota counties. There, saltwater intrusion into
the aquifer is a problem due to lowering of
underground water levels and increased demand
for water.
Another WUCA was subsequently established
because of the severe lowering of underground
water levels. The Southern Water Use Caution
Area, or SWUCA, merged all of the Highlands

a Bay

npa Bay

* 6 .0 Mo.. b 0 * U I -. ** ** .



Water Demands

Dis t-wide Demand
Expected increase from 1,468.4 mgd in 1994 to 1,820.7 mgd by 2020,a net increase of 3523 mgd or 24
percent Largest demand increase is expected in the southern portion of the District.

Demand increase by County by Year 2020
DeSoto ________6--63.9 mgd Pinelas -16.5 mgd
Polk .--40.8 mgd Manatee-- .....15.1 mgd
Sarasota -__.....35 mgd Citrus 13.4 mgd
Pasco -....._....._.-_...32.5 mgd Hemando- -......-.--.-.--8.7 mgd
Charlotte ---- -32.1 mgd Marion ----.--..8 mgd
Hillsborough ... .. 31.9 mgd Levy mgd
Highlands _.--....--25.3 mgd Sumter -- ,--- ---- ---.0.7 mgd
Hardee- ....23A mgd Lake. .(0.2} mgd decrase

Demand grease by Water Supply J sdktonal Areas by Yar 2020
Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority.. .-.. 146.1 mgd (38.7 percent increase)
West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority --.9 mgd (16.9 percent increase)
Withlacoochee River Water Supply Authority --- .__356 mgd (23J percent increase)

Ridge and Eastern Tampa Bay WUCAs, plus the
balance of the southern part of the District.
The District has developed special
management programs for these areas to reduce
demand on the water supply. Water Use Permit
rules are one of the District's primary resource
protection tools, accounting for how much water is
being used, and.addressing a variety of other water
protection concerns. The District currently has
approximately 8,000 water use permits in effect.
The changes in the rules covering the Southern
Water Use Caution Area add conservation

requirements, agricultural flow meters, the
investigation of alternative water sources
(including reuse), and targeted per capital water
use. Another significant step was the designation
of a Most Impacted Area (MIA). In this area, no
new permits have been issued since early 1992.
The implementation of the SWUCA Management
Plan awaits a recommended order from an
administrative hearing officer. Various parties filed
petitions against the proposed SWUCA rules.
In March, an administrative judge's ruling
upheld several portions of SWUCA's rules, but



Water Demands

Demand lncreaum Nen-Water Supply Authorit Jursdictonal Areas
Hardee, Highlands and Pol counties -89.7 mgd (19.5 percent nrease)

District Wate

Public Supply

DemOadt tals by Usage



% Chane
(10) dlec e
(17) decrease

Figures are gin as mi ongk ons per day aveges

invalidated others. At press time, the ruling was
under appeal.

Water demand

Compounding the existing water supply
problem is the fact that the demand for water is
The District uses a variety of statistical and
research methods to calculate projected demand
for water. Population projections are a major -
but not the only factor used. Demand estimates
have been developed for each type of use -
agriculture, industrial, public supply and
recreational through the year 2020, as part of
the Water Use Demand Estimates & Projections

1996-2020 study. The total estimated average daily
demand for water is expected to increase from
1,468.4 million gallons daily (mgd) in 1994 to
1,820.7 mgd by 2020, a net increase of 352.3 mgd,
or 24 percent. The largest increase in demand
occurs in counties in the southern portion of the
So where will all this water come from? The
answer depends largely upon which part of the
District is being discussed. North of Interstate 4,
the Floridan aquifer is expected to supply nearly
all future needs at least through the year 2020.
South of 1-4, surface water and conservation are
expected to meet some future needs, but alternative
sources will likely play a significant role.

SNew Water Sources
Initiative Projects
-- Location Map

10 0 10 2

UMTER (Ditit-wide)


users could cut consumption from 1990 levels by
15 percent, that would provide an additional 243.8
In the southern part of the District, data
indicate that more than 137 mgd could be made
available as the result of agricultural conservation
measures. Those measures generally take the form
of better management of irrigation systems or
conversion to more efficient systems, such as drip

%P 0

In the southern part of the
District, the Needs and Sources
1990-2020 study identifies two
primary sources of additional water.
One source is surface water, mainly
the Peace River. The study notes that
some smaller streams could be

Tampa Water Re


Manasota Basin Reglol

Agricultural Wa


Manatee Agricult
Manatee Reclaim

Tampa N
Central Hillsborou

Northwest Hill


Punta Gord

source Recovery

n21 Rehydration O

nal Reuse System 0

ter Use Efficiency

.ace River Option

rural Reuse Supply
ed Water Aquifer
age and Recovery
Plant Cty Reuse
northwest Aquifer
age and Recovery 0
gh County Reuse

leace CreekCanal
lest Hillsborough
County Reuse W
al Sarasota Reuse
a Aquifer Storage
and Recovery W

The study also looks at the
anticipated needs of the rest of
the District and proposes
alternative plans to help meet
those needs.

Alternative sources

Since the study was
published, the District has
embarked on an expanded effort
to encourage the production of
what are called alternative, or
non-traditional, sources of
water. Conservation is one
alternative source. Reuse is
another, and is expected to grow
to 300 mgd by 2005. But
another major alternative
source is desalination. (See New

developed for water supply if it were economically
feasible. The other source of additional water in
the southern part of the District is conservation.
Throughout the District, conservation
represents a tremendous potential resource. If all

Water Sources Initiative Section). Desalination, as
it currently exists in the District, mainly converts
brackish (slightly salty) water (from underground)
into drinking quality water.







New Water Sources Initiative
* Deaftlom A programfunded jointly by the
District local governments, regional water supply
authorities, the federal government and private
entities, to provide alternative sources of water.
Curret projects indude
* Agricutural irrigation BEiH ncy Eviuation.
Program provides on-site water audits and expert
advice to high-end water users, over-pumping
permittees and other voktary cooperators.
* CMenta H -tiaboarugh Couaty RMIM. Connects
waste-water treatment plants and moves treated
waste waterto high demand areas in Valrico. Water
provided: 4 mgd (million gallons daily).
* Central SarI County Reuse project.
Connects three utlities to create regional reuse

There are 18 brackish water desalination plants in
west central Florida. Combined, they are capable
of producing approximately 20 mgd.
But the Gulf of Mexico could provide a
virtually unlimited source of fresh water if the
facilities existed to process the sea water.
In conjunction with the Electric Power
Research Institute, the District worked for three
years with the federal Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) and the state Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP) to find solutions
to concerns about disposal of the highly
concentrated brine which would produced by a
major desalination facility. District-sponsored
research has demonstrated that the highly

system.Water provided: 2.8 mgd.
* Northwest Hitsbornugh Ree System. This
two-phase 15-year plan wil connect reuse systems
of four wastewater treatment plantsWater
provided: 13.2 mgd.
* MW nasm Basin Regional Re.se Systm mThis
perfect wil connect the MARS system with the City
of Bradenton and the City of Palmetto reuse
systems.The project will also provide a reclaied
water interconnect between the City of Sarasota
and Sarasota County. Water provided: 63 mgd.
l* ManateAgclktural Reuse Supply MWARS)
Project. Connects three waste-water treatment
plants in Manatee County and provides reclaimed
water to agricultural users. Water provided: TO mgd.
* Manatee Rteuse Aqdur Storage mnd Recaery
Project. WI store reclaimed water from the
ManateeAgricultural Reuse Supply project
Water provided up to 3,6 mgd.

concentrated salt water can be diluted and
returned to the Gulf without causing
environmental harm. It would make no sense to
trade overpumping of the aquifer for another type
of negative environmental impact.
Right now, water costs less than one-half cent
per gallon. Even with desalination, the costs would
still be less than one-half cent, though it would be
more expensive than current costs. The average
household of 2.4 people uses 8,000 gallons a
month. One expert estimates that a desalination
plant would raise the monthly cost of water to that
home by about $4 per month.
Desalination is the safest, highest quality
water available in the world today.


a Sfl fu E a. C e inwim Sc Cu ass a S U C 59 I* SF .c *




New Water Sources Initiative

SPeace Creek Canal. Develops and implements a
storm-water management plan and flood control
project for the Peace Creek Canal area in Polk
* Peace MverOpti. Expands Peace iv water
treatment plant from 12 mgd to 18 mgd and
builds 14 new aquifer storage and recovery wells;
builds 30 miles of pipeline to connect water
utilities in three counties.Water provided:6 mgd.
* Plant City Reuse. Builds reclaimed water
transmission line from water pollution control
facility to nearby users. Water provided 4 mgd.
* Punta Gorda/Shell Creek Aquifer Storage and
Recovery. Builds aquifer storage and recovery well
to pump water from Shell Creek into the Floridan
aquifer.Water provided:4 mgd.

New Water Sources Initiative

The District is making other efforts to find new
sources of water, and many of them are in the New
Water Sources Initiative (NWSI) program. Projects
funded by the initiative are a cooperative effort with
the District's governing and basin boards, local
governments and the local water supply authorities.
The Governing Board has allocated $10 million
per year toward the program since adopting NWSI as
part of its fiscal year 1994 budget. Basin Boards have
contributed matching funds to NWSI beginning with
their fiscal year 1995 budgets. NWSI projects
generally receive 25 percent funding from the
Governing Board, 25 percent from the appropriate

* Seawater Desaination. Builds a desalination
plant to provide drinking water from sea water.
Water provided to be determined.
SSection 21 Wehel lRehydrtlon Piot. Tests
whether stressed wetlands and lakes in or near this
wellfield can be rehydrated with storm water or
reclaimed water.Water provided: up to 4 mgd.
* Thrampa Norlwest Aquifer Steorage&Recovery.
Builds and tests an aquifer storage and recovery
well at Rom Avenue Park in Tampa.Water
provided: upto 10 mgd.
* Tana Watr Resource RecoveryProject.
Repurifies recycled wastewater before it is
returned tothe Hilsborough River orTampa
Bypass Cana Wae provided: up to 50 mgd.
N-orzrthmtl nfflbwhafaiwm -taM_-fl
Connects Tampa and Hillsbough County's water
supply systems so that the county asly can use
excess water from the Htsborough River
Reservoik.Water provided: 12 mgd.


Basin Board(s) and the remaining 50 percent from the
local cooperators. Federal funds have been secured for
some of the projects, reducing the percentage of the
District's contributions.
NWSI projects must have regional water resource
benefits. When fully implemented, the 16 currently
funded projects may provide at least 150 million
gallons per day of water of water to meet current and
future water needs. The 16 projects will also reduce
underground water withdrawals, rehydrate stressed
lakes and wetlands, increase underground water
recharge, enhance wildlife habitat, and improve flood
control. Tbtal costs for the projects are estimated to
exceed $300 million.



Fluid Relationships

The District has statutory, regulatory,
cooperative or financial relationships with
agencies at the international, federal, state,
regional and local levels. It also has regulatory,
cooperative, service or contractual relationships
with many private concerns.
The federal Clean Water Act involves drinking
water studies,
stormwater concerns m -w
and the sampling of
streams, lakes and
estuaries to determine Intff@
the quality of surface
water. The EPA and
water. The EPA and The District works toward
the District also are these
both involved in the
National Estuary 98 loca qowve ents,
counties and anuaracKiti
Program that monitors erwa, SMrsoa. Be
and attempts to
*More than 260 publicna
improve water quality
and protect natural At east 1 2stMae andWfd
systems in Tampa Bay, Five megiona planning a
Sarasota Bay and -7n sat urotherwa
Charlotte Harbor. ThrI, ,, ,wa
The U.S. Army -he s
Corps of Engineers

works with District staff on flood protection and
aquatic plant management. Other federal agencies
whose areas of responsibility intersect with the
District's include the United States Geological
Survey, the Natural Resource Conservation
Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service),
the Federal Emergency Management
Administration, the National Weather Service and
the National Hurricane Center.

A close relationship

At the state level, the Department of
Environmental Protection and the District have a
close relationship. First, the DEP has supervisory
authority over all the water districts. A lot of that
is outlined in State Water Policy. The department
also establishes
statewide water
quality standards.
The District and the
Department work
together on

ctie coordinon with ecosystem
management through
ng al or part of 16 environmental, and
rpa, StPetersburg
onan diakeland. land resources
dvate water utilities.
The Department
ageflcwS. of Community Affairs
dis. (DCA) also plays a
maage t districts, significant
ratL k. coordinating role
with District
responsibilities. DCA

is the agency responsible for certifying the
comprehensive plans of local governments. The
District plays a role in the development of those
plans by advising local governments regarding
water resource considerations, rules and
regulations the plans must consider.
The District also works with the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission, Water Resource
Coordination, Department of Health, Public







Service Commission, Office of the Governor, and
the Legislature, among others.
Water management districts' rules and policies
sometimes differ, but for technical reasons where
the geology and hydrology are different. Efforts are
made to coordinate among districts to exchange
water management
information and IN BRIEF
education materials,
and seek consistency IM gVr ii-mm
in operations where #reltio i ps
The District works toward ef
Regional and local al these groups
relationships Numerous special districts
boards and numerous floo
Within the
SErnironmental organization
Southwest District
there are three water *Trade associations in indus
supply authorities, chambers of commerce.
While the District State Legisature and local
regulates pumping
from water-producing
well fields and surface Internationai gyptMoroc
waterbodies, it is World Bank
water supply
authorities, local governments and public and
private utilities that actually take the water,
transport it, treat it, deliver it and charge for the
service. The primary role of the water supply
authorities is that of a water wholesaler (develop,
treat and supply water to wholesale customers at
the cheapest price).
The three water supply authorities are the

and the West Coast Regional. The latter is by far
the largest, meeting much of the public supply
demand in the Tampa Bay area of Hillsborough,
Pinellas and Pasco counties.
Another group of regional agencies that have
responsibilities in which the District has an

interest are the
regional planning
councils. The District
provides these agencies
with technical
assistance and also
views contact with
them as an opportunity
to further the District's
mission of protecting
resources through
effective planning.
The District
regularly shares the
cost of water-related
projects with local
governments, works
cooperatively on SWIM


Projects, provides aerial
Smaps of watersheds
and floodplains, and provides planning documents
and model ordinances.
The District works with counties and cities to
develop water management plans and projects, and
helps local governments on local water resource
related issues. The District also works with
various county school districts to enhance water
resource education through the in-school education

Peace River/Manasota, the Withlacoochee Regional program.



fective coordination with

including 16 school
d control districts.
try,agriculture and

legislative delegations.

co Central America,




The District's broad and aggressive education
program is needed because the long-term water
supply problem is complex, and it cannot be solved
without public understanding and support.
Florida's unique environment disguises water
resource problems. With seemingly plentiful
rivers, lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, people find it
difficult to believe that water is a limited resource.
Educating the public is made more difficult
because Florida has new, permanent residents
every day. Millions more people come to the state
each year as seasonal residents or occasional
The District's educational efforts, coordinated
by the Public Communications Department,
include public education, in-school education, and
public information programs.
Public education includes initiatives such as
"Do Your Part. Irrigate Smart," "Xeriscape. It's
Growing Like Crazy" and "Water Conservation at
Work." They are meant to provide the public with
practical, how-to information to help them
conserve the water resource.
In-school education efforts include curriculum
but go beyond traditional classroom activities,
encouraging cooperative projects with local
governments, museums, community groups,
organizations, extension services and others to
provide alternative, hands-on educational
experiences. The hands-on approach gives
students practical experience with the water
resource and environment, and helps them to
make their own decisions about water resource
The District also promotes environmental

education and research on its lands through
programs and recreation that don't disturb the
natural system.
The District's educational efforts include the

Specific Education Efforts

* Do Your Part. Irrigate Smart.
Includes several communications programs that
run concurrently. One focuses on private wells
(Northwest HiUsborough, Alafia River and
Hillsborough River basins), a second on urban
water conservation (irrigation).

* New Water Sources Initiative. A
comprehensive program to explain the
technologies, public policy and role of alternative
water sources in creating safe, sustainable water
supplies while protecting the environment. It
will include a CD-ROM interactive program for
students and animated graphics of project

* Your Water Rights & Responsibilities.
Includes the District's newsletter, speaker's
package, a newspaper tabloid and brochure to
explain the role and goal of the District and the
reasonable expectations of the applicants in
water use permitting.

* Florida Water Magazine. A semi-annual
water-issue magazine produced in cooperation
with Florida's four other water management

Cooperatively funded programs

* The Florida House (Manasota Basin Board in
cooperation with the Sarasota County Extension
Service). Permanent educational facility to
demonstrate the use of environmentally efficient
design, construction and landscaping methods
for Florida homes.

* MOSI Bioworks (Governing Board and the
Alafia River, Hillsborough River and Northwest
Hillsborough basin boards). This innovative
wastewater treatment plant is an exhibit and a
working system. Water going through the plant
will be purified through an engineered

* The Florida Aquarium (Governing Board). An
environmentally sensitive parking area that
demonstrates innovative stormwater
management systems was designed and
constructed. In 1996, the Aquarium completed
stormwater research stations and was
developing a stormwater education curriculum.

In-school projects

* Basin-Based Education Program.
In 1996, the District, for the first time, is
developing a basic in-school program, tailored to
local water bodies and linked directly to the
science and social studies objectives of the local
school board. Funded by local basins.

* Water Watcher. Twenty-four hands-on activities
for students in kindergarten through third grade
that focus on water chemistry, use, sources and

* Water From The Ground Up. Unit on water
resources designed for grades 4-6. Emphasizes
the importance of water, our water supply,
efficient water use and conservation.

* Water Saved Is Water Shared and Water:
More or Less. District-produced videos for
middle and high school classrooms that explore
individual responsibility and water supply
issues. A teacher's guide and suggested project
activities accompany the video.

* Field Trips. These provide students with on-site
learning activities.

* Teacher Training. One- and two-day
workshops in which we provide information,
materials, curriculum, and strategies to help
teachers learn about local water issues.

* Florida Waters Project Water Matters.
Emphasizing participation, the District is
encouraging field trips to local, county, or district
government meetings where students can see
water issues being debated and decided.
Curriculum is provided to help students
understand that water management is complex,
and that they have a voice in decisions that will
affect their futures.


.~rw~i~~uur~ul--- ---------- .

* Mini-Grants. Enable teachers and students to
do projects that enhance knowledge about basin
geography and ecosystem management, water
conservation, alternative sources, and/or water

* Newsletter. Combines science, civics, economics,
social studies, and vocational components.
Offered in class sets to high school classrooms.

Public-private partnership programs

* Water Wise Week.
Ajoint project with The Tampa Tribune's
Newspapers In Education Program. More than
200,000 elementary students participate.
Includes production of a tabloid newspaper
covering the basics of water resources, a
teacher's guide, and a classroom set of 10
newspapers each day for five days.

* Xeriscape. It's Growing Like Crazy. The
District and the Pinellas-Anclote River Basin
Board developed demonstration sites along the
interstate highway system in St. Petersburg and
Pinellas County to promote the use of water
conserving landscapes.

Public information

* Speakers Bureau/Outreach Program.
The District will actively solicit speaking
engagements and prepare speakers packages.

* Journalist's Guide to the Southwest
Florida Water Management District.
This journal is designed to aid busy journalists
by providing basic information at their desks,
saving staff time by providing background
information to new journalists or those who
cover the District only occasionally.

* Internet
A Home Page on the World Wide Web. Contains
information on regulations, rules and meetings,
as well as general conservation and other
education materials.

* Media/Public Inquiries. The District works
with more than 150 daily and weekly
newspapers, magazines, radio and television
stations on coverage of District activities, as well
as answering questions from individual
members of the public. For a list of our current
education programs for adults and children,
please call 800-423-1476, ext. 4759.

Southwest Florida

Protecting Your
Water Resources


and Management

Goal: To ensure staff seeks continuous
improvement to effectively and efficiently
contribute to the realization of the District's
mission to manage and protect water and
related resources.

The District's Water Management Plan is
unique in that it identifies management support
as a fifth area of responsibility. This decision was
made because during the development of the plan,
District staff identified a large number of
Districtwide issues that are administrative.
The roles and functions of management

support departments are considerable and diverse.
Goals, plans and strategies are identified for
various departments. This section of the
Journalist's Guide will outline the management
organization of the District, and present the
pertinent information about each of the
The District is organized into four major areas:
Executive, Resource Regulation, Resource
Management, and Management Services. Each
major area consists of a series of departments,
which are subdivided into sections according to

Governing Board

Basin Boards Executive Director Office of Inspector General

Office of General Counsel Assistant Executive Director
Boards & Executive Support Department

Planning Department

Public Communications Department

Deputy Executive Director
Management Services
SRisk Management
& Safety
- Information Resources Department
Human Resources Department
Finance Department
Operations Department
General Services Department

Deputy Executive Director
Resource Management
- Community Affairs Department
Resource Data Department
Resource Projects Department
Land Resources Department

Deputy Executive Director
Resource Regulation

Technical Services Department
Records and Data Department
Bartow Regulation Department
Brooksville Regulation Department
Tampa Regulation Department
SVenice Regulation Department



The Executive organization consists of the
Governing Board, Basin Boards, Executive
Director, Assistant Executive Director and three
Deputy Executive Directors. In addition, the Office
of Inspector General, Office of General Counsel,
Boards & Executive Support, Planning and Public
Communications departments complete the
Executive organization.
The Governing Board
consists of 11 members
appointed by the Governor and
confirmed by the state Senate.
Board members serve four-year
terms without compensation and
must live within the District.
Profiles are included later in this
The Governing Board's
responsibilities focus on those
issues that are Districtwide in
nature, such as:
Regulatory functions.
Resource studies.
Data collection.
Lake level programs.
Surface Water Improvement
and Management programs.
Equipment resources.
Geographic Information System.
Save Our Rivers acquisition and management.
Education and Information
Land management.

The Governing Board appoints the executive
director, who conducts the business of the District,
hires staff, manages operations and is responsible
for all other administrative functions.
The function of the Basin Boards is explained
in the Basin Boards section.
The Office of Inspector General is
responsible for assisting the Governing Board and
Executive Director in assuring the District's assets
are adequately secure and the internal operating
policies, procedures and control
systems promote efficient and
effective business practice.
The Office of General
Counsel provides legal services
to the Governing Board,
Executive Director and District
staff, including oversight and
enforcement of contracts,
regulations, permits;
interpretation of case law;
providing legal advice about labor
law, documents, statutes and
rules, and a host of other legal
The Boards and Executive Support
Department serves as liaison to the 55 board
members and provides administrative support to
the Governing Board, Basin Boards and Executive
staff. This includes scheduling, noticing and
recording Governing and Basin Board meetings.
The Planning Department's responsibilities
include long-range planning, coordination with
local governments to integrate the District's water
management activities with the growth

management activities and comprehensive plans of
local governments, and land-use planning for
District-owned lands.
The Public Communications Department
is responsible for a broad range of activities that
support the District mission, the Governing Board,
Basin Boards, and District
departments. This includes
providing information to
various groups, developing
public and in-school
educational programs, and
providing graphic support.

Section produces
publications, public and in-
school education programs,
and provides information to the media.

The Visual Communications Section
conceives, designs and produces complex
visual graphics and displays, and
illustrates data and maps for staff reports.
It also provides video recording, production
and editing.


Resource Regulation consists of six
departments. The District's water use and
environment resource permitting and well
construction permitting are administered
regionally through regulation departments located

in Brooksville and three service offices in Tampa,
Bartow and Venice. Each of these departments
consists of the following sections:

Surface Water Regulation is responsible for
issuing environmental resource permits for
storm water and surface water, Works of the
District permits, pre-application meetings,
construction compliance inspections, and

Water Use Regulation is responsible for
evaluating water use permit applications, the
renewal process, pre-application meetings,
aquifer testing programs to support water use
permit applications, enforcement and other
matters related to water conservation,
mitigation requirements, metering, and

Environmental Science responsibilities
include duties related primarily to
environmental use permits and enforcement
matters related to wetlands, dredge and fill,
and other environmental issues.

The Administration
Section provides
clerical, records
management, and
other administrative
support to the



Records and Data Department:
This department provides administrative and
computer support for all Resource Regulation

* Processing &
completes the
process for permit
applications and
performs various other
recording-keeping functions.

* Permit Data enters and tracks permit
conditions requiring any type of reporting,
sends delinquency notices related to water use
and surface water and coordinates enforcement
activities with other departments.

* The Administration Section provides
regulatory support, including managing the
Water Shortage Coordination unit, which
responds to questions from the public,
encourages local
government to
restrict water
consumption and ( D
deals with requests
for variances from
District restrictions.
It also manages the
Database, the repository for all regulation

Technical Services Department:

Technical Services provides technical and
scientific expertise and training related to
environmental, hydrogeologic, engineering,
enforcement matters and rulemaking. It also
provides an official interpretation of existing
rules for any technical discrepancies.

Well Construction Permitting maintains
records of well construction permits,
completion reports, adminstrates the licensing
exam for well contractors and provides support
to well contractors and the general public.


The Community Affairs Department
primarily coordinates and communicates with 98
local governments within the District, as well as
state, federal and international agencies. Also, a
Governmental Affairs Coordinator is in the
Bartow, Inverness, Tampa and Venice offices to
provide help to local governments, civic
organizations, agencies, schools, and the general
public. The department also manages federal and
state legislative issues, and administers the
Cooperative Funding program.

Land Resources Department:

The Land Acquisition Section is primarily
involved in acquisition of lands under Florida's
Save Our Rivers (SOR) and Preservation 2000
(P2000) programs.

* The Land Management Section manages
and protects natural and cultural resources on
SOR and P2000 acquisitions,
including forest
management, prescribed
burning, and protection of
land and water-related

* The Land Use &
Security Section reviews
requests for use of SOR and
P2000 acquisitions and the
sale of surplus lands.

* The Survey Section provides surveying
services for District construction projects,
acquisitions, mapping and studies.

Resource Data Department:

* The Hydrologic Data Section ensures that
water and weather data are collected and
stored in the District database.

* The
Data Section
manages the
Monitor Well
Program and the Quality of Water
Improvement Program.

The Mapping and Geographic Information
System Section develops and maintains the
Geographic Information System and manages
the Aerial Mapping Program.

The AGWQMP Section is responsible for the
Ambient Ground-Water Quality Monitoring

Resource Projects Department:

The Engineering Section provides water flow
and hydrologic analyses for District water
resource projects, manages cooperative projects
with local governments, oversees design and
construction of structural works built by the
District, and conducts research and
development of the District's stormwater rule

The Resource Evaluation Section provides
hydrologic and hydrogeologic analyses;
researches and
distributes water
resource information
through underground I r-
water inventory reports;
and manages cooperative
projects with local

The Chemistry
Laboratory Section
conducts chemical and biological analyses on
surface water and underground water.

* The Environmental Section manages the
Lake Levels Project and the Minimum Flows
Project, and several lake and estuary water
quality studies. The section also helps with
water use permitting reviews, the Water
Resource Assessment Projects, and other

* The Conservation Projects Section
conducts agricultural water-use metering
programs, public supply water use analysis, the
Leak Detection Program, and manages
cooperative funding projects with local
governments including reuse, plumbing
retrofit, and Xeriscape.

* The Surface Water Improvement &
Management Section administers the
District's role in implementing the SWIM
program, described in the Natural Systems
section of this Guide.


Finance Department:

* The Budget
Section coordinates
development of the
annual Districtwide and
eight basin budgets, produces monthly and
legislatively required reports of expenses and
revenues, performs long-range forecasting and
monitors and helps other departments with
budget control decision making.

* The Financial Systems Section develops and
manages the direct access automated financial
management systems.

* The Payroll Section pays the employees and
makes appropriate withholding for federal,
state and local benefits and tax reporting.

* The Accounting & Financial
Reporting Section
maintains w
financial reports,
receives all District revenue and
administers the District's investments.

* The Accounts Payable Section pays debts in
accordance with law, policies and procedures.
The comprehensive annual financial report and
annual financial audits are coordinated by this

* The Purchasing Section buys equipment,
materials and services but not land.

* The Contracts Section manages preparation,
development and monitoring of contracts.

* The Fixed Assets Section manages and
monitors the fixed assets of the District.


General Services Department:

The Administrative Services Section
includes the Inventory Center, Library, Records
Management, and Office Support elements. It
performs diverse management support
functions, including forms design and control,
microfilming, etc.

The Construction Administration Section
develops plans, bids and contracts for
renovation and modifications to new and
existing Districtwide facilities.

The Facilities & Fleet Maintenance
Section plans use of District space, provides
security, grounds upkeep, purchase and
maintenance of vehicles and heavy and light

Human Resources Department:

The Administration
Section provides daily
consultation on diversified
matters to staff at all
levels and manages a
host of issues, including
personnel policies and
procedures, personnel records, disciplinary
issues and a variety of other federally and
state-mandated employee requirements, such
as the Americans With Disabilities Act, Equal
Employment Opportunity, etc.

* The Benefits Section coordinates a wide
range of employee benefits.

* The Classification Section develops and
maintains job class specifications and position
descriptions and fulfills other job classification
duties. It maintains the District's pay plan.

* The Employee Relations Section performs
salary administration activities in compliance
with rules, policies and guidelines; provides an
employee performance appraisal system,
provides counseling and discipline, etc.

* The Human Resources Information
Systems Section produces reports on
employee/position data.

* The Recruitment Section coordinates filling

* The Special Projects Section provides
intra-departmental assistance, including
criminal history checks, forms revisions, and
safety and disaster preparedness.

* The Training and Staff Development
Section develops and delivers in-house
programs for staff and management and
coordinates both technical and non-technical
external training offerings.



Information Resources Department:

This department is responsible for the
District's computer hardware
and software infrastructure. rr -

* The Application Systems
Section maintains the
mainframe computer
software. .

The Technical Support Section provides a
variety of technical computer services,
including operating system analysis, planning
and programming support, system security, etc.

The Computer Operations Section provides
round-the-clock support for computer and data
communications operation for two mainframe
computer systems.

The Information Center and its Help Desk
provide software training, user support, and
the design and programming of PC-based
software systems.

The Communications Support Section
manages the telephones and related
equipment, planning and analysis. It provides
installation, maintenance and a variety of
other services for personal computers,
peripherals, and ancillary equipment.

Operations Department:

The Administration Section provides
administrative and secretarial support for
departmental management, budgeting and

The Field Maintenance Section is
Responsible for fencing, mowing, and erosion
control as well as road and bridge construction
and repair for all District lands.

The Aquatic Plant Management Section is
responsible for aquatic plant control in
designated bodies of water maintained and/or
owned by the District. It also conducts exotic
plant management activities on District-
managed lands.

The Structure Operations Section monitors,
regulates, maintains and repairs all 78 water
control, flood protection structures and salinity
barriers. The section also is responsible for the
District Hurricane and Flood Emergency
Operations Plan and its implementation in the
event of an emergency.

Risk Management Section:

This section handles the District's insurance
and risk management needs, including
loss prevention and loss control. The Risk
Management program includes administration of
the property-casualty insurance program, the self-
funded Workers' Compensation Program, health
and dental insurance, including wellness activities
and the District's safety program.

Governing Board:

Roy G. Harrell, a St. Petersburg attorney, was
appointed in November 1985, served as treasurer
and vice-chairman, and was elected chairman in
April 1996. He is counsel to the law firm Carlton,
Fields, Ward, Emmanuel, Smith and Cutler, P.A.
He is past president of the St. Petersburg Area
Chamber of Commerce, the United Way of Pinellas
County, Leadership St. Petersburg Alumni
Association and the United Way of Tampa Bay
Task Force. He is a member of a host of other
civic and volunteer organizations.
As the board's chairman, he is ex
officio member of all the board's
standing committees.
Term expires: March 1998

Joe L. Davis, Jr., a Realtor and
agri-businessman from Wauchula, was
appointed in March 1991. He is a former
Board chairman and was elected vice
chairman in April 1996. Davis holds business and
law degrees from the University of Florida and is a
member of the Florida Bar Association. He has
been a strong leader in supporting development of
alternative water sources.
He is a member of the Highlands Council of
100 and is director and past president of the
Wauchula Board of Realtors. He is a member of
Florida Citrus Mutual and chaired the Hardee
County Industrial Development Authority from
1984 to 1993.
Term expires: March 2000

Curtis L. Law, a former Pasco County
Commission member, was appointed in March
1991 and brings a wealth of water resource
management experience to the District.
Law was a member of the Pasco County
Commission from 1974 to 1990, and served as
Pasco's representative on the West Coast Regional
Water Supply Authority for 12 years.
Law has lived in Land O'Lakes all his life and
has been in the citrus business since his youth.
Law is vice-chairman of the Regulation
Committee and is a member of the Land and
Resource Management Committee.
' Term expires: March 1999

Sally Thompson was appointed in
July 1990. A graduate of Hollins
College in Virginia, she received her
masters in Public Administration
Av from the University of South Florida
Sin December 1995. Thompson is grants
coordinator for the City of Tampa's
Planning Department, and belongs to the
American Society for Public Administration.
She was appointed to the Tampa Bay Regional
Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management in
1985 and to the Site Selection Committee of the
Hillsborough County Environmental Lands
Acquisition and Protection Program in 1987.
She has served on the boards of a variety of
civic organizations, including the Hillsborough
Environmental Coalition, Tampa Audubon Society,
and the Florida Consumer Action Network.



Thompson was secretary of the Governing
Board until being elected treasurer in April 1996.
Term expires: March 2001

James L. Allen HI, a Sumter County resident,
was appointed in March 1995. A Florida native,
Allen holds a bachelor of arts degree in public
administration from Central Florida University.
He is Construction and Maintenance Specialist for
the Sumter County School District, and former
chairman of the Sumter County Commission,
Sumter County Planning and Zoning Board and
the Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council.
He serves on the Board of Directors
for the Central Florida Area Health
Education Center, Inc., and the
Sumter County Library. He is a
longtime member of the Bushnell
Kiwanis Club, having served as
president and treasurer. He is a state
certified building contractor.
He serves on the Board's Finanace
and Administration, Planning, and the Human
Resource and Diversity committees. He is co-chair
of the Governing/Basin Board Planning committee.
Term expires: March 1999

Ray F. Campo, a lifelong Tampa resident, was
appointed in March 1991.
He served on the Hillsborough County
Commission from 1969 to 1971. Campo holds a
general contractor's license and for more than 15
years owned and operated a water and sewer
utility serving more than 30,000 Hillsborough
County residents. He studied hydraulic

engineering for four years and has 33 years of
experience as a water well drilling and water
utility system contractor.
Campo owned and operated firms involved in
investments, banking, citrus, contracting and land
development until he retired in 1990. While he was
active in the citrus industry, the wells that
irrigated his groves were among the first
agricultural wells to be voluntarily metered.
He is active in Florida Citrus Mutual, the
Florida Home Builders Association, and the
Brandon Chamber of Commerce. He is a member
of the YMCA executive committee.
Tr Campo chairs the Board's
Regulation Committee, co-chairs the
S Human Resource and Diversity, and
is a member of the Finance and
j Administration Committee.
Term expires: March 2000

Rebecca M. Eger was appointed
in August 1992. She is a former vice
chairman of the environmental advocacy
group Manasota '88. She has served on the boards
of the SafePlace Rape Crisis Center, Planned
Parenthood and the Sarasota Taxpayers
She has held appointed positions as Sarasota
Tax Collector and a member of the 12th Judicial
Circuit Court Nominating Commission from 1986-
She is a member and former president of the
League of Women Voters of Sarasota and the
advisory committee of the New College



Environmental Studies Program.
Eger serves on the Board's Regulation, Land
and Resource Management, and the Human
Resource and Diversity committees.
Term expires: March 2000

Ronald Craig Johnson of Lake Wales, an
attorney and businessman, was appointed in
February 1997.
Johnson attended Vanderbilt University and
received bachelor of science and juris doctor
degrees from the University of Tulsa. He is vice
president and general counsel for E.R. Jahna
Industries, Inc. The company mines sand j
and rock. The company is also involved
with citrus, cattle, trucking and
ready-mix concrete activities.
Johnson is a member of the
Florida Bar Association. Prior to
joining E.R. Jahna Industries Inc., he
was a member of the Peterson and
Meyers law firm in Polk County.
Term expires: March 2001

John Pope Harllee IV was appointed to the
Governing Board in March 1996. Harllee, a
resident of Bradenton, is the owner and president
of Harllee Fruit and Vegetable, Inc. He is a
member of the Florida Farm Bureau, the Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association, the Florida
Tomato Committee and the Florida Tomato
Growers Exchange. Harllee is a 1988 graduate of
Florida State University with a bachelor of science
degree in economics.

He is a member of the Regulation and the
Land and Resource Management committees.
Term expires: March 2001

James E. Martin, an educator from St.
Petersburg, was appointed in March 1991. He has
been involved in education and social work in
Florida for more than 20 years.
Since 1979, Martin has directed the Oasis
Program, Inc., a social service and educational
venture that focuses on dropout prevention. It is
now administered by the University of South
Florida at St. Petersburg. Martin taught in
T Pinellas County schools from 1969 to
1979, and earned certification as a
behavioral therapist in 1975 from
the University of Kentucky.
Martin, a Florida resident since
1969, is a devoted camper, canoeist
S and outdoorsman. He is the former
S treasurer of the Governing Board.
Term expires: March 1998

Brenda Menendez was appointed to the
Governing Board in July 1997. A Tampa native,
Menendez is the Community Relations Manager at
Cargill Fertilizer in Riverview, where she is
responsible for government, media and community
relations. She has been employed there since 1989.
Prior to joining Cargill Fertilizer, Menendez
worked with Tampa Electric Co.


She serves on the Board of Governors of the
Tampa Chamber of Commerce and vice-chairs the
Chamber's Governmental Affairs Committee. In
addition, she is Chairperson of the Legislative
Affairs Committee for the Agency on Bay
Management, board member of the Florida
Conservation Association Tampa Chapter, member
of the University of Florida/Hillsborough County
Cooperative Extension Office's Water Issues
Coalition Committee and a member of the Tampa
Water Resource Recovery Project's Public Working
Menendez received a bachelor of arts
degree in mass communications from the
University of South Florida. She is
currently pursuing a masters degree
in business administration.
Term expires: March 1998

Executive Staff

Executive Director
E. D. "Sonny" Vergara began his career at
the District as an administrative assistant in 1972
and worked his way up to Director of the
Department of Interagency Coordination before
leaving the District in 1979 to become special
assistant to the Secretary of the Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation.
Vergara then served as executive director of
the St. Johns River Water Management District for
five years before taking over as executive director
of the Peace River/Manasota Regional Water
Supply Authority in 1984. In January 1997 the

Governing Board selected Vergara from among 140
applicants to be the District's new executive
He was born in Tampa and raised in
Brooksville before spending five years in the U.S.
Marine Corps, including a 13-month tour of duty
in Vietnam and an award of the Air Medal with 10
stars representing 200 combat missions. He
received a bachelor's degree in Mass
Communications from California State in
Fullerton, CA.

Assistant Executive Director*
T Edward B. Helvenston currently
serves as the interim assistant
Executive director. His usual position
is general counsel for the District.
S He joined the District's legal staff in
a 1987. He has served as General
i Counsel since 1992. He was
previously an Assistant County
Attorney for Pasco County and an
Assistant State Attorney for Seminole County.
Helvenston has also served as interim executive
director and interim assistant executive director
for the District.
In 1976 he received a bachelor of arts degree in
economics from Harvard University, and he holds a
juris doctor degree from the University of Florida
College of Law.
*Because of the interim nature of this
post, call us at 1-800-423-1476, ext. 4770, to
ensure that this information is up-to-date.


Deputy Executive Directors
Richard V. McLean began his career with the
District in 1976 as a water resource planner in the
planning department. He has held several
positions in the District before becoming Deputy
Executive Director for Resource Regulation in
He received a bachelor of science degree in
marine biology from the University of West Florida
and holds a master of science degree in
environmental engineering sciences from the
University of Florida. He is responsible for
the records and data, technical services \E
and resource regulation departments.

David L. Moore has been Deputy
Executive Director for Resource
Management at the District since 1992.
He joined the District in 1984 as a
He has a bachelor of science degree
in geology from The College of
Charleston in Charleston, S.C. He
earned a master of science degree in f s
geology from the University of South
Florida and is a Registered ELL 'S-
Professional Geologist. '
He oversees the resource data, resource
projects, land resources, community affairs,
and Surface Water Improvement and
Management departments.

Eugene A. Schiller has been Deputy
Executive Director for Management Services at
the District since 1992.

He earned a bachelor of arts degree in urban
sociology from Bates College in Lewiston, Maine
and a master's degree in public administration
from the University of Hartford in Hartford, Conn.
Prior to coming to the District, he served as
Sarasota County's first Financial Management
Director and has extensive state and city manager
He oversees the information resources, finance,
human resources, operations, general services
departments, and risk management section.

2379 Broad St
Brooksville, Florida 34609-6899
ADA Representative: Rosemare Scharlau
snow Phone (352) 796-7211
Toll Free 1-800-423-1476*
SUNCOM 628-4150
7601 U.S. Hwy. 301
Tampa, Florida 33637-6759
.~ s S ADA Representative: Eileen Rorabacher
Phone (813) 985-7481
Bo Toll Free 1-800-836-0797*
SUNCOM 578-2070
170 Century Blvd.
Bartow, Florida 33830-7700
S' -, l ADA Representative: Sandra McDonald
Phone (941) 534-1448
Toll Free 1-800-492-7862'
TowFn 1 SUNCOM 572-6200
115 Corporation Way
Venice, Florida 34292-3524
ADA Representative: Bonnie Kasper
Phone (941) 486-1212
Toll Free 1-800-320-3503'
SUNCOM 526-6900

Service Office Only:
2303 Highway 44W
Inverness, Florida 34453-3809
Phone (352) 637-1360


District Financial Information

District funding comes primarily from two
sources: other governments and ad valorem taxes.
Relatively small amounts come from permit fees,
interest and other sources.
The Fiscal Year 1997 budget totals $150
million, up $9 million from 1996. Ad valorem
taxes, as a percentage of the budget, have
remained relatively stable during the past 25
years, usually constituting between 50 and 60
percent of the budget. At $84.2 million in 1997,
these taxes, split between the Governing Board
and local Basin Boards, are expected to produce 56
percent of the District's revenue.
Another significant budget trend has emerged,
however. The most noticeable is the large increase
in the Intergovernmental category between 1980
and 1985, which reflects expanding revenues in
the state-funded Save Our Rivers program. This
period was characterized by a tremendous boom in
population and property values throughout the
District. Those changes directly affected the
money flowing into that program because it is
funded by documentary stamp taxes.

Focus on quality service

In preparing the annual budgets, the District's
general philosophy is to focus on quality service
while becoming more efficient in the way it
accomplishes program objectives. Grant-funded
programs are subjected to the same level of
scrutiny as programs funded through ad valorem
taxes. It is also important to relate spending to
achieving objectives of the District Water
Management Plan. A three-step approach is used

to reduce or reallocate resources:

* First, all recurring operating costs are examined
by line-item and reduced where appropriate.

* Second, non-recurring costs are examined and
limited to items of highest priority as they relate
to the District Water Management Plan.

* Third, preliminary program budget issues are
identified by Executive, Planning and Finance

Ad valorem taxes

Though Intergovernmental revenue has grown
significantly since 1980, ad valorem taxes are
expected to remain the District's primary funding
source. Florida law authorizes water management
districts to levy ad valorem taxes to carry out their
responsibilities. However, the law limits the
amount the districts can impose to no more than
0.5 of a mill districtwide. The Governing Board
can use this money to fund regulatory activities,
projects of regional significance,
and Green Swamp Basin
projects due to the
hydrologic importance
of the area to the -
region. PF

The statute also allows the eight Basin Boards to
each levy an ad valorem tax up to 0.5 of a mill to
support projects undertaken within, or directly
affecting, their individual hydrologic areas. These
funds, which amount to a maximum of $.50 per
$1,000 of assessed property value, may be spent
only on efforts which directly benefit the basin
where the money is collected.
The Districtwide millage has routinely been
less than the maximum allowed, and in
1997 was unchanged at 0.422 of
a mill. Basin Board millage rates
also routinely fall below
the maximum. In 1997,
they ranged from 0.181
to 0.401 of a mill, BU DG I
depending upon the needs
of the individual Basin
Board. See the Basin Boards
section for each basin's
millage rate.




In legal form, M
the water management
districts are multi-county
special taxing districts that are operated by an
appointed board. This combination has led to some
publicly voiced concerns that the District practices
"taxation without representation," however, that is
fundamentally false.
In fact, it is the non-political nature of the
system that produces sound public water resource

protection. And there are many safeguards to
protect the public's financial interest:


* The state Department of Banking monitors the
District for compliance with the ad valorem tax
limits and reports to the Governor and
Legislature each year.

The District budget is developed along
state Truth In Millage requirements.

Tentative District budgets
are submitted to the
Department of
Protection, the
Governor's Office, and
the chairmen of the
Appropriations Committees of
the Legislature. Comments from
*those individuals and responses
from the District are exchanged, and a
final report from the Department of
SEnvironmental Protection is submitted
to the Governor
and the Legislature.

* The Executive Office of the Governor must
approve the budgets of all five water
management districts five days prior to the final
public hearing on the annual budget.



* The District is required to submit five-year
capital improvement plans and fiscal reports to
the Governor, the President of the Senate, the
Speaker of the
House and the
Secretary of the
Department of
Protection within
45 days of the
adoption of the
annual budget.

* There is an annual third-party financial audit
conducted for each District by an independent
auditor appointed by the Governing Board, and a
compliance audit every three years conducted
by the Florida Inspector General.

* State law requires the Governing Board to
employ an inspector general, who reports directly
to the Board.

* Strict state laws control fund investments and
bonding by the water management districts.

* The Governor or the Legislature can order
special audits of the water management
districts by the Florida Inspector General.

* The District is subject to legislative committee
review, and all the water management districts
generally conform to state purchasing and
contracting requirements and guidelines.

* The District is required to hold monthly
meetings of the Governing Board and follow
state open meeting laws. At those meetings, the
public can ask questions and voice concerns and
opinions. All District records are open to the
public in accordance with state law.

Southwest Florida
Water Manaement

Protecting Your
Water Resources

Basin Boards

One way the District is distinguished from the
other four water management districts in Florida
is by its Basin Boards. These boards provide
guidance for local programs that are specific to the
watershed basins they protect.
The District has nine hydrologic
basins. Eight of them have Basin Boards.
The ninth basin is the Green
Swamp, headwaters of four major MAR
rivers. Because of its hydrologic
significance for a large portion of the
District, the Green Swamp basin is
administered directly by the
Governing Board.
The Basin Boards _i
offer a local perspective e B ..
to water management
projects and programs.
They focus on water-related issues
and projects, and they provide I E A
programs and budgets to address
these concerns. They finance their
programs in part through ad
valorem taxes. The one-mill taxing
capability of the District is divided
evenly between the Basin Boards and
the District. "
Clearly, the Basin Boards are
important to efficient water resource
management. They allow planning to take
place for each basin, which conforms to trends
being established by state and federal agencies.
And they also provide a vehicle to enhance
environmental protection efforts that look at
entire watersheds, including the land, water, and

plants and animals within them.
One way the Basin Boards fulfill their
responsibilities is through their role in the
District's Cooperative Funding Program. Through
this program one of the District's most
important Basin Boards work with local
governments and other entities on water
resource projects that have an impact in local
communities. Half the money for these
projects comes from the Basin Boards.
The other half comes from the local
government or local cooperator.
/ M Basin Board members are unpaid
citizen volunteers appointed by the
governor and confirmed by the
S"E Senate. They serve three-year
terms. Each of the Basin
Boards includes one person
from each county within the
POL basin, and there must be at
least three members on
each board. Each Basin
Board has at least one of
ARDEE the 11 members of the
District's Governing
Board that serves as
... the Basin Board's chair
-ex officio.
CHARRLO.TTE There are 44 Basin Board
seats on the eight boards,
excluding the Governing Board


Alafia River Basin Board

This board has five members. Sally Thompson
is the chair ex-officio representative from the
Governing Board. Its FY 1997 budget is $1.7
million, up from $1.4 million in 1996. The
estimated ad valorem tax millage rate for 1997 was
0.240 mill per thousand dollars of assessed value,
the same as 1996. In 1997, spending for basin
initiative programs totals $570,372. New Water
Sources Initiative spending totals $418,750.
Significant programs in 1997 include spending
of $100,523 for the Hillsborough Toilet Rebate
2 program, which provides rebates to
encourage volunteer replacement of
high volume toilets with ultra-low
volume type toilets, and $55,125 for
a Tampa Toilet Rebate Program.

Board member profiles

Lois C. Bowers, a Tampa resident,
was appointed in June 1992. She has been a
Hillsborough County Schools educator and is
currently the principal of Progress Village
Elementary School.
She has a bachelor of arts from Dillard
University and a master of arts from the
University of South Florida.
She is a member of the Hillsborough County
Association of School Administrators, Jack & Jill of
America, Inc., Progress Village Civic Council and
Progress Village Foundation, Inc.
Term expires: March 1998

Earl A. Haugabook, a Brandon resident, was
appointed in September 1995. He is Director of
Employee Relations for Tampa Electric Co.
He holds a bachelor of arts from St. Leo
College. He retired from the U.S. Air Force as
Chief Master Sergeant.
He is a member of numerous civic
organizations, including the Shriners, the
Hillsborough County Industrial Development
Authority, the NAACP, and the American Legion.
Term expires: March 1999

Dorothea J. Helmen, a Sun City Center
T resident, was appointed in June 1992.
She is retired from the position of
A service coordinator for Children's
S Hospital in St. Paul, Minn.
She holds a bachelor of arts in
biology from Indiana University and
a master's degree in botany.
She is a registered lobbyist for the
National Organization for Women, and a
member of the Sierra Club and the National
Audubon Society.
Term expires: March 1998

Julian B. "Jay" Lane, Jr., a resident of
Tampa, is managing partner of Lane Cattle/Dairy
and president of Lane Groves, Inc. He is licensed
as a mortgage broker and a real estate broker.
He holds a bachelor of arts in finance from the
University of South Florida.

He is a member of the 13E Grievance
Committee/Florida Bar; the Greater Tampa
Chamber of Commerce, and the Kiwanis Club of
Term expires: March 1997

Daniel Rutenberg, a Riverview LEV
resident, was appointed in May 1993. |
He is a retired
professor of -
higher education
for the University
of South Florida. He received his
bachelor of arts and masters degrees
from the University of Chicago. He
holds a doctorate from the University
of Florida.
He is a member of the i .
Hillsborough County Environmental "
Protection Commission Citizens
Environmental Advisory Committee.
Term expires: March 2000

Coastal Rivers Basin Board

This board has five members. Curtis L.
Law is the chairman ex officio member
representing the Governing Board.
Its FY 1997 budget is $3.2 million, up from
$2.8 million in 1996. The estimated ad valorem tax
millage rate for 1997 is 0.235 mill per thousand
dollars of assessed value, the same rate as 1996. It
is funding $467,428 in basin initiatives. The basin
plans $725,912 for two New Water Sources
Initiative programs.

Significant projects for 1997 include:

$963,800 for a project to reclaim 400,000
gallons per day of water from the Pasco
County Shady Hills wastewater treatment

$101,551 for the Florida Water Services
S Water Conservation Program to include
distribution of plumbing retrofit kits to
save an estimated 400 million gallons
of water per year.

Board member profiles

Kingdon "King" Helie of
New Port Richey was
appointed January 16, 1992.
He owns King Helie
.L Planning Group, Inc.
He received a
bachelor's degree in
Landscape architecture
A..RE ..... from the University of
Florida and a master's
S.... in city planning from
the Georgia Institute
of Technology.
CHARLO TE He is a member of the
Pasco County Land Development
Regulation and Economic Development
Commissions. He received a real estate broker
license in 1980.


He belongs to the West Pasco Chamber of
Commerce, the American Planning Association, the
Human Development Center of Pasco County, the
Concourse Council, Inc., and the Seven Springs
Rotary Club.
Term expires: March 2000

Evelyn C. Henderson of Brooksville was
appointed in November 1993. She is a retired
communications manager for GTE of Florida.
She received an associate of arts degree from
Hillsborough Community College, a masters of
science from the University of South Florida
and a masters of business in business
and finance studies from the
University of South Florida.
She was a 1992 Leadership
Tampa Program member, and she
belongs to Zonta International,
Tampa Organization for Black
Affairs, Tampa Urban League
Commerce and Industry Council.
Term expires: March 1997

Alfred W. Torrence, Jr., a New Port Richey
resident, was appointed in November 1993. He is
owner of Thornton, Torrence, Klimis & Gonzales,
P.A., a law firm.
He received a bachelor of science from the
University of South Florida and a juris doctor from
Florida State University.
He is a member of the West Pasco Bar
Association, the United Way of Pasco, the North

Suncoast Estate Planning group, and the Pasco
Public Schools Foundation.
Term expires: March 1998

Leonard F. Tria Jr. ofWeeki Wachee was
appointed in March 1997. He is vice president of
HDR Engineering, Inc., a general engineering firm.
He earned a certificate in private security
management at Hofstra University in Hempstead,
N.Y. and an associate of business degree from
Tampa College.
He is a former Hernando County
Commissioner and a member of the Knights
T of Columbus, A.S.I.S. and Retired
Term expires: March 1999

Margaret "Peggy" C. West of
Crystal River was appointed in
March 1997. She is retired and works
as a part-time beauty consultant. She
was employed as a manager of
environmental safety and health for Raytheon
Services. She also worked as an environmental
specialist and safety engineer for Holmes and
Narver, an engineering firm.
She earned a bachelor of science degree in
metallurgical engineering and a master of science
degree in civil engineering at the University of
Texas at El Paso. She also attended the New
Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.
She is a member of the Association of Energy,
Environmental Engineers.
Term expires: March 1999

Hillsborough River Basin Board

This board has six members. Ramon F. Campo John P. "Jack" Griffin, a Tampa resident,
is the chairman ex officio member representing the was appointed in January 1992. He was a Florida
Governing Board. The estimated ad circuit judge until 1991, when he retired. He
valorem tax millage rate for 1997 is 0.285 received his bachelor of arts degree from the
mill per thousand dollars of assessed \ University of Florida and his juris doctor
value, the same rate as 1996. The degree from Stetson College of Law.
1997 fiscal year budget totals $6 I He has lived on the Hillsborough River for
million, up from the $5.8 million 1996 \ most of his life and was on the first board
budget. Of the budget, $1.6 million ever established locally to help protect it
goes to basin ? ..... (1947). He is a member of the Florida Bar
initiatives. NWSI Association, the American Bar
projects receive $2.3 Association, the Florida Audubon
million. Society and the Nature Conservancy.
S, Term expires: March 2000

Significant other efforts include:

* $642,084 on the Plant City Reuse
System which will provide up to 2
million gallons per day of
reclaimed water from Plant City's
Water Pollution control Facility.

* $218,750 for the Central
Hillsborough County Reuse System to
interconnect the Falkenburg and Valrico
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants to
save 14.25 million gallons per day of high
quality ground water and surface water

* $100,373 for the Hillsborough Toilet Rebate 2
program to replace high volume toilets with
ultra-low volume models.

S. Lois J. Gaston, a Valrico
resident, was appointed in
P May 1996. She is the vice
President of the Ybor
Campus of Hillsborough
E Community College.
S She holds a
--- bachelor of arts degree
SDO from Marycrest College,
a master's from Bradley
S|- University and a doctorate
ARLOTE degree from Illinois State

Gaston is a member of the Ybor City
Development Corporation, the Advisory Committee
of the Children's Board, and the Chamber of
Commerce and Kiwanis Club ofYbor City.
Term expires: March 1999



Board member profiles

Julie A. Baker of Lutz was appointed in
November 1993. She has held various positions
with the University of South Florida and the City
of Tampa. She has a degree in computer
engineering from the University of South
She is a member of the Florida
Engineering Society and Tau Beta Pi
engineering honor society.
Term expires: March 1998

Calvin A. Kuenzel of Land O'Lakes
was appointed in November 1993. He has
been in Florida since 1958.
He is a member of the faculty at the .--
Stetson University College of Law. He
received his
undergraduate '
and juris doctor -
degrees from ,
the University of Iowa and his
doctor of the science of law degree
from the University of Illinois.
He served in the U.S. Army and Navy
and U.S. Army Reserve, retiring as infantry
His memberships include Phi Delta Phi
Legal Fraternity and Lawyers of America.
Term expires: March 1999

Ardis L. MacKinnon of Tampa was appointed
in July 1995. She has been in Florida since 1982.
She is owner/vice president of Yale Industrial
Trucks. She also is a free-lance reporter for the
Brandon News.

She received the Key Citizen of Brandon award
in 1993 as well as the Alice B. Pompkins
Community Service Award in 1993. Her
memberships include the Brandon Women's
Service League and the Centerplace Fine Arts
and Civic Association.
\ Term expires: March 1997

This board has five members.
Rebecca M. Eger and John P Harllee
-IV are the co-chair ex officios
representing the Governing Board.
The Fiscal Year 1997 budget totals
.C -C $5.9 million, up from 1996's
S n $5.2 million budget. The
1 estimated ad valorem tax
Smillage rate for 1997 is
0.181 mill per thousand
dollars of assessed value,
the same rate as 1996.
The board has
BH,G.,,DL designated $540,515
for basin initiatives.
New Water Sources
Initiative spending
totals about $2.7 million. Of
CHARLOTTE that approximately $1.6

million is destined for the Peace
River Option. The project will develop surface
water and aquifer storage and recovery systems to
allow more water to be used from the Peace River.

Some of the significant projects in 1997 include:

* $451,838 for the Phillippi Creek Regional Storm-
water project, a cooperative funding effort with
Sarasota County to build a 260-acre regional
storm-water facility.

* $300,103 for a city of North Port plant to store
reclaimed water and to build transmission mains
for the water.

* $261,500 for the Venice East Golf Course Reuse
Line to provide reclaimed water from the
Sarasota County's Venice Gardens
Wastewater Treatment Plant to the
Venice East Golf Course.

Board member profiles

B.T. "Buster" Longino, a
Sarasota resident, was appointed in
October 1993. He has been president and
manager of Longino Ranch for more than 30
He holds a bachelor of science degree in
forestry from the University of Florida.
He served on the District's Governing Board
from 1978 to 1982; was a Sarasota County
commissioner, from 1989-90; and previously served
on the Basin Board from 1983-1987. He is a former
member of the Florida Forestry Council and the
Sarasota Soil and Water Conservation District.
He is a member of the Florida Association of
Conservation Districts, Florida Forestry

Association and the Sarasota Cattlemen's
Term expires: March 1999

Charles E. Williams, a resident of Sarasota,
is an attorney with the law firm of Scott and
Williams, PA.
He holds a bachelor of arts degree from
Howard University and a juris doctor degree from
the University of Florida School of Law.
Williams is also commissioner of the Sarasota
Housing Authority and a member of the Florida
Bar Grievance Committee.
s Term expires: March 1999

Judith L. Jones, a Sarasota
resident, was appointed in October
1992. She is a senior associate
planner for Land Resource
S Strategies, Inc.
She received a bachelor of science
degree in sociology from Florida State
University and a master of science in regional
planning from FSU.
She is a member of the Audubon Society, the
Committee of 100 Office Space Committee, the
American Planning Association, and the Child
Development Center.
Term expires: March 1998

Robert N. Spencer IV, a Bradenton resident,
was appointed in November 1989. He is employed
as the Director of Marketing for West Coast
He received a bachelor of science degree in

business from Bob Jones University and a Jurum Northwest Hillsborough Basin Board
Doctor from Georgia State University.
He is a member of the Florida and Georgia Bar This board has five members. The 1997 Fiscal
associations, the former director of the Farmers Year budget totals almost $3.2 million, nearly
and Ranchers of Manatee County, and a identical to the 1996 budget.
member of the Manatee County Extension The 1996 ad valorem tax millage is 0.268
Office Advisory Board and the Kiwanis Club of \ per $1,000 of assessed value, the same as
Bradenton. in 1996.

Term expires: March 1998

John T. Hamner, a retired
editor from
Bradenton, was
appointed in
March 1996 and is a former
Governing Board member. As an
editorial writer for the Bradenton A j
edition of the Sarasota Herald-Tribune !
from 1975 until his retirement in 1990,
he was a keen observer of the District's
activities. Growth management and
environmental issues are still special
concerns for him.
He was twice nominated for the Pulitzer
Prize, served as an adjunct professor of
journalism at Manatee Community College from
1962 to 1965, and was Associate Dean of the Hall
School of Journalism at Troy State University in
Alabama from 1972 to 1975.
Term expires: March 1999

S ... I Basin initiatives in 1997 total
$333,288, while New Water Sources
Initiatives total slightly more than
1 $1.5 million. Of that, approximately
$728,850 will go for expansion of the
.ER.NA. Northwest Hillsborough reuse

.. New programs in 1997
I in this basin include the
] South Tampa/Westshore
Area Reuse Project
PO.. which will save up to
) 1.7 million gallons of
S.drinking water per
M.NATEE day. The basin's
H .ARDEE portion of the
feasibility phase for
this project is
$102,712. Also
S ---T continuing will be
C\- \ ROTT the Hillsborough Toilet
Rebate 2 program, for which
$100,373 is budgeted. This program
offers rebates to encourage replacement of 11,000
toilets in single family homes with modern, ultra-
low volume models, resulting in potential water
savings of 75 million gallons per year.

Board member profiles

Michael M. English of Tampa was appointed
in July 1995. He has been a Florida resident since
He is president of The English Company, which
does urban planning and consulting, and also is an
adjunct professor at the University of South
Florida Architecture School.
He holds a bachelor of science degree in
business administration from the University of
South Florida and a master of arts in anthropology,
also from USF.
He is a member of the American
Planning Association and a fellow in
the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Term expires: March 1998

Jonathan D. Kaplan of Tampa
was appointed in September 1992. He
has lived in Florida since 1981. He is
an attorney in private practice.
He holds a bachelor of arts degree in
history from the University of Illinois and received
his juris doctorate from the University of Miami.
He is a member of the Greater Town n' Country
Chamber of Commerce.
Term expires: March 1998

Barbara B. Romano of Tampa was appointed
in July 1995. She is president of International
She received her bachelor of arts degree from
Randolph-Macon Women's College. She is active in
the Athena Society, the Junior League of Tampa,

Kappa Delta Sorority, ASTA, and the Merchants
Association of Tampa.
Term expires: March 2000

Gwendolyn S. Tillotson of Odessa was
appointed in September 1992. She has lived in
Florida since 1974.
She has held various positions, including
administrative assistant for Metro Medical, Inc.
and receptionist for Tampa Preparatory School.
She is a graduate of Plant High School.
She is an active member of the Hillsborough
County Fair Authority, Hillsborough County
T Extension Homemakers and the
S Keystone Civic Association.
Term expires: March 1999

Janette "Meredith" Wester of
i Lutz was appointed in July 1995.
L She has lived in Florida since 1966.
SShe is an attorney and holds a
bachelor of arts degree from the
University of South Florida and a degree in
law from Stetson University.
She is treasurer and a founder of the Coalition
of Lake Associations.
Term expires: March 1999

Peace River Basin Board

This board has six members. Joe L. Davis, Jr.
and Ronald C. Johnson are the chairmen ex officios
representing the Governing Board.
The 1997 Fiscal Year budget of $4.9 million
compares to $4.3 million in 1996. The current




.' .-,j

millage rate remains unchanged at 0.195 mill per
$1,000 of assessed property value.
New Water Sources Initiative projects will
receive $516,784 and basin initiatives will get

Notable new projects include: LV

* $566,727 for phase one of
the Lake Wales Reuse Project
which will include
construction of a 1.9 million .
gallon per day pumping station -
and 14,000 feet of transmission H I
line. _- --

* $207,944 for the Peace __
Creek Canal/Wahneta
Drainage System Project to H B |
restore Lake Gwyn and L
improve water flow from /
the Winter Haven chain of
lakes. MANATEE

* $236,129 for the Charlotte
Urban Aerial Photography project
which will help define flood prone
areas to aid Charlotte County in
making better-informed decisions
about construction in those areas.

Board member profiles

Robert H. Barben of Avon Park was
appointed in January 1992. He has lived in Florida

since 1950. He is vice president of R.J. Barben Inc.
and president of Barben Harvesting Inc.
He holds bachelor of science and bachelor of
arts degrees from the University of Florida.
He has been active in the Florida Citrus
Showcase, the Highlands Citrus Growers
Association and the Avon Park Chamber of
Term expires: March 2000

Thomas "Chris" Hencher of Punta Gorda
was appointed in July
S r 1995. He has lived in
a in Florida since 1963.
He is groves
manager for Seminole Citrus
Ltd. He holds a bachelor's degree
in business administration from
Florida Atlantic University.
He has served on the Charlotte
County Planning and Zoning Board
and the Charlotte County Board
of Zoning Appeals.
STerm expires: March 1997

William Keith Davis of
Wauchula was appointed in
January 1992. He is vice president
of Florida Fertilizer Co., Inc.
He holds a bachelor of science degree in
agriculture and agriculture economics from the
University of Florida.
Term expires: March 1999


Nancy N. Furland of Lake Wales was
appointed in February 1993. She has a bachelor of
science degree in physical therapy from the
University of Florida. She was the initial organizer
of a group called "Save the Wales," which
sought solutions to the problem of low
lake levels in lakes in Lake Wales.
She also has been a member of the L" y
Florida Lakes Management Society
and Florida Lake Watch.
Term expires: March 1998

Doris Moore-Bailey of Lakeland
was HER
in July i
1995. She
has been a Florida
resident since 1982. She is
director of membership and
marketing for the Heart of Florida'
Girl Scout Council. /
She earned a bachelor of science -,
degree from Texas College. She is MAN
active in the League of Women Voters, --
the Polk County Democratic Women's
Club, the NAACP of Lakeland and Alpha .*.
Kappa Alpha Sorority.
Term expires: March 2000

William A. Hackney Jr. of Arcadia was
appointed in October 1995. He has been a Florida
resident since 1973.
He is a certified public accountant/partner with

Hackney and Manley, CPAs. He has a bachelor's
degree in journalism from the University of Florida
and has completed studies in accounting.
He is a member of the American and Florida
Institutes of CPAs, the DeSoto Bulldog Boosters,
the Memorial Elementary School Advisory
Committee, and the Community Health
Purchasing Alliance. He also is a member of the
Arcadia Housing Authority.
Term expires: March 1998

S Pinellas-Anclote River Basin Board
SThis board has six members. Roy
I G G. Harrell, Jr. and James E. Martin
are co-chairmen ex-officio members
representing the Governing
The 1997 Fiscal Year
S budget is $21,685,531, up
from almost $19 million in
1996. The current millage
rate remains unchanged
E HAREE from 1996 at 0.401 mill
HHN per $1,000 of assessed
property value.
ES..OTO The basin has
budgeted $5.4 million for
rHA.LOTTE restoration projects on
lakes Maggiore and Seminole. New
Water Sources Initiative projects will
receive nearly $4 million and basin initiatives will
get more than $1.3 million.

iirr~ -YIL~~'--'-illYY`~~T~LLCP-^--LIIIII^- .~


Notable projects include:

* $2,429,343 for the Clearwater Reclaimed Water
System to be constructed over five years and
provide 800,000 gallons of reclaimed water per
day to residents.

* $1,633,653 for the Pinellas County North/South
Beach reclaimed water system.

* $1,660,845 for the construction of a 10 million
gallon storage tank and pump station at the
Largo wastewater treatment plant for a
reclaimed water project.

* $985,705 for the Pinellas Park Reuse -
project to add 26,000 feet of
reclaimed water transmission main.

Board member profiles

Patsy Y. Baynard of St. Petersburg N E
was appointed in March 1995. She has lived in
Florida since 1975.
She received a bachelor of science degree from
the University of Central Arkansas, a doctorate of
philosophy from the University of Arkansas, and a
masters of business administration from the
Florida Institute of Technology. She also holds a
doctorate in chemistry.
Baynard has been active in Leadership Tampa
Bay, the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce, the
All Children's Hospital Foundation and the St.
Petersburg Junior League.
Term expires: March 1999

Sandra S. Brooks of St. Petersburg was
appointed in July 1995. She has lived in Florida
since 1988.
She is retired from the state of California. The
last position she held was assistant bureau chief of
industrial relations.
She attended Fresno State University.
She is active with Trinity United Methodist
Church and the American Red Cross. She
previously was president of the Placido Bayou
Neighborhood Homeowners Association.
Term expires: March 1998

Sp Adelle L. Spigelman of Holiday
was appointed in March 1995. She has
lived in Florida since 1971.
She is retired from Nielsen Media
k Research. She attended Ohio
University. She is president of the
Jewish Community Center of West
Pasco and also served on the
Democratic Executive Committee.
Term expires: March 1999

Jay B. Trey Starkey III of New Port Richey
was appointed in September 1996. He is involved
in cattle ranching and real estate and is part owner
of the family ranch Starkey Ranch.
Mr. Starkey holds a Bachelor of Science and
Arts from Florida State University. He also has a
real estate license.
He is a member of the Building Industry
Association and the Seven Springs Rotary Club.
Term expires: March 1999

1 12

Ramona M. Updegraff of Redington Beach
was appointed in June 1992 and was reappointed
in March 1995. She has been an ophthalmologist
office manager for Ambrose G. Updegraff, M.D.
medical practice.
She has a degree in nursing from
Charity Hospital School of Nursing in
New Orleans. She was mayor of
Redington Beach
from 1986-1990.
She is a member
of the League of
Women Voters, the Pinellas County
Medical Auxiliary, the Sierra Club, the
American Red Cross and the National __
Convention of Christians and Jews. I
Term expires: March 2000

David T. Welch of St.
Petersburg is a finance officer for
the Pinellas County School Board
and owner of Welch Accounting
Service. He is a former St. Petersburg
City Council member.
He holds bachelor of science degrees
in accounting and administration from
Florida A&M University.
He has been a member of the National and
Florida Accounting Associations, Phi Delta Kappa,
the NAACP, the Pinellas Sports Authority, the
United Way and several other organizations.
Term expires: March 1997

Withlacoochee River Basin Board

This board has six members. James Allen is
chairman ex officio representing the Governing
The 1997 Fiscal Year budget of $2.8 million
is nearly identical to the 1996 budget. The
current millage rate remains unchanged at
0.298 mill per $1,000 of assessed property
value. Basin initiatives will receive
nearly $1 million.

Notable projects include:

[* $217,129 for the Marion
E County Floodplain
Analysis to determine
Sflood-prone areas.

O $54,914 for the Tsala
Apopka Stormwater
Retrofit project to
improve the water
HARDEE i quality in the chain of


S H.RLO. Board member profiles

A. Wayne Lee of Wildwood was
appointed in April 1993. He is a self-employed
He has served on the Sumter County Board of
Adjustments, the Florida Farm Bureau, the



Sumter Vocational Advisory Council and the
Sumter County Cattlemen's Association.
Term expires: March 1999

Eleanor P. "Pat" Dixon of Inverness was
appointed in November 1993. She has worked as a
broker-salesman for ERAAmerican Realty and
She has a degree in business administration
from Vincennes University in Indiana.
She is a member of the Florida Association of
Realtors, the Citrus County Board of Realtors,
Hospice of Citrus County, Rails to Trails of the
Withlacoochee, the U.S. Tennis Association and the
Florida Medical Auxiliary Association.
Term expires: March 1998

John T. Vogel of San Antonio was first
appointed in March 1992. He is president of
Natural Resource Planning Services, Inc., a
forestry consulting business. He has a bachelor of
science degree in forestry from the University of
He is a member of the Florida Forestry
Association, the Society of American Foresters and
the Florida 4-H Foundation. In 1985, he received
the C. Huxley Coulter Society of American
Foresters Award for Outstanding Contributions to
the Profession of Forestry in Florida.
Term expires: March 2000

Raymond F. Popejoy of Ocala was appointed
in June 1992. He has lived in Florida since 1980.
He retired from E.J. & E. Rainway after 38
years of employment.

He is a member of the Elks Lodge, the Kiwanis
Club, the Marion County Democrat Executive
Committee and the Live Oak Village Condominium
Term expires: March 1998

James F. "Jim" Griffin Jr. of Brooksville was
appointed in November 1993.
He is retired from the University of South
Florida, where he was senior assistant director of
the physical plant.
He has bachelor's and master's degrees in
agriculture from the University of Florida.
He has been active in the Florida Agricultural
Council, the Florida Nurserymen and Growers
Association and the Northeast Hillsborough
Sertoma Club. In 1964 he was named Man of the
Year in Agriculture by the Miami/Dade Chamber of
Commerce, the Florida County Agents Association,
the Future Farmers of America and the Florida
Agricultural Council.
Term expires: March 1998

Julia H. Haile of Chiefland was appointed in
November 1993. She was a teacher for the Levy
County School Board until her retirement in 1988.
She holds a degree in home economics and
general science from Florida A&M University and
a master's degree from Nova University. She was
recently elected to the Levy School Board.
She is active with the Levy County School
Board Foundation, the Area Agency on Aging and
the Zeta Phi Beta Society.
Term expires: March 1999


* w^-'i -w '**

Key Terms

Here are some additional terms you may hear or see when working on water issues. As always, if you have any
questions, please call 800-423-1476.

* Alternative Water Sources
Also non-traditional sources, include conservation, reuse, aquifer storage and recovery, and desalination.

* Appointive Board versus Elective Board
Appointing governing board members helps to ensure the broad representation of interests necessary to
achieve a public interest consensus.The issue of"appointed versus elected"governing board members was
specifically reviewed by the staff of the Senate Natural Resources Committee in January 1988.The report
concluded that appointed boards be retained, noting that appointment was favored because"...members are
not swayed by constituent pressure, that more time can be devoted to resource management and less to
political careers, and that the backgrounds of those chosen can be more carefully weighed to achieve a balance
of views on the boards." In 1995 the Water Management District Review Commission reached the same

* Area of Critical State Concern
Areas designated by state law for the purpose of conserving and protecting key natural, economic and
public resources.

* Attenuation
A controlled release of water to a pre-determined rate.

* Augmentation
Transferring water from one source to another to maintain or raise water levels.

* Base Flow
The groundwater contribution to runoff that comes from springs or seepage into a stream channel.

* Basis of Review
A document that provides threshold design, administrative and technical criteria for permit applicants.

Conservation and Recreation Lands; a statewide program to buy lands for environmental protection.

* Compensation
Measures to offset adverse impacts to wetlands, including mitigation, protection of exempt wetlands,
restoration of wetlands that have been previously affected, and other measures.

g0 9



Key Terms 1 7

Key Terms

* Emergency Water Shortage Order
On June 30,1994, the District took the extraordinary step of enacting an order to slow the effects of pumping in
wellfields managed by the West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority on behalf of Pinellas County,
St. Petersburg and other member governments.The Authority, Pinellas and St. Petersburg filed a lawsuit.The
Emergency Water Shortage Order was later rescinded as part of a settlement agreement between the District
and West Coast, Pinellas County and the City of St. Petersburg.The three permitees withdrew their legal
challenge, agreed to continue observing a 116 million gallons per day cap set by the order, and to pursue
development and interconnection of additional water sources.

Hydrologic Basin
Equivalent to a watershed; the area where all the water drains.

Land and Water Planning Linkage
To promote closer ties between plans for water and land use, the Governor's Task Force on Land Use and Water
Planning was created.This group had the responsibility of recommending the most appropriate legal means of
linking land and water planning. Strengthening the link between land and water planning and the ties between
local government, water management districts, regional planning councils and state government will help ensure
the protection of land and water resources to support present and future need, and a vibrant economy.

Leak Detection Program
Leak detection is the systematic search for leaks within a utility's distribution system.While many leaks are
detected when utility personnel or citizens see water flowing out of the ground, an effective leak detection
program uses electronic equipment to identify leak sounds and to pinpoint the leak location. Because leaks can
develop at any time, detection must be an ongoing program. Between June 1990 and May 1995, the District's leak
detection program found 551 leaks.Subsequent repairs are estimated to have saved more than 5.8 millions of
gallons of fresh water a year through leak surveys across the District.

* Millage/Mill
The tax rate or real property based on $1 per $1,000 of assessed property value.

* Minimum Flow and Level
The limit at which further withdrawals would cause significant harm to the water resource or the ecology.

* Mitigation
Action to offset adverse impacts of proposed permits.Without mitigation, applicants would fail
to meet the criteria necessary to get a permit. Mitigation usually consists of restoration, enhancement,
creation, preservation or a combination of them.


Key Terms 0

* Outstanding Florida Waters
Waterbodies designated by the state, which exhibit unique character, in terms of quality and value, for
additional protection from further pollution and degradation.

* Peace River Option
A plan to tap the Peace River for taking water when flows are high, and treating and storing it for times when
flows are low.The plan utilizes off-stream reservoir storage and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) technology.

* Reverse Osmosis
A process operated by applying pressure to saline water to force water through a membrane. A portion of the
water passes through the membrane as fresh water and the remaining water concentrated with salts is

* Saltwater Intrusion
The phenomenon which occurs when saline water moves inland from the seacoast or up from the bottom of the
aquifer to replace fresher water in an aquifer or surface water body.

* Sinkhole
A depression in the land surface formed either by collapse of the roof of an underground cavern or channel or by
dissolution of limestones or similar rocks near the surface. Sinkhole are a natural occurrence, taking thousands of
years to form. Although they vary in size and depth, a sinkhole starts as an underground cavity. If the weight of
the surface land is too great, it caves in, forming a sinkhole. Sinkhole occur throughout the District, but generally
are less likely to occur in the southern part of the District.This is because the limestone layer or aquifer is covered
by sand and clay layers that get thicker further south. Repairs of sinkholes are the responsibility of the property
owner.The Water Management District is responsible for protecting the water and water-related resources. As
part of its mission the District maintains a list of sinkhole occurrences. If a sinkhole opens all the way to the
aquifer, surface pollutants can contaminate the underground water supply. Sinkholes which form in lakes can
drain portions of the lake and cause environmental impacts to wildlife.

* Special District
A local unit of special purpose, as opposed to general purpose, government within a limited boundary created by
general law, special act, local ordinance or by rule of the Governor and Cabinet.

* Stop Log
A removable 6"x 6"x 6'log (6 inches by 6 inches by 6 foot) that is in a structure to impede the flow of water.

* State Water Policy
The state water policy is embodied in the Florida Administrative Code and Florida Statutes and helps delineate
policy guidance to the Department of Environmental Protection, the water management districts and other
agents of the state in developing and implementing a comprehensive, coordinated water management program
throughout the state.The Florida Water Plan references state water policy and is compiled from the five District
Water Management Plans.These policy documents state water policy,the Florida Water Plan, and each District
Water Management Plan are coordinated to resolve key water issues.

Key Terms

* Statewide Pipeline
This concept envisions moving water from water-rich areas of the state to densely populated areas that need
more water. It would have several negative effects. Studies show that taking water from one place and moving it
to another can have a permanent negative effect on the environment.Water rich areas often oppose the idea on
grounds that they will need the water as development continues in their areas. It is expensive, with estimates for
the pipeline alone of $1 million per mile or more. (See Local Sources First policy.)

Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs.

* Water Management District Review Commission
To ensure that water management districts coordinate efforts to protect the resource, the Legislature
established a 21-member commission with a mandate to study pertinent issues and produce a statewide
report by Sept. 1,1995.

* Watershed
The geographic area from which water in a particular stream, lake or estuary originates. All lands in the
watershed drain toward the stream, lake or bay and contribute pollutants to these waters.The District has
approximately 13 major watersheds within its jurisdiction.

* Water Shortage Restrictions
During the late 1980s and early 1990s, west central Florida endured a number of years of below-average rainfall.
As a result, underground water levels were extremely stressed and the District imposed water shortage
restrictions designed to encourage citizens to cut back on their water use, demonstrate the importance of
conservation, and protect the water resources.

SWater Use Permitting
Permission to use the public's water resource for a specific purpose, for a limited period of time, with specific
conditions.The statutory test for a water use permit requires the use to be beneficial, in the public interest, and
not a harm to existing legal users.

SWell Plugging/Abandonment
A process of stopping the flow of water into, or out of, a formation through a bore hole or well penetrating
that formation.

I Key Te


The following is a list of acronyms commonly used by the District.

ACSC ...................................... Area of Critical State Concern
ADA ..................................... ..Americans With Disability Act
AFS .......................................... American Fisheries Society
AGWQMP .................................... Ambient Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program
AIM ....................................... Agricultural Irrigation Monitoring
ASCE....................................... American Society of Civil Engineers
AWRA ..................................... American Water Resources Association
AWWA ...................................... American Water Works Association
BC/BS ...................................... Blue Cross/Blue Shield
BMP ........................................ Best Management Practices
BOCC ...................................... Board of County Commissioners
BOR ............. ........................ Basis of Review
CARL ..................................... Conservation and Recreation Lands
CAFR ......................................... Comprehensive Annual Financial Report
CCMP ........................................ Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan
CDBG ........................................ Community Development Block Grant
CFRPC ....................................... Central Florida Regional Planning Council
CHNEP ..................................... Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program
COE ......................... ................ Corps of Engineers
CSWM ...................................... Comprehensive Surface Water Management
D-BUG .......................................Data Base Users Group
DACS ...................................... Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
DCA ....................................... Department of Community Affairs
DEP....................................... Department of Environmental Protection
DOA ........................................ Department of the Army
DOAH ..................................... Department of Administrative Hearings
DOT ......................................... Department of Transportation


I Acronyms-


DRI ........................................ Development of Regional Impact
DWMP ....................................... District Water Management Plan
ECFRPC ........................................ East-Central Florida Regional Planning Council
ECO ....................................... Environmental Careers Organization
ECOSWF ..................................... Environmental Confederation of Southwest Florida
EIS ......................................... Economic Impact Statement
EMP ....................................... Emergency Management Plan
EPA ......................... .................. Environmental Protection Agency
EPC ....................................... Environmental Protection Commission
ERC ........................................Environmental Regulation Commission
ERP .................................. ....... Environmental Resource Permit
ETBWUCA ......... ................... ...... Eastern Tampa Bay Water Use Caution Area
FAC .................................................. Florida Administrative Code
FASU........................................ Florida Association of Stormwater Utilities
FAW ........................................ Florida Administrative Weekly
FDCA ........................... ............... Florida Department of Community Affairs
FDEP......... .......... ....... ....... Florida Department of Environmental Protection
FDOT ...................................... Florida Department of Transportation
FEMA ...................................... Federal Emergency Management Agency
FES .........................................Florida Engineering Society
FFAA ......... ........... ....... ....... Florida Fertilizer and Agriculture Association
FF&VGA ....................................... Florida Fruit & Vegetable Growers Association
FG&FWFC ...................................... Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
FGWA ..................................... Florida Ground Water Association
FIPR ....................................... Florida Institute of Phosphate Resouces
FMCA ...................................... Florida Mosquito Control Association
FN&GA......................................... Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
FPC ....................................... Florida Phosphate Council
FP&L .......................... ................. Florida Power and Light
FRCA .................................. ...... Florida Regional Councils Association
FRS .................................. ....... Florida Retirement System

I Acronyms-27


FS ........................................... Florida Statute(s)
FSU ........................................ Florida State University
FTE ........................................ Full Time Equivalent
FWWA ....................................... Florida Water Well Association
FY ......................................... FiscalYear
GFOA ...................................... Government Finance Officers Association
GICIA ...................................... Gasparilla Island Conservation & Improvement Association
GIS ........................................ Geographic Information System
gpd ....................................... gallons per day
gpm .......................................gallons per minute
GPS ........................................ Global Positioning System
GSLA ......................................Green Swamp Land Authority
HRGTF ....................................... Hillsborough River Greenways Task Force
HRWUCA .................................... Highlands Ridge Water Use Caution Area
ICMA ...................... ................ International City/County Management Association
ICWP....................................... Interstate Council on Water Policy
IFAS ..................................... Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
IOP ........................................nternal Operating Procedure
IRD ........................................Information Resources Department
JAPC ........... ......................... Joint Administrative Procedures Committee
LAMP ...................................... Land Acquisition and Management Plan
LEPC ........................................ Local Emergency Planning Committee

'-- ~~w;

I Acon



mgd ....................................... million gallons per day
MIA .........................................Most Impacted Area
MLM .......................................Minimum Low Management
MOSI ...................................... Museum of Science and Industry
MSSW ....................................... Management and Storage of Surface Waters
NALMS.................................... North American Lake Management Society
NEP .......................................National Estuary Program
NGVD ......................... ................ National Geodetic Vertical Datum
NOV .......................................Noticeof Violation
NRC....................... ..................National Research Council
NRCS ......................................Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA)
NTBWUCA ............................ ...... Northern Tampa Bay Water Use Caution Area
NWFWMD ........................ ............. Northwest Florida Water Management District
NWPP......................... ................ National Water Policy Project
NWRA ....................................... National Water Resources Association
NWSI ...................................... New Water Sources Initiative
O&M ......... ................ ........... Operation and Maintenance
OFW .......................................Outstanding Florida Waters
OGC ........................................ Office of General Counsel
OIG ......................................... Office of Inspector General
OPPAGA .................................... Office of Program Policy Analysis
& Government Accountability
P-2000 .......................................Preservation 2000
PE ......................................... Professional Engineer
PG ........................................... Professional Geologist
PR/MRWSA ............................... Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority
PSC ....................................... Public Service Commission



QWIP ....................................... Quality Water Improvement Program
REDI ......................................... Rural Economic Development Initiative
ROMP ........................................ Regional Observation Monitor Well Program
ROSA ........................................ Reverse Osmosis Survey and Analysis
RPC .......................................... Regional Planning Council
SBNEP ........................................ Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program
SCADA .......................................Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCS .......................................... Soil Conservation Service, USDA
SEDA ........................................ Southeast Desalting Association
SFWMD ..................................... South Florida Water Management District
SHWL ....................................... Seasonal High Water Level
SHWT ........................................ Seasonal High Water Table
SJRWMD .................................... St.Johns River Water Management District
SOR ......................o.................... Save Our Rivers
SRWMD ...................................... Suwannee River Water Management District
SSU .......................................... Southern States Utilities
SWFRPC...................................... Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council
SWFWMD ......................................... Southwest Florida Water Management District
SWIM ....................................... Surface Water Improvement and Management
SWM .......................................... Storm Water Management
SWP .......................................... Surface Water Permitting
SWUCA ...................................... Southern Water Use Caution Area
TAC ........................................... Technical Advisory Committee
TECO ........................................ Tampa Electric Company
TBNEP ....................................... Tampa Bay National Estuary Program
TBRPC ....................................... Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council
TOO FAR ................................... Taxpayers Outraged Organization
for Accountable Representation

I Acromnym^^


UF ......................................... University of Florida
UF-IFAS ................................... UF-Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences
USDA ....................................... U.Department of Agriculture
USF ....................................... University of South Florida
USGS ...................................... United States Geological Survey
WAR .......................................WithlacoocheeArea Residents
WCRWSA .................................... West Coast Regional Water Supply Authority
WMDs ....................................... Water Management District
WMDRC ...................................... .Water Management District Review Commission
WMLTF ......................................Water Management Lands Trust Fund
WOD.......................................Work(s) of the District
WRAP .................................... Water Resource Assessment Project
WRCA ...................................... Water Resource Caution Area
WRCC .......................................Water Resources Coordination Commission
WRPC .....................................Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council
WRWSA ......... ...............................Withlacoochee Regional Water Supply Authority
WUCA .......................................Water Use Caution Area
(state term:Water Resource Caution Area WRCA)
WUP ....................................... Water Use Permit



- -L--


Accountability ............................................... 11-2,11-3
Ad valorem taxes..................................... 11-1,11-2
Alternative Water Sources ............................... 7-2,7-8
Ambient Ground Water Quality Monitoring
Program ........................................................... 6-4, 6-5

Aauifers .......................................................

Basin Boards ................. .......... ............... 12-1, 12-4
Clean Water Act...................................... 5-1
Comprehensive Surface
Water Management (CSWM) ................... 4-5,6-2,6-3
Conservation ................................ ...... 7-2,7-4,7-5
Desalination ................................... 7-1,7-2,7-3,7-8,7-9
District goals ...............................................1......... 1-4
District responsibilities ......... .............................. 1-3
District timeline ....................................... ......... 1-5,1-6
Environmental Protection Act................................ 5-1
Environmental Resource Permits.................... 4-4,6-6
Estuaries .................................. ....... 2-6
Flood control structures ......................................... 4-2
Floodplain, analysis.............................................. 4-6
Flood protection, non-structural ........................... 4-5
Four River Basins, Florida Project...................... 1-1,4-2
Governing Board ..................................................... 10-2
Governing Board, profiles .............. 10-9,10-10,10-11
Green Swamp........................................................... 2-9
Intergovernmental relationships...................... 8-1,8-2
Lakes ........................................................................... 2-5
Local Sources First ............................................... 1-4
Minimum Flows and Levels ...................... 5-4,5-5,5-6
National Estuary Program ............................... 2-7,6-3

New Water Sources Initiative
(NWSI) ...................................... 1-3,7-8, 7-9,7-10,9-1
Preservation 2000 .............. .................... 1-6,5-1,5-2
Pumping, effects................................... 2-3,2-10,5-6
Quality Water Improvement Program .............. 6-5,6-6
Reclaimed water ........................................... 7-2,7-4
Regional Observation
and Monitor Well Program ................................ 6-4, 6-5
Rehydration ......................................................... 7-2
Repurification ...................................... ........... 7-2
Reuse ........ .................................................... 7-2, 7-4
Rivers ................................................................ 2-4
Saltwater intrusion ................................................... 6-6
Save Our Rivers......................................... 1-6,5-1,5-2
Supervisory Control
and Data Acquisition (SCADA)................... ........ 1-2,4-4
Surface Water Improvement
and Management .....2-7,5-2,5-3,5-4,6-1,6-2,6-3,6-4
Surface water use ............................................... 7-3
Water demand ............................................. 7-6, 7-7
Water management structures .............................. 4-3
Water Plan ..................................................... 1-4, 3-1
Water Resource Assessment Projects .................... 6-4
Water Supply Authority ......................................... 8-2
Water supply sources ............................................. 7-2
Water Use Caution Area.............. 1-3,2-4,6-4,7-6,7-7
Water Use Permitting ............................................... 6-5
Well Construction Permitting ................................. 6-5
Wellhead protection .............................................. 6-5
Wetlands ........ .......................... 2-7, 2-8


.... 2-1, 2-2



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