Water is basic to our economic growth. No economic activity takes
place without it. Similarly, no economic activity takes place with too
much of it. WaVter generally has been very inexpensive and is often used
extravagantly* In spite of a statutory mandatee to achieve the maximum
reasonable beneficial use of the state's water resources, the values of
water are generally low in most of its present uses. However, as natural
supplies become more fully utilized, as in the cases of Southeast Florida
(Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties), and the Tampa Bay Area (Hills-
borough, Pasco, Pinellas and Polk Counties), competition between water
uses intensifies. As a consequence, water values increase and new ap-
proaches to valuing water and water related services are needed.
The Hydrologic Cycle
"All of the rivers run into these, yet the sea is never full;
unto the place from whence the rivers come thither they return again."
This Biblical quotation indicates that the ancients had, at least an
. incling of the hydrologic cycle. The earth's atmosphere functions as
a vast heat engine powered by the sun; Figure -. The heat of the sun and
the pull of gravity exchanges water between the earth and the atmosphere
at all times. Water evaporates from wet ground, from the leaves of grow-
ing plants, from lakes, streams, reservoirs, and oceans. It is carried
ain the air as water vapor, a gas. When water vapor condenses, it changes
from a gas to a liquid and falls (precipitates) as rain, feeding rivers,
lakes, streams, and oceans. Some of the rain water is intercepted and
infiltrated into the soil and subsurface geology to be transmitted to the
-^ ft \^A7
Within the relatively simplified interactions described above,
occur a great many subtle and complex interactions which affect the man-
agement of water resources.
The surface of the soil may be compared to a sieve which is held
under a faucet. When the water coming out of the tap is slow, all the
water flows through. If the flow is increased, the sieve fills up and
overflows, since the water cannot flow through the fine holes of the
screen fast enough to take care of all the water coming out of the tap.
The same principle applies to rain on the soil surface. There are spaces
between the grains of sand or particles of dirt on the earth's surface.
The soil acts like the sieve. The larger the particles of soil (sand,
gravel, dirt, clay) making up the surface, the larger the holes or spaces
Thus, the rate of infiltration depends principally on two charac-
teristics: (a) the nature of the soil material (sand, clay, silt, etc.),
and (b) the type and density of vegetation growing or lying on the surface.
Sandy soils tend to have higher infiltration rates than fine-grained soils
(clay or silt) because of the larger spaces between the grains. Likewise,
infiltration rates are higher when the soil is dry than after it is wetted.
Infiltration rates decrease as rainfall continues for two principle reasons:
(a) wetting the soil causes granules of the soil material to expand, thus
closing and/or diminishing in size, some of the pore space between granules;
and (b) the film of water that surrounds each grain is more or less continu-
ous and forms a three-dimensional network of interconnected veins of water.
The liquid flowing downward encounters frictional resistance which in-
creases with depth. Vegetation reduces surface runoff and increases the
amount of water that potentially could accumulate as stored groundwater.
Groundwater may move through the pores of soil material or rock,
through the cracks or joints of a rock. The cracks, joints, and pores of
rocks are numerous near the surface and fewer at greater depths of the earth.
Beneath these areas, known as aquifers, everywhere at some depth is rock
that is impermeable. Water seeping down from the rain soaked surface will
sink so far and no further. When all the pores, cracks, and joints are filled,
the aquifer overflows into springs, streams, lakes, and the sea.
Water seeks-its own level. That is, a water surface tends to become
flat, flowing downhill toward a place where the surface is low. Time is re-
quired for groundwater to flow to uniformity or downhill be o -
tively small spaces between sand grains and m' ish ~Oi't
water on the surface. Surface streams are T i'waVtE n
the ground. Surface water and groundwater a *'t e same water, they
merely clarify where the water is at a particular time.
The amount of pore space in a rock or soil is one of two principle
factors that determine whether a given rock or soil will be a good source
of water for a well. The quantity of water that a standard sized block of
such rock or soil will yield from its cracks and pores is called specific
yield. The degree of interconnection between the cracks and.pores of a
-~~ ~ ~ 0 : '.
standard sized block of rock or soil determines the ability of the water
to be transmitted through the rock or soil and is called permeability.
Thus, for an aquifer (rock or soil) to be a good source of water, it must
contain many pores (have a good specific yield), and the pores must be
large and highly interconnected so the water can flow (have high permea-
In developing groundwater by sinking a well and pumping it, the
pump lifts water out of the hole. Thus, the water level in the hole is
lowered below the general surface of the water table. Water from the
pores of the aquifer drains into the hole from the immediate vicinity of
the well, lowering the water table near the well. The lowered water table
near the well then causes water in pores further from the well to flow
toward the zone near the hole. This occurs on all sides of the well so
that the water flows downhill toward the low spot in the water table.
The effect is similar to pressing a finger into an inflated balloon, a
cone shaped depression is formed stretching smoothly in all directions.
The pumping of a well depresses the groundwater surface around the well
and creates a cone of depression in the water table.
As mentioned above, the rate of movement of water through porous
oils on rock depends on the slope of the water surface. When water is
pumped rapidly from a well, the cone of depression is deeper and steeper
than when pumping is slow. Whatever the rate of pumping, a cone of de-
pression is formed steep enough to supply water at the rate of pumping
if enough water is present and if it can move fast enough through the
pores of the aquifer.
Water pumped from a well has been stored underground for months,
years, or centuries. Whether a well can be pumped forever depends on
whether the water withdrawn from storage is being replaced by new water
at an equal rate. When inflow to the storage basin (aquifer) equals out-
flow or withdrawal, there is no change in the amount of water in storage.
When pumpage and natural drainage from an aquifer-proceed at a rate equal
to the rate at which rain supplies new water, the groundwater level re-
mains the same. If pumpage is accelerated, then the water table falls.
This is one of the basic laws of hydrology, unaimendable by any political
act. A well need not go dry to become unusable; a falling water table re-
sulting from several years of deficient rainfall or from overpumping may
result in abandonment of the well or well field because of saltwater in-
trusion or increased cost of power.
Surface Water: Runoff and Storage
Precipitation (rain) falling on a natural surface can be divided
into two principal parts; that which infiltrates the soil and that which
moves downhill as flow on the surface. Surface runoff is the part that
is left over after infiltration has taken away as much as the porasity
and permeability of the ground will allow. Evaporation also removes
some, especially from wetted surfaces of plant leaves and stems, wetted
humic materials at the surface, and the wetted grains exposed to the air.
Evaporated moisture goes into the atmosphere as vapor. Growing plants
constantly lose water as vapor by transpiration, the emergence of water
vapor from the stomata (minute holes in the underside of green leaves).
The combined loss of water to the atmosphere via evaporation and from
growing plants is called evapo-transpiration.
Flow over a surface or in a channel cannot begin until an appre-
ciable depth is attained because the speed or velocity of the flow de-
pends upon depth as well as gradient (slope) and roughness (friction).
Thus, water is stored before flow can take place. This principal of
storage operates in surface runoff and in stream channels. It also ap-
plies to reservoirs designed to hold water during periods of high flow,
wetlands, swaps, retention ponds or basins, and lakes. At times of
low inflow, the stored water may be released.
In a flow system such as a river, some water must accumulate tempor-
arily in the system before the incoming water flows out at the other end.
Similarly, the outflow does not stop at the same moment the inflow stops.-
When tributaries contribute flow to the upper end of a river channel,
time is required for that water to reach the lower..end. After tributary
inflow stops, the water in transit in the channel gradually drains out.
Water in transit, called channel storage, is comparable to a reservoir,
Enormous volumes of water are present in channels during floods. Because
of this storage, the channel system with its wetlands, swanps, and flood-
plains, tends to reduce the height of floods. This temporary storage re-
duces the flood peak.
Water that is not infiltrated flows downhill over the ground surface.
As water moves over the surface, it gradually is collected in the sills
(small channels) which join to form larger channels, which in turn join.
The overland flow phase means water is flowing in a shallow sheet, referred
to as sheet flow. The water drains from the land through sills which join
to become streams or creeks and rivers. As each sill, creek or river flows
it receives the water from an area or tract of land surface that slopes
downward to the channel. Thus, channels occupy the lowest part of the land-
scape. The ridges of the land surface, i.e., the-rim or divide, separates
the land that drains into one channel from the land that drains another.
The area enclosed by the divide is the watershed or drainage basin.
Infiltrated water not evaporated or transpired, recharges ground
water. Groundwater moves slowly toward channels sustaining the low flow of
streams during non-storm/non-rain periods. Thus, the flow of a stream or
river is variable over time because the precipitation that feeds the stream
is variable. Water management is concerned with the time variation of flow.
3T 77IA t
5 PREA6AI 1
The Drainage Network
Small creeks join to form larger streams which in turn join to
form streams of equal or larger sizes on to rivers. This Joining reflects
a pattern similar to the branching of trees. This successive merging is
highly organized and is one of the many aspects of dynamic equilibrium
maintained within river systems. There exists a geometric relationship
in the merging of tributaries as to their number, length, and order.
That is, when a stream net is drawn for a drainage basin, four or five
tributaries should be drawn to any segment of a given order. Channel
networks are constructed in this way due to a natural tendency for open
systems to achieve equilibrium. These systems tend to minimize total
energy expenditure to achieve efficiency. Similarly, the principal pur-
pose of the branching pattern of a tree is to hold up the leaves to the
sun. There are several alternate patterns of branch attachment to the
central trunk, but the overriding result most frequently observed is one
that tends to minimize the total LUngth of the branches on a tree. The
ratio of the number and lengths of branches of various orders (3.5 to
4.5) is approximately comparable in trees. and river systems. This pattern
tends to minimize total length and closely approximates the most probable
network that would result from entirely random joining. Thus, branching
patterns of trees, rivers, blood vessels in animal tissue, and other net-
works are not only similar, but are designed for efficiency and stability.
Flow Frequency and Floods
All rivers naturally experience high discharge at a time of heavy
precipitation. Fluctuation of flow with time is a consequence of the se-
quence of storm periods and non-storm periods. Streams and rivers cannot
form channels capable of carrying without overflow all possible flow events.
Channels can contain within their banks, only discharges of modest size.
The larger discharges must overflow valley floors. Thus, flat valley floors
or floodplains are indeed, part of the channels during unusual storm events.
When man uses this part of the river by constructing buildings or roads,
or by farming, he is encroaching on the river and his efforts may be subject
<. damage or destruction when overflow occurs. A flood is a flow in excess
of channel capacity, it is a normal and expected.characteristic of rivers.
Floods or flows in excess of bankful are relatively common, expected two or
three times a year.
The Floodplain and Channel
Most creeks or rivers flow in a definite channel boardered on one or
both sides by a flat area or valley floor. These channels are seldom
straight; bends or curves in a channel have an important effect on the manner
of flow and the channel capacity. Material is eroded off one bank of a
channel and is deposited on the opposite bank, moving the channel gradually
sideways. Because in most channels the bends are somewhat irregularly dis-
tributed along the length of the stream and the bends consist of curves both
to the right and left, the progressive sideways movement of the channel is
to the left in one place and to the right in another. Given sufficient time,
the channel will eventually occupy every position within the valley. Each
sideways motion leaves a flat, nearly level.deposit caused by deposition on
the inside of the curve, the floodplain. In addition, considerable material
is deposited by floods on top of the flood plain. When the river is in
flood and water spreads over most of the whole valley floor, sediment car-
ried by the water is deposited in a thin layer over the surface. These two
processes account for the material making up the floodplain.
Because daily rainfall is an exception rather than a rule, light rain
accurs more frequently than heavy, and heavy, long duration storms occur in-
frequently, a stream or river will have only a moderate or small amount of
water flowing in.it most of the time. On a few days each year, there is usu-
ally sufficient rain to raise the water lefel to a peak that just fills the
channel but does not overtop its banks. The great flows causing large floods
usually occur seldom. Thus, the channel is shaped principally by the more
frequent moderate high flows and is large enough to accommodate them. Over-
flow of the floodplain takes care of the water of rare major floods that
cannot be carried within the channel.
The Load of Rivers
When it rains, the water in a river becomes muddy (turbid) because
it is carrying sediment that it has accumulated on its way over the land
and through the stream channels. Water in nature is nearly everywhere
in contact with soil. The amount of sediment carried, however, is not
the same in all streams nor at all times. Rivers and streams are accus-
tomed to carrying sediment as well as water. When man changes the sedi-
ment load of a stream (perhaps by the construction of a dam, resulting in
the deposition of the sediments in the stillwater of the lake formed), the
channel adjusts itself to accommodate the change similar to the way the
human body adjusts to seasonal weather changes, new bacteria, or new diet.
Generally, the larger sediment particles move as bed load and the
small sediment particles move as suspended load. Bed load is that por-
tion of the moving sediment grains whose immersed weight is carried by
intermittent contact with the unmoving channel bed. Suspended load is that
part of the moving sediment load whose weight is carried by the column of
water in which it is immersed. The turbulence in the flowing water of the
channel keeps swirling the suspended grains upward in eddies much like
sail plains intermittently rising with updrafts and succumbing to gravity.
While sediment load is a function of erosion rate, the rate of erosion
is not equal to the sediment load carried by a stream or river. Many inter-
mediate zones are the recipients of the sediments eroded from the uplands.
The chemical nature of water is important to man. Rainfall, though
not chemically pure, is at its purest in the entire hydrologic cycle. As
rain falls, it washes out of the air, dust material, salt carried inland
from sea spray, many of the pollutants emitted by industry and the auto-
mobile, and carbon dioxide. When rain strikes the ground, it immediately
comes in contact with many kinds of soluble materials. The solvent action
of water-is increased by the carbon dioxide absorbed from the air and many
of the pollutants washed out. Many chemical elements are'taken into solu-
tion by the water trickling and flowing through and over the rocks and
soil. New chemical compounds are formed when these elements meet in solu-
tion. The quantity of mineral matter carried by water depends chiefly on
the types of rocks and soils it comes in contact with, but the duration of
contact is.also important. Groundwater usually contains more dissolved
mineral matter than surface water. The chemical matter dissolved in water
increases steadily as the water flows through the hydrologic cycle, reaching
a maximum in evaporation basins such as the oceans, from which distilled
water is returned to the air.
Salts in natural water may be harmful or hemificial. It is impor-
tant to know the amount and kinds of salts in the water supply and know how
they affect the use of the water.
Soil, Plants, and Water
Soil occupies a key role in hydrology. Water rejected by the soil
runs out into streams; water infiltrated through the soil becomes soil
moisture and, if sufficient infiltration takes place, groundwater recharge.
Plants grow best in dark, fine soil YIa 'ete
the fingers. Soil that is full of hard clods of light color will harden
when it dries and the tender plants will not do well. The difference be-
tween good soil and poor soil is analogous to the difference between soil
and rock. Soil differs from weathered rock in three principle ways: the
presence of humus, the development of layers, and the formation of crumbs.
A good soil has plenty of humus, organic material containing small
particles of decomposed plant material (originally small roots, leaves, and
stems) that are broken down into bits that mix with the particles of mineral
material, sand, and clay.
The action of air, rain, and solutes on rocks -- that is, weathering --
causes decomposition into small peices. But weathered rock without humus
will not produce large, healthy plants.
The process of weathering at the earth's surface has another effect.
Water passing through the surface dissolves some parts of the rock material,
slowly but surely. The dissolved material, like sugar in tea, is carried
by the water. Thus the surface layer of soil material loses some ingredi-
ents. This process of movement by partial solution develops layers near the
surface. Such layers can be seen in road cuts along the highway. A commonly
found dark band right at the surface indicates that the uppermost layer has
acquired some dark organic material, humus. The presence of humus implies
that this layer has lost some mineral material by solution.
The changes accompanying this slow process of rock breakdown and
development of layers also make the small individual particles of clay and
silt stick together in crumbs. Between the crumbs are open spaces through
which water may filter down. 'The accumulation of small particles into
crumbs forms the structure of a soil. Humus is necessary for the develop-
ment of a granular or crumb structure, which is desirable for growing plants
because it allows space between the particles. These minute openings pro-
vide space not onlyfor water and for the microscopic roots of plants, but
also for air, which is as necessary for the growth of roots as it is for the
growth of leaves, stems, and flowers. Many house plants grown in glazed or
metal flower pots die because water fills all the spaces between the soil
particles and the roots cannot get air. Roots that are completely sub-
merged may literally drown.
To give weathered rock the properties of soil requires many years
or even several lifetimes. Each of these requisites (humus, layering or pro-
file development, and structure) depends on more than the presnece of vege-
tation. Millions of different kinds of insects that live in the soil all
play their part. The worms and grubs that are visible are very few in
number compared with minute bacteria, fungi, and microscopic forms of life.
Most of these minute'organisms live on the dead remains of plants and actually
carry out the decay of the old leaves, stems, roots, and other plant parts.
The soil, therefore, is not merely broken-up rock. It is a whole world of
living things, most too small to be seen. It is a constantly changing layer,
losing some of its constituents and gaining others. This constant exchange
in the soil keeps it in the form most useful to man -- good for growing plants
and capable of absorbing and holding water.
Plants take up from the soil not only water, but dissolved mineral
material that is necessary for the building of the plant cells. The
dissolved materials that are used by the plants are called mineral nutri-
ents. They are, in a way, the food for the plants.
With sunlight and water, the green leaves of the plant make sugars,
which, in turn, are changed to the starches and other plant material in
the form of potatoes, beans, rice, and other foods. These nutrients are
provided by the soil.
How much of a plant, such as a tree, is made up of the mineral nutri-
ents from the soil? When a log is burned in the fireplace, the amount of
remaining ash is very small compared with the original log. The ash contains
nearly all the mineral nutrients. By far the greater part of the log that
went up the chimney as smoke consisted of water and of the organic material
manufactured in the leaves. Thus the soil provides only a small part of the
plant, but a most essential part. It also provides the medium in which the
plant can extend its roots and absorb water.
Soil water is absorbed and transpired by plants. This use of water
by plants results in soil becoming drier to much greater depths than if the
soil were bare and water merely evaporated from the surface. Roots extract
most of the available water from the soil in which they are growing. In some
areas, plant roots grow to depths of several feet. Evaporation from a bare
soil surface will dry the soil to depths of only 1 or 2 feet.
Anyone who has tried to grow shrubbery around the house or a few tomato
plants and lettuce in the backyard knows that in the spring, the soil is so
wet that digging in it is a most unpleasant chore. In late summer, however,
this soil is so dry and hard that digging-in it is almost impossible. Again,
in autumn after plants shed their leaves and become dormant, the soil becomes
wet. This conspicuous seasonal change in soil moisture is partly the result
of the use of water by plants. They use larger quantities'in summer and al-
most none in winter.
Besides the seasonal cycle, there is a daily cycle in the use of water;
that is, between day and night of a summer day. Plants transpire, or lose,
most water during a hot, dry, sunny day but lose very little at night. This
daily variation in water loss is reflected in the flow of water in small streams
draining areas of a few hundred acres in size. If no rain has fallen for
several days, streamflow is highest in the morning hours, reflecting the low
rate of water use during the preceding nighttime.
Some soils take in water more easily than others. The more precipita-
tion is infiltrated into the soil, the less will run off the surface, and thus
the tendency for soil loss by erosion is decreased. Vegetation tends to
break the force of the falling raindrops and holds the soil particles together,
thus tending to prevent the soil from washing away.
The incorporation of the plant material in the uppermost layer of the
soil affects its ability to absorb water. A lush cover of vegetation does not
necessarily indicate the presence of large amounts of humus in the soil.
I- .I I I 1 1i I
The top layer of the soil erodes away first, and this top aye
tains more of the nutrients that are necessary for plants and animals than
do the deeper layers. Loss of the most fertile top soil is usually serious
because in most areas, it cannot be replaced except over long periods.
Soils protected by growing vegetation tend to maintain their fertility
and are resistant to the erosive force of rain and running water. The better
soils general produce the most nutritious crops. Thus a cover of vegetation
tends to maintain high soil productivity and to minimize soil erosion bosses.
Soil probably could be best maintained by leaving the vegetation as
it was originally; that is, with no interference by man. Yet man must grow
crops to live and thus must expect a greater rate of soil loss than occurred
under original conditions.
Because soils that are protected from erosion by plant cover are also
those that absorb water best, soil conservation has frequently been confused
with the control of great floods. One view is that floods can be prevented
if soils are maintained in their best condition for the rapid infiltration
of water. Surface runoff is the principal source of flood water; therefore,
water that is absorbed in the soil will not run off. This argument may ap-
ply to small or moderate rains, but does not apply to great floods.
From a particular rain, a larger percentage of the total water will
sink into a good lawn than will be infiltrated into the garden patch where
the soil is bare. A lawn would, in general, have a greater rate of infiltra-
tion and would be comparable to a sieve of large mesh. Corresponding to the
fine mesh sieve, a bare garden patch would absorb some of the rainfall, but
much would flow off and appear in the gutter as surface storm runoff. If the
lawn could absorb the rainwater as fast as it fell, then none would run off.
In the same rainstorm, all the rain that fell on a roof or an im-
pervious concrete driveway would run off into the gutter, so the gutter would
get water as fast as it fell. Rates of runoff are greater in a given storm
from areas having low infiltration rates. As discussed previously, rate of
runoff is expressed as the number of gallons or cubic feet of water discharged
per second or per minute.
The first water that infiltrates moistens the soil particles. If
there is enough water to moisten the soil all the way down to the water table,
any additional water infiltrating can pass downward and add to the amount of
water in the saturated zone. The water that moistened the soil particles is
retained in the soil and is gradually returned to the atmosphere by evaporation
or transpiration during periods of fair weather.
An increase in the infiltration rate caused by changes in the vegetation
may, under some circumstances, result in an increase in the amount of water
returned to the atmosphere by transpiration and thus reduce the proportion
appearing in surface streams. In areas where there is considerable rainfall,
such as Florida, such changes would be relatively unimportant because there
is a large amount of water available for surface flow.
44 ._ ln
Rainfall enters the soil by infiltration. When there has been enough
rain to saturate the soil, further rainfall will be rejected and will run
off into the streams. Therefore, improvements in vegetation or farming meth-
ods intended to increase the infiltration capacity of the surface will be
most helpful over deep soils that have great capacity for receiving and re-
taining water. Continued rainfall does two things: It decreases the infil-
tration rate at the surface and it decreases the capacity of the soil body
to absorb more water. Under this condition, the amount of runoff from a
grassed area is approximately the same as from a bare one.
The most devasting floods occur at times when there is sufficient
rainfall to saturate the soil. Such saturation may result from a long
period of continuous moderate rainfall, such as a rainy period of several
weeks, or it may occur at a time when snows have provided enough moisture
to wet the soil thoroughly. When the soil is sufficiently wet, the infil-
tration rate for bare areas is only slightly different from that of well-
vegetated areas; the capacity to receive and retain additional rainfall is
essentially the same. Threfore, the amount of vegetation has little ef-
fect on the catastrophic flood because such a flood occurs only after a
thorough wetting of the soil. When there is enough rain at high enough
intensities to produce a catastrophic flood, the rate of infiltration in
an area that is farmed does not differ substantially from that of an unin-
habited, wooded area. Many of the highest floods known occurred before
man began logging or farming in the basins that produced the floods.
PRE r TY
EKF r- f
Water use consists of (1) intake uses, (2) onsite uses, and (3) in-
stream or flow uses. Intake uses include water for domestic, agricultural,
and industrial purposes uses that actually remove water from its source.
Onsite uses consist of water utilized by swamps, wetlands, evaporation from
the surface of water bodies, evapotranspiration from natural vegetation,
unirrigated crops and wildlife. Instream or flow uses include water for
estuaries, navigation, waste dilution, hydroelectric power generation, fish
and wildlife, and recreational uses.1
Water uses are measured in two ways, by amount withdrawn and by amount
consumed. Water withdrawn is water diverted from its natural course for use,
the intake uses identified above. It may later be returned for further use.
Water consumed is water that is incorporated into a product or lost to the
atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration, and cannot be reused.
Water consumption or consumptive use is sometimes considered the more im-
portant indicator, since some part of withdrawn water can usually be re-
used, although not always near the point where the first withdrawal takes
place nor for the same purpose without adequate and sometimes extensive
treatment. Under certain circumstances, therefore, large water withdrawals
over a short time period may critically affect adversely onsite and in-
1Water Policies for the Future National Water Commission, 1973, Water
Information Center, Port Washington, N.Y.
The Planning Framework for the State's Water Resources Policy Plan Element
The framework as presented below is a conceptual framework within which
the water resources of the state can be examined, analyzed, planned, and
managed. According to law and constitutional provision, it has become the
goal of the State: To manage and protect the biophysical integrity of the
State's water resources.
The planning framework for the State's Water Resources Policy Plan
Element then splits into three major concerns.
Conceptually, the split into three concerns allows the focusing of ex-
pertise into the three well defined concerns facing the state; water quality,
water quantity, and water extremes (conditions of deficient or excess in the
water regime). It should be noted, however, that despite the split which is
a conceptual split, a great deal of overlap and inter-action occur between
and among these three categorical problem areas.
WATER QUALITY: The water quality problem bifurcates into the point source
program and the non-point source program. A point source is defined as a
specific site at which wastewater is discharged into a water body and which
can be located as to source; any discernable, confined and discrete con-
veyance including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, con-
duit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, etc. from which pol-
lutants are or may be discharged. Non-point sources is defined as the general
discharge of waste (pollutants) into a water body which cannot be located as
to specific source such as pollutants (sediment, pesticide residues, fertil-
izers, etc.) carried in runoff from a heavy rainfall.
The bifurcation into point and non-point source consideration is again
to allow a focusing of appropriate expertise on the two closely related-prob-
lems. Technology is such that at the present a great deal of knowledge and
expertise has been built up around the treatment of point source pollutants.
This is partly evident from the definition (above) in that point sources are
discrete and traceable. If one has knowledge of the incoming constituents of
the wastewater and knows the capability of a treatment plant (where present)
one can pretty well determine the make up of the outflow (effluent) reaching
the water body. Non-point sources therefore are quite another problem.
The constituents of non-point sources are in part dependent upon the
soils of the area and thus their geologic history, the use the land is put to,
ground cover or lack thereof, and the activity taking place on it. All of
these factors contribute in varying degrees to the mix of pollutants contri-
buted to water bodies by non-point sources. The role of land use and its
contribution as a non-point source of pollution is illustrated in the table
P^ ^ 1L'UR
. - o
I I II I I I I I I,
METHOD OF ESTIMATING YEARLY NITROGEN
AND PHOSPHORUS LOADS BY LAND USE CATEGORIES
Land Use Shannon and Quantity of Quantity of
Category Brezonik Nitrogen Phosphorus
Wilbur Smith Category Grams/m2/yr. Grams/m2/yr.
Industrial Urban 0.88 0.110
Forest Forest 0.24 0.008
Vacant Unproductive 0.18 ..006
Floodlands Rainfal .0.58 .044
Agriculture Citrus 2.24 .018
Source: Shannon and Brezonik, "Relationship Between
and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loading Rates",
and Technology, 6,8, Aug. 1972, p. 720.
Lake Trophic State
The other factors previously mentioned will either increase or de-
crease the contribution of.nitrogen and phosphorus constituents of non-
point sources. In addition, the pollutants such as sediment, heavy metals
and carbon will also be included in the non-point pollution sources. It
is due to the complex nature of non-point sources and the magnitude of
the pollution loading of these non-point sources1 that has focused atten-
tion on this area by Contress, the Federal Environmental Protection Agency,
and the Department of Environmental Regulation.
lSome estimates are that 60% of Florida's water quality problems are con-
tributed by non-point sources. PRE Lj??
PINL a LTAR Y
*o : C)
Importance and Role of Water
Water is a mobile resource that is used and reused within a hydro-
logical system. Water may be used in a stream or withdrawn for use away
from the stream, but most if not all water in the state is now in use for
one or more purposes, economic or environmental.
Within the hydrologic cycle, water uses consist of (1) intake uses,
(2) onsite uses, and (3) instream, in source or flow uses. Intake (out
of source) uses include water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial
purposes uses that actually remove water from its source (surface streams
and rivers or groundwater). Onsite uses consist maily of water consumed by
swamps and wetlands by evapotranspiration, evaporation from surface bodies
of water, use by wildlife, and evapotranspiration from natural vegetation
and unirrigated crops. Thus, some onsite uses consume water before it
reaches the streams or groundwater and therefore, have never been measured
as a part of the state's water supply available for use. Instream or in
source uses include water for estuaries, navigation, waste dilution, waste
assimilation, hydroelectric power generation, fish and wildlife, and recre-
ational uses. A given use of water changes its characteristics of quantity,
quality, location, and timing of flow within the hydrologic cycle and con-
sequently its value for other uses. Therefore the conclusion is that water
in a particular river or groundwater basin must be valued in terms of all
of its uses,.economic and environmental, within that system. Assessments
of various development and management proposals should be made in the con-
text of the entire hydrologic unit under consideration and all water uses
E' Crop irrigation is one of the largest uses of water. Over half of the water
'diverted for irrigation is consumed through evapotranspiration and is there-
fore not available for subsequent use. The water not consumed may return to
the system after considerable delay at a down stream location (in the same
surface water basin, or in a groundwater aquifer some distance from the point
of diversion (intake) and frequently, degraded in quality.
The value of irrigation water depends on (1) environmental conditions,
(2) the crop grown (high value fruits and vegetables or low valued forages
and pastures), (3) the stage of growth of the crop, and (4) the efficiency
of water utilization on the farm. Thus, the value of irrigation water may
range from $15-$40 per acre foot* or 5-12 per 1000 gallons* at the irri-
gator's point of distribution, exclusive of the value at the point of di-
Municipal water use generally results in the return to the natural
.system of large portions of the water diverted. Since most domestic and muni-
cipal water is used for washing (clothes, dishes, streets, etc.) and carry
away wastes, quality degradation can be serious unless the water is treated
to reduce pollutants. While the majority of water used for municipal and
domestic uses is returned to the natural system in contrast with irrigation
(agricultural uses) the return is usually some distai down stream of the
'diversion or into another river basin altogether. 2T Y
*Based on 1970-72 figures. The effects of the oil price increase which re-
sults in a pumping cost increase has not been calculated into these figures.
.1 I I
Water for municipal uses usually enjoys priority over other uses,
perhaps because drinking water is essential to life. However, the amount
required for drinking is so small that it is insignificant in determining
the total value of water in municipal and domestic use. Thus, studies
indicate a value of $100 per acre foot (or thirty cents per 1000 gallons
or 3785 liters)* for in-house uses and $16 per acre foot (five cents per
1000 gallons)* for lawn or garden irrigation. These values include the
costs incurred in producing, treating, and delivering water to the resi-
dential users. They do not include replacement costs of the well, pump,
treatment plant, and distribution system. A further caveat assumes the
water is developed within the immediate area of use.
Industrial water use at the national level accounts for more than
one-half of all water withdrawals. Most of this water is used for dis-
posing of heat or other waste, and is returned to the environment. The
use of water by industry primarily affects water quality. The vast majority
of water used by industry is for cooling--principally in steam electric
generating plants. Most of the remaining industrial uses are concentrated
in five industries: food products, pulp and paper, chemicals, petroleum,
and primary metals.
The most appropriate method for determining the value of water in
industrial uses is to examine the cost of alternative processes that will
produce the same product while using less water. Internal recycling of
water is a primary alternative.
The costs of recycling are usually quite low. For cooling uses,
recycling through a cooling tower can be accomplished at costs ranging
from $2.50-$4.20 pser acre foot*, with the higher costs occurring in areas
such as Florida--warm and humid--where the heat transfer from water to air
is less efficient. Thus, the value of water for once through cooling is
less than the $2.50-$4.20 per acre foot of recycling,
Water for process uses such as washing or carrying desolved materials
generally is more expensive to recycle and costs may vary greatly with the
nature and extent of quality degradation occurring in the process. The
value of recycling process water in the five major industries is on the
average $13 per acre foot*. Costs of water supply for industry usually are
less than two percent of production costs.
Water courses are used extensively to dilute, assimilate and transport
waste materials, mainly in conjunction with municipal and industrial water
use. Many streams are over used for this purpose. If waste could not be
disposed of in streams, it would have to be put somewhere else, resulting
in added disposal costs and potential environmental problems including air
pollution and ground water degradation. Thus, when streams can be used to
assimilate and transport wastes, they provide a valuable service. However,
use of streams for waste assimilation degrades the quality of the water and
may reduce its usefulness for other purposes. The best measure of the value
,, ^^a ajji^^y
- ;:" hi .
of water for waste load assimilation is the alternative cost of providing
secondary or tertiary treatment for effluent. Secondary treatment costs
range from a low of 7 cents per 1000 gallon for a 100 million gallon per
day (MGD) plant (one proposed for Miami-Dade) to 38 cents per 1000 gallons
for a one MGD plant ($0.23-$1.26 per acre foot). Tertiary or advanced
waste treatment (AWT) range between 21-72 cents per 1000 gallons ($.70-$2.40
per acre foot).
The value of water for navigation is the difference between the eco-
nomic costs of water transportation and those of the least-cost alternative
mode of transportation. Navigation's only requirement is that sufficient
water be in the critical parts of the stream at the right time. Where sub-
stantia-l regulation of flows are required to facilitate navigation, the costs
of construction and operation of navigation facilities may be such that the
value of water for navigation is zero or negative.
There is only one hydropower plant in the state of Florida representing
only of the state's electrical generating capacity. Additional power
generation will have to come from thermal generating plants.
Streams or other bodies of water are an important part of many out-
door recreation areas and serve a basic role in many outdoor recreational
activities. But as with other in-stream (insource) uses it is difficult to
define just how recreation "uses" water. Often, water is used in its natural
setting and is not physically affected by being employed for recreation.
Recreation does use water in the sense that certain volumes of water must be
maintained in a lake impoundment or stream to support recreational activities
or recreational use may preclude other uses. The value of water depends on
the following factors: (1) accessibility; (2) setting; (3) type of beach;
and (4) various aspects of quality. The typical range appears to be between
$3-$5 per acre foot.
The value of water in alternative uses provide only part of the infor-
mation needed for decisions about water development and allocation. Because
of the combination of uses and reuses of water that are possible within a.
water system, it is equally as important to know how uses combine and interact
in the total system. The possibility of using water more than once, either
simultaneously or in sequence, means that the total value gained from use of
a given unit of water may be several times greater than the value in a single
The return of water to the system after use raises all sorts of possi-
bilities for getting additional value from the water in another use, at
another time and place in the system. Wise use of the natural recycling
ability of water is one of two key principles in obtaining the most value
from the state's water resources. The second principle is to give preference
to high valued uses where other factors, including system effects, are equal.
Thus, the sitting and timing of uses take on particular importance
when water use is viewed in a systems context. The importance of location
is apparent when water is used for waste conveyance and dilution. The
potential for making valuable use of the water is greater if pollution-
sensitive uses can be located upstream of polluting uses. Values in the
system will be greatest when easte-releasing uses which prevent or impair
other uses are located as far as possible down stream, leaving as much of
the stream as possible to be used by other potential users.
N.B. The state's estuaries and coastal zone, the areas where the
rivers and ocaens interact, are an integral part of our river systems.
Development, preservation, or use of water in some parts of the system
affects other parts, making it impossible to discuss water policy meaningfully
without considering the role of estuaries andtthe coastal zone. This section,
then, discusses two matters which relate to planing sound water projects,
water uses and related development: the impact of upsteeam development on
estuaries and the impact of development within the coastal zone itself.
The estuarine region--the intermediate zone between fresh water rivers
and open ocean--is affected by the mass movements of each but possesses the
exclusive character of neither. Traditionally, the term "estuary" applies to
the lower reaches of a river into which sea water intrudes and mixes with
fresh water from land drainage. In all estuarine systems the essential process
is that of mixing, of the interchange between the waters of the ocean and
fresh water from lands, with the gresh water inflow and tidal currents pri-
marily determining the circulation patterns.
TdL ,r b R
_ ... I
Productivity is an important attribute of estuaries and their
associated marshlands. Rivers drop sediments rich in nutrients; and
the interaction of.the tidal wedge, pushing upstream from the sea, and
of the downstream currents tends to hold waterborne nutrients in the
estuaries. Tides and currents flush the marshes, bringing additional
nutrients to the plants in intertidal areas; the shallow water permits
good light penetration and provides excellent conditions for fixed plants
growing in the estuaries; floating algae add their production. As a
result, the estuarine region is the most biologically productive area
known on earth.
Oysters and crabs spend their lives within the marsh-estuarine
ecosystem. Two-thirds of the commercial fish caught nationally spend an
important part of their life cycle in estuaries whether spawning, nursing,
foraging, living there, or just passing through. The estuarine regions
also provide important habitat for waterfowl and wildlife.
The term "coastal zone" describes the part of the continent where
the land meets the sea, including the estuaries, marshlands, and lands
adjacent to the shoreline, and the adjacent sea.
The coastal zone is subject to multiple, frequently competing
demands. Some require changes in the natural environment and ecology of
the coastal zone; others require.their preservation. The coastal zone is
urbanized, industrialized, and densely populated.. It is at the heart of
commerce, a medium for shipping and a place for harbors, a mecca for
recreation and second homes, a logical site for powerplants and other
installations which require large amounts of cooling water, and a dis-
posal ground for wastes of varying character washed from upstream sources
or discharged locally by municipalities and industries. It is a source
of vast amounts of oil, gas, and other resources. It is the primary
supplier of -the state's fish harvest and a potentially fertile field for
aquaculture. It is also the location of delicately balanced estuarine
ecosystems and a place where there still is some solitude and wilderness.
Where dams intercept sediment, the creation of productive delta
land may be retarded or reversed or beaches may erode because of a reduc-
tion in the supply of sand. Erosion control, channel lining, and other
steps to improve upstream conditions may have adverse effects on the
estuaries and coastal zones.
Estuaries may suffer from major alterations of fresh water inflow,
particularly where they accentuate natural fluctuations. Salt water
intrusion may reach farther upstream, increasing the salinity of the
estuaries and decreasing the amount of mixing. This change may have an
adverse impact upon estuarine ecosystems.
Prkp^ rE-mr MI In
SI ii L 1 .. I I bii
It is essential to understand some basic ecological principles
in order to understand some of the basic environmental impacts caused
by water resources development.
Ecology is the study of interrelationships of living organisms to
one another and to their surroundings. Interrelationship is the key
concept, both within ecosystems and among them. Speaking generally, al-
though they do not conform to strict, well defined boundaries, ecosystems
are recognizable, relatively homogeneous units, including the organisms,
their environment, and all of the interactions among them. When one part
of the ecosystem is affected it in turn affects the other, interrelated
parts. However, ecosystems are not independent, they blend into one
another, changing in space and over time and interact. Ecologists speak
of the "Law of the Holocoenotic Environment," that there is "complete
interrelatedness and interdependency of all life and physical factors in
Within each ecosystem each organism has its own niche or role in the
environmental process. If conditions permit, these niches will become
more specialized, creating a more diverse community. Developments within
the ecosystem are subject to limiting factors--substances or conditions,
biological or physical, that limit or reduce the functioning of an or-
ganism, species, population, biotic community, or ecosystem.
Natural ecosystems are powered by energy from the sun. Green plants,
the primary producers, through the process of photosynthesis convert
carbon dioxide and water into oxyzen and organic chemical energy which
becomes the fuel for the food chain. The productivity of each level within
the ecosystem depends upon the productivity of the primary producers.
Another form of power is chemosynthesis, where organisms derive their
energy from direct chemical transformations. Compared with photosynthesis,
this is of minor importance.
At each level about 10 percent of the energy is passed on through the
food chain. The remainder is either metabolized by the organism for its
own maintenance or passed on at death to decomposers such as bacteria and
fungi. These decomposers play a vital role in the ecosystem in converting
organic material back into the nutrients needed by green plants, utilizing
oxygen in the system. This is the process of natural recycling.
Ecosystems are self-regulating, relying upon feedback mechanisms to
maintain order. They react to stresses or to changes in input by striking
new balances. For example, if'additional energy is introduced into the
system, such as that provided by organic sewage, primary production will
increase, touching off further changes in production and consumption.
Ecosystems evolve, if permitted to do so, through orderly processes,
sometimes over long periods of time. The process of change is referred
to as succession. The early stages of succession are characterized by
a relatively few small and simple organisms and by relatively low primary
.ELp gj IEiY
productivity, although it exceeds the demands upon it. As succession
continues, the system becomes more complex. More production machinery
(green plants) developed, but there are more consumers of the primary
production and more of the energy generated by production is required
for maintenance of the producing organisms.
Diversity is a characteristic of the increasingly complex ecosystem.
In general, organisms tend to become larger and more complex. There are
more species, and the increased competition among them results in speciali-
zation; the niches are defined more precisely to those in which particular
organisms are best adapted to compete. This diversity is important for
the resilience of an ecosystem. The more diverse ecosystem, with its
wide variety of species adapted to particular niches, is better able to
withstand stresses than are less diverse ecosystems. The stability of an
ecosystem is directly related to its diversity and complexity. Factors
which limit diversity, whether natural or man made, reduce stability.
Succession continues until an equilibriam, or climax, is attained.
At this point, diversity within the ecosystem is at a maximum permitted
by the limiting factors of the environment, and the production of the
ecosystem is balances by the demands for energy within it. The ecosystem
has reached its carrying capacity.carrying capacity. However, it is not static;
it is in a dynamic condition created by the interplay of physical, chemical,
and biological forces and limitations. The dynamic character of ecosystems
makes time an important dimension; including those triggered by man's
activities, may be subtle but can become critical over a long period.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WATER DEVELOPMENT
Because water is mobile,,it can be used and recised within the hy-
drologic system. It can be used in stream or withdrawn for use away
from the stream. Its uses may be for more than one purpose, economic
and/or environmental. A given use of water changes its characteristics
of quantity, quality location, and timing of flow within the hydrologic
cycle. As these characteristics change (quantity, quality, location, and
timing of flow) the water's value for other uses are changed. It is with
these characteristics that water resources management can and must be con-
cerned. These characteristics bring to water resources management a
complex dimension which makes the management process the difficult problem
that it is.
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN
Nearly every study of water resources in Florida has had the phrase
"Florida is blessed with abundant freshwater resources." Statistical data
is often provided to support this statement. It is a fact of record that
the state as a whole receives an average of fifty-four (54) inches of rain
a year. It is also a fact that evapotranspiration on the average accounts
for some forty-two (42) inches of rain per year. Thus, on the average there
ii i I iii I i.~ii
( 1 -3- -r
is a surplus statewide of some 12 inches of rain per year to be used
and managed across the length and bredth of-the state for twelve months
of the year. A comparison with the nation might provide a viable per-
spective to view Florida's "abundant freshwater resources." On the
average, the nation as a whole (the contiguous 48 states) receives thirty
(30) inches of percipitation per year (rain, snow, sleet, and hail).
Evapotranspiration averages some twenty-one (21) inches per year). Leaving
a net of eight (8) inches for use and management. Thus on the basis of
these theoretical averages, Florida has a relative abundance of some
twelve (12) inches of water for use and management vs. a national average
of eight (8) inches nationwide: an "abundance" or difference of four (4)
inches. Florida'is "rich" in abundant freshwater resources. Where is
there a problem? Why is there a problem?
The world, taken as a whole, producessufficient food stuffs to
provide every man, woman, and child sufficient caloric and nutritional
requirements to meet their basic, life sustaining needs on the average.
Why then is the world confronted with the realities of from 10 to 50
million deaths per year from starvation/malnutrition on the average?
The problem seems to be a function of quality, quantity, location
and timing of flow (distribution) in each of the above cases. It may
be a greater economic or political value to allow 10-50 million people
die each year from starvation and malnutrition than to attempt to feed
them. It may be of greater economic, environmental, or social value to
experience a water shortageproblem, a flooding problem, or a deteriorating
environment than to resolve or prevent it.
Another constraint to problem resolution is the oversiding human
tendency to (1) view preventive measures with a jaundiced eye and (2)
to demand that when problems do occur, they be resolved yesterday. At
the heart of these seemingly contradictory statements lies a basic assump-
tion as to the role of government. It is a basic assumption that govern-
ment at all levels exist to manage conflict. That is, not to avoid conflict,
but to keep conflict within manageable levels. Inherent in the management
of conflict is the notion of competition and adversary proceedings. While
competitive aversary proceedings are the hallmark of the American politi-
cal heritage, in the arena of natural resources, there has been a lack
of economic considerations and pricing involved, particularly in water
resources. Thus, competition and allocation for water has never experienced
the true competition afforded by the pricing mechanism in the free market
which would encourage rational decisionmaking in management and allocation.
As noted earlier, water has values in particular uses. The fact
remains that these economic values have not been utilized in allocating
or developing water resources statewide. The uses of water nearly pays
the cost of developing the water, construction costs, operations and
maintenance costs, but not the cost of the resources nor the opportunity
Costs of the resources.
ill 1 i 11 1
In this context of non-payment for the resource, "no one owns" the
resource. If as in the case of water it is "abundant" when local levels
there may exist a shortage, then no one is responsible for rationing in
a publicly acceptable manner.
How does a water resource agency effectively regulate ground water
development to serve some 600,000 persons when these persons require
water? It has been shown earlier that ground water development affects
water table elevations. Frequently when the water table is lowered, the
surface ecological balance is affected. If the water table is lowered
sufficiently hydrophilic (water tollerant) flora are adversely affected.
They may not die outright but may succumb to a secondary cause such as
decease of insect infestation due to the increased energy expenditure needed
to maintain themselves under this stress situation. This or similar
has happened in various locations throughout the state.
Similarly, there exist no state or local disincentives for refraining
from developing in flood plains. When floods.finally do occur, there
generally occurs a wringing of hands and an appear for disaster relief.
Thus public expenditures and financing pay the cost of private gains and
The imposition of apparently arbitrary water resources is fraught
with political ramifications depending upon who's ox is gored. The costs in
terms of property damage and destruction are enormous. But all of these
are of a primarily local nature which relay in some instances on the passage
of state enabling legislation but in most instances upon well informed
private citizens and local officials making informed and in some cases
The growth pattern of the state forbodes the increase of localized
water resources management problems. For example, characteristics favorable
to population growth of small communities include: 1) location near
existing metropolitan areas; 2) some minimum concentration of population;
3) history of recent growth rather than decline; 4) an economic base which
includes manufacturing as a basis for growth; and 5) access to metropolitan
areas via the Interstate Highway System.
In Florida, the areas satisfying most if not all of these criteria
are those same areas (primarily in the coastal zone) which already are
experiencing water resources problems. These problems are usually quality
as well as quantity problems. Tallahassee and Orlando being about the
only two exceptions.
The actual factors affecting these areas are-functions of the follow-
1) In Peninsular Florida about fifty percent of the
rainfall occures between June and October;
2) Six to eight months of the year are dry;
3) Droughts occur (at least localized) about every
17 to 22 years and may have a duration of up to
4) Development and overpumping of coastal ground
Water may result in saltwater intrusion thereby
making that resource unacceptable for use;
5) The coastal areas are of the extreme
flow of water preventing the natural
capacity of the water from doing its
bottom of the
6) Since coastal ground water development is hazardous,
water development occures farther and farther inland
increasing the operations and maintenance costs of
delivering the water;
7) Inland development long distances away from coastal
concentrations of population in the long run preclude
inland development since the water resources are already
8) A large majority of the coastal zone presently
developed is subject to flooding due to the charac-
teristic low topography of the coastal zone.
i 7^ 7
I I I~ ,I *I
Rivers play an important role in many estuaries by flushing out
collected nutrients, as well as by depositing nutrients from upstream.
Diminished inflows from upstream developments, together with the addition
of nutrients from man's activities, can upset the prevailing delicate
balance. It has been suggested that smaller inflows may result in greater
transparency, higher temperatures, and a longer retention time within the
estuary. These conditions may cause eutrophication, with resulting damage
to commercial and other fish species. Larger inflows may also cause changes
Moreover, altered inflows may alter the ecology of marshlands which
are associated with the estuaries, insofar as organisms that rely upon
particular patterns of inundation and salinity.
Estuaries and the coastal zone are affected by land and water use
through an associated river system. In turn, restrictions on the use of
the coastal zone generate pressures to locate new uses upstream. Therefore,
the coastal zone may not rationally be managed in isolation. It would not
do to ban a particular use of a site on an estuary because of its anticipated
adverse effects, if the banned project were then located upstream, with much
the same harmful effect.
Speaking generally, comprehensive river basin planning has given too
little attention to the effects of upstream water uses and development on
the estuaries into which the rivers drain. There are examples of a broader
approach, but comprehensive planning of this type is still in its infancy
and carried out on a very restricted scaler. Water resources development
plans and projects prepared by river basin planning entities should include
measures to protect the important characteristics of estuarine and coastal
waters and of marshlands, and the costs of these measures should be borne
by project beneficiaries where possible.
Historically, water developments have had important impacts on land
use through such purposes as navigation, irrigation, drainage, and flood
control. Increasing recognition must now be given to the very important
impact of land use on water resources. This interrelationship was illustrated
dramatically be the statewide controversy which became a national controversy
over location of the Miami jetport in relationship to water supply for the
Everglades National Park. Many new facilities such as subdivisions, shopping
centers, factories, highways, electric generating plants, strip mines, and
animal feed lots have enormous potential impacts on the quantity, quality,
location and timing of flows within and between hydrologic systems. Con-
sideration should be given to the subordination of water development and use
policies to other governmental policies including land use, energy, environ-
mental protection, and food and fiber production.
While water developments in the past have had a very significant role
in influencing population distribution and economic development, this role
diminishes as a higherlevel of economic development is attained.
F~~~~p'~ aPi~B~~: Yb~R
L ii. ii1
STATUTORY AUTHORITY CONCERNING WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Responsibility and authority for water resources management develop-
ment and planning is spread across the fabric of governmental jurisdic-
tions from singti purpose special districts (Florida Statute Ch. 298),
through local government (municipalities and counties), to state, inter-
state and federal agencies.*
The major responsibility and authority, however, resides in the
state. Article II, Section VII of the Constitution of the State of
Florida states, "It shall be the policy of the State to conserve and
protect its natural resources and senic beauty. Adequate provisions shall
be made by law for the abatement of air and water pollution and excessive
and unnecessary noise," Within the context of this Constitutional
admonition, Florida's water resources law was extensively rewritten as
th-Fl o6rida-later Resources Act of-1972; codified as Florida-Statues.
the Florida Water Resources Act of 1972, codified as Florida Statutes
Chapter 373 as amended.
* For a fairly complete and detailed discussion of state, local
state planning, management and development responsibility and
see Jurisdiction Everywhere Responsibility NoWhere: A Report
DSP for the Special Project to prevent Entrophication of Lake
by Barry Lessinger January, 1976.
iP. ii LWiatY
The Federal Role in Water Resources Planning and Management,
Federal authority and concern in water management during the 19th
century was fairly restricted, focusing only on commerce related matters
as embodied in the Riversaand Harbors Act of 1899. From the days of
Chief Justice John Marshall, the Commerce Clause of the Constitution has
been construed to give the federal government power to regulate navigation.
The Flood Control Act of 1936 was the first in a series of congressional
enactments broadening the role of the federal government in water resources
management. The designation as the Flood Control Act is misleading because
the body of law collectively known as theeFlood Control Act beginning
with the 1936 Act makes it possible for the Corps of Engineers to undertake
projects and activities serving a multiplicity of purposes other than
merely flood control. The Flood Control Act of 1960, authorized the
Corps to provide the states and local governments with the information
they need to regulate the use of flood plain lands. This authorization
made it possible for the Corps to establish the Flood Plain Management
Service, and in this way to give impetus to the use of nonstructural
measures for dealing with the nation's flood problems. The nonfeasance
on the part of state governments and local governments in this critical
area has resulted in the broadening of the federal role in flood plain
management as detailed below. Thus between 1936 and 1960 some $4 billions
of federal flood control monies had been expended. Due to the refusal
of states and local governments to impitment floodplain management and
protection measures flood losses continue to average over 80 lives and
$300,000,000 per year.
Summarized below is a list of additional federal legislation since
1960 which continues the evolutionary expansion of federal governmental
authority in water resources.
The Federal Water Project Recreation Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-72),
provides for full consideration of opportunities for recreation and
fish and wildlife enhancement in Federal projects under specified costs
allocation and cost-sharing provisions.
The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-80), establishes
a comprehensive planning approach to the conservation, development and use
of water and related land resources. The Act emphasizes joint Federal-
State cooperation in planning and consideration of the views of all
public and private interests. Section 103 of the Act provides that "The
Council shall establish, after such consultation with other interested
entities, both Federal and non-Federal, as the Council may find appro-
priate, and with the approval of the President, principles, standards,
and procedures for Federal participants in the preparation of comprehensive
regional or river basin plans and for the formulation and evaluation of
Federal water and related land resources projects."
The Act further provides in section 102(b) that "The Council shall...
maintain a continuing study of the relation of regional or river basin plans
I I 1 1 i 1 J W L i I, 1 II
and programs to the requirements of larger regions of the Nation and
of the adequacy of administrative and statutory means for the coordina-
tion of the water and related land resources policies and programs of
the several Federal agencies; it shall appraise the adequacy of existing
and proposed policies and programs to meet such requirements; and it
shall make recommendations to the President with respect to Federal
policies and programs."
The Act also provides in section 301(b) that "The Council, with
the approval of the President, shall prescribe such rules, establish
such procedures, and make such arrangements ahd provisions relating
to the performance of its functions under this title, and these of funds
available therefore, as may be necessary in order to assure (1) coordi-
nation of the program authorized by this title with related Federal plan-
ning assistance programs, including the program authorized under section
701 of the Housing Act of 1954 and (2) appropriate utilization of other
Federal agencies administering programs which may contribute to achieving
the purpose of this Act."
The Water Resources Planning Act, as amended, is attached as
The Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 (Public
Law 89-136) establishes national policy to use Federal assistance in
planning and constructing public works to create new employment oppor-
tunities in areas suffering substantial and persistent unemployment and
underemployment. The Act provides for establishing Federal-State regional
commissions for regions that have lagged behind the Nation in economic
The Water Quality Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-234) and subsequent
amendments provides for establishing water quality standards for inter-
state waters. These water quality standards provide requirements and
goals that must be incorporated into planning procedures.
In authorizing the Northeastern Water Supply Study in 1965 (Public
Law 89-298), Congress recognized that assuring adequate supplies of
water for the great metropolitan centers of the United States has become
a problem of such magnitude that the welfare and prosperity of this
country require the Federal Government Aboassist in solution of water
The Clean Water Restoration Acttof 1966 (Public Law 89-753) pro-
vides assistance for developing comprehensive water quality control
and abatement plans for river basins.
The Department of Transportation Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-670)
provides standards for evaluating navigation projects and provides for
the Secretary of Transportation to be member of the Water Resources
I I, k i 1, W ) i.. ) i 1 1 1. I
The Whild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 (Public Law 90-542) provides
that in planning for the use and development of water and related land
resources consideration shall be given to potential wild, scenic, and
recreational river areas in river basin and project plan reports, and
comparisons are to be made with development alternatives which would be
precluded by preserving these areas.
The National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (Title XIII, Public Law
90-448) provides that States, to remain eligible for flood insurance,
must adopt acceptable arrangements for land use regulation in flood-
prone areas. This provision, together with Executive Order 11296,
August 10, 1966, places increased emphasis on land use regulations and
administrative policies as means of reducing flood damages. Planning
policies must include adequate provision for these new enactments and
directives in an integrated program of flood-plain management.
The Eatuary Protection Act of 1968 (Public Law 90-454) outlines
a policy of reasonable balance between the conservation of the natural
resources and natural beauty of the Nation's estuarine areas and the
need to develop such areas to further the growth and development of the
The National Environmental Policy'Act of 1969 (Public Law 90-490)
authorizes and directs Federal agencies in the decision-making process
to give appropriate consideration to environmental amenities and values,
along with technical considerations. The results of this analysis are to
be included in proposals for Federal action.
The Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 (Title II of
Public Law 91-224) further emphasizes congressional interest in improving
the environment and the major responsibility that State and local govern-
ments have for implementing this policy.
The Flood Control Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-611) requires in
Section 122 promulgation of guidelines designed to assure that possible
adverse economic, social and environmental effects relating to any pro-
posed project have been fully considered in developing such project, and
that the final decisions on the project are made in the best overall pub-
lic interest, taking into consideration the need for flood control, navi-
gation and associated.purposes, and the cost of eliminating or
minimizing such adverse effects and the following:
(1) Air, noise, and water pollution;
(2) destruction or disruption of man-made and natural resources
esthetic values, community cohesion and the availability of
public facilities and services;
(3) adverse employment effects and tax and property value losses;
1 I i i i, i i .
(4) injurious displacement of people, businesses, and farms; and
(5) disruption of desirable community.and regional growth.
The same Act also includes in Section 209 the following statement:
"It is the intent of Congress that the objectives of enhancing regional
economic development, the quality of the total environment, including
its protection and improvement, the well-being of the people of the
United States and the national economic development are the objectives
to be included in federally financed water resource, projects, and in the 0
evaluation of benefits and costs attributable thereto, giving due considera-
tion to the most feasible alternative means of accomplishing these
The Rural Development Act of 1972, Public Law 92-419, provides
for improving the economic and living conditions of rural American be
broadening and strengthening ongoing programs of financial and tech-
nical assistance to farmers and rural communities. It provides for the
management of agricultural wastes, storage of water for rural needs,
recharge of groundwater, fire protection, long term contract program
for land treatment, acquisition of land rights with other Federal funds,
farm research, and a land inventory and monitoring program.
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972,
Public Law 92-500, establishes the goals that:
(1) the discharge of pollutants into navigable waters be eliminated
(2) an interim goal of water quality be provided for the protection
of fish, shellfish and wildlife, and for recreation by July 1, 1983;
(3) the discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts be prohibited;
(4) Federal financial assistance be provided to construct publicly
owned waste treatment plants;
(5) water quality and areawide waste treatment management plan-
ning include multiobjective water resources and land use planning;
(6) Regional or river basin (Level B) plans be completed by the
Water Resources Council for all river vasins in the United States by
1980 (Section 209); and that
(7) a major research and demonstration effort be made to develop
technology to eliminate the discharge of pollutants.
The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, Public Law 92-583, provides
for a comprehensive,llong range, and coordinated national program in
.marine science, to establish a National Council on Marine Resources and
Engineering Development, and a Commission on Marine Sciences, Engineering
and Resources; and for annual grants to any coastal State for the purpose
of assisting in the development of a management program for the land
and water resources of its coastal zone, and for annual grants to any
coastal State for not more than 66 2/3 per centum of the costs aomadminis-
tering the State's management program.
PRF ____ A 7
GOALS, POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES
Article II, Section 7 of the State Constitution states, "Natural
resources and senic beauty. It shall be the policy of the state to
conserve and protect its natural resources and scenic beauty. Adequate
provision shall be made by law for the abatement of air and water pollu-
tion and of excess and unnecessary noise." This Constitutional policy
provides for the following statutory legislative policies from Florida
"Florida Statutes 373.016 Declaration of Policy:
(1) The waters of the state are among its basic resources.
Such waters have not heretofore been conserved or fully controlled so
as to realize their full beneficial use.
(2) It is further declared to be the policy of the Legislature:
(a) to provide for the management of water and related
(b) to promote the conservation, development and proper
utilization of surface and ground water;
(c) to develop and regulate dams, impoundments, reservoirs,
and other works and to provide water storage for bene-
(d) to prevent damage from floods, soil erosion, and ex-
(e) to preserve natural resources, fish and wildlife;
(f) to promote recreational development, protect public
lands, and assist in maintaining the navigability of
rivers and harbors; and
(g) otherwise to promote the health, safety, and general
welfare of the people of this state."
Florida Statute 403.021 Legislative declaration; public policy -
(1) The pollution of the air and waters of this state constitutes
a menace to public health and welfare, creates public nuisance, is
harmful to wildlife, fish and other aquatic life, and impairs domestic,
agricultural, industrial, recreational, and other beneficial uses of air
(2) It is declared to be the public policy of this state to
conserve the waters of the state and to protect, maintain and improve
the quality thereof for public water supplies, for the propagation of
wildlife, fish and other aquatic life, and for domestic, agricultural,
industrial, recreational, and other beneficial uses, and to provide that
no wastes be discharged into any waters of the state without first being
given the degree of treatment necessary to protect the beneficial uses
of such water."
(3) "It is declared that local and regional air and water pollu-
tion control programs are to be supported to the extent practicable
as essential instruments to provide for a coordinated statewide program
of air and water pollution prevention, abatement and control for the
securing and maintenance of appropriate levels of air and water quality.
(4) It is hereby declared that the prevention, abatement, and
control of the pollution of the air and waters of this state are affected
with a public interest, and the provisions of this act are enacted in
the exercise of the police powers of this state for the purpose of pro-
tecting the health, peace, safety, and general welfare of the people
of this state.
(5) The Legislature finds and declares that control, regulation,
and abatement of the activities which are causing or may cause pollution
of the. air or water resources in the state and which are or may be
detrimental to human, animal, aquatic, or plant life, or to property,
or unreasonably interefer with the comfortable enjoyment of life or pro-
perty be increased to insure conservation of natural resources, to insure
a continued safe environment, to insure purity of air and water, to
insure domestic water supplies, to insure protection and preservation of
the public health, safety, welfare, and economic well-being, to insure
and provide for recreational and wildlife needs as the population increases
and the economy expands, and to insure a continuing growth of the economy
and industrial development.
(6) The Legislature further finds and declares that:
(a) compliance with this law will require capital outlays
of hundreds of millions of dollars for the installation
of machinery, equipment, and facilities for the treatment
of industrial wastes which are not-productive assets
and increase -operating expenses to owners Without any
financial return and should be separately classified
for assessment purposes.
(b) industry should be encouraged to instale new machinery,
equipment and facilities as technology in environmental
matters advances, thereby improving the quality of the
air and waters of the state and benefiting the citizens
of the state without precuniary benefit to the owners of
industries, and the Legislature should describe methods
whereby just valuation may be secured to such owners and
exemptions from certain exise taxes should be offered with
respect to such installation. I
(c) facilities as herein defined should be classified
separately from other real and personal property of
any manufacturing of processing plant or installation,
as such facilities contribute-only to general welfare
and health and are assets producing no profit return
(d) in existing manufacturing or processing plants it is
more difficult to obtain satisfactory results in
treating industrial wastes than in new plants being
now planned or constructed and that with respect to
existing plants in many instances it will be necessary
to demolish and remove substantial portions thereof
and replace the same with new and more modern equipment
in order to more effectively treat, eliminate or reduce
the objectionable characteristics of any industrial
wastes and that such replacements should be classified
and assessed differently from replacement made in the
ordinary course of business."
The legislative policy statements must of necessity form the framework
around which the state's water resources management program and efforts
are built. It is legislative policy to'promote conservation of the water
resources, reasonable beneficial use of the water resources, protection
of aesthetic uses of the water resources, preservation and enhancement
of fish and wildlife productivity, and promote and support the economic
development of the state. Thus, the overall goal for the Water Resources
Element of the State's Comprehensive Plan must be: To provide water
resources management that will promote the development and growth of the
state economy at the same time as presenting and improving the water quality
and associated environmental diversity and well-being.
While the above goal statement appears on the surface to be internally
inconsistent, the proceeding discussions on the hydrologic cycle (section I)
and uses and economic values of water (section II) indicate that it is
not. In establishing the Department of Environmental Regulation in 1975,
the legislature recognized the importance and necessity of merging water
quantity (use) management with water quality management. They provided
the state with the organizational tools to address the complex demension-
ality that comprises water resources management, specifically that a given
use of water affects the quantity, quality, timing of flow and location
of the water within the hydrologic cycle.
Within this complex demenionality of these constraints of the hydro-
logic cycle the state's efforts to manage water resources must be focused.
By law, the Department of Environmental Regulation has jurisdiction over
all the waters of the state atmospheric, ground, surface and sea.
Given present technology and scientific knowledge, the state's real
jurisdiction regarding atmospheric water is limited to permitting artifi-
cial inducement of precipitation and indirectly, through the air quality
management program, the quality of the water falling as rain on the state.
The state's technical and practical jurisdiction over saline/sea water
is pretty much limited to the use made by land based industry within the
state, and the effluents discharged therefrom. We must in effect live K"
with the'seas as they are used or abused by persons,governments a i
industries in other states and nations. Thus, the time for rp
action is between the moment that rainfall contacts the st ,lj
A ,A I ; i .,i I
surface to the time that water reaches the sea.
WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
Objective: To assure at least the cost effective treatment to
secondary treatment standards of all point source discharges of domestic
and industrial wastes reaching the waters of the state by 1977.
It was the intent of the legislature to achieve secondary treatment
of domestic wastes by 1972. Needless to say, this objective was never
attained for a number of reasons, the primary one being the existence
of a federal grant program and the low level of funding provided therein.
It has never been politically wise to "go it alone" on any capital pro-
ject when "free" federal matching funds are available. Therefore, the
large majority of the state's fastest growing municipalities choose not
to build sewage collection and treatment facilities in response to
current or projected needs, but instead to wait until they were ex-
periencing wide spread pollution problems and potentially dangerous
health problems. As a result, when the legislatively mandated 1972
deadline for treatment of domestic wastes to secondary standards arrived,
some 80% of the municipalities were confronted with building moratoriums
until they complied. A special session of the legislature was called
in November of 1972 to prevent the collapse of the state's construction
industry in the face.of this sewer moratorium. Coincidentally, the
Congress of the United States pasted new legislation entitled The
Water Pollution Control Act Amendements of 1972 (PL 92-500) wherein
they authorized and appropriated some 18 billion dollars nationwide
for the construction of wastewater collection and treatment facilities
funded at 75% of eligible costs to be borne by the federal government.
Florida's response was to establish a 100 million dollar revolving loan
program to provide municipalities and local units of government interim
financing at low interest rates until permanent financing could be
arranged to qualify for the federal grants and begin construction.
SAdditional legislation was passed to allow local units of government, who
had demonstrated "good faith" efforts (not to construct) to obtain federal
assistance to circumvent the sewer moratorium. Florida's allotment
from the 18 billion dollars came to about 552 million dollars. It is
anticipated that if the state continues the growth rate it experienced
through the first five years of this decade an additional three (3)
billion dollars in construction for waste water collection and treatment
facilities will be needed by 1990 to maintain present water quality.
In order to be eligible for federal matching funds for waste water
facilities, the assimulative capacity of the receiving body of water must
be considered. As a result, or due to state legislation (as in the case
the Tampa Bay area) advanced waste treatment (more stringent and techno-
logically more complex) treatment may be required. The national goal
for domestic wastewater treatment dischargers is to attain zero discharge
into the surface waters of the nation by 1983.
Private industry is also considered in the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500). The Federal Act mandate
that industry utilize the best practicable treatment of industrial
wastes within approximately the same time frame as domestic treatment
facilities with a 1977 and 1984 time frame. It (PL 92-500) further
provides that where an industry utilizes a public treatment facility,
the industry must pay its fair pro-rata share of the construction,
operations and maintenance costs of the facility. In short, the Act
(PL 92-500) and its funding is an attempt to assist the states and local
governments in "catching up" with their water pollution problems.
1. The State of Florida should regulate investment in
sewerage systems to insure the considerable sums it controls are
used first to eliminate the water quality problems across the State
and only secondly to provide for future populations.
Two agencies are involved in the management of funds invested in
sewerage systems, the Department of Environmental Regulation (DER)
and the Department of General Services, Division of Bond Finance (DGS).
DER is responsible for establishing the priority system for eligibility,
screening applications for federal funding and acting as the Environmental
Protection Agencies fiscal management agent for local governmental
grant recipients. DER and DGS screen and validate long term financing
bonds) backed by the full-faith and credit of the state for local
governments sewerage system construction. The state's capability to
manage investments in waste water facilities are considerable.
2. The Department of Environmental Regulation should incorporate
in its Annual State Work Plan (Section 106), continuing Planning Process
for Water Quality Management, and State Strategy document:
a. an articulation of overall state construction grant
program goals and objectives;
b. a programming of how and when various types of water
pollution problems will be considered for solution;
c. an association of the total dollars available to the
problems at hand.
Currently the documents cited in the policy state do not contain
the data and information suggested in items a-b. It is felt that the
unequivocal articulation of water quality goals and objectives, programming,
enumeration of problems, and resources required are an essential step if
a state water quality program is to be developed consistent with State
and federal legislation. Private industry and local governments need
to know what will be expected of them, when, and how, if they are to make
rational investments and investment plans.
!l fcabliI'-Ai h av
3. Discourage the funding of large amounts of excess capacity.
Excess wastewater collection and treatment capacity is a powerful
stimulus to growth. As soon as a project with excess capacity is on-line,
a primary goal of the local operating agency'is to attract as many users
as possible. Uncontrolled growth brings with it a host of new problems
including ones affecting water quality.
4. Define early in the planning stages the objectives of each regional
wastewater facilities project.
It is simply good, sound business practice to set out objectives
and plans before implementing a course of action. It certainly is the
state objective to "clean up" a pollution problem. Some local units
of government may view wastewater facilities as a primary ingredient for
continued economic and physical growth. They may also view the federal
grant as a windfall, one-shot opportunity and attempt to obtain as much
aid as possible by building excess capacity without any consideration
for water quality or public health concerns. This must be worked out
ahead of time.
5. Concentrate investment for waste water facilities on the severe
problems in already built up areas.
6. Provide minimal essential capacity in those developing areas where
problems exist, and where headwaters, recreational, or pristine waters
need be protected.
7. Increase enforcement of the regulatory power of DER in dealing with
septic systems and package treatment plants.
These three policies are treated together because they are closely
related and comparable with one another. They essentially form a strategy
for action that will keep development options open for the future in the
absence of a detailed state land use program. The State of Florida
currently has no official policies toward growth nor a formally adopted
land use plan. Because of this, actions taken by federal and state
agencies to clean up the waters cannot be carried out within a frame-
work of commonly agreed on land use objectives. Furthermore, in most
cases municipal planning and zoning controls have not stood up against
the pressures created by newly available wastewater facilities. Few
local governments have carried out the necessary environmental, fiscal,
and social analyses to determine the optimal pattern of development,
population limits, and timing for their own growth. Until land use
policies to guide growth are firmly established, all local government
comprehensive plans adopted and implemented, or resource capacity studies
are tied effectively to local planning for growth, land use planning
will be done by the backdoor by agencies building public facilities or not at
all. As cited previously, growth very often occures here or adjacent
to existing metropolitan areas. However, rural areas have not been con-
sidered a high priority resource and as a result, development is taking
place in these areas, generating the need for services often to be
B LSOC. CB~JL;~~d~k~IL I 41
_ ~__~__ __I_ *I__i_
extended across intermediate vacant land. Population growth, stimulated
by the newly over-extended wastewater facilities implies increased
local governmental service costs. Future service costs are not analyzed
to enable local officials and the community to understand the fiscal
impact of new development fostered by sewerage.
8. Explore and develop devices to either more equitably distribute
the increased development capacity created by the construction of waste
water facilities, or enable the public to recapture the unearned incriment
of value accruing to property owners within a service area, or both.
Private windfall profits facilitated or attributable to public expense
are reprehensible, serving only to make the wealthy more so. The
structure of the national Constitution and the state Constitution are
sufficient protection for private business, additional subsidies are
9. Prepare a written guidance document which would explain detail
the standards and procedures for local performance of facilities plan-
ning requirements, consolidating and unifying existing state and federal
guideline documents and regulations.
Guidelines and regulations are currently fragmented by topic in a
number of sources. A single clearly written and schematicized source
document could simplify.and clarify performance expectations placed on
local governments and speed the planning, grant review, and construction
10. Establish special procedures and guidelines for the analysis of
11. Specify procedures by which elements of secondary impact analysis,
where appropriate, can be brought into the planning process at an early
stage rather than after major decisions have been made.
Many.governmental actions, particularly those that involve,' the
construction or licensing of infrastructure investments (e.g. highways,
airports, sewer systems, water resources projects, etc.) stimulate or
induce secondary effects in the form of associated investments and
changed patterns of social and economic activities. Such secondary effects
through their impacts on existing community facilities and activities,
or through changes in natural conditions, may often be more substantial
than the primary effects of the original action itself. The following
is a partial list of possible secondary impacts:
(a) air pollution,
(b) traffic congestion;
(c) accelerated development;
(d) non-point water pollution;
(e) increased surface runoff and flooding;
(f) increased housing cost;
(g) sedimentation and erosion;
() direct water pollution from inadequate wastewater treatment
(i) threatened and diminished water supply;
.1. H iU III
(j ) windfall land profits;
(k ) fiscal instability;
(1 ) conversion of prime agricultural land;
(m) increased school taxes; and
(n ) wasteful consumption of energy.
12. Establish criteria for the amount of aid to be granted (or amount
of full-faith and credit of the state under the bonding program) which
would favor dire need projects and would also disfavor the oversigning
of new and expanded systems.
13. Allow state and federal governments to fund or underwrite only r, m-
14. Reduce initial expenditures by shortening the design life of
wastewater collection and transmission facilities.
The current funding level under PL 92-500 of 75% grants for
wastewater facilities reduces local incentives to control costs or to
associate the size and cost of a project with actual current sewerage
needs and the development future of the community. The state full faith
and credit bond program assists in further reducing costs to the local
governments and exacerbates the problem. In addition, engineering con-
sultants frequently advise the local governments that it is better to
build all at once for maximum capacity. This is a function of the
perception of the program as a one shot windfall and the lack of a
sufficiently developed planning process at the local level. Insufficient
cost containment provisions are present here similar to the lack of
cost containment incentives in the area of medical costs.
15. Improve the basis for review and approval of package treatment plants.
16. Establish a formal operating policy requiring the operative of
package treatment plants by governmental units, minimizing the creation
and continuance of franchise services.
Package treatment plants proliferate in rural areas or areas just
outside of sewerage treatment service areas. There are frequently
poorly located and more frequently badly operated. They represent a
"foot in the door" to a consolidated sewerage system and its attendant
17. Require local units of government to join together in planning and
constructing wastewater treatment facilities when economies of scale in
construction and operations and maintenance costs can be achieved.
This is an existing policy under federal law (PL 92-500).
18. Require that sewage collection and treatment user charges adequately
reflect and account for not only debt service, operations, and maintenance/
costs but also facility replacement costs.
<<<~ n 4y ^'"
I1 ,i J 1 1. L ii
This is an existing policy under rules and regulations promul-
gated pursuant to federal law (PL 92-500), Under current conditions
this provision of the law is largely being ignored. The design life of
wastewater collection and treatment facilities is about forty years.
Since the federal government is assuming 75% of the initial eligible
construction and planning costs, the added incremental cost included in
the user fees will not increase these fees substantially and should con-
tribute to water conservation efforts as well as reducing the volume of
waste water generated requiring treatment.
19. Require the installation of water saving and conserving devices A
in all new homes constructed in the state and retrofitting as old fixtures
By reducing the amount of water withdrawn and used in the homes, the
effective size of existing waste water collection and treatment facilities
is increased so that additional growth may be accommodated without
additional capital expenditures or operating costs.
20. Reduce Industrial waste discharge into water bodies by reducing
The generation of industrial wastes is a function primarily of
the type of raw materials, the production technology, the product
mix, and sometimes the extent of in-plant water recirculation.
It is, therefore, possible to find a wide range in the waste quantities
generated per unit by different industries as well as by different
plants within the same industry. Though treatment is the only general
method of reducing household waste discharges in the absence of signi-
ficant changes in consumption patterns, industrial discharges can be
altered prior to treatment.
Examples of raw material changes to reduce waste loads are those
is the type of wood used in the pulp and paper industry, and the
sulfer content of crude oil used in the petroleum refining industry.
In fruit and vegetable canning, factors such as the size, shape, percent
of solids, and resistance to damage and bruising in harvesting and pro-
cessing the raw product affect the wasteload production.
Changes in production processes, for example, in the pulp and paper
industry, the change from the sulfite process to the sulfate process
has, by making the recovery of chemicals for reuse economic, reduced
the BOD of wasteloads per ton of product. The substitution of air
cooling for water cooling is another example for reducing thermal waste.
The classical change in wasteload through product output has been
that from hard detergents to the soft, readily degradable types.
Examples of water recirculation in the fruit canning industries have
resulted in decreases in wasteload generation expressed in BOD per ton.
21. Reduce industrial waste discharge into water bodies by reducing
wastes after generation.
i, ic 4 ~ii.~.
- 1 l I1
Materials recovery and by-product production are two techniques
for reducing waste after generation. Though then employ similar
types of processes they can be differentiated on the basis of
their final output destination. Materials recovery refers to the
reuse of output within the same production unit as with input to
the production process. By-production production on the other hand,
yields consumption goods or intermediate ones used in other production
The elimination of mill scale by sedimentation and the resulting
recovery of iron that can be reused in the steel industry's production
process is an example of materials recovery. Another examples is the
profitable recovery of materials over recovery costs in the manufacture
of synthetic phenol by implementing the sulfonation process with virtually
the elimination of liquid wastes.
An example of by-product production is the use of waste segments
of apple from the canning industry for vinegar production. Another
by-product example is the conversion of cottage cheese whey into
protein food supplements.
22. Further reduce residual wasteloads by waste treatment after the
economic processes of materials recovery, by-product production and
effluent reuse have been exhausted.
Though treatment is applicable to both industrial and domestic
wastes; it is more applicable to the latter; since, it is the
only general method for reducing household waste discharges in the
absence of significant changes in consumption patterns. Technically,
it is possible to achieve any degree of waste treatment desired and
at least to restore waste water to the qaulity of the water before its
use. This has been demonstrated through the pioneering efforts of the
Santee Waste Reclamation Project which enabled the direct reuse of re-
claimed municipal waste water for recreational purposes such as body
contact sports and fishing.
23. Increase the assimilative capacity of water bodies.
The addition of dilution water readily suggests itself as an
attractive means of improving waste assimilation in streams; since,
lowest stream flows usually coincide with the highest concentrations
of most water quality variables. Though the most common practice for
augmenting stream flow is by the controlled release of water from reser-
voir storage, it is also possible to use ground water for this same
Effluent redistribution by means of regulated discharges, changes
in discharge locations, and underground disposal are other methods
for making more efficient use of available assimilation capacity.
Wastes may be stored during ebb tides for release into estuaries
during flood tides. Food industries can use seasonal storage periods
to effect some degradation of wastes prior to discharge. Waste trans-
ferrals can be made from areas of low assimilative capacity to one or
more areas of greater capacity. Deep-well underground disposal has been
used largely by the chemical, petrochemical and paper industries for
wastes that are difficult or expensive to treat.
24. Encourage local governments (counties and municipalities) to
accelerate the completion of their comprehensive plans persuant to
Florida Statutes Chapter Local Government Comprehensive Planning
Act of 1975.
As-stated previously in discussing policy 7 infrastructural
systems such as highways, water distribution systems and wastewater systems
provide "back door" land use plans. It would be far more beneficial and
effective for local governments to do their comprehensive plans, land
use plans, and zoning plans prior to or in conjunction with.these infra-
structure systems plans. The table below entitled "annualized Marginal
Costs of Sewage Collection and Treatment in Residential Areas" although
based on 1957-59 dollars clearly demonstrates the orders of magnitude
of costs associated with various land use densities and configurations
associated with collection and transmission of wastewater.
COSTS OF SEWAGE COLLECTION
Density Distance From Treatment Plant (Miles)
(People/ 10 15 20 25 30
acre) Cost Category (1957-59 dollars per capital)
281.67 403.67 530.67 648.67 771.67
Treatment 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07
Total 64.66 114.76 163.86 212.96 262.06 311.16
Collection 6.46 6.46 6.46 6.46 6.46 6.46
Transmission 14.50 29.00 43.50 58.00 72.50 87.00
Treatment 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07
Total 23.03 37.53 52.03 66.53 81.03 95.53
,1` 1 .. ; 1 II L 1
Distance From Treatment Plant (Miles)
10 15 20 25 30
(1957-59 dollars per capital)
Total 11.53 16.18 20.83 26.48 31.13 35.78
Collection 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22 1.22
Transmission 1.95 3.90 5.85 7.80 9.75 11.70
Treatment 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07
Total 5.24 7.19 9.14 11.09 13.04 14.99
Collection 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62
Transmission 1.40 2.80 4.20 5.60 7.00 8.40
Treatment 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07
Total 4.09 5.49 6.89 8.29 9.69 11.09
Collection 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27
Transmission 1.15 2.30 3.45 4.60 5.75 6.90
Treatment 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07
Total 3.49 4.64 5.79 6.94 8.09 9.24
Collection 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16
Transmission 0.80 1.70 2.60 3.50 4.40 5.30
Treatment 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07
Total 3.03 3.93 4.83 5.73 6.63 7.53
25. Promote land use planning which considers and encourages the sequen-
tial use/reuse water.
This policy is both a water use/conservation policy and a water
quality maintenance and improvement policy. It also restates in past
policy20 on industrial water quality. Many industrial water uses,
when well engineered do not degrade the water quality to the extreme and/or
do reduce the subsequent level of pollution. Other industrial processes
do not demand high quality water in process. Efforts should be made
to locate compatible industries and industrial processes to take advantage
. of the ability for sequential use. Local governments should also be
encouraged and encourage the reuse of domestic wastewater for golf course
irrigation and other land spreading techniques where direct human contact
with the effluent are involved. This results in lower treatment costs
and lower water withdrawal and use.
.6. Direct reuse of wastewaters for human consumption should be deferred
until it is demonstrated that virological and other possible contamination
does not present a significant health hazard.
Recent research indicates that another human disease, diabetes may
be a virus caused disease. For a great many years it was assumed that
diabetes was primarily hereditary. It has been well documented that
poliomyelitis and hepatitus along with the potential causative agent
for diabetes may be concentrated and transmitted via domestic waste
water. Greatly needed is a research effort recommended by the American
Water Works Association as follows: T. ~iT TT
r '^^^i^- i -
ihl, L .I IL ,1 1 I- IL li
1. Identify the full-range of contaminants possibly present in
treated waste waters which might affect the safety of public
health, the palatability of the water, and the range of concen-
2. Determine the degree to which these contaminants are removed
by various typed and levels of treatment;
3. Determine the long-range physiological .effects of continued
use of reclaimed waste waters, with various levels of treatment,
as the partial or sole source of drinking waters;
4. Define the parameters, testing procedures, analytic methodology,
allowable limits, and monitoring systems that should be employed
with respect to the use of reclaimed waste waters for public.water
5. Develop greater capability and reliability of treatment processes
and equipment to produce reclaimed water of reasonably uniform
quality in view of the extreme variability in the characteristics of
untreated wastewaters, and
6. Improve the capabilities of operational personnel.
27. The Department of Environmental Regulation should apply the same
regulatory regime and enforcement techniques to ground water pollution
as it applies to surface water pollution.
The effects of ground water pollution can be more significant than
surface water pollution because they are more long lasting. Ground water
pollution has long lasting and sometimes irreversable effects. Over
80 percent of the domestic water supply systems in the state rely solely
on ground water supplies.
28. Require that indisposal of residuals (sludge and sewerage effluent
every effort is taken to recycle nutrients into desirable food chains.
Sewerage systems function to transport wastes from one place (homes)
to another (the treatment plant). In the process of treatment, solids
containing organic materials and some of the nutrients (nitrogen and phos-
phorus) are removed as solids (sludge). Other organic and inorganic
nutrients and salts are dissolved in the water (effluent). Both sludge
and effluent are teamed residuals. These residuals are usually disposed
of in landfills in the case of sludge and discharged to surface water in
the case of effluent. The residuals consist of many of the nutrients that
make up fertilizers although in more dilute form. These residuals might
better be used by returning them to the natural nutrient cycle (similar
to the hydrologic cycle) so that they can add productivity to the food chain.
This can be accomplished (with bacterial and viral concentrations taken
into consideration) by such methods as land spreading, spray irrigation,
sod farming, or discharge into marshes and swamps. Also of potential is
the prior use of the sludge to generate methane (the primary constitute
of natural gas) under anerobic conditions which in part further concentrates
the phosphorus nitrogen in the sludge producing a burnable fuel and a betef ,
*~ kjb*" ^-"
29. Where nutrient recycling is considered and in operation human
contact (directly or through aerosols) should be stringently controlled.
While the natural values and productivity of nature can be increased
through land surface disposal of residuals, the effects of viruses and
viral diseases pose significant constraints on the use of this method.
Viruses, and viral diseases pose a serious health threat when disposed of
on land, into surface waters or in sanitary land fills. The disposal of
residuals on the land surface however, has benefits and safeguards not
afforded by disposal in land fills and surface waters. Most land fills
in the State of Florida leak their materials into the ground waters of the
state. The dangers of groundwater contamination have been previously
discussed. Surface waters dilute the effluent, which reduces water quality
and may create an even more dangerous situation regarding public health.
By knowing where the residuals are and controlling access to them and
the products grown, land spreading and disposal may significantly promote
w, 77 7, .
, I ,I. l ld U i0l
Non-Point Source Pollution
Objective: To protect and improve the quality of the state's waters
by managing the non-point sources of pollution in the state.
Precipitation (rain) falling on a natural surface can be divided
into two parts, that which infiltrates the soil and that which moves
downhills as flow on the surface. When percipilation falls on imperme-
able surfaces such as the roofs of buildings and the surface of roads
and parking lots, all the rain contributes to runnoff. Modified land
surface whose humans has been distrubed and content diminished, likewise
increase the amount and velocity of runoff water increase in its
ability to transport soil which results in erosion, sedimentation and
pollution of surface lakes and streams, agricultural chemicals, both
fertilizers and pesticides applied to lawns, gardens, and farms, and
petrochemicals associated with automobiles, including lead and gasoline,
oil and rubber from tires. Thus, it can be seen that these sources
constitute quite a number of potential contributors as well as highly
complex and divergent chemical and physical types of pollutants to the
state's waters. Non-point sources of pollution may in some cases be
responsible for upwards of 90% of an area's water quality problem. On
the average in Florida, it is estimated that non-point sources of pollu-
tion account for 60% of the state's water quality problem.
It should likewise be noted that accelerated velosities of water
running off land surfaces means increased quantities runoff and thus
not infiltrated into the soil and into the ground water aquifiers of
the state. It also means, therefore, accelerated flow to the Sea with
less time for man to use and manage it. Concurrently, it may also mean
higher flood peaks during the wet season, and because of less ground
water recharge, lower dry season flows and levels in streams and lakes.
1. Determine the maximum permissible velocity for runoff leaving any
given parcel of land.
The velocity of runoff is a function of the steepness of the surface
the water is actually running off (gredient) the depth of the water,
soil type (sand, clay, silt, gravel) amount of humus, and vegetative
cover. It is well understood that in the downtown areas of the major
cities, few open spaces exist thus structural measures or other allowances
must be made. But, in all cases, mandatory runoff velocity coefficients
should be developed, implemented, and enforced if the state is to reduce
non-point source pollution of its waters and make maximum beneficial use
of its waters.
2. Retain rainfall as close to the place that it lands as possible
for as long as possible.
The physical factors are such that theoretically the beginning
of water regulation and hence soil retention and non-point source manage-
_______^ ^T^I ^1T(
It i, I .: i i, I[ .1 J
ment and control should be at the raindrop and rill stage rather than
on large bodies of water downstream. Practically, it should be done
simultaneously. Where there is a series of dependent relationships as
in the case of runoff/non-point source management, management should begin
with the first of the series. Given water retention in place and hence
erosion control of individual parcels, conditions are set for the establish-
ment of ponds and reservoirs; given erosion control, ponds and reservoirs,
regulation of creeks and other headwater streams by communities is more
feasible, given such regulation/management of an entire headwater area,
regulation/management of larger streams and rivers below are more effec-
tive and economical. By proceeding in this manner a greater total benefit
per unit of expenditure is realized.
There also exists an ethical reason--a reason of patriotism--why the
individual landowner should take the initiative. If we would preserve our
democracy of ownership of private property, then ownership must meet its
responsibilities as well as its privileges. Accompanying widely distribu-
ted ownership of private property there is individual responsibility for
adjusting the conditions and uses of property to social requirements.
Erosion and loss of waters is not merely an individual problem; it is a
social problem created by individual conduct and reflecting a fatalistic
view of the nation's future and the future of private property. This
policy is a corollary of policy 1 of this section.
.Where water is retained, infiltration is increased. Where infiltra-
tion is increased, erosion and other non-point sources of pollution are
reduced. Where fertilizer and pesticides are retained in place, they
are more effective and energy consumption to produce more and apply more
are reduced. Where more water is infiltrated to groundwater, flood flows
are reduced and more water is stored for low flow drought periods and
use by human activity. Where erosion is reduced or eliminated, the soil
retains and may increase its productivity requiring less fertilizer over
3. Require urban (residential, commercial, industrial, and governmental)
and agricultural practices to maintain the same drainage ratio's and
balance as occurs in nature.
(See page 5, The Drainage Network) The purpose of manmade drainage
imporvements is either to accelerate runoff or to lower the watertable,
but usually both. As discussed in policies 1 and 2 of this section we
know now that this is undesirable. In agricultural areas over drainage
adds additional problems. By lowering water tables, surface soils are
dried out much faster resulting in an increased need for irrigation which
in turn may runoff through the drainage network carrying with it soils,
fertilizers and pesticides. This also occures in residential areas where
lawns and gardens are irrigated to compensate for the lowered water table.
It is a very self-defeating process.
IPearson, H.S., Coil, E.J. & Beall, R.T., U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 1936
*P p Lra:*: ^^i"
PI i r..^ Ji9^ -
4. Encourage the use of natural drainage systems.
5. Minimize capital costs for drainage improvements.
These two policies are corillaries. When development takes place
on a scale with natural drainage systems and policies 1 and 2 are incor-
porated in the development, than the natural drainage system can function
without additional human intervention. The natural drainage system with
its complex of stream bed, wetlands, marshes, etc. minimize total energy
in achieving efficiency, have the capability of assimilating wastes,
conserve water, and retain human options for economical use of the water
6. Restrict or prohibit the development of areas with terrain or soils
unsuitable for development.
(See pages 2-4 Ground & Surface Waters)
Development on steep terrain results in both an increase in quantity
and an increase in velocity of runoff with its attendant increase in ero-
sion and non-point source pollution. Similarly, infiltration of rainfall
is a function of the permeability of soils. Development in areas of
poorly suited soils results in substandard streets and highways, and
cracked buildings as.well as septic tank failures, flood damage and
increased stormwater runoff. The failure of septic tanks due to high-
water table soils can and do cause serious public health hazards in
addition to contributing to non-point source pollution of streams. Flood
damages and increased storm runoff should need no further discussion.
7. Encourage and fund acceleration and completion of the Soil Survey
In order to implement Pblicy 6, Policy 7 must be done. As of 1975,
detailed soil surveys had been completed in 14 counties, completed but
not published in 3 counties, and were underway in 12 additional counties
out of the state's 67 counties. These surveys are immensely important
not only for water management but to farmers, developers, engineers, land
surveyors and other users of the land. A continuation of State funding
is necessary if the survey is to be completed and the information used.
8. Require plots and development plans detailing the lots, streets, and
stormwater drainage system to be played out along contour lines.
This policy is actually a means of implementing Policy 1. Where
streets and storm drainage systems follow topographic contour lines the
velocity of runoff is maintained at the slow rate determined by Policy 1
or reduced further.
9. Require the use of grassed swales instead of curbs and gutters along
streets in all developments.
Developments constructed along topographic contours with grassed
swales instead of impervious curbes and gutters provide an additional
opportunity for the runoff to infiltrate the soil. Grasses, function to
increase friction on the runoff, slowing or at least preventing the
acceleration of the runoff.
61^Y P" F p
^I SYtBir- i & t '
10. Require that the amounts of impervious surfaces in urban developments
be in conformance with the permeability, compactability, slope and water
table depth of the soil.
When large areas of the land are covered with impervious surfaces
increased quantities and velocities of runoff result in erosion, sedimen-
tation channel scouring, flooding and other detrimental effects on adja-
cent lands and receiving waters. These effects can be reduced and held
to a minimum if the impervious surface area and type are designed in coor-
dination with permeability, compactability slope and water table depth of
11. Require on-site erosion and sedimentation practices on all land
Land alterations of all kinds disturb the soil resulting in erosion
and sedimentation problems. All reasonable efforts should be made to
prevent off-site damage. These efforts may include:
a) utilizing mulch to bind the soil once cleared;
b) use of hay bales to hold or detain sediments along
the perimeter of distrubance;
c) construction and employment of temporary sedimentation
d) lining waterways with plastic sheeting.
12. Encourage the seasonal timing of land alteration for development
to avoid erosion and runoff problems.associated with heavy rains and high
Florida's wet season-dry season ...pitation pattern lends itself
to the conduct of land alteration activities from October through May.
In turn as in the case of clear cutting forestry practices (which are
not encouraged) it at least allows for vegetative regeneration before
the heavy rains of summer set in.
13. At the completion of land alteration activities, including resi-
dential subdivisions, revegetate as soon as possible with native or
Again, the presence of vegetative cover on soils is important and
critical in minimizing runoff and erosion. From the long term water
quantity and water use standpoint, the use of native or adapted plant
species is essential. Native or adapted plants by definition are those
which have adapted to a wet season-dry season percipitation regime and
require little if any irrigation during the dry season. Thereby reducing
the demand for lawn sprinkling water when the natural water availability
is at its lowest and human demand (the impact of Florida seasonal residents
and tourists) is at its peak.
14. Encourage the reuse of Agricultural tail water (irrigation runoff).
Not all runoff is rain induced. Irrigation water not infiltrated
does runoff the land carrying with it some soils, fertilizers and herbi-
cides. This water should be retained and reused.
:-! L! 7 'I...
1 .I i tl l
15. Encourage the early completion of local comprehensive plans
required by the Local Government Comprehensive Planning Act of 1975.
UI 1 1 11
Objective: To assure a sufficient quantity of water for all reasonable
beneficial uses. ; 373.036(2) Florida Statutes, "In the formulation
of the state water use plan the department (DER) shall give due consider-
ation to: (a) the attainment of maximum reasonable-beneficial use of
water for such purposes as those referred to in subsection (1)." While
Chapter 373, Florida Statutes states that all water uses to be permitted
must demonstrate the use to be reasonable and beneficial, the legislature
mandates that the state water use plan address the maximum reasonable-
beneficial use of the state's water resources. The included uses to
maximize are: existing and contemplated needs and uses of water for
protection and procreation of fish and wildlife, irrigation, mining,
power development, and domestic, municipal, and industrial uses. Thus,
the objective as stated is a somewhat complex one which might translate
into: optimize the reasonable beneficial use of the states water resources;
or a series of objectives structured as follows:
Maximize the benefit of water used in the protection and procreation
of fish and wildlife subject to the constraints of the need for domestic,
municipal, industrial, irrigation mining and power development uses; etc.
for each water use.
These statements of objectives make it clear that there are com-
peting uses of water and the decision to allocate a given quantity of water
to one use rather than another involves tradeoffs.
In the section entitled "Importance and Role of Water" three dif-
ferent categories of water use were discussed, (1) intake uses, (2) on-
site uses, and (3) in stream uses. On site uses and in stream uses are
basically the "free work" performed by the hydrologic cycle in nature
will little or no expenditure of.energy or intervention by man. Because
they are "free" it is in the interest of all Floridians to maximize the
goods and services provided by these natural uses and augment them were
appropriate. In-take uses, in contrast require energy impacts capital
investment and operations and maintenance costs to achieve.
Among the list of eight primary factors affecting water availability
and allocation for use of the State's water resources, two are particularly
1) The five month wet season followed by eight months of
relative drought; and
2) The concentration of population and industry in the
coastal (down gradient) territory of the state.
Nature has adapted to the first factor through the special accommoda-
tions inherent in the geology and topography of the state. The topography
of peninsular Florida is one characterized by series of long flat troughs
of wetlands which promote the holding and retention of rainfall from wet
season well into the drought season. This performed a metering of the
water to maintain the flora and fauna year round. The concentration of
population and industrial activity at the bottom of the hill in essence,
_____________________________L JL^ ^ -i ii Y ______
,l l, i, l ; I 1 tl l
creates a localized demand on this natural flow regime whose peak
demand generally coincides with the direct part of the hydrologic year,
March, April and May. A sequence of events follows as the pattern of
further residential and industrial development further concentrates
and sprawls out from these urban centers. Demand for water increases,
requiring the increased pumping of wells. Water flow, both surface
and ground is not sufficient to meet the additional demand so water
tables decline and salt water intrusion takes place. Wells are then
drilled furhter away, concentrated in well fields now because develop-
ment pressure has made land more valuable. With new additional water
supply, populations again spurt ahead and so does water demand. Again
a new well must be drilled and water pumped further. The flow of the
water through the hydrologic cycle is accelerated. The used water is
not returned ater use close to where it was diverted. That would cost
too much, instead it is dumped into the bays or sea, or more recently
pumped into the deep geology underlying the state. The system is short
circuited and many of the sequential uses and thus values of the water
are lost or forgone. Water tables are depressed with the attendant
loss of natural values--trees die, perhaps not directly from lack of a
high water table but from diseases which they normally could have
fought off if they didn't have to expend so much energy in maintaining
their proper moisture balance. The nature of the geology of Florida
allows for a great deal of interaction between surface and ground water.
The flow of surface water streams is derived in part from storm runoff
and in part from ground water infiltrated through the soil. In periods
of low rainfall, nearly all the water flowing in a stream or standing
in a lake may be derived from ground water. If the ground water aquafers
are heavily pumped, a lake or stream's water level or flow may be greatly
diminished or even dried up. The effects are not only environmental, they
are, in fact, economic. The opportunity costs for the local users are
incurred to benefit others some distance away. Additional population
growth occurred at the point of delivery, requiring a on-going and in-
creasing commitment. Equity is lost and economic values of the water
1. Any proposal for a federal or state inland waterway project should
provide an estimate of the true economic cost and benefit to the nation
and state of providing the contemplated transportation service and a
comparison thereof with the true economic cost of providing this service
by the least-cost alternative means.
A major weakness of the present inland navigation program at the
national level stems from difficiencies in procedures by which it is
determined whether or not a proposed waterway project would result in
a justified addition to the national or state transportation system.
There can be no doubting about the mainstream improvement of the Ohio
River being a sound investment for the nation. But there is a tendency
to conclude that because some waterways have contributed greatly to
national or regional prosperity, all waterways are, or will be justifiable.
.->.1^w9 IT? T n 7
Modern economic analysis provides much more reliable methods for
predicting the economic effect a contemplated waterway project
would have on the national or state economy.
2. Require carriers and pleasure craft using inland waterways to
pay user charges to defray operations and maintenance costs over the
3. Levee user charges as a uniform tax on all fuels used by vessels
operating on inland waterways and levee lockage charges at rates
sufficient to repay the cost of operating and maintaining the locks
within integral segments of the waterway system.
4. Impose the user fees and charges gradually over a ten year period
so as to avoid a drastic impact on system users and carriers.
5. Broaden and intensify the Department of Transportation responsi-
bility to develop and implement an overall state transportation policy.
State and federal waterway improvement programs had their beginnings
when the major reason for providing transportation facilities then
limited to waterways and roads was to induce the settlement and econo-
mic development of regions essentially uninhabited. When a region to
be served by a waterway had few people living in it, there was no way
for local beneficiences to assume any part of the cost of improvements
and it was in the state and/or national interest for the state or
federal government to bear these costs. A change in the state and national
policy governing the division of the cost of waterway projects between
the public Treasury and those who directly benefit from low-cost trans-
portation facilities is long overdue.
A third major defect of state and national waterway policy is the
failure to develop a true and effective state and national transporta-
tion policy. A federal Department of Commerce report issued in 1960
sums up the prevailing state and national transportation policies as
"National transportation is presently out of balance. It
is less a national system than a loose grouping of indivi-
dual industries. We have built a vast network of highways,
railways, inland waterways and seaports, airways and airports,
and pipelines, with little attention to conflict among these
expanding networks. Economic regulation has been administered
in rigid compartments although many basic problems are common
to many areas of transportation. Total capacity is not geared
to total need."
6. Municipal and Industrial Water Use accelerate land use and comprehensive
planning at the local level persuant to the Local Government Comprehensive
Planning Act of 1975, Chapter Florida Statutes.
'$ls?~~'t 7 7 w
7. Increase the effective coordination and cooperation between agencies
responsible for preparation of river basin plans and local-copreeMsive
plans. See water Quality Policy 24 on page for a discussion of these
policies. Tle same rational applies.
E Local government and regional water supply systems should operate
A ir water Systems on a utility basis, the revenues of which should be
sufficient to cover all costs.
Water utilities are public service enterprises. Their regulation
by various politically elected and appointed officials may be aimed at
accomplishing a number of objectives and only incidentally concerned
with conserving and efficiently using water supplies. Even though it
is an inefficient use of water supplies, the majority of utilities sur-
veyed by the University of Florida in 1971, indicated that their rate
structure promoted lawn sprinkling. The promotion of large green lawns
may be a valid community objective. The policy issue involved in such
low value local use is whether other uses of the water that may as a
result be fotgone are more valuable. Who is bearing the financial burden?
quire cost based pricing of water supplied to local utilities.
There is widespread practice of using declining block water pricing
iv metropolitan areas: larger users pay less per unit of water as they
use more. This practice of promotional pricing can and does promote
inefficient Water use. For example, "declining block" pricing permits
suburban users to pay less per-unit of water for lawn sprinkling at
times when they are burdening the supply system with the most costly
peak demands. In such a situation, prices are lowest when incremental
costs are hi chest. Thus, water and sewerage charges should be based on
a) the posts that users impose upon the system; and
b) the costs imposed on society from the loss of the use
of the resource (opportunity cost) for other purposes.
mrm Explore pnd develop devices to either more equitably distribute the
increased development capacity created by the construction and/or exten-
sion of water utility services, or enable the public to recapture the
unearned incement of value accruing to property owners within a service
area or both- See discussion under Water Quality Policy 8.
water, management districts where water is a scarce resource, pro-
vide the legal and institutional authority, if feasible to impose with-
drawal charges on self-suppliers of water.
Pricing,: including allowance for the value of the resource itself,
can help to bring about better use of the state's water resources. How-
ever, pricing cannot be relied upon exclusively to achieve always the
highest and best use from an overall social standpoint. It should not be
allowed to lead to improper land use. Land use planning should sit con-
straints on the use of both land and related water so that when water
pricing is implemented, the resulting use from a social standpoint is
indeed the highest and best. Likewise, pricing alone cannot be relied
upon to preserve environmental values, water quality standards will
have to be established outside the pricing Mechanism.
4', w`R tP
A uniform statewide system of prices, surface water diversion charges,
and pumping taxes would also be inappropriate. The structure of fees
imposed should vary from area to area and from situation to situation de-
pending upon conditions.
Ag hRequire the installation of meters fing and billing all users
for water delivered and used.
There is strong evidence that metering and pricing have substantial
impacts on water use. Introduction of metering reduced water use by
36 percent in Boulder, Colorado. Reductions ranging from 20 to 50 percent
have been achieved in other areas by metering. Metering does two things.
First, users are made aware of the extend of their water use. Second,
water charges are, in effect, changed from a flat rate system of pricing
to rates based on incremental use. Both the information and the incentive
of financial burden are important in achieving reduction in water use.
13. Require the installation of water conserving devices in all new resi-
dential and commercial construction and the retrofitting of these devices
into existing stocks as the old wear out.
See Water Quality Policy 19. More water efficient dish and clothes
washers are available for use and purchase by the public. Specially
engineered flush tanks and shower heads are likewise available whose
use would result in a substantial reduction in water use and subsequent
waste water treatment capacity needs.
14. Encourage the combining of electrical power generation with other
processes in multiple-use systems.
15. Develop means of benefically using water heat discharged from electrical
power generators with a view toward more efficient total energy use.
The ability of water to absorb heat is a valuable natural resource
which, under many conditions can have a. high utility in diluting, dis-
persing, and dissipating waste heat. However, for protecting various
uses of water for additional industrial process applications which could
benefit from the heated water and in turn act to dissipate the heat with-
out substantial additional expenditure of energy could act to double or
triple the utility of the water.
An interdistrict transfer of water should be considered only if:
16. It can be demonstrated to be the least-cost source of water supply
to serve a given purpose, and all feasible alternative sources of supply
should be examined and evaluated on the same basis.
17. The value of the water in new uses should exceed the aggregate of the
value of the water in uses to which it would have been put had it not been
exported, plus the costs of constructing and operating the inter-district
18. The net economic gains anticipated to accrue from the transfer project
should be stated and compared to the gains that might be expected to accrue
from alternative investment opportunities.
;J ... ... d 1,L __
19. Require the direct beneficianes who are identifiable to pay the
full reimbursable costs of an inter-district transfer project, including
compensation to the area of origin for the present worth of the net
benefits forgone as a result of the export of water.
20. Require a full environmental accounting of the effects of the
proposed inter-district transfer of water.
Institutional and Management Arrangement
21. Provide technically integrated information by establishing a contin-
uous network on data of all types, including monitoring and feedback
data relevant to developing possible alternatives for comprehensive water
resources management decisions.
The management of water resources is fundamentally dependent upon
the availability of facts upon which to base decisions. Ideally this
should involve more than merely gathering reports from different disci-
pline or agency has biases and limitations; the information process
must identify and compensate for these flaws. The inherent limitation to
any input from a specific discipline is that not all relevant alternatives
will be presented within the discipline's frame of reference, alternatives
will be discussed, but very often alternatives which represent a departure
from tradition, or which are contrary to vested interests, are omitted
entirely from consideration. Consequently projects can be justified by
stating there are no feasible alternatives and frequently without even
questioning the need for the project at all. As a starting point, social
data should be provided along with physical and economic data. A more
comprehensive data base would better serve public planning efforts, the
general public and independent enterprise.
22. Maintain effective communications between decision makers and the
general public as a primary function of planning.
Although evaluation of alternatives is an integral and vital part
of plan formulation, the ultimate determination of the most acceptable
configuration of water resources oriented alternatives lies with the
general public. Only in this way can proposals be determined to be truly
responsive to societal objectives. Public hearings prior to final adoption
do not fulfill this obligation. Even when hearings are held, the general
public is seldom made award of revisions subsequent to these hearings by
a reopening of hearings. The need for communications with the public is
fundamental to preventing the planning process from working in reverse.
Without communication:, planning can begin with the advocacy of a single
project and then work to provide proper justification and to obtain
authoritative and societal approval for its implementation, instead of
sitting through alternatives for the optimal solution.
23. Require the development of ways for regulating the use of water.
Current regulatory measures are based almost entirely on: the promulgation
and enforcement of standards permitting and constraining water use; and/or
the administrative allocations of water. These are generally inadequate
for present day water resources ne An integrated management program
requires greater reliance upon :as a regulatory tool. These
charges should cover the full er uses including withdrawals,
disposals and instream water uses. Pricing should reflect the true value
of water service and influence the kind, amount of timing of use. Pricing
influence has been successfully implemented in such public utilities as
telephone service and electrical energy. Use of this technique in water
resources should have a similar if not superior effect, especially when
used conjunctively with water quality standards and water allocation.
24. Require the implementation of institutional arrangements which can
provide for the coordinated development of water resources facilities
which are designed and operated to avoid spillover costs and to take
advantage of potential spillover benefits stemming from the interdependencies
of the hydrologic system. The past objectives of water resources develop-
ment were concerned with single specific services. The narrow goals of
the past must be expanded to maximize the capacity of the entire hydrologic
systems in order to serve the public interest in the best fashion. To
provide coordinated development facilities, basic methods need to be
developed for: direct public planning, design, construction and operation
of the development facilities; public regulation of all aspects of new
development projects of independent agents; regulation of existing private
25. Establish an organization capable of directing regional water distri-
bution and disposal systems.
Water supply is a direct and avertly sought service, with few sub-
stitutes and for which top priority is accorded in allocation decisions.
The processes of withdrawing, distributing and disposing of water affect
the control of hydrologic subsystems which are vital parts of hydrologic
systems. For example, besides the content of effluent, the manner in which
it is returned to the hydrologic system may vary significantly,influence
the subsequent use of the water and the control of spillover costs. There-
fore, the location of the site of effluent discharge also requires collec-
tive measures on a regional scale to effect an efficient and totaT quality
Fragmented organizational arrangements cannot function satisfactorially
with respect to the concept that water use and waste water disposal
constitute a subsystem of water management. The onus is on government
to intervene in the organization of regional distribution and disposal
schemes; if, scale economies are to be achieved; and, if, coordination
of supply and disposal services are to be integrated with the development
of the resource.
F ,7 7 7 71 r
Water Excess (Floods)
Objective: To minimize the loss of life and property caused by floods.
"Flooding is a natural phenomena. It imperils life, destroys pro-
perty, and brings about economic and social disruption where man has
vied with nature for use of the natural floodplain. It behooves us to
consider the economic and social dangers of continued definace."'
Human activity was initially concentrated along water courses out
of necessity. Water is not only a major resource but a critical one
for man. He drank it, washed in it, used it for preparing food, used
it in transportation, irrigated his agricultural endeavors with it,
used it as a power source, and enjoyed it many other benefits. The
fertile flood plains along the water courses supplied an abundance of
food. Because of the generally flat nature of floodplains, they were
the preferred location for land transportation routes.
Since 1936 the federal government has played the major role in
dealing with flood problems resulting from man's affinity to flood-
plains. To date, some $9 billion has been expended in single and multi-
purpose projects to protect people and property from the ranges of
flooding. With few exceptions, the engineering structures (levees,
walls, enlarged channels, detention reservoirs, and other structures)
have served efficiently the special purposes for which they were designed.
Yet, flood damage potential continues to grow because of this limited
approach to the problem. It is estimated that annual flood losses in
current dollars amount to $3.8 billion and an average of 89 lines nation-
Knowledge of probable flooding had resulted in many floodplains
remaining undeveloped in the past. However, location of wide new
a I streets or highways often leads to encroachments into those open areas
Because of the increasing concentration of people into the states and
L- nation's urban areas. Other floodplains, enveloped by urbanization but
previously left open, are in density built up areas and are now sucumbing
,: to development because of their prime location. Large floodplain areas
ins are being subdivided with homes sold to innocent and niave buyers who
know nothing about the flood hazard. Who will be held accountable when
the catastrophe strikes? The legislature has defeated measures in
the past which would have required some minimal (10 and 20 year flood
delineations) flood plain management.
Subsidies have played a major role in our society for decades. Every
citizen is aware of the subsidies to housing, farming, railroads, and
airlines, but few recognize flood control as a subsidy to floodplains.
The relative importance of different subsidies continues to change, re-
flecting society's needs. However, there is a limit to the funds avail-
able for such purposes. These limited funds and societies changing
needs impell the question: Can government afford to continue subsidizing
floodplains now that technological advances have removed most of man's
needs to be so near the water?
As the inadequacy of the traditional structural approach to flood
control became apparent the necessity of broadening the approach to also
control man was recognized. In general, non-intensive uses are more
lGoddard, James E., The Nation's Increasing Vulnerability to flood
Catastrophe. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Vol. 31 Number 2
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i ; i. -
harmonious than intensive uses of the floodplain. Agriculture, open
space, and sand extraction and relatively harmonious uses of floodprone
lands. Thus a comprehensive approach of structured (remedial or corrective)
and non-structural (poventive) measures must be developed and implemented
for the best use of each regions water and floodable land resources. Be-
cause of this State's low and flat topography, much of the land is subject
to flooding and so the courage of our political leaders must be bolstered
if they are to do what is right and proper in this regard. The police
powers of the state and local government must be involved to the utmost to
assure the health, safety and welfare of the-present and future residents
of the state.
While flooding of rivers poses a serious threat to life and property,
an even more serious threat exists in the coastal areas of the state due
to hurricane associated flooding. The following scenario by Gilbert F.
White and J. Eugene Hass is taken from their book entitled Assessment of
Research on Natural Hazards which was prepared with the support of the
National Science Foundation. It is a ficticious occurance included here
to demonstrate the potential threat to life, the inadequacy of current
disaster preparedness and public awareness, and the need for land use
planning which recognizes the potential for catrastrophes.
One sobering lesson from past experience with hazards is that
the nation has difficulty visualizing the human suffering and
economic disruption which will result from events whose coming is certain
but whose timing is completely uncertain. The magnitude of some of those
events which will shake the nation at some unknown time and the ways in
which their severity could be reduced by taking action in the years
immediately ahead aresuggested by the scenario.
Whether or not the hypothetical disaster occurs at the designated
place, a similar situation is likely to occur sometime over the course
of the next few decades. Such an event is as likely to occur next year
-as in any year thereafter.
The threat posed by hurricanes at many points along the South
Atlantic and Gulf coasts is dramatized by an account of.vulnerable popu-
lation and property in dynamic interaction in Miami, Florida. The
following is a current judgment of the probable results of a hurricane
of a given strength striking a sector of the Florida shore where the
parameters of occupance and adjustment are know. It concentrates on
threats to life and does not estimate total property losses.
The meteorological catalyst is a large, slow-moving, wet hurricane
making landfall south of Miami. Specifically, it is a hurricane with a
central pressure of 925 mbs and radius of maximum winds of 15 miles. This
is equivalent to Donna (1960), Carla (1961), and Betsy (1965), and much
less severe than the Keys storm of 1935, which drowned 730 people in
that relatively low density population area. It passes just south of Key
Biscayne and moves onshore at 15 mph at the new resjidtiial community of
Saga Bay (see Figure 2-1). l '
Under these conditions, the National Hurricane Center in
Coral Gables issues a warning for residents of Key Biscayne, Virginia
Key, and south Miami to evacuate. Such a warning is normally made with
at least 12 hours of daylight remaining before the predicted landfall
of the hurricane.
Key Biscayne and Virginia Key are about five miles off the
coast of south Miami. Virginia Key is occupied by a sea aquarium,
the oceanographic laboratories of the University of Miami, and oceano-
graphic laboratories of the University of Miami, and.research facilities
of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Key Biscayne, a
large residential community of mostly wealthy residents, is attractive
for residential location due to the close proximity of the water and its
distance from the more congested mainland. The elevations of these
areas above mean sea level range from two or three feet to about ten feet,
with an average of approximately five feet. Rickenbacker Causeway, a
two-mile bridge across Biscayne Bay bisected by a drawbridge, connects
Key Biscayne and Virginia Key with the ma~Tfand. At best, it requires
at least nine to ten hours to evacuate the approximately 10,000 inhabitants.
A number of possible events could preclude successful evacuation
of the entire population. First, not all of the 12 hours of warning
are available for evacuation. As much as six hours prior to a slow-
moving hurricane's landfall, storm surge may cause tides to begin rising,
thereby flooding some low points on roadways used for evacuation, and
bringing automobile traffic to a halt. Even before the storm surge hits
its peak at the coast, traffic is snarled by a combination of congestion,
weather, flat tires, and automobile accidents. Residents of Key Biscayne
and Virginia Key must act swiftly to evacuate once the warning is received
in order to avert a major disaster; those not promptly heeding the warning
are trapped by the time the magnitude of the hurricane becomes visibly
apparent. Since a large proportion of Florida's population has never
witnessed a severe hurricane, a warning response rate of less than 50%
can be expected.
The drawbridge represents another weak link in the escape route.
With the onset of a major storm, marine traffic through the drawbridge
increases as vessels seek the shelter of the Miami River and other havens
northward. Commercial marine traffic is normally heavy, and several times
in past years, barges (which are now pushed rather than pulled by tugboats)
have jack-knifed while passing through the raised bridge and jammed its
mechanisms. Rising winds and heavy seas contribute to the probability
of such an event. Even without such an accident, drawbridges periodically
fail and lock in the up position.
Severing of the causeway for any reason means large fatalities from
storm surge in the trapped population. Alternative escape routes are
severely limited by time and geography. No large boat landings exist
on either Key Biscayne or Virginia Key, so only small craft can be utilized
for an evacuation by sea. Only a handful of people can be transported at
a time, and organizing and carrying out such an operation consumes much
precious time. Moreover, the danger to those in b creases rapidly
as the hurricane appraoches. n c'r c^
*V tA ^
Evacuation by air is precluded by the lack of an airport
and the danger of utilizing helicopters in high winds. Vertical
evacuation into high-rise condominiums is an increasing possibility
with new construction, but is limited by space and the willingness of
owners to allow public access to their private property. (The problem
is analogous to that for private atomic bomb shelters during the 1950's.)
The five to ten-foot land elevations afford minimal shelter from the
wind-driver storm surge waves of 10-15 feet along the right side of the
Mainlanders also experience severe difficulties in their attempts
to evacuate. A storm surge six hours in advance of the hurricane's center
catches many residents still preparing to leave. Heavy rainfall and high
winds also hamper evacuation attempts.
Saga Bay is an excellent example of how the hurricane disaster
potential is exacerbated by coastal development. The area is located
south of Miami in the area below Old Cutler Road and above Black Point;
it is anticipated to house a population of approximately 100,000 to
150,000 initially. Feasibility of the development was enhanced by con-
struction of the West Dade Expressway, which is connected to Saga Bay
by the Old Cutler Road. Elevation of -the Saga Bay area varies from sea
level to five feet above mean sea level.
In order to meet Federal housing regulations, houses are elevated
five feet above mean sea level on fill dug from nearby man-made lakes.
The Saga Bay developers, however, also tore out the mangroves along the
coast, which are unsightly and ill-smelling. These mangroves formerly
provided one of the few effective barriers to storm surge, and the smooth,
cleared beaches that are being built invite the unrestrained sweep of
storm surge across the entire area. Storm surge accompanying a hurricane
of magnitude postulated cannot be deterred by the slight elevation of
The evacuation route for Saga Bay residents is along Old Cutler
Road to the expressway and then north. While Old Cutler Road generally
has an elevation of five to ten feet above sea level, and might not
initially be affected by storm surge, heavy rainfall swells Black Creek
beyond its banks and cuts the shortest route to the expressway.
Travel north on Old Cutler Road carries evacuees to the already
overburdened and inadequate Dixie Highway, and into the congestion of
evacuees from Key Biscayne, Virginia Key, and Coral Gables at the inter-
section of the Rickenbacker Causeway, Dixie Highway, and Interstate
Highway 95. Regardless of the direction of travel on Old Cutler Road,
evacuees from Saga Bay encounter serious congestion and slow-moving
traffic as the capacity of the road is exceeded and the weather deteriorates.
Time runs out for many as they find themselves trapped in their automo-
biles when the hurricane hits.
Reaching the West Dade Expressway does not mean safety, however,
and further obstacles must be overcome. The expressway connects the
Florida Turnpike, which is located west of most residential development
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in the Miami area. It too becomes severely overburdened as Miami
residents evacuate. The Palmetto and the North-South (1-95) Expressways
have major tie-ups, as do all northbound streets, and travel is induced
westward to the turnpike extension.
The severity of traffic jams in Miami is made worse by the inter-
action with two evacuation operations, those for boats, and those for
people by automobile. Slip lease agreements between boat owners and the
marinas normally stipulate that owners will evacuate their boats when a
hurricane warning is received. At the time of evacuation, these boats
are instructed to proceed to the mouth of the Miami River to be escorted
up the river in flotillas. Other than the expressways, all of the major
north-south arteries in Miami cross the Miami River and, therefore, have
drawbridges. The use of flotillas is designed to minimize the raising
of bridges, but major automobile tie-ups occur; once the flow of traffic
is interrupted it takes considerable time to return to normal.
In addition, the evacuation of boats poses a serious threat of
a catastrophe at sea. There are roughly 10,000 small craft registered
in Biscayne Bay, but only 1,000 of them can be accommodated up the Miami
River. When the river is full, boats are turned away to seek another
refuge. No other shelter is close at hand, however, and many boats are
caught in open water by the hurricane.
Flooding hampers evacuation operations, as well as severely
damaging property. .Much flooding is caused by the South Florida Water
Control Conservation Project, which is a large network of canals con-
structed by the Corps of Engineers to prevent flooding of agricultural
land in south central Florida. These cansl flow to the sea through most
residential communities in Dade and Broward Counties and, in fact, provide
high-priced, waterfront sites. With the onset of storm surge, however,
their flow to the sea will be blocked and with heavy rainfall they can
be expected to flood both streets and property.
In sum, the total loss of life is high. A storm surge well in
advance of the hurricane's center catches many still preparing to evacuate.
Flooding of escape routes due to heavy rain exacerbates the severe traffic
tie-ups which are normally expected with a large number of automobiles. (Rush
hour traffic probably represents less than 25% of the traffic which could
be expected with a warning to evacuate, and even this amount cannot be
accommodated without major delays). Warning and evacuation as they now are
planned and proceed are inadequate responses to the posited threat.
1. Develop a comprehensive program of structural and non-structural
techniques for control and management of flood related losses.
Since flooding is a natural phenomenon and not capable of total
prevention or elimination, it is far more cost effective and reasonable
to focus control and management techniques on the economic losses and
losses of life associated with floods. As.noted in the non-point source
policies and discussions, water resources management should begin when
the first drop touches the ground. The reten f water where it falls
-- vl i
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for as long as possible, the use of natural, meandering drainage
systems, utilization of marshes and wetlands for water retention
will all contribute to minimizing the flood peaks associated with
heavy rainfall. Floods however will occur.
While channalization and damming of mainstreams and tributaries
of major rivers in the state stand as monuments to the flood control
policies established in 1936-1938, those policies have been seriously
questioned in recent years. They have proven effective from an en-
gineering point of view, but other complementary approaches have been
tested and developed. The limitation on structural measures is due
to unwise development which takes place historically in marginally
protected areas associated with the project and inevitably results in
increased loss of life and property; the fact that structural measures
are usually designed and constructed to treat less than the maximum
flood condition for cost reasons, resulting in catastrophic loses of
life and property, and environmental reasons, resulting in greater
environmental costs and losses of values--accelleration of water
runoff in non-storm conditions, deterioration of water quality of
receiving bodies, and loss of fish and wildlife values.
Improvements in the flood warning and flood forecasting system
along, may result in.the reduction of lives lost associated with
flooding. This effort however, is dependent on public response and
public credibility of the forecasts. The gap between actual and
possible performance of a warning system in most communities is large.
Some causes of this discrepancy are: ignorance of emergency proce-
dures, ignorance of the hazard and the loss reductions that are possible;
individual or group perferences for other types of action; lack of
forecasting systems credibility, institutional inertia; and lack of
sufficient and safe evacuation routes and sanctuaries-particularly in
the state's coastal, highly populous hurricane prone counties.
Adoption of flood proofing techniques, construction materials, and
design has not been generally adopted. It if left however, that if
adopted extensively it could pose the same kind of danger as the use
of structural measures alone and result in warnings not heeded over
construction of flood ways by flood proofed structures resulting in
increased floodwater velocities or flooded areas, and a reduction in
public support for flood plain land use management.
In the long run, flood plainland use management may be the single
adjustment most likely to reduce state and national flood losses. In
the short run however, the amount of damage reduction will be relatively
low because of complications in removing existing properties from the
path of flood waters. Structural measures, flood warnings, and flood
proofing will be of little value if the reduction in damages that they
accomplish is more than offset by new damage potential resulting from
additional development in flood plains.
'~ p ~ii
2. Require local governments to explicitly state 4 their Comprehensive
Plans prepared under the Local Governmental Comprehensive Planning
Act of 1975 163.3161-3211 Florida Statutes, the planned for level
and extent of flood prone areas and flood losses the jurisdiction
has determined as acceptable.
It is essential for government to make explicit to their constituents
the hazard potential and economic losses they are to bear. The public
hearing process required by the Local Government Comprehensive Planning
Act does provide an opportunity for public input as to the degree of hazard
acceptable to the citizens of each jurisdiction and a unique educational
APl Restrict development in flood hazard areas.
The safest and most economical way to reduce flood losses is to
avoid them. Some land uses are comparable with use of flood plains and
flood prone land, such as agriculture, sand mining, low density flood
proofed residential, recreational uses, etc. Even in these uses, flood
loss potential and inconvenience exists, and public subsidy through
replacement and maintenance of infrastructural facilities such as high-
ways and utility services will be borne by the public.
4. Preserve and protect those features of nature which function to
dampen/temper the impact of flooding on man and man's activities.
Wetlands, marshes, mangroves, and beach dunes all act as reservoirs
under storm conditions. Wetlands and marshes retain and slow the flow
of water thereby decreasing the flood peak or stage of surface streams
in flood. Mangrove swamps and salt marshes act in a like capacity to
temper or slow the storm surge of hurricanes. Beach dunes act as
sand reservoirs for beaches subjected to high hurricane driven waves,
reducing the impact of beach erosion. Each of these features are
adaptations by nature to maintain an equilibrium with hydrologic and
meteorological fluctuations in a dynamic equilibriam. When this equili-
brium is drastically altered by man, he may have to pay twice: the first
time to alter, the second time to rebuild.
5. Stringently enforce the coastal construction setback line once
6. After every major storm which significantly alters the coast,
establish a new coastal construction setback line based upon the
new data gained and the new conditions.
7. Postpone redevelopment in areas having experienced major hurricane
damage until the new/revised coastal construction setback line
8. Increase public awareness of the hazards and potential hazards of
flooding and hurricane storm surges.
R w*r^ a r TOA^7 *
The public, for the most part has not experienced Florida weather
at its worst. Civil defense and disaster preparedness has.not been a
popular topic since the "cold war years of the 1950's." Efforts should
be made to instill in today's Florida citizens the potential hazard
with which they live. Legislation might be framed to require on all
realestate listings the flood frequency expressed in odds of their pro-
perty being flooded, e.g. a 1 in 10 chance means the property is sub-
jected to flooding 1 in 10 years, 1 in 50 means once in 50 years, etc.