Water Management in the San Diego Region
of Southern California
Fifteenth Annual Water Management Seminar
January 13-20, 1996
Alton F. Robertson, P.E.
Law Engineering and Environmental Services, Inc.
San Diego, California
Supplying Water in the Country's Sixth Largest
Metropolitan Area With a Puny, Local Source
and LessThan Ten Inches of Annual Rainfall
The San Diego region of Southern California is semi-arid with less than 10
inches of annual rainfall. There are limited local sources for surface and groundwater
supplies yet a big thirst to support the areas population and multifacited economy.
Imported water is vital to the region. To support the absolute need for a supplemental
water supply, there is a complex physical and political system in place. The physical
system includes numerous large reservoirs, many miles of pipes and canals, as well as
multiple treatment plants and pumping stations. The political system includes the
County Water Authority, Cities, and numerous water districts. There are 24 member
agencies that form the County Water Authority. As shown on figure 1, the area also the
large Pendleton Military Reservation.
San Diego's development has long been influenced by the need for and the continuing
search for a reliable and safe water supply. From the days of the Spanish missionaries
this need has been constant and obvious and many steps have taken to resolve the
various problems created by the water resource scarcity. When they founded the
Mission San Diego de Alcala in 1769, the Spaniards faced the situation of an unreliable
supply and in 1773 began building a dam that still exists today. The Mission Dam was
the first irrigation and residential water system built in the West by the European
Local sources, when managed properly, were usually adequate to support the area until
the advent of WWII. There were several periods of temporary shortages before then
that caused consternation but the growth of the region war brought on by the war effort
changed the water supply and need situation drastically. Early in that period the area
became a center of military construction for bases and war support programs. The
population grew by 80 percent between 1940 and 1946. The rapidly increased demand
for water overwhelmed the local sources of supply and other sources had to be found to
sustain the region.
The San Diego County Water Authority began operations in mid 1944 and began much
of the present system storing local water and importing water into the region. Early in
its existence, the Authority considered imported water only supplemental to the local
supply. It soon became apparent however that imported water was essential and by
1950 more that half of the regions supply was imported. Today about 90 percent of the
San Diego region's water supply is imported. The County Water Authority joined the
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California in 1946 and to this day the MWD
has supplied all of the water for the Authority's pipelines. The Colorado River is the
source of about half of the Region's supply. The State Water Project, a canal/pipeline
from the Bay-Delta region near Sacramento-San Francisco California, is the source of
the rest of the water that sustain the San Diego Region.
Current population served by the County is more than 2.5 million and the economy is
placed at about $65 billion annually. Water delivery by the County Water Authority
was almost 650 thousand Acre-Feet in 1990, (580 MGD). That is the most it has
delivered in one year. In 1994 about 432 thousand acre-feet, (386 MGD) was used.
Although this reduction is credited to conservation, there was also a significant
slowdown in the region's economy during the period. Water use by category is heavily
slanted toward residential use, 54 percent while agriculture and commercial uses are 19
percent and 13 percent respectively. Public use and industry account for 10 percent and
4 percent of the region's use. The information in Appendix A provides additional
descriptions and facts about the County Water Authority.
The City of San Diego takes about 46 billion gallons of water annually from the County
Water Authority, (126 MGD). The City's Water Utilities Department treats and
delivers water to 1.2 million residents in the City's service area. Including local supply
they deliver an average of 182MGD. In Appendix B there is additional information and
system facts regarding the San Diego City Water Utilities Department.
Water conservation and reclamation are receiving substantial attention over the past 5-8
years. The City's Wastewater Utility Department has invested heavily in treatment
plants and other facilities to accomplish the objectives of their Clean Water Program.
About $1.3 billion is the anticipated cost to construct the various facilities identified by
the plan. This cost would have been twice that if the EPA had prevailed in its efforts to
have the City upgrade its treatment of water being discharged by deep ocean outfall.
Additional information about the Region's water reclamation efforts are included in
As one could anticipate, this complex system generates many complex political and
controversies. One of the current issues of lively discussion is Supply Reliability. The
delivery system from the MWD to San Diego crosses three geologic faults including
the San Andreas Fault, figure 2. If one of the delivery pipes were to rupture due to
earthquake activity in the faults, the supply could be cut off until repairs were made.
This would leave the region to rely on local storage and the limited local supply for its
water. Various proposals have been advanced to deal with this situation but none are
without its detractors.
It has been estimated that by 2010 total water demand within San Diego County will be
about 900 thousand acre-feet per year, (800 MGD). Current imported water and local
supply will not yield enough to meet this demand leaving a shortfall of about 150
thousand acre-feet, (133 MGD). If the Region's Water Resources Plan is successful
that demand will be met by conservation, reclamation and other methods so that the
projected water resource in 2010 will be composed as follows:
To implement the plan will involve further studies as well as overcoming cost issues
and permit requirements. Those obstacles along with the public involvement that will
no doubt increase, will make the next ten years very interesting for Water Managers in
SAN DIEGO COUNTY
< PENDLETON MILITARY
:.. C.- ,. .. .,
Local residents would have to rely
entirely on water stored within the county
following a major earthquake on the
Elsinore fault that interrupted imported water
deliveries. The county is about 40,000 acre-
feet short of the emergency water storage
capacity it would need to withstand an inter-
ruption of imported water deliveries today.
The Authority estimates that this shortfall will
grow to 90,100 acre-feet by 2030.
The Authority's estimated shortfall takes
into account storage capacity already
dedicated to emergency use and enhanced
local water supplies from water reclamation,
repurification, groundwater development
and desalination projects. The Authority
also included savings resulting from ongoing
conservation efforts and from the mandatory
rationing that would occur in an emergency.
delivery systems in
relation to major
/76~cv-4Z. I 3.
SAN DIEGO COUNTY WATER AUTHORITY
"WATER FOR LIFE"
A t uYv~j :~~~
San Diego County Water fllthorilV Conservation: Our Wall of Life
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san Dieg Comnt Walter the 24 member agencies has at least one
S5an Die LCouly WCater representative of the board. .
The directors are appointed rep-
Al ritAiHr f alter t r resentatives of the member agencies.
Ilhorily. I HalfCenIliy They are business and civic leaders with
^ diverse professional and technical back-
Uf y- JC Just as it has member agencies,
the Authority in turn is a member agency :C
THE SAN DIEGO COUNTY of the Metropolitan Water District of
SATER AUTHORITY'S MISSION IS Southern California. In fact, the Authority
TO"- E A DIE ON I is the largest of Metropolitan's 27 mem-
TO PROVIDE SAN DIEGO COUNTY bersintermsofwaterpurchases.
bers in terms of water purchases.
'jW WITH A SAFE, RELIABLE WATER All of San Diego County's import- -
C. SUPPLY. AS THE REGION'S WATER ed water is purchased by the Authority
WHOLESALER, THE AUTHORITY from Metropolitan. The Authority takes
delivery of the water in five large-diame-
SERVES WATER T 23 RETAIL ter pipelines approximately 6 miles south
AGENCIES, WHICH IN TURN DELIVER of the Riverside County line. Pipelines 1
IT TO INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS. and 2 are in the right of way known as
NINETY-SEVEN PERCENT OF the First San Diego Aqueduct. The other '
three pipelines are in the Second San
.. ~ COUNTY RESIDENTS USE IMPORTED ,
Y RS UE ID Diego Aqueduct. A sixth pipeline is
WATER. scheduled to begin delivering water late
The Authority began operations As the Authority marked its 50th
June 9, 1944, under the state County anniversary in 1994, it looked back on a
Water Authority Act of 1943. When the history of meeting San Diego County's
Authority delivered water for the first water needs through times of drought,
time in 1947, imported water was consid- population growth and economic expan-
ered supplemental to the region's local sion. The county's water supply has been
supply. By 1950, however, imported among the nation's most reliable in the
water accounted for more than half the past half-century. The Authority contin-
region's total supply. Ninety percent of ues to enhance and expand its regional
San Diego's water typically is imported water delivery system to 2.7 million San
today. Diego County residents. 6 TZ
The Authority is governed by a ,
34-member board of directors. Each of
r Water for San Diego County
THE STORY OF THE SAN DIEGO
REGION CENTERS AROUND A CONTINUING
SEARCH FOR A SAFE, RELIABLE WATER SUPPLY.
SINCE BEFORE THE FIRST PERMANENT
EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT IN THE LATE 18TH
CENTURY, AREA RESIDENTS HAVE MOVED
WATER FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER TO
MEET THEIR NEEDS IN THE SEMI-ARID CLIMATE.
Today, most of the region's water supply
comes from elsewhere. It is imported to San Diego
from Northern California and the Colorado River by
the San Diego County Water Authority.
Now, with the continued reliability of
imported water supplies in question, it is more
important than ever for the Authority to work with
diverse interests to develop local water sources. The
county's $65 billion annual economy and its survival
\ as an urban, business, military and agricultural cen-
ter depend on a safe, reliable supply of water.
The Spaniards who founded the Mission San
Diego de Alcala in 1769 quickly found the local
water supply to be unreliable unless it was managed
carefully. In 1773, they began building a dam that
still exists today in the Mission Trails Regional Park.
The Mission Dam was the first irrigation and domes-
tic water system built by Europeans in the American
Efforts to manage water continued as San
Diego grew. Despite some temporary shortages, the
local water supply proved sufficient until World War
II, when the county became a focus for the military's
construction and support programs. The population
rose by 80 percent between 1940 and 1946. The
local water supply was inadequate to meet the vastly
Responding to the situation, local leaders
successfully sought state legislation creating the San
Diego County Water Authority to augment the local
supply with imported water. The Authority joined
the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
(MWD) in 1946. To this day, MWD has supplied all
f of the water for the Authority's pipelines from the
Colorado River and the State Water Project.
The county's water supply has been among
the nation's most reliable in the past half-century
since imported water first arrived.
Typically, 90 percent of the county's water
arrives here through an intricate system of pipelines.
canals, reservoirs and pumps that extends north to
the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and east to
the Colorado River. A variety of regional, state and
federal agencies operate these facilities.
But the region faces new challenges to its
water supply as it nears the 21st century. San Diego's
population is projected to grow to 3.8 million by
2015 a 50 percent increase since 1990. Demands
for water are increasing locally and across California.
Meanwhile, once-reliable water sources have
grown increasingly undependable. Even with a 15
percent reduction in local demand due to conserva-
tion measures since 1990, the water supply could
prove inadequate without any additional investments
or improvements. This would mean some type of
shortage, on average, every other year, and rationing
in many of those years.
The Authority is working on several fronts to
ensure that the region's water supply remains reli-
able. Locally, efforts center on improving the water-
delivery system, fully developing water resources,
augmenting emergency water storage, and educating
the public about water-related issues. On a broader
level, the Authority is involved with state and federal
decisions affecting San Diego's water supply.
The Authority's local water management pro-
gram aims to lessen the county's dependence on
imported water by developing local water resources
in a cost-effective and environmentally sensitive man-
ner. Details of the program's elements follow. 6
r Capilal Improvements
FOR SA.1 DIEGO COUNTY RESIDENTS.
THE AUTHORITY'S CAPITAL. IMPROVEMENT
PROGRAM (CIP) WILL MEAN A MORE RELIABLE
WATER SUPPLY. THE AUTHORITY IS L\IPROV1NG
EXISTING INFRASTR UCTURE AND CONSTRUCT-
ING NEW FACILITIES TO CONTINUE MEETING
THE REGION'S NEEDS.
The Authority initiated the CIP in 1989 to
plan and implement projects that would meet the
water needs of the Authority's service area to the
year 2010. Specifically, the Authority's goals for the
CIP are to:
INCREASE PIPELINE CAPACrTY TO MEET PRESENT AND
FUTURE DEMANDS, PARTICULARLY DURING MONTHS
OF PEAK USAGE
ELIMINATE BOTTLENECKS IN THE PRESENT PIPELNET
INCREASE RELIABILITY WHERE WATER DELIVERY
DEPENDS ON A SINGLE PIPELINE OR SOURCE
INCREASE OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY TO
FACILITATE PIPELINE MAINTENANCE
lines are divided into
known as the first
and second San Diego
aqueducts. The new pipelines are being constructed
primarily along the Second San Diego Aqueduct.
Besides the additions to the Authority's
pipeline system, the CIP consists of:
AN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLAN
IMPROVEMENTS TO THE COMPUTERIZED
AQUEDUCT CONTROL SYSTEM
AN AQUEDUCT PROTECTION PROGRAM TO PREVENT
PIPE DAMAGE AND REPLACE DAMAGED PIPES
AN ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION PROGRAM
A PROGRAM TO PROTECT THE PIPELINES 'HERE
THEY CROSS THE SAN Luis REY RIVER
The price of the projects planned for the
next 10 years is estimated to be approximately $350
million. The Emergency Water Storage Project (see
facing page), if approved, would add $450 million
to $550 million to the projected 10-year CIP cost.
The capital improvement bill will be paid
through standby charges on developed and unde-
veloped property; connection charges on new
development; and bonds, which will be repaid
through the Authority's sales of water to
^ its member agencies. 6
A major feature of the CIP
is a series of pipeline projects
now under way. The
Authority has five
bringing either fil-
tered or raw water
into San Diego
County from the
Metropolitan Water T
District of Southern
rf EmergencVy after
SAN DIEGO COUNTY'S IMPORTED
WATER SUPPLY WHICH TYPICALLY PROVIDES
NINE OF EVERY 10 GALLONS USED LOCALLY
IS VULNERABLE TO DISRUPTION BY AN
EARTHQUAKE OR OTHER EMERGENCY.
The pipelines and canals carrying imported
water cross three major earthquake faults on their way
to San Diego. Should a major earthquake occur, these
facilities could be knocked out of service for as long
as six months.
Other factors may adversely affect the flow of
imported water to the region. For example, the
Authority's pipelines cross the San Luis Rey River,
which is prone to major flooding during exceptionally
SDrought also fueiduc Facilities
may reduce our water
supply, as it did in
1991 and 1992. In jwen
addition, laws requir-
ing that more water "
be made available for
fish, wildlife and bUIs I
habitat may restrict
the supply available muA
to us. nigtm
to this dilemma lies in
setting aside sufficient
storage capacity in
local reservoirs for
water that will be- Bsas
used only during
However, most exist-. -
ing reservoirs are heavily used and so have little
remaining emergency storage capacity.
Moreover, having been constructed before the
Authority was organized in 1944, most of the local
reservoirs are not connected to the Authority's
pipelines. This makes it difficult to deliver water
around the county as may prove necessary during an
The Authority has been analyzing this situa-
tion since the early 1980s. The Emergency Water
Storage Project (ESP) was established in 1992 to
review a wide range of options for dosing the emer-
gency storage shortfall.
The Authority has determined that San Diego
County is about 40,000 acre-feet short of the emer-
gency storage capacity it needs to endure a prolonged
imported water outage without severe economic and
environmental damage. (An acre-foot is about 326,000
gallons, enough water to meet the average annual
household needs of two families.)
This gap is projected to grow to 90,000 acre-
feet in coming years, even with a concentrated conser-
vation effort, full development of local water
resources, mandatory rationing and an emergency
supply from a new Metropolitan Water District reser-
voir being constructed in southwest Riverside County.
The ESP staff is conducting detailed environ-
mental and engineering analyses of systems that
would meet the region's emergency storage needs
through 2030. A system is a combination of storage
and delivery options that will provide sufficient emer-
Relation to major Faults capacity in a cost-
_- If the
SSuatluriCnt el!f of directors ulti-
l the project, the
System chosen for
SSA ANDREAS construction will
awn cost an $450 mil-
U lion and $550
SANJACNTO million. The over-
L" HEW all environmental
LSNORE and engineering
Study of alterna-
tives will cost an'
SuptI estimated $10
Public participation is an integral part of the
ESP process. The Authority is actively seeking to
inform the public about the project and receive
input from community members. Project staff make
presentations to a wide range of community and
governmental organizations. To arrange a presenta-
tion or receive more information, call the project
hotline, 457-0993. 6 -
USE OF RECLAIMED WATER CONTINUES UNTER
TO EXPAND IN SAN DIEGO COUNrY, SAVING
FRESHWATER THLAT IS IMPORTED TO THE
REGION BY THE AUTHORITY FROM HUN-DREDS
OF MILES AWAY. THE wATER RECLAMATION
PROCESS TREATS WASTEXA.TER SO IT CAN BE
SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY REUSED
THROUGHOUT THE COUNTY.
Public agencies and private companies use
reclaimed water for a variety of beneficial purposes,
including irrigation of nurseries, freeway medians,
landscaping, crops and golf courses. Reclaimed water
also is used to fill artificial lakes, supplement industrial
water demands and replenish groundwater supplies.
Seventeen reclamation programs are either in
operation or in the planning stage locally. The com-
bined potential of all 17 projects is more than 50,000
acre-feet per year almost double the amount of
local water available to the Authority's member agen-
cies during the 1991 drought. This figure would meet
about 6 percent of the total projected regional water
needs in 2010.
The Authority provides funding and technical
support for all of these projects. In addition, financial
assistance is provided by the Metropolitan Water
District of Southern California. The Authority,
Metropolitan, and state and federal government agen-
cies support reclamation projects because expanded
use of reclaimed water relieves local demand for
imported water. 6
SAN DIEGO COUNTY HAS BEEN ON
THE CUTTING EDGE OF WATER RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT AND LOCAL SUPPLY DEVELOP-
MENT FOR MORE THAN 10 YEARS. ONE
EXAMPLE IS THE CITY OF SAN DIEGO'S
AQUACULTURE FACILITY, WHICH HAS DEMON-
STRATED THE CAPABILITY OF ADVANCED
WATER TREATMENT TO SAFELY REPURIFY WATER
TO AUGMENT OUR LIMITED LOCAL SUPPLY.
As a result of this successful research effort,
the Authority and the city of San Diego are exploring
creation of a water repurification project at the North
City Water Reclamation Plant, now under construc-
Under the proposal, wastewater would be
treated to reclaimed water standards at the North
City facility. Then it would be further purified using
state-of-the-art technology so it meets or exceeds the
quality of raw imported water. After that, it would be
piped into the San Vicente Reservoir, where it would
mix with imported and local water. The blended
water would be filtered and chlorinated before deliv-
ery to consumers as drinking water.
The Authority and city of San Diego propose
to reproduce natural repurification with a combina-
tion of proven, safe technology and natural process-
es. The safety of water repurification has a well-
demonstrated track record. Projects in Orange
County and northern Virginia offer evidence that
repurified water is safe for people to drink.
The State Department of Health Services has
this proposal. The
Authority plans to contin-
ue its investigation and
study of this water -
If constructed, the _
project will treat and deliv-
er water for well under
$1,000 per acre-foot. The -
projected cost is compara--
ble to the price of other water sources when the
project would be operational, around 2000. In addi-
tion, this proposal would eliminate the need to con-
struct costly new pipelines to distribute reclaimed
The Authority-San Diego plan would provide
up to 20,000 acre-feet of repurified water annually to
city water-users. The city delivered about 193.000
acre-feet of water to its customers in 1993.
It is no longer acceptable to import water
from sensitive watersheds hundreds of miles away
and use it only once. Water repurification is a poten-
tially worthwhile water resource option that will
allow us to use our water more wisely. 6
San Diego's Water Repurificalion System
I S Plant
I m il o i iqaTa
Ou Groundwater Development
THE AUTHORITY IS WORKING WITH
ITS MEMBER AGENCIES TO EXPAND THE USE
OF GROUNDWATER, WHICH IS STORED IN
ROCKS AND SEDIMENT BENEATH THE EARTH'S
Groundwater is plentiful in many parts of
California. San Diego County's groundwater supplies
are small in comparison, but at least nine groundwater
development projects are under way in the region.
Most are still in the planning stages.
The Authority provides funding and technical
support for all of them. Authority staff also helps agen-
cies gain access to financial assistance from the
Metropolitan Water District of
Southern California (MWD).-
Both the Authority and -
MWD support groundwater :- -.r
because they help to LOW ANMA
reduce the region's depen- MARAiTA4
dence on imported water.
The Authority estimates that
by 2010 these efforts can lead to devel-
opment of an additional 15,000 acre-
feet of groundwater locally. Roughly "uMC -.:
90,000 acre-feet of high-quality ground- -f
water is used annually in the county, pri-
marily by farmers and other private interests but
also by several public water agencies.
The additional groundwater will be
developed in two ways. High-quality m
groundwater basins may be refilled with
potable or reclaimed water to increase basin .Ia
storage and yield This process, known as artifi-
cial recharge or conjunctive use, becomes nec-
essary when more water is taken from a basin
than is returned to it by rainfall and snowmelt.
Conjunctive use of basins yields water that
is ready to consume without costly treatment. .
However, since the county's high-quality basins are
already fully used, rights, responsibilities and opera-
tional arrangements will have to be negotiated among
the interested parties.
SThe other type of groundwater development
involves basins that have been degraded because of
high salt content and other contaminants. This brack-
will be treated and
used for both
potable and non-
basins typically do
not have the institu-
tional and opera-
But water from
treatment such as
desalination prior to
major 5rouivuialer Basins
''i; 4y.-~b? i~~
ISIN iS~ A RNIE;il~.?P
AI7rJ__ E Wr-
THE AUTHORITY CONTINUES TO
MAINTAIN ITS INTEREST IN DESALINATION AS
A WATER SUPPLY FOR SAN DIEGO COUNTY.
BUT WHILE MOST PEOPLE TEND TO THINK OF
DESALINATION EXCLUSIVELY IN CONNECTION
WITH THE OCEAN, ITS MOST PROMISING
APPLICATIONS LOCALLY MAY BE TO AUGMENT
EXISTING SUPPLIES BY REMOVING SALT FROM
BRACKISH GROUNDWATER AND REPURIFYING
The Authority offers financial and technical
support to its member agencies involved with desali-
nation of brackish groundwater. The city of
Oceanside recently opened a facility with the capaci-
ty to annually desalt 2,000 acre-foot of brackish
groundwater from the Mission Basin, located at the
west end of the San Luis Rey River.
rAt least seven other projects involving the
desalination of brackish groundwater are being
planned throughout the county.
Desalination technology also is an integral
part of a proposed water repurification project under
study in north San Diego city. In this project,
reclaimed water is repurified using reverse-osmosis
technology to remove impurities so that it meets or
exceeds the quality of raw imported water.
This water then would be blended with
imported water and local runoff in a local reservoir
prior to further filtration to meet drinking water stan-
dards. Eventually, the blended water would be deliv-
ered to consumers for potable uses.
Seawater desalination, which the Authority
has analyzed as a potential water source during the
1990s, is now considered a long-range supply
While the Authority supports efforts that may
lead to feasible seawater desalination projects, it
notes that many issues must be addressed before
seawater can be desalted on a large scale.
One issue involves the siting of large-scale
.-, desalination facilities, which require relatively sizable
parcels of land. Coastal siting is ideal for seawater
desalination facilities as the ocean provides the
source water and a suitable area in which to dispose
of extracted salts, or
brine. But tracts of
along the coast gener-
ally are environmental-
ly sensitive, particularly
in San Diego County.
The Authority stud-
ied seawater desalina-
tion for several years.
In 1991, the Authority was one of several partici-
pants in a feasibility study of a combined power
plant and seawater desalination facility in Baja
California. But the cost of desalting the water and
then transporting it 25 miles north from Mexico into
San Diego County made the project economically
The Authority also spent two years analyzing
a seawater desalination facility that would have been
constructed in conjunction with a proposal to
repower San Diego Gas & Electric's South Bay
Power Plant. The analysis found that environmental,
cost and regulatory issues combined to make desalt-
ed seawater more expensive than other water supply
options available to the Authority. Later, SDG&E
withdrew its proposal to repower the facility.
The Authority continues to examine seawater
desalination as a long-range option. It supports a
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
pilot project involving an experimental vertical-tube
evaporation method that may produce desalted
water at a much lower price than previously contem-
S lWaler Conservation
THE AUTHORITY ENCOURAGES LOCAL
RESIDENTS TO USE WATER WISELY AS A WAY
OF LIFE, NOT JUST DURING TIMES OF SHORT-
The Authority's efforts concentrate on the
long term. They involves steps that lead to perma-
nent water-use reduction such as installation-of
water-efficient plumbing fixtures in homes and busi-
increased use of
Authority, in con-
junction with other
local water agencies,
offers cash rebates
or vouchers to resi-
dents who install
en, ultra-low-flush toi-
lets ULFTs). Some
129,000 ULFTs have
been installed local-
ly in the past four
years thanks to this effort. In addition, more than
500,000 free water-conserving showerheads have
been distributed throughout the region during the
The Authority and several other agencies
also fund water survey programs aimed at large-
scale, outdoor water-users such as agriculture, parks,
and industrial complexes. Trained specialists evalu-
ate the way water is used at a site and recommend
ways to make water use more efficient.
For large-scale users of water in business
and industry, the Commercial, Industrial and
Institutional survey program focuses on fostering
water-use efficiency with an eye toward conserva-
tion efforts that have a positive effect on the bottom
Residents can receive similar advice about
water use in their homes through the Authority-
e-, sponsored Residential Survey Program.
These and other water-saving measures are
pan of a sweeping statewide conservation agree-
ment signed by the Authority and many other urban
water agencies. The agreement includes a set of
"best management practices" that constitute a consis-
tent standard for urban water conservation through-
All of the Authority's conservation programs
aim to establish the "San Diego Water Ethic," which
holds that water is a precious commodity that must
be used efficiently at all times. This is especially rel-
evant for San Diego County, which typically imports
90 percent of its water. It makes no sense to bring
water to San Diego from as far as 600 miles away,
only to see it wasted down the drain.
The Authority estimates that by 2010, new
conservation programs will save about eight percent
of the water that would otherwise be used county-
S Public Education
THE AUTHORITY USES A WIDE VARIETY
OF METHODS TO INFORM COUNTY RESIDENTS
ABOUT SAN DIEGO COUNTY'S WATER
RESOURCES, WHAT THE AUTHORITY IS DOING
TO KEEP THE REGION'S WATER SUPPLY RELI-
ABLE, AND THE BEST WAYS TO USE WATER
An important element of the public educa-
tion program concentrates on children. The school
education program instructs area students about the
importance of water and showing them that they can
make a positive impact through wise water use.
Thus, children learn good water use habits they will
practice for the rest of their lives.
The school education program offers a wide
array of educational opportunities and materials for
students from kindergarten through high school.
Teachers are offered classroom presentations and
curriculum materials including videos, workbooks,
posters and other informational handouts.
The program also conducts teacher work-
shops and in-service training sessions. Special half-
day seminars are offered at a model Xeriscape teach-
ing garden maintained by the Authority.
A new regional water quality testing pro-
gram is now available for junior high and senior
high school students. The Authority is working with
its member agencies to provide water testing kits to
local schools. Included in the kits are a series of
maps showing school sites, land use in the county.
all major reservoirs and watersheds. Additionally, a
special computer program has been developed to
allow students to store the collected data on the.
Authority's computer Bulletin Board Service.
Students will be able to share and compare their
data with other schools.
Finally, one of the largest and most popular
programs the Authority offers is a theatrical presen-
tation of a water-related play to elementary schools
around the county. 6
SThe Costof Reliability
A RELIABLE WATER SUPPLY IS CRITICAL
TO SAN DIEGO COUNTY'S ECONOMIC PROS-
PERITY AND A HIGH QUALITY OF LIFE.
But a reliable water supply tomorrow
requires prudent, far-sighted investments today. The
Authority is making such investments in the region's
future. It is involved with solving problems in the
statewide water-distribution system, providing emer-
gency water storage, developing additional water
resources and making necessary improvements to
our regional pipelines and other facilities.
It will be expensive to put these improve-
ments in place. Water rates will need to rise to pay
for the investments.
The Authority recognizes the impact that rate
increases have on everyone in its service area. It
strives to reduce expenses wherever such reductions
will not impair its mission of providing the county
with a safe, reliable supply of imported water. Our
,4 board of directors will hold rate increases to the
minimum that allows the Authority to continue carry-
ing out its mission.
But postponing rate increases will delay or
even discontinue investment in San Diego County's
water supply. The Authority recognizes the need to
maintain progress on vital water supply and system
improvements that are essential to maintaining the
reliability of our water supply.
The cost of not raising rates to fund improve-
ments will have a decided impact on the community.
If the water supply grows unreliable, the business cli-
mate will become
uncertain, jobs will be
lost and the quality of
life will suffer.
With investments and
A planning, however, the
,-' county's economy and
quality of life will be
LANfS-i --^ -;- -.- --"- j-
,''-. **-;k" 1. -,.'^ I ; ^ :-I~* ,^.^'.- ** -: -i :^ :~ ;-- ;i
r Looking Beyond
San Diego Countv
SINCE SAN DIEGO COUNTY DEPENDS
SO HEAVILY ON IMPORTED WATER SUPPLIES,
THE AUTHORITY'S WATER-RELABILITY PRO-
GRAM MUST EXTEND BEYOND THE COUNTY'S
Formerly stable imported supplies have
become less reliable. A policy gridlock in
Sacramento has prevented completion of the State
Water Project to its originally intended capacity. As a
result, project deliveries have grown erratic. Legal
restrictions on pumping to provide more water for
fish and wildlife in the Sacramento-San Joaquin
River Delta have affected project deliveries as well.
In addition, urban Southern California's
share of Colorado River water eventually may be
"A, reduced by more than half because of a Supreme
Court decision granting more water to Arizona. The
Colorado has provided as much as 1.3 million acre-
feet per year to our region; under the Supreme Court
decision that allotment would be reduced to 550,000
The Authority is
working in local,
statewide and national
arenas to ensure that
the region's water sup-
ply remains reliable.
Locally, efforts center
on fully developing
improving the regional water-delivery system and
educating the public about water-related issues.
But local efforts are not sufficient to ensure a
reliable water supply. Because of the county's need
for reliable imported water, Authority officials are
active in Sacramento and Washington, D.C.
The Authority promotes legislation facilitat-
ing water conservation and reclamation programs. It
joins with other urban water agencies to support
state legislation that will allow California farmers to
voluntarily sell a portion of their water to meet the
needs of thirsty cities.
"Much of the agency's attention is devoted to
issues surrounding the environmentally sensitive
estuary formed by the Delta and San Francisco Bay,
the source of all water delivered by the State Water
Project. Californians concerned about the state's
water agree that the Bay-Delta estuary no longer
functions adequately as either a water supply or a
While most people agree that a problem
exists, there was little agreement in the past about
the solution. For years, representatives of California's
three major water interest groups cities, agricul-
ture, and environmentalists clashed over the best
way to fix the Bay-Delta.
SThe lack of agreement led to a stalemate that
paralyzed the problem-solving process until
December 1994, when the State Water Resources
Control Board reached a "framework agreement for
a solution" with federal regulatory agencies. An
interim solution is in place to stabilize the region's
environmental health and water deliveries, but it
only will last until 1997. California's urban water
agencies are striving for a long-term solution that
achieves a reliable water supply while providing a
healthy and stable Delta ecosystem.
On a broader level, the Authority supports
adoption of a comprehensive state water policy that
meets all of California's diverse needs. 6
WArER Uinrms DEPARTMENT
1050 CAMINO DEL MAR
CaBAD, CA 92008 619/755-9313
Cmc CENTER PLAZA
WATER UnTrnES DEPAMsMENT
201 N. BRAODIAY. ,.- ?
EScoNDIDo, CA 92025 619/741-4651
*--1243 NATIONAL CrrY BLVD.
. NATONAL Crr, CA91950 19/336-4200
300 N. Hu. ST. --
505 GARV AVENUE
CJ rA VIsrA, CA 91910
202 W. CONNECmTC AVE.
VIsA, CA 92083-3596
PUBLIC UTILITY DISTRICT
FALLBROOK PUBLIC UTIITY
P. O. Box 2290
FAUisRoo, CA 92088-2290 619/728-1125
-PENDLETON MILITARY RESERVATION
NATURAL RESOURCES OMnCE
U.S. MARINE CORPS
MARINE CORPS BASE
CAMP PENDLMoON, CA 92055 619/725-6451
-MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICTS
OUCEANSIDE, LA Y24 : 1O/YO9-T CARLSBAD
-POWAY 5950 EL CAMINO REAL
P.O. Box 789 :. CALs BAD, CA 92008
POWAY, CA 92064-0120 619/748-6600 OVENH
SAN DIEGO 1966 OuENHIN ROAD
--WATER UIUTIES DEPARTMENT: ENCNITAS, CA 92024
S202 "C" STREET PADRE DAM
-SA DiEGo, CA 92101 629/236-6164 P.O. Box 719003
WATER DISTRICTS -- --o;-SAN CA 92072-9003 619/448-3111
_'.-.HELIX ^-, -W --.- : .
S P.O. Box 518 P. O. Box 1404
.A MESA, CA 91944-0518 .619/466-0585 Bs CA 92003-1404 619/728-1178
OTAY ._ --RAMONA --
- 10595 jAMH BLv -'"-- 105 EALHAM STRE m -- -
SPRNGVALnEY, CA91978 619/670-2222 .RA6NA, CA 92065-1599 :619/789-1330
SAN DIEGUfITO' a1-' RINCON DEL DIABLO
P. 0. Box 231010 -1920 N. IR~SANE -. -
=- ENaoNAs CA 92623-1010 S69VD/63D-2 41 S CA 92026 619/745-5522
*COUNTY WATER DI-STRICT ..VAL.EY CENTER -
*,-aBP a- B P.dx67 3 .
VClerruIO CA 92082 619/749-1600
788 W. SAN MARcoS BEVD6 .,. : :': .
R dSA d MAR r069 619
Th-IRRIGAIOn N DISTRICTrSu ." P .u CI6977,
P. .... .o409 '.. ..kp .
SSANMA6 .6CA192067 19/742
I- -~ -. -. -~-
SAN DIEGO COUNTY
SPENDLETON MILITARY .
\ -:* ^t >
CITY OF SAN DIEGO
WATER UTILITIES DEPARTMENT
INFORMATION FROM ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT 1994
CITY OF SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1994
Square Miles of Land Area (City)..................... ...........-......- -..... .........--...........-...............-..
Square Miles of Water Area (City) .....-...I........ .--. -.----*.-*---*.. .-***-**- .
Square Miles of Land and Water Area (City)...........-...........- -. ..........-...... ---....... ..
Population (Estimated June 30,1994)....-------- --**.----**--.
Population per Square Mile (Land)....................-............-------.................................
Total Water Delivries (Million Gallons) (Raw and Filtered)....... ...................--.. --. ......................
Raw Water Used Outside City (Million Gallon)...............................................................
Sales to Califormia-American Water Company (Million Gallons)............. ...... ........ .... ...............................
(" eas to City of Del Mar (Million Gallons)................-............... ....... .............
Sales to Miscelaneous Users Outside City (Million Gallons)...................................................................................... ....... ........
Net Water Deliveries to City (Million Gallons) (Raw and Filtered).................... ..... ................ .. ......................
Water Sales by Cal-Amer. Water Co., Within City's South Bay Area (Millions Gallons) .. .............................
Total City Water Consumption, Including South Bay Area (Million Gallons)............................ ...... ........ ..-.... .......--
Average Daily City Water Consumption (Million Gallons)................................ .. ......................... .............
Average Daily Water Consumption Per Capita (Gallons) .............. ....--..--------........-*...... ........ .....
Minimum Daily Filtered Water Consumption, Februay 19,1994 (Million Gallons)............. .... ......... ........-..
Maximum Daily Filtered Water Consumption, June 23,1994 (Million Gallons) ..................... ............
Water Meters in Service June 30, 1994...... .. ..-- ---------- ..- .--.. .... -
Water Distribution Mains in Service June 30,1994 (Miles)............--...................-........ .......... ...............
Sire Hydrants in Service June 30, 1994............. .-.. ............. .................................... ............... ....
LOCAL CLIMATIC STATISTICS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1994
Average Daytime Temperature eason Fiscal Year 1994......................... ..... ........ ......
Average Nightime Temperature Season Fiscal Year 1994................-. .......... ....................
Average Temperature Season Fiscal Year 1994........... ................. .............................
Average Annual Temperature of Forty Year Period, 1954 -1993 ............................................
Rainfall in the City of San Diego (at San Diego Interational Airport)
During the Season Fiscal Year 1994......... ..................... ............................... ......................... ............
Normal Seasonal Rainfall........................... ..................................................... .....................
Seasons Having Rainfall ABOVE Normal, Recorded Since Fiscal Year 1947.............................................................
Seasons Having Rainfall BELOW Normal, Recorded Since Fiscal Year 1947.....................................................
Heaviest Seasonal Rainfall Recorded During the Last Twenty Fiscal Years (FY 1978).........................................
Lghtest Seasonal Rainfall Recorded During the Last Twenty Fiscal Years (FY 1989)..........................................
Average Seasonal Rainfal Recorded During the Last Twenty Fiscal Years.......- ..............................
Heaviest Seasonal Rainfall Recorded Since Fiscal Year 1850 (FY 1884)........... ..... .................
Lightest Seasonal Rainfall Recorded Since Fiscal Year 1850 (FY 191)-.............. .......................
(Data Compiled from Official U.S. Weather Bureau Records)
(Data Compiled from Official U.S. Weather Bureau Records)
.. TABDI IV
CUSTOMER AND SALES STATISTICS
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30 GROWTH
SALES OF WATER
A. METER MONTHS BILLED
Single Family Domestic 2,527,741
Other Domestic 362,527
Outside City Services 780
Other Utilities 74
19 AMOUNT PERCENT
B. SALES OF WATER (Millions of Cubic Feet)
Single Family Domestic 3,012 2,60
Other Domestic 2,063 2,021
Commercial 2,774 2,729
Industrial 322 332
Outside City Services 3 3
Other Utilities 504 539
REVENUES FROM SALES
C. REVENUES (Thousand Dollars)
Other Domestic 29,123
Outside City Services 81
Other Utilities 4,092
rrioation Districts 473
a-. U. W84. .*7 *- *-* N-* 3
U U3 4 87 as as U N
I P L V I V
PRINCIPAL RATES (AS OF JUNE 30. 1994)
1. General Water Service (Domestic, Commercial and Industrial Use)
a. Customer charge per meter per month:
Size of Meter
1 inch and smaller.......................... ................ 3.12
1 1/2 inch......................... ...................... 15.64
2 inch................................. ............... 23.84
3 inch........................................................... 89.25
4 inch..................................................... 148.74
6 inch ................................................................. 334.66
8 inch.............. ............... ...... ........... 446.22
10 inch............ ............ ........................ 5894.96
12 inch.................................. ...................... 818.07
16 inch..................................... ...................... 1,338.65
b. Commodity Charge (n addition to customer charge) for each unit of 100 cubic feet (748 gallons).
Single Family Domestic................................................................. 1.285 each for first ten (10) units
1.422 for each subsequent unit
All Other..................................... ............................... 1.341 each per unit
2. For domestic, commercial, and industrial service outside the City, the rate is double those listed above. Water
supplied for agriculture use outside the city is the same as the above rate for the All Other user class.
3. Fire Service and Automatic Sprinklers
Size of Service Conn. Rate per Month
1 1/2 inch
Size of Service Conn.(Cont.)
Rate per Month
1 Acre foot 1234 Cubic Meters
HCF (100ftP) 2.832 Cubic Meters
1 Gallon .003785 Cubic Meters
GENERAL STATISTICS TABLE II
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE S0, 1994
Population (Estimated June 30 1994)............. ..................................................... 1,194,950
Sewag Flow RB I San Pasqual Municipal System (Million Gallons)..-..-.......13...- .. ............ 1.310.714
Sewage Flow Metropolitan System (Million Gallons). ...... ... .....4... ... 64,153.910
Total Sewage Flow Municipal and Metropolitan Sytem (Million Gallons)-.............. 65,464.624
Other Agencies' Sewage Flow (Million Gallons) ........ .. ......-.................... 19,767.638
Total City Sewage Flow (Million Gallons)..................... ..... ......-.............................. 45,696.986
Average Daily Municipal and Metropolitan Systems Sewage Flow (Million Gallons)................................................. 179.355
Avrage Daily City Sewage Flow (Million Gallns)............................................... ........... .... 125.197
Average Daily City Sewage Flow per Capita (Gallons)........................................................................................... 104.772
Maximum Daily Sewage Flow Metropolitan System March 7.1994 (Million Gallons)....... ............--..... 225.610
Minimum Daily Sewage Flow Metropolitan System December 25.1993 (Million Gallons).... ....................... 148.23
Sewer Service Lateral June 30, 1994........................i.................... ........... 252,990
Municipal Sewer System Mains in Service June 30, 1994 (Miles)........... ............................ 2,462.9
Metropolitan Interceptor Sewer Mains In Service June 30, 1994 (Miles) ....... ---- 25.40
Sludge Disposal Unee in Service June 30.1994 (Miles)..----.. ..-----....- 6.50
f Ocean Outfall Une In Service June 30.1994 (Miles)-................................. ........... ...-- ..... 5.00
Total Sewer Mains and Unes in Service June 30.1994 (Miles)........................................ .......... ..-. 2,499.8
SALES STATISTICS AND PRINCIPAL RATES
REVENUES SEWER SERVICE CHARGES
88 83 4 Ui I8 87 a8 1 8 4 Na
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30 GROWTH
CLASS M14 1i92 AMOUNT PERCENT
REVENUES (Thousand Dollars)
Single Family Domestic
Treat, Plant Serv. for Others
$53,213 $48,639 4,574 8.60%
36,416 34520 1,896 5.21%
28,299 29,749 (1,450) (15.94%)
5,266 1,507 22.25%
6 2 25.00%
PRINCIPAL RATES (As of June 30, 1994)
1. For single family dwelling unit serviced by a separate water meter ........... ................... $12.72 base fee plus
$2.15 per HCF per month.
2. The monthly sewer service charge for all premises other than single family dwellings serviced by separate water
meters shall be thirty-four cents ($0.34) per month, plus a charge per 100 cubic feet of waterdelivered, computed
in accordance with the following table:
(Parts per Million)
Rate Per HCF
Return to Sewer"
*Charge for customers whose return to sewer deviates from 70-75% to be determined based on the following
formula: Rate per HCF Rate at 70-75% return/class midpoint (72.5% return) X midpoint of appropriate return class.
"Class KV shall include all dischargers of wastewater whose discharge exceeds 1,000 parts per million of
suspended solids. The rate per HCF will be Individually computed for dischargers in Class KV on the basis of $1.522
per HCF of flow, and $0.197per 100 parts per million of suspended solids, at 100%/ return.
3. The City Manager has the power to establish reasonable sewer charges, other than those listed above:
a. where sewage is substantially different in volume and type than the average.
b. where water is received from another source than the city's source.
c. where use is such that water supplied is not substantially or entirely discharged into the sewer system.
d. for fire service connection.
e. where not connected to the City's sewer system. 67
f. where irrigation water is separately measured.
CITY OF SAN DIEGO
METROPOLITAN WASTEWATER DEPARTMENT
.. .4 (a4 wftd6te cf (^wtowen^
Distribution System In Design
s the North City Water Reclamation that covers all aspects of the Distribution
Plant moves toward completion, the System. It will be available for public
time for delivery of reclaimed water to review this summer. Certification of the
customers moves closer. Nine pipeline EIR is scheduled for consideration by the
distribution subsystems to deliver the re- San Diego City Council in November
claimed water are currently being de- 1995.
signed. Construction on the Genesee Av- Land Us--Continual driveway access
enue Subsystem and the Miramar Road will be maintained during business hours
Subsystem are expected to get under way for all properties along pipeline construc-
in the spring of 1996. All the pipelines tion corridors.
will be completed by August 1997, with Noise-Residents of properties adja-
the exception of the Sorrento Valley cent to work areas will be notified prior
package, which must be completed by to the commencement ofconstruction.
August 1998. Staging areas will be located at least 400
SThe City has a plan in place to minimize feet from residences and schools. During
Sthe effect the construction will have in the nighttime construction, all the construc-
North City service area. Efforts will be tion equipment will be equipped with
Made to protect the environment, prop- hospital-grade mufflers. Construction
y access, air quality, and public services, equipment will be turned offwhen not in
d keep noise and traffic at a minimum. use.
Environment-An Environmental T o-Short-term traffic impacts
Impact Report (EIR) is being prepared will be minimized by well-thought-out
n is under way on
multiple reclaimed water
dIribuion lines Identified
by numbers on this map. The
Genesee Avenue and
Mlramar Road lines are
expected to be under
construction in Spring 1996.
. Genesee Avenue
2. MIramor Road
4. Miramar Road Extension
SB Scrpp Ranchll-IS
6. Spp Poway Parkway
12. University City
12S. University Cty South
16. Sorrento Valley
traffic control plans. The portion of the
reclaimed water pipelines along major
streets, including Genesee Avenue,
Torrey Pines Road, Miramar Road, and
Black Mountain Road, will be primarily
constructed during the night to mini-
mize traffic impacts.
Air Qualiy-Grading sites and soil
storage piles will be watered on a regular
basis to control dust. Grading activities
will cease during windy conditions.
Public Servie-Adverse impacts;
streets will be alleviated by
facing after construction.
Bringing rezimed water
zens of San Diego
with a good
City of Son Diego
CommonlyAsked Questions About Water Reclamation
I. What can reclaimed water be
Landscape irrigation will be the single
largest ue for reclaimed water in San
Diego. In addition, reclaimed water can
be used for some industrial processing,
cooling towers, soil compaction and dust
suppression at construction sites, in rec-
reational lakes, ponds and ornamental
fountains, crop irrigation, and flushing
toilets in some commercial buildings and
offices. In fact, reclaimed water can be
used for all non-potable needs.
2. How will reclaimed water get to
the ultimate users?
The City is designing a reclaimed water
(tribution system to serve reclaimed
tr to potential customers. Reclaimed
water must be conveyed through a sys-
tem separate from the existing water or
sewer system. This system will be built
along routes to maximize the use of re-
claimed water (by serving the larger cus-
tomers) while doing so in a cost-effective
manner (by serving those users closest to
the plant first). The North City Water
Reclamation Plant is being constructed
in the Golden Triangle area at Miramar
Road and 1-805. The areas to be served
initially are Torrey Pines, University City,
Miramar, Scripps Ranch and Sorrento
Valley. In addition, portions of the com-
munities of San Pasqual and Rancho
Bernardo are currently being served by
the City's Aquaculture plant located in
the San Pasqual Valley.
3. Is reclaimed water safe?
Reclaimed water is safe to use! Re-
,*med water production is carefully
S hitored by responsible local health
authorities and water quality control
agencies. The City of San Diego will
This decorative fountain at Renaissnce at La Jolla would be an approved use of reclaimed
water under "Title 22" regulations
produce a highly treated, filtered and
disinfected product according to the State
of California Department of Health Ser-
vices criteria. No health-related problems
have been traced to any of the water recla-
mation projects currently operating in
California and nationwide studies have
documented that it's safe to use.
4. Are there any health or water
quality laws that apply to reclaimed
The Department of Health Services
standards for reclaimed water are referred
to as "Tide 22" because these standards
are incorporated in Tide 22, Chapter 3,
Division 4 of the California Code of
SRegulations. Tide 22 has stipulations rela-
tive to various types of reuse and levels of
required treatment. The Regional Water
Quality Control Board regulates the use
and application of reclaimed water.
S5. Will constituents in the water,
I such as saots, harm landscaping?
There are various constituents in re-
claimed water in amounts that exceed
those found in the drinking water sup-
ply, including total dissolved solids (or
salts). Turf grass, which will be the major
"crop" using reclaimed water, is quite
resistant to higher salt content. There are
some constituents, such as nitrogen and
Phosphorus found in reclaimed water,
that are actually beneficial for plant
growth, serving as an additional "fertil-
With proper drainage and good man-
agement, landscaping will thrive using
Customer Contact for
lprth City 's reclaimed water customers now have a specific
point of contact for reclaimed water system retrofits. Roger
Graffwas recently appointed by the Water Utilities Department
to oversee the City's reclaimed water distribution system cus-
tomer retrofit program. Roger brings over 30 years of City
engineering experience to his new position. He served as Deputy
Director for the Engineering Division of Water Utilities before
making this move to coordinate the reclaimed water distribution
In the coming months, Roger and the Water Distribution
Division staffwill be contacting each of the potential customers
in the North City Water Reclamation Plant's service area to
bring them up-to-date on the City's on-site requirements for
reclaimed water systems.
The scope of retrofitting, or modifying, existing irrigation or
(l industrial water systems to use reclaimed water will vary greatly
depending on the user. To assist users, the City of San Diego has
developed the Rules and Regulations fr Reclaimed Water Use and
Distribution Within the City ofSan Diego to outline the require-
ments for using reclaimed water.
According to Roger, City staff are currently looking at ways to
financially assist customers with retrofitting for reclaimed water.
A plan is being developed that will go before the City Council
for approval. For more information, or to obtain a copy of the
rules and regulations, call Roger Graffat 527-5460 or write him
at the Water Utilities Department, Water Distribution Division,
2797 Caminito Chollas, MS 43, San Diego, CA 92105-5097.
The Site Supervisor Training course was created to provide
irrigation supervisors with a basic understanding of reclaimed
water and how to operate a successful reclaimed water irriga-
Please fill in the form below if you would like more informa-
tion about this one-day class.
Yes, I am interested in receiving infor-
mation about the next Reclaimed Water
Site SupervisorTraining Class.
SSite or Agency Affiliation
0 Phone( )
SSan Diego County Water Authority
S3211 Fifth Avenue
SSan Diego, CA 92103
SIf you have questions about this class, call
Chris Reilly at (619) 682-4122.
Los Angeles Department of Water & Power
R edaimed water has been used in
S- California for nearly a century for
irrigating landscapes and non-food crops
like cotton and sod. As treatment processes
developed, reclaimed water use has ex-
panded to food crops and industrial applica-
tions as well as groundwater recharge. For
instance, the Los Angeles County Sanitation
District has had a groundwater recharge
program for over 30 years.
The Los Angeles Department ofWater
and Power is currently planning the city's
largest water reuse project. The Donald
C. Tillman Water Reclamation Plant,
which began operation in 1984, will pro-
'Ne the source water for the East Valley
dater Recycling Project. The purpose of
this project is to recharge a groundwater
basin located beneath the San Fernando
Valley. This basin, which sits below the
northeast portion of the valley, is essen-
tially a huge underground reservoir.
Normally this groundwater basin is
supplied by local rainfall supplemented
with imported water, primarily snow-
melt. Reclaimed water is another depend-
able source to use for recharging this
basin. Los Angeles depends on this water
when the weather is dry or in times of
natural disaster if its aqueduct delivery
system breaks down.
In a recharge operation, highly treated
water is piped to areas known as spreading
basins. These basins are pond-like depres-
sions where water is collected and allowed
to slowly seep into the soil. Water perco-
lates through the naturally filtering soil
some 300 feet down where it joins the
underground aquifer. The soil acts much
like charcoal used to filter water at Los
Angeles treatment plants.
All the water then slowly travels a mini-
mum distance of one and half miles to an
extraction well. For the East Valley Project,
water is expected to travel about two years
before it will reach the extraction wells.
Ultimately, the East Valley Water Recla-
mation Project will provide about 35,000
acre feet per year of reclaimed water, fulfill-
ing one-third of Los Angeles' reuse delivery
goal of 80,000 acre feet per year by 2010.
The water supplied by this project will be
equal to the annual water needs of
If you would like more information
about this project, call Jan Merlo at the Los
Angeles Department ofWater and Power,
Water Reclamation ... -
Project -..'e;..* S.--
MSi Ow aufhay offt Los Ang.e
Oeaafmnt of WOWee and Pocwe
7 he following list ofpotential cus-
-f tomers have signed letters of intent
expressing interest in receiving reclaimed
water from the North CityWater Recla-
mation Plant. Water usage technical
questionnaires and signed letters of in-
tent can be mailed to the City of San
Diego, attn: Jennifer Grier, 600 B Street,
Suite 500, San Diego, CA 92101. For
additional information about reclaimed
water, contact Marketing Analyst Jenni-
fer Grier at (619) 533-4248.
Embassy Suites Hotel
Health Science Properties/Nexus Science
Lajoloa Country Day School
La Jola Gateway Ltd.
La olla Marriott Hotel
Miramar Wholesale Nursery
Nexus Development Co.
Nissan Design International
Nobel Court Ltd.
Renaissance at La Joll Master Community
Renaissance Vdwtio Apartments
Scripps Cink & Research Foundation
Scripps Memorial Hospital
Scripps Nob Hill
Scripps Ranch Business Parks
Tanabe Research Laboratories
Torrey Pines Business & Research Park
Torrey Pines Gol Course
Trade Service Corporation
University Town Square HOA
University Towne Center
Woodcrest Hills HOA
... from the Metropolitan Wastewater Department
S.... To Commonly Asked Questions
Regarding Water Reclamation
1. Why is the City of San Diego
pursuing water reclamation?
During the recent 7-year drought, City residents became aware of
how precarious the City of San Diego's position is during a water
resource crisis. Currently, the City imports approximately 90
percent of its total drinking water supply from Northern California
and the Colorado River. The remaining 10 percent is collected from
local runoff during the rainy season. As the population continues to
grow, increasing the demand for water, the City needs to look for
alternative water resources to meet these future demands.
about water Currently, the City has a voluntary 10 percent conservation policy
in effect. Although conservation is effective in saving precious
water resources, it will not be enough to offset the future demands
for additional water. It will take a combination of alternatives -
conservation and reclamation to meet the City's future demand.
3. What about desalination?
4. What can reclaimed water be
Saltwater desalination is a possible alternative for future water
supplies. At this time, however, due to the cost of the technology
and high levels of energy used in the process, the final product can
be quite expensive. Currently, desalination costs are estimated to be
$2,000+ per acre foot.
Landscape irrigation will be the single largest use for reclaimed
water within San Diego. In addition, reclaimed water can also be
used for some industrial processing, cooling towers, soil compaction
and dust suppression at construction sites, in recreational lakes,
ponds and ornamental fountains, crop irrigation, and flushing toilets
and urinals in some commercial buildings and offices. In fact,
reclaimed water can be used for most non-potable needs.
QUESTIONS REGARDING WATER RECLAMATION
5. How will reclaimed water get to
the ultimate users?
6. Is reclaimed water safe?
7. Are there any health or water
Quality laws that apply to
8. What uses does Title 22 allow?
The City is designing a reclaimed water distribution system to serve
reclaimed water to potential customers. Reclaimed water must be
conveyed on a system separate from the existing water or sewer
systems. This system will be built along routes to maximize the use
of reclaimed water (by serving the larger customers) while doing so
in a cost-effective manner (by serving those users closest to the
plant before those further away).
Reclaimed water is safe to use! Potential health risks associated
with the reuse of reclaimed water have been well-documented
nationwide as water reclamation projects are implemented and
carefully monitored by responsible local health authorities and water
quality control agencies. The City of San Diego will produce a
highly treated, filtered and disinfected product that meets the State
Department of Health Services criteria. No health-related problems
have been traced to any of the water reclamation projects currently
operating in California.
The State Department of Health Services standards for reclaimed
water are referred to as "Title 22." These standards are
incorporated in Title 22, Chapter 3, Division 4 of the California
Code of Regulations, with stipulations applying to various types of
reuse, and levels of required treatment. The Regional Water Quality
Control Board is involved with respect to the use and application of
reclaimed water and any associated runoff into areas or bodies of
water that are not designated for reclaimed water use.
For the tertiary, disinfected reclaimed water that the City of San
Diego will be producing, the list of suitable, non-potable uses
approved under Title 22 includes the irrigation of food crops, parks,
playgrounds, school yards, residential landscaping, cemeteries,
freeway landscaping, golf courses, ornamental nurseries, pasture for
animals, orchards, and vineyards. In addition, it can be used for
fishing or boating recreational impoundments, fish hatcheries,
cooling towers and decorative fountains. Other allowable uses
include flushing toilets and urinals, industrial process water,
commercial laundries, making artificial snow, soil compaction,
mixing concrete and flushing sanitary sewers.
QUESTIONS REGARDING WATER RECLAMATION
9. Will constituents in the water, There are various constituents in reclaimed water that exceed those
such as salts, harm landscaping? found in the drinking water supply, including total dissolved solids
(or salts). Turf grass, which will be the major "crop" using
reclaimed water, is quite resistant to higher salt content. There are
some constituents, such as nitrogen and phosphorus found in
reclaimed water, that are actually beneficial for plant growth,
serving as an additional "fertilizer" source. With proper drainage
and good management, landscaping will thrive using reclaimed
10. Will there be damage to my One of the regulations required by the Regional Water Quality
car, my house, etc., if it is sprayed Control Board on the use of reclaimed water is to minimize or
with reclaimed water? prevent reclaimed water from leaving the reuse area. Each user is
responsible for insuring the minimization of runoff or spray leaving
the area of intended use. However, if reclaimed water does come
in contact with your car or home, it doesn't contain high enough
levels of salts or other constituents to do any damage. It is nowhere
near the high salt levels of sea water or other corrosive-type waters.
Simply rinsing off your car or home will be sufficient insurance
against any remote chance of damage.
11. How much does reclaimed As of this date, the San Diego City Council has not set a rate for
water cost? reclaimed water. When looking at the costs to produce reclaimed
water, it is slightly higher than the costs of treating our current
drinking water supply. However, it is significantly less than
importing additional fresh water supplies or desalination. Other
reclaimed water purveyors throughout the state charge 70 percent
to 100 percent of the potable rate. Existing water customers most
likely will not be charged for connection fees, although brand new
users to the system may incur these charges.
12. What does a user of reclaimed As a reclaimed water user, there will be some responsibilities that
water have to do different than will be required. To assist users, the City of San Diego has
what they are doing now? developed the Rules and Regulations for Reclaimed Water Use and
Distribution Within the City of San Diego to outline the
requirements for using reclaimed water. These regulations were
developed in cooperation with other City Departments as well as the
San Diego County Department of Health Services and San Diego
County Water Authority. There has also been input from public
forum meetings with representatives from the building industry,
landscape architects, golf course superintendents, and other large
irrigation and industrial users.
QUESTIONS REGARDING WATER RECLAMATION
13. Who are some of the potential An in-depth market assessment was conducted over a two-year
customers of reclaimed water? period (1991-1992), and again in 1994-95, to identify potential
users for reclaimed water. These included all existing users with an
irrigation meter, all large commercial water users, and industries that
have high water consumption as part of their processes.
14. How much advance warning During the market assessment, most of the potential reclaimed water
can property owners prepare for user sites were contacted and given information about the program
in the installation of water and water reclamation. Information was gathered about their site's
reclamation lines on their water usage, and they were told that they may be a potential
property? customer. Direct mail and a quarterly newsletter sent to these users
keeps them up-to-date on the City's water reclamation plant and
distribution system construction schedule. A more focused
marketing and educational approach is being used for those users
directly along proposed pipeline routes. They will be helped in
determining what changes need to take place for their site to accept
15. What kind of signage is One of the requirements for sites using reclaimed water is the
f required to protect the public placement of signs around the reuse area to advise the public that
from reclaimed water? reclaimed water is being used. These signs can actually portray a
positive message that the site is doing their part by using reclaimed
water. The proposed signs for use within the City of San Diego
read "We are conserving our most valuable resource by irrigating
our landscaping with reclaimed water" as well as the message
"Caution Do Not Drink." In addition to signs, pipes, sprinkler
heads, meter boxes and other irrigation equipment will have to be
properly marked and coded to avoid cross-connections or
consumption of the water.
16. What training does the City In addition to the Rules and Regulations, the City co-sponsors a
provide to these users in quarterly "Reclaimed Water Site Supervisor" class with the County
retrofitting? Water Authority for potential reclaimed water users. These classes
offer information on the basics of reclaimed water, how it is
produced, water management and irrigation techniques, cross-
connection prevention, health issues and recordkeeping. There is
also a tour offered to a local water reclamation plant to see where
it all starts. When a user site is completely retrofitted, the Water
Utilities Department and the County Department of Health Services
will inspect the site to insure no cross-connections and that all the
Rules and Regulations have been adhered to.
QUESTIONS REGARDING WATER RECLAMATION
17. What happens to the excess
18. Where else is reclaimed water
reclaimed water be
The City is committed to identifying customers to maximize the use
of reclaimed water. However, during the winter months when water
demands are down for irrigation, there will be a parallel decreased
demand for reclaimed water for those uses. Therefore, the City is
also researching those commercial and industrial users that present
a year-round constant demand. There will also be an effort to
produce only the amount of reclaimed water needed so that there
will not be an excess. Storage options are being explored to store
excess reclaimed water. After all other alternatives have been
exhausted, any excess water wil only be treated to a secondary level
to be disposed to an outfall.
In San Diego County, the Santee Lakes recreational park has used
reclaimed water since the early 1960s. With seven recreational
lakes, this park is visited by thousands of visitors a year. In the
south, Otay Water District produces reclaimed water that serves the
Eastlake Development and golf course. In southern California,
Irvine has been a reclaimed water purveyor for over thirty years, and
recently started serving reclaimed water to high-rise buildings to use
in toilets and urinals. Los Angeles and Orange County produce
reclaimed water to be injected into the groundwater to replenish the
potable supply and into rows of wells along the coast to serve as an
underground sea water barrier. Several groundwater basins in San
Diego are being investigated for potential utilization as seasonal
storage for reclaimed water. Across the nation, in Arizona, Texas
and Florida, reclaimed water is being used as an alternative water
The technology exists today to treat a wastewater source into a safe,
drinkable product. The use of treated wastewater for potable
purposes has been done on varying scales for many years. The
concept of discharging treated wastewater into rivers in all areas of
this country, only to be withdrawn downstream for introduction into
the potable water system is common throughout the United States
and other countries. The Upper Occoquan project in Virginia has
had good success in this practice. In addition, research carried out
by the Denver Water Board with their potable reuse demonstration
plant and the City of San Diego's Aquaculture program give
excellent data on the effectiveness of advanced water treatment
processes. The San Diego County Water Authority and the City are
currently studying the feasibility of purifying reclaimed water so it
can supplement the region's potable water supply.