FROM Higgins Engineering.Inc. TO
Post-It" brand fax transmittal memo 7671 r#o pageo
i\S^ II 7 W77 Z Wrom W ; //.
S, Fx # Fax #
b ltgitbat n$-Iatko ,I JckbonWU, Moa'y, DeOC"b" .1 ,02
Man-made wetlands do'ettr tanthought
By Bever Keagy "t's acooplshing the mision Is was seat
aSma er ot to accnipclth,"'he said .
Just north of the holiday shopping mad- One JackIonvill envit rau ntalst who
ness at The Avenues mil on Southde viewed sonm'created wtisnd's d she
Jacksonvie is a pocket of paradise. iked what she saw..
SI's large welland, where ons cavort "I was Imprweed wvi the magnitude at
Son a pond aid an osprey ies te work that d been done," said the e-
SSomething is dffeent, however, about viroamentat.l, Unds Breme of the florid
Sthi little 6-acre piece of eraity. ierra CQub'a wetands comuttee. '1 aso
I I's a manufactured wetland, created by was impressed by how ood they looked
mL and how much habitat hy were provide
SDespite many documented failure ofs W
man-made wetlands, a recent St. Johns ridahas lot nearly half its wetlands
River Water Management Ditrict report because of drainae, dredging or allng.
found that wetlands creation s prospering, The sate, reccnlinx the Moss, isbatl
not hakerng. to save these spngy, arshy lands cital
Creating wetlands cnis roersal in the to waterfwl and other animals.
environmental comunw ty. Flrida law The district report, released lst month,
a ys developers a destroy wetdands is a stas report tof howwell wetland cra-
they promise to bu D replacement, on is working '
Some critics said t's not possible to It also address the negative effect of
S recraft what nature has creamed. Others ar- man-made wetlands Many amnt inspect-
gue Wt's a scence thas can work, with con- ed, meaning that it's unknown whether the
stant nurturing and care wetland s adequately replacing the one de-
Glenn Lowe, the district's chief environ- atroyed, Enforcement would be needed to
mental specalst, said the keys to a su- get the wtland functioning the way that
eassft man-made wetland are proper de- it's supposed to, with wedand species and
sign, a commitment ti the prQjeet by the water.
developer and a dedicated compliance ef- Wetlands creation, Mrs. Brener said, "il
fort by environmental regulators. not a qui process. It's not som thUng that
a develper can do and walk away from. It
takes a long-term co"mitmewtl Yeas of-
ten are needed for a man-made wetland to
look and unction as wel as a natural wet-
In addition to the obvious ingredient -
waer a successuii wetland needs plant
species like cypress, maple and tupelo. An
unsuceesful wetland might have dead
brown saplngs and no water, or it cold
be logged by cattailr
nce 1983, the dta has ranted 1,6
permits in 19 North and Central Florida
counties that required wetlands' crean,
prervatont or enhancement. The distri
inspected 26 percent of those wetland
Among the report's findis:
* Wetand ceamtio can work, and the
ucss ae is higher than reported previ-
ously by other enironw mental agInties.
The district fo nd that 5 percent of the
wetlands infected showed ecological suc-
css and that 62 percent could be success
ful if enforcement was made.
* A man-made wetland has the same in-
trinaic chaiacteristic of a natural wetland,
and most are valuable to wldlfe.
* Seawater wetlands, Influnced by idal
(See MAMAMDE Page 8-8)
FROM Higgins Engineering.Inc. TO
Man-made wetlands do better
(From Page B-1)
waters, have a higher degree of
:Ces than freshwatmr marshes or
t~e report, however, also showed
The district Inspected only 2
percent of the wetlands that I a t
towed to be created.
"That's pathetic Mrs. Brmer
wi4. "k means that we've allowed.
the destruction of wetands and
thi we have no i ea of whwt's
The distct's Lowe said, "I thik
our compianc effort i preLy
ood but that doesn't uy It
couldn't be Improved" The water
management district' JalsonvUle
.ofice has.e Agonlplanam oces
; that monitor a ve&omumt ea.
: Of the man-made wet*nds per-
inMed, Duval County had. 30,
more thn an y other county in the
disict even mori than heavy
developed Orae ounty, home or
W DiWney Word.Of h, ess
than 20 percenL of Duva Couniy's
created etiands were iqpected
"* Only p percent of the ahs will
be sucesslWl without enforcerert;
W3 percent of the sit are like to
ee successful if enforcetnen is
i ade, te disolk found.
E in Bouthltier, a biologist who
itblids wetands, said wetland spe-
cialists have feared a t in the
pagp few years about creating wet-
lands. Sheuafid she thinks that re-
cent man-made wetlands are buer
than their predecessors from the
"I don't see as many poorly cre-
ated weands as we did a few
years back," said Ms. Bouthllker.
who works for CZR Inc., an envi-
..Many actor, such as the sap
ings' condition or the depth to
which the wetland b dug. can Influ-
ence a wetland's success or failure,
"'Water manager are fairly spedcAc
inthe penmiItabout what needs to
be planteds However. once the wet-
lend is established, wetland species
soUmyers appear on other own. I
sometimes Mother Nature can'
take over and produce good wet.
liWd," said lisa Grant an environ-
mental special with the district.
In other cases, I te wetland
pond near The Avenues mad, d-
gatory i such a the loons
- can be found uing the wetland.
"That's oe te th that's surpawn
about wetland crealo We don't
know what we're geant. We make
It aractive to wildlife and it back
and wait" Ma Grant said. .
Developer, ideally, try to avoid
building -n wealandl. however, if
no way edts to vod it tey can
do it, with a permit
However, ICt cot a lot, Ms.
BoudthiUer sid. Creating a weUand
oan co fro&m $16,000 to SAW0,
which Includes the cot of sapngs,
design and msontorb
However, ame devlopers try to
cut cots by hiring landsape r,
some of whon do not have experi-
ence in buldinf wetlands, the Mid.
And somwtimes, devetopen o
bankrupt, and the wetlan never Is
bult or it can't be moatred, she