Title: Florida Surface-Water Resources
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Title: Florida Surface-Water Resources
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Language: English
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
Abstract: Florida Surface-Water Resources National Water Summary 1985
General Note: Box 7, Folder 2 ( Vail Conference 1987 - 1987 ), Item 21
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National Water Summary Florida 187


Surface-Water Resources

The State of Florida has an abundance of surface-water resources,
including more than 1,700 streams and 7,700 freshwater lakes and reser-
voirs (Heath and Conover, 1981). Extensive wetlands, a prominent feature
in Florida, comprised an estimated 50 percent of the land area prior to
development. It is estimated that, in 1974, the area of wetlands was 8.3
million acres-a loss of 3.4 million acres since 1955 (Hampson, 1984).
Although many of Florida's wetlands have been destroyed by drainage for
agricultural use, mosquito control, flood control, and urban development,
they are now protected by State statute.
In 1980, freshwater withdrawals in Florida totaled about 7,300
Mgal/d (million gallons per day) or 11.300 ft3/s (cubic feet per second),
of which 49 percent was from surface-water sources. Irrigation accounts
for 39 percent of total surface-water withdrawals. Surface water is the prin-
cipal source for 15 public-water supplies located mostly in central and south-
coastal Florida. About 10 percent of Florida's population relies on surface
water for its freshwater needs. Instream water use for hydroelectric-power
generation was 15,000 Mgal/d or 23.200 ft'/s. Surface-water withdrawals
in Florida in 1980 for various purposes and related statistics are given in
table 1.
Florida's surface water generally is suitable for most uses with
minimal treatment. Some streams originate in large swamps that contribute
undesirable acidity and color to the water-notably the St. Marys, the St.
Johns, the Withlacoochee, and the Suwannee Rivers (Florida Department
of Environmental Regulation. 1980). Sources of pollution of streams in
Florida are municipal sewage-treatment plants; pulp and paper mills; citrus-
processing plants; chemical-processing and production plants; and runoff
from croplands, dairies, and feedlots. Phosphate-mining activities have in-
creased phosphorus concentrations in the Peace and the Alafia Rivers and
in tributaries to the Suwannee River (Florida Department of Environmen-
tal Regulation, 1980).

Florida is located in the Coastal Plain physiographic pro-
vince (fig. 1). According to Snell and Kenner (1974), the variety
of surface-water features in Florida is the result of the State's loca-
tion in the subtropical zone between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf
of Mexico, its average rainfall of 53 inches, its relatively flat terrain,
and the permeable nature of its soils and underlying rocks. Surface-
water features include extensive marshes and swamps; numerous
streams, lakes, and ponds (except in the interior peninsula where
streams are few); and an extensive network of ditches and canals,
particularly in the southeastern part of the State.
Rainfall is plentiful in Florida and varies geographically
as well as seasonally and annually. Average annual rainfall is about
53 inches but ranges from about 52 inches in central Florida to 60
inches in the southeastern part of the State and 64 inches in the
northwestern part (fig. 1). Average annual rainfall in Key West
is about 40 inches. The seasonal distribution differs from north to
south (fig. 1). Climatic conditions in Florida range from a zone
of transition between temperate and subtropical in the extreme north-
ern interior to tropical in the Florida Keys. Northwestern Florida
has two wet seasons-December through March and June through
September. On the peninsula, more than half of the annual rainfall
occurs during June through September. October and November are
the driest months in the northwest, whereas October can be one
of the wettest months in southeastern Florida and the Keys. A large
percentage of the rainfall (60 to 88 percent) is lost to evapotranspira-

Table 1. Surface-water facts for Florida
IData may not add to totals because of independent rounding. Mgal/d = million
gallons per day; gal/d = gallons per day Source: Solley, Chase, and Mann,
Num ber (thousands) ............. .............. ... .... .................. 990
Percentage of total population ............... ................. .. 10
From public water-supply systems.
Number (thousands) ..... ....... ........ .................. 990
Percentage of total population....... ................................ ... 10
From rural self-supplied systems
Number (thousands)......... ....... .... ............... ............ 0
Percentage of total population............ ................................ 0
Surface water and ground water, total IMgal/d)..................... 7,300
Surface water only (Mgal/d).............. .............................. 3,600
Percentage of total................. ... .................................... 49
Percentage of total excluding withdrawals for
thermoelectric power ... ... .. .... .................... 33
Category of Use
Public supply withdrawals:
Surface w ater (M gal/d) ................................. ................. 180
Percentage of total surface water ........................ 5
Percentage of total public supply .............................. 13
Per capital (gal/d).. ................. ................... .......... 175
Rural supply withdrawals.
Surface w ater (M gal/d) ... .. ....... ........ ................. 0.1
Percentage of total surface water .. .................... .... 0
Percentage of total rural domestic ....... .......... 0
Per capital (gal/d) ................... .............. .. ... ... 128
Surface water (Mgal/d) ........ .. .... ............ ...... 20
Percentage of total surface water.. ............. .............. 1
Percentage of total livestock .......... ............................. 34
Industrial self-supplied withdrawals:
Surface w ater (M gal/d).................................................... 2,000
Percentage of total surface water........................................ 56
Percentage of total industrial self-supplied:
Including withdrawals for thermoelectric power................. 77
Excluding withdrawals for thermoelectric power.................... 33
Irrigation withdrawals
Surface w ater (M gal/d)..................................................... 1.400
Percentage of total surface water ............. ... ................. 39
Percentage of total irrigation................................................ 47
Hydroelectric power (Mgal/d)............ ... .................. ....... 15,000

tion. Annual evaporation from free-water surfaces ranges from 48
inches in the southeast to about 42 inches in the northwest (Farns-
worth and others, 1982).
Tropical cyclones and hurricanes, which are capable of
producing rainfall totals of several inches, usually occur from June
through October, with September having the highest average number
(three) annually.
Runoff, like rainfall and evaporation, varies geograph-
ically, as well as seasonally and annually. Statewide, average runoff
is 14 inches and ranges from about 5 inches in the Florida Keys
to 40 inches in northwestern Florida (fig. 1). In northwestern
Florida, the average monthly discharge of the Yellow River is
greatest from January through April (fig. 1) when the
evapotranspiration rate is low. Discharge of the St. Johns River
in east-central Florida is greatest from August through November.
Discharge in the Peace River in southwestern Florida is greatest
from July through October (fig. 1). Prolonged periods of deficient
rainfall have caused less-than-normal runoff-notably in 1956 and
1982 (fig. 2).

188 National Water Summary Surface-Water Resources

Florida is located entirely in the South Atlantic-Gulf Region
(fig. 2). Two principal rivers-the St. Marys, which is a State boun-
dary stream, and the Suwannee River-originate in the Okefenokee
Swamp in Georgia. Two other principal rivers originate in
Georgia-the Ochlockonee and the Apalachicola. Four other prin-
cipal rivers in the Choctawhatchee-Escambia subregion of the
Region-the Choctawhatchee, the Yellow, the Escambia, and the
Perdido-originate in Alabama. These river basins are described
below; their locations, and long-term variations in streamflow at
representative gaging stations, are shown in figure 2. Streamflow
characteristics and other pertinent information are given in table 2.

Altamaha-St. Marys Subregion
The St. Marys River forms the State boundary between
Georgia and Florida in the northeastern corner of the State. The
headwaters of the St. Marys are in the Okefenokee Swamp. The
river is about 175 miles long and has an average slope of 2.56 ft/mi
(feet per mile). The river is affected by tides for about 60 miles
upstream from the mouth. Principal uses of the river are boating
and fishing. Quality in the upper part is degraded by acidity and
color in drainage from headwater swamps. Quality in the lower
part also is degraded by industrial discharges. Accordingly, water
quality is better in the upper part than in the lower part (Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation, 1980), but the water in
both parts of the river still meets State drinking-water standards
with minimal treatment. The principal surface-water related issue
fw" in the basins is the degradation of water quality by industrial point

St. Johns Subregion
The St. Johns River, one of the few north-flowing rivers
in the United States, originates in a broad, marshy area south of
Blue Cypress Lake. The river parallels the Atlantic coast and is
never more than 30 miles inland. The St. Johns River is 273 miles
long-the longest river entirely within Florida-and drains an area
of 9,168 mi2 (square miles). Because of the relatively flat stream
gradient (about 0.1 ft/mi), the river is affected by tides about 160
miles upstream from the mouth that can reverse flows for several
days each year (Snell and Kenner, 1974). During the last 50 years,
more than 60 percent of the flood plain in the upper St. Johns River
is believed to have been ditched, diked, and drained to provide fertile
muck for rangeland and agriculture (Fernald and Patton, 1984, p.
158). Principal uses of the river are barge transport; commercial
and sport fishing; and boating. Four thermoelectric powerplants
use the river for cooling purposes. Surface-water-related issues in
the basin include the contamination of the upper part of the St. Johns
River by runoff from agricultural areas; and contamination of the
lower part of the river by urban runoff, wastewater effluent, and
industrial discharges, especially in the Jacksonville area (Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation, 1980).

The Oklawaha River, the largest tributary to the St. Johns
River, drains an area of 2,769 mi2, or about one-third of the St.
Johns basin. The Oklawaha basin has several large lakes in its head-
waters that are regulated by canals and control structures constructed
in 1956. Rodman Dam and Buckman Lock, which were constructed
in 1968 as part of the Cross Florida Barge Canal, control a reser-
voir containing 82,000 acre-ft (acre-feet) or 26,700 Mgal (million
gallons) of water in a lake covering about 10,800 acres. Evapora-
tion from Lake Oklawaha and diversions through Buckman Lock
have contributed to the downward trend in average discharge by
water year for the Oklawaha River shown in figure 2. For example,
the average discharge by water year of the Oklawaha River at Rod-
man Dam (table 2, site 4) from 1944 to 1968 was 2,020 ft'/s or
1,310 Mgal/d. The average discharge from 1969 to 1983 was 1,550
ft'/s or 1,000 Mgal/d, approximately half of which represents
discharge from Silver Springs. Principal uses of the river are boating
and fishing. Water quality in the Oklawaha River generally meets
State standards for drinking water, with minimal treatment (Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation, 1980). Surface-water-
related issues include contamination of the chain of lakes in the upper
part of the Oklawaha River by effluent from sewage-treatment
plants, citrus-processing plants, and runoff from muck farms.

Southern Florida Subregion
The Kissimmee River is the main tributary to Lake Okee-
chobee and drains an area of about 2,900 mi2. The upper Kissim-
mee River, above Lake Kissimmee, passes through a series of
shallow lakes, most of which have outlet controls. During the
1960's, the river downstream from Lake Kissimmee was
straightened and changed from a shallow, meandering river 90 miles
long to a river 50 miles long with a 30-foot-deep channel; the flood
plain also was altered by the addition of levees and water-control
structures (Fernald and Patton, 1984, p. 154). The leveling effect
that the levees and control structures have had on streamflow since
1964 is shown in figure 2 (site 6). Restoration of a 12-mile seg-
ment of the river is being undertaken as part of an overall plan to
divert water back into historic oxbows and marshlands to protect
and manage the natural resources of the Kissimmee River-Lake
Okeechobee-Everglades ecosystems.
Lake Okeechobee, at an elevation of 14 feet above sea
level, is the largest freshwater lake in the State. It has a surface
area of 681 mi2 and can store 2,700,000 acre-ft or 880,000 Mgal
of water (Fernald and Patton, 1984). At the end of the wet season,
the lake is regulated to a maximum stage of 17.5 feet above sea
level to store water for later release during the dry season. Flood-
waters are released to the east through the St. Lucie Canal and to
the west through the Caloosahatchee River. A series of coastal
canals, with controls, lead to the southeast and recharges the shallow
aquifers that serve the populous southeastern coast.
The subregion contains the Big Cypress Swamp and The
Everglades, extensive areas of marsh, sloughs, and tree islands that
form the largest wetlands in Florida. During the wet season, water
flows through these systems of marshes, broad sloughs, and tree

National Water Summary Florida




*.;.c :r.


-so- Line of equal average
annual precipitation
Interval 4 inches
--4- Line of equal average
annual runoff-In-
terval, in inches, is
National Weather Service
precipitation gage
Monthly data shown

MWOO 2100 --- in oar graphs
2oo VM 0 station-Monthly data
-U0 shown in bar graphs

e." }~~.oio'
RUNOFF I "l- l SCALE 1:6,000,000
0 oo oo RUNOFF 0 50 10to MILE

S' l"0a ,50 100 KILOMETERS
L ,
Figure 1. Average annual precipitation and runoff in Florida and average monthly data for selected sites, 1951-80.
(Sources: Precipitation-annual data from unpublished map compiled by D. A. Olson, National Oceanic end Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); monthly data
from NOAA files. Runoff-annual data from Gebert, Graczyk, and Krug. 1985 Discharge-monthly- and relative-discharge data from U.S. Geological Survey
files. Physiographic diagram from Raisz, 1954; divisions from Fenneman. 1946.)


W' am



190 National Water Summary Surface-Water Resources

Table 2. Selected streamflow characteristics of principal river basins in Florida
[Gaging station: Period of analysis is for the water years used to compute average discharge and may differ from that used to compute other streamflow characteristics.
Streamflow characteristics: The 7-day, 10-year low flow is a discharge statistic; the lowest mean discharge during 7 consecutive days of a year will be equal
to or less than this value, on the average, once every 10 years. The average discharge is the arithmetic average of annual average discharges during the period
of analysis. The 100-year flood is that flow that has a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in a given year. Abbreviations: Do. =ditto; mi' =square
miles; ft'/s=cubic feet per second; ... =insufficient data or not applicable. Sources: Reports of the U.S. Geological Survey]

Site Gaging station Streamiow characteristics
no. 7-day,
(see Drainage Period 10-year Average 100-year Degree
fig. Name and area of low flow discharge flood of
2 USGS no. (mi'l analysis Ift'/s) Ift'sl Ift'l regulation Remarks


1. St. Marys River 700 1927-83 18 672 40,500 None Upstream affected by high
near Macclenny acidity and color from
1022310001. swamp drainage.


2. St. Johns River 1,539 1934-83 24 1,310 18,500 None
near Christmas
3. St. Johns River 3,066 1934-83 0 3,120 21.900 do ...
near Deland
4. Oklawaha River at 2,747 1944-68 788 2,020 12,900 Moderate
Rodman Dam near 1969-83 .. 1,550 . Prior to 1969 at site 1 mile
Orange Springs downstream.


5. Fisheating Creek 311 1932-83 0 257 21,400 None Minimum monthly flow zero in
at Palmdale most years.
6. Kissimmee River at 2,886 1929-62 809 2,190 29,800 Appreciable High nutrient levels in
S-65E near 1964-83 36 1,390 headwaters.


7. Peace River at 1,367 1932-83 57 1,150 34,400 None Upstream quality affected by
Arcadia sewage-treatment plants and
1022967501. phosphate mines.
8. Hillsborough River 220 1940-83 53 259 10,300 do ... Municpal water supply.
near Zephyrhills
9. Wnhlacoochee River 1,825 1932-83 158 1.090 9,750 do .. High acidity and color from
near Holder headwaters swamp drainage.

10. Suwannee Rier at 7,880 1932-83 1,790 6,940 68,000 None
11. Santa Fe River near 1,017 1928-29. 730 1,610 16.400 .. do ..
Fort Whie 1933-83
12. Suwannee River near 9,640 1931, 4.020 10,400 66.400 do. .
Wilcox 1023235001. 1942-83

National Water Summary Florida 191

Table 2. Selected streamflow characteristics of principal river basins in Florida-Continued
IGaging station Period of analysis is for the water years used to compute average discharge and may differ from that used to compute other streamflow characteristics
Streamflow characteristics: The 7-day, 10 year low flow is a discharge statistic, the lowest mean discharge during 7 consecutive days of a year will be equal
to or less than this value, on the average, once every 10 years The average discharge is the arithmetic average of annual average discharges during the period
of analysis The 100 year flood is that flow that has a 1 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in a given year Abbreviations Do =ditto; mi'=square
miles. fti/s=cubic feet per second; .... = nsufficient data or not applicable Sources Reports of the U.S Geological Survey]

Site Gaging station Streamflow characteristics
no. 7-day,
(see Drainage Period 10-year Average 100 year Degree
fig. Name and area of low flow discharge flood of
2) USGS no Imi'l analysis Ifitls) Ifh'/sl fthls regulation Remarks

13. Ochlockonee River 1,140 1927-83 30 1,030 41,200 None Hydroelectric-power
near Havana generation.
14. Apalachicola River 17,200 1929-83 7,000 22,400 264,000 Moderate Hydroelectric-power
at Chattahoochee generation.
15. Chociawhatchee River 4,384 1931-83 1,630 7,140 128,000 None
near Bruce
16. Yellow River at 624 1939-83 184 1,170 45,900 .do ..
17. Shoal River near 474 1939-83 291 1,100 33.600 .do
18. Escambia Rier 3,817 1935-83 777 6.360 179,000 .. do
near Century
19. Perdido River at 394 1942-83 221 766 34,200 ... do .
Barrneau Park

Peace-Tampa Bay Subregion

This subregion is drained primarily by three major rivers-
the Peace, the Hillsborough, and the Withlacoochee-and by many
smaller streams that drain into the Gulf of Mexico and into coastal
bays. These three rivers have headwaters in a broad, swampy area
characterized by very low stream gradient and poorly defined basin
divides. The Peace River has elevated nutrient and total chlorophyll
concentrations, particularly in the upstream reaches where phosphate
mines, fertilizer-manufacturing plants, sewage-treatment plants,
agricultural operations, and runoff from urban areas adversely af-
fect the quality of the river (Fernald and Patton, 1984, p. 76). The
Hillsborough River is the primary water supply for the city of Tam-
pa. The Withlacoochee River drains an area of 2,020 mi2 and has
a stream gradient of about 0.9 ft/mi. Along much of its course,
it is in hydraulic contact with the Floridan aquifer system (Sinclair,
1978, p. 9). The variation in the average discharge by water year
(fig. 2, site 9) of the Withlacoochee River is smaller than that of
the Peace River (fig. 2, site 7) because of the contribution of ground
water to base flow and the many lakes and swamps that provide
temporary storage of flood runoff.

Suwannee Subregion
The Suwannee River, which drains an area of 9,950 mi2,
has its headwaters in the Okefenokee Swamp and flows southward
to the Gulf of Mexico. Major tributaries are the Santa Fe, the
Alapaha, and the Withlacoochee Rivers. The basin has a low stream
density because porous limestone at or near the surface facilitates
rapid infiltration of rainfall. Much of this water discharges through
7 springs with average flows of more than 100 ft'/s or 64.6 Mgal/d,
and through 25 springs with average flows of 10 to 100 ft'/s (6.46
to 64.6 Mgal/d) (Rosenau and Faulkner, 1975). The Suwannee River
has been declared an "Outstanding Florida Water" by the Florida
Department of Environmental Regulation, which is responsible for
restoring (to 1978-79 conditions) and protecting water quality (Fer-
nald and Patton, 1984, p. 226). The principal uses of the river are
canoeing, boating, and fishing. One thermoelectric powerplant uses
the river for cooling. A tributary stream in the upper Suwannee
receives drainage from a phosphate mine. With the exception of
the area just downstream from this tributary, the water quality of
the Suwannee River is considered to be suitable for most uses. A
concern in the basin is a nonstructural flood-control plan, adopted
by the Suwannee River Water Management District, to limit.
development on the flood plain.

192 National Water Summary Surface-Water Resources

Ochlockonee Subregion
The Ochlockonee River, with headwaters in southwestern
Georgia, drains an area of 2,250 mi2, of which 1,170 mi2 are in
Florida. Streamflow is variable and consists mainly of direct runoff
with a small contribution from ground water that sustains low flow.
Jackson Bluff Dam (completed in 1929), 65 miles upstream
from the mouth, forms a lake with a surface area of 6,850 acres
and a usable capacity of 69,800 acre-ft or 22,700 Mgal. From 1930
through 1970, the lake was used for hydroelectric-power genera-
tion. Since 1970, the lake has been a State park and is regulated
as a recreational area. New equipment has been installed, and power
generation will be resumed in 1985.
The Ochlockonee River basin is primarily forested land
that contains no significant point or nonpoint sources of pollution
(Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, 1980). The water
of the Ochlockonee River is suitable for most uses and requires
only minimal treatment to meet State drinking-water standards. The
adverse effects of drawdown in Lake Talquin during peak power
on recreational use of the lake is a local issue of concern.

Apalachicola Subregion
The Apalachicola River is formed by the confluence of
the Flint and the Chattahoochee Rivers at the Jim Woodruff Dam.
It then flows 107 miles southward to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf
of Mexico. The lake behind Jim Woodruff Dam (completed in 1957
with 367,300 acre-ft or 119,700 Mgal of storage capacity) is used
for hydroelectric-power generation. About 4 miles downstream from
Jim Woodruff Dam, the river is used to cool a thermoelectric
powerplant. In the upper reach of the Apalachicola, periodic
f dredging is required to maintain a 9-foot depth for navigation.
Groups comprised of concerned citizens monitor proposals for
development or other changes in the basin because the river emp-
ties into Apalachicola Bay-one of the most productive shellfish
regions in the United States (Mattraw and Elder, 1984, p. 56). The
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation has designated
the Apalachicola River as an "Outstanding Florida Water" and pro-
tects its water quality.

Choctawhatchee-Escambia Subregion
The northwestern part of Florida contains the area of
greatest runoff in the State (fig. 1)-from 20 inches to more than
40 inches annually. The northwestern part of Florida receives abun-
dant rainfall (about 64 inches annually). Ground water discharges
to tributary streams that are in hydraulic continuity with the sand-
and-gravel aquifer. This combination of factors produces the large

runoff. Principal rivers in this subregion include the Choctawhat-
chee, the Yellow, the Shoal, the Escambia, and the Perdido. These
basins are mostly rural and largely undeveloped, and the rivers are
used mainly for boating and fishing. The Escambia River is used
to cool a thermoelectric powerplant 3 miles upstream from Escambia
Bay. Florida's western border with Alabama is formed by the Per-
dido River. Water quality of the rivers in this subregion meets State
drinking-water standards with minimal treatment.

Florida's water resources are managed by the Northwest
Florida, St. Johns River, South Florida, Southwest Florida, and
Suwannee River Water Management Districts. The Water Resources
Act of 1972 (Chapter 373, Florida Statutes) created these districts
and gave them authority to manage surface-water and ground-water
use in the State. This act requires that permits be obtained for
surface-water withdrawals and that the applicant show that the pro-
posed use is a "reasonable-beneficial use"-that is, the water will
be used for a purpose and in a manner that are reasonable and con-
sistent with the public interest. The Florida Administrative Code,
Rule 17-40, lists 10 factors that determine the "reasonable-
beneficial use" of water.
The Water Resources Act also requires that the manage-
ment districts adopt plans to deal with water shortages. Water-
shortage plans provide a means for the equitable distribution of water
resources among all water users during periods of water shortages.
The West Coast Regional Water-Supply Authority (WCRW-
SA) (for the counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, and the
cities of Tampa and St. Petersburg) was formed in 1974 to deal
with water shortages and to reduce prior conflicts over the inter-
basin transfer of ground water. The WCRWSA has examined the
possibility of transferring surface water to the Tampa Bay area from
the Suwannee River, 100 miles to the north (Fernald and Patton,
1984, p. 249).
The water management districts, under the 1972 Water
Resources Act (Chapter 373, Sections 196, 223, Florida Statutes),
are empowered to authorize the transfer of water across county
boundaries and outside the basin areas if the transfer and use are
determined to be consistent with the public interest.
The U.S. Geological Survey, through cooperative agree-
ments with local, State, and Federal agencies, conducts hydrologic
studies to define the quantity and quality of surface waters in the
State. These studies provide cooperating agencies with the infor-
mation needed to plan and manage the resource.

National Water Summary Florida


.p,,i,,, hi, ,,Ia ni, SUBREGION


Water-resources sub-
region boundary
RODMAN Dam and name- Reser-
voir formed by dam
has storage capacity
of at least 5,000 acre-
A9 USGS stream-gaging
refers to accompany-
ing bar graph and to
table 2

SCALE 1:4,500.000
0 50 100 MILES

soo 7no




3 *4 WA 5 7 AR



1 wcox oSan

(,ulf of



. _-N

0 1 -- 11

905 1 1W I I 5 5

wooo i-----------



W3 193013 0 1 5 1 5 19M 5



10 19M5 1955 I 195 175 -- 5
Ias WATR Yi an

Figure 2. Principal river basins and related surface-water resources development in Florida and average discharges for selected sites.
Bar graphs show average discharge by water year at selected stream-gaging sites; the curve is a 15-year weighted moving average of the annual values. (Sources:
Water-resources regions and subregions from Seaber and others, 194; surface-water-resources development from Hitt, 1985; discharge data from U.S Geological
Survey files )


194 National Water Summary Surface-Water Resources


Bridges, W. C., 1982, Technique for estimating magnitude and frequency
of floods on natural-flow streams in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey
Water-Resources Investigations 82-4012, 45 p.
Farnsworth, R. K., Thompson, E. S., and Peck, E. L., 1982, Evaporation
atlas for the contiguous 48 United States: National Oceanic and At-
mospheric Administration Technical Report NWS 33, 26 p.
Fenneman, N. M., 1938, Physiography of the Eastern United States: New
York, McGraw-Hill, 714 p.
S1946, Physical divisions of the United States: Washington, D. C.,
U.S. Geological Survey special map.
Fernald, E. A., and Patton, D. J., eds., 1984, Water resources atlas of
Florida: Institute of Science and Public Affairs, Florida State Univer-
sity, Tallahassee, 291 p.
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, 1980, 1980 water quality
inventory: Tallahassee, 294 p.
Hampson, P. S., 1984, Wetlands in Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology
Map Series 109, Tallahassee, scale 1:2,000,000.
Heath, R. C., and Conover, C. S., 1981, Hydrologic almanac of Florida:
U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 81-1107, 239 p.
Gebert, W. A., Graczyk, D. J., and Krug, W. R., 1985, Average annual
runoff in the United States, 1951-80: U.S. Geological Survey Open-
File Report 85-627, scale 1:2,000,000.
Hitt, K. J., compiler, 1985, Surface-water and related-land resources
development in the United States and Puerto Rico: U.S. Geological
Survey special map, scale 1:3,168,000.
Hughes, G. H., 1978, Runoff from hydrologic units in Florida: Florida
Bureau of Geology Map Series 81, Tallahassee, scale 1:2,000,000.
S1981, Low-flow frequency data for selected stream-gaging stations
in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations
81-69, 110 p.

Hughes, G. H., Hampton, E. R., and Tucker, D. F., 1971, Annual and
seasonal rainfall in Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series
40, Tallahassee, scale 1:2,000,000.
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District Chief, U.S. Geological Survey, Suite 3015, 227 North Bronough Street, Tallahassee, FL 32301

Prepared by Wayne C. Bridges and Donald W. Foose

U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2300

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