Title: "Ground Water", "Ground-Water" or "Groundwater"?
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/WL00000705/00001
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Title: "Ground Water", "Ground-Water" or "Groundwater"?
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
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Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: "Ground Water", "Ground-Water" or "Groundwater"? by A. Ivan Johnson
General Note: Box 7, Folder 1 ( Vail Conference 1987 - 1987 ), Item 98
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00000705
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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"Ground Water", "Ground-Water" or "Groundwater"?
By A. Ivan Johnson

Background for spelling "ground water"


(1) Ground water is two words, or more, in French, Russian, Spanish, Italian,
and Portuguese (and possibly some other languages). Why should ground water be
one word and surface water always two words? How about ground crew, ground
floor, ground squirrel, ground wave, or salt water, rain water, fresh water,
saline water?

(2) In checking the latest published editions of dictionaries in bookstores, I
find ground water as two words in the following (in a few cases, older editions
had it as one word): (a) Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd
edition, 1979, Simon and Schuster, New York, NY; (b) Webster's New World
Dictionary, 1983, Simon and Schuster, New York, NY; (c) Webster's New Twentieth
Century Dictionary, Unabridged, 1979, 2269 pages, Simon and Schuster, (d)
Macmillan Dictionary for Students, 1984, Macmillan Pub. Co., New York, NY; (e)
Webster's New Riverside University Dictionary, 1984, Riverside Publ. Co.,
Houghton Mifflin Co., (f) Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary, 1980, Harper and
Row Publishers, Inc., New York, NY; (g) New York Times Everyday Dictionary, 1982,
New York Times Co., NY; (h) Random House College Dictionary, 1984, Random House,
Inc., NY 1568 pgs.; (i) American Heritage Dictionary, 1983, Houghton Mifflin Co.,
\ Boston 1568 pgs.; (j) Funk and Wagnall's Standard Desk Dictionary, 1984, Harper
and Row Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, 862 pgs.; (k) Second College Edition of
American Heritage Dictionary, 1982, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, 1568 pgs.;
and (1) Chambers 20th Century Dictionary, New Edition, 1983, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, England, 1583 pgs.; (m) The Scribner-Bantam English Dictionary
1985, Bantam Books, Toronto, Canada 1071 pgs.; (n) New Scholastic Dictionary of
American English, 1961, Scholastic Inc., NY, 967 pgs.; (o) Websters II New
Riverside Dictionary, 1986, Berkley Publishing Group, NY, 824 pgs., and (p) and
even the classical law dictionary, "Black's Law Dictionary", 5th Edition, 1979,
West Publishing Company, St. Paul, IM, 1511 pgs.

(3) The following technical glossaries and dictionaries also use the two word
version of ground water (my underlining for emphasis); (a) "Interagency Glossary
on Ground-Water Flow and Transport" (1985), Subcommittee on Ground Water of
(Federal) Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, Washington, D.C.; (b)
"Glossary" in Ground-Water Management, ASCE Manual 40, 1986; (c) International
Dictionary of Metallurgy, Mineralogy, and Geology (English-French-German-Ital-
ian), 1968, McGraw-Hill Book Co., NY; (d) Glossary of Geology, 1972, American
Geological Institute, Washington, D.C.; (e) A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral,
and Related Terms, 1968, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, 1269 pages;
(f) Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms, 1967, Engineer's Joint Council
and U.S. Dept. of Defence; (g) Multilingual Technical Dictionary on Irrigation
and Drainage, 1976, International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage; (h)
Nomenclature for Hydraulics, 1962, ASCE Manual No. 43, ASCE, NY; (i) General
Introduction and Hydrologic Definitions in Part 1. General Surface-Water
Techniques, 1960, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1541-A; (j) A
Glossary of Karst Terminology, 1970, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper




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1899-K; (k) Definitions of Selected Ground-Water Terms, 1972, U.S. Geological
s Survey Water Supply Paper 1988; (1) Russian-English-French-German Hydrological
Dictionary, 1967, Scientific Information Consultants, Limited, London; (m)
Glossary of Water 2--Geological, Hydrological, Meteorological Terms (English,
French, German, Finnish), 1970, Swedish Center of Technical Terminology Pub. No.-
45, Uppsala, Sweden; (n) Glossary of Selected Geologic Terms for Use in Engine-
erinc, 1955, Colorado Scientific Society, Denver, CO; (o) Dictionary of Geolog-
ical Terms, 1954, Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan; (p) Glossary of
Soil Science Terms, 1975, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI; (q)
Standard Terms and Symbols Relating to Soil and Rock, ASTM Standard D653 (1986)
ASTII, Philadelphia, PA; (r) Compilation of ASTI; Standard Definitions, 1986,
ASTH, Philadelphia, PA; (s) Dictionary of Geology, D.G.A. Whitten & J.R.V.-
Brooks, 1985, Penquin Books, Ltd., Middlesex, England, 500 pgs.; (t) Dictionary
of Geography, W.G. Moore, 1985, Penquin Books, Ltd., Middlesex, England, 256
pgs.; and (u) Glossary of Soil Science Terms, 1978, Soil Science of America,
Madison, WI.

(4) The following technical journals and reports use two words for ground
water: (a) "Ground Water", "Ground Water Monitoring Review" and many movies and
books of the National Water Well Association, probably the primary organization
in the world that is specifically involved with ground water; (b) the interna-
tional organization UNESCO published their manual "Ground-Water Studies" and the
report "Guidebook to Studies of Subsidence due to Ground-Water Withdrawal,
(1985); (c) EPA's reports "Ground-Water Protection Strategy" (which likely is the
prime mover in emphasizing ground-water problems that need solving in the future)
and their recent "Resource Document for the Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy
C, Workshop;" (d) "Manual of Water Well Construction Practices," 1975, EPA Manual
570/9-75-001, Washington, D.C.; (e) the biweekly newsletter "Ground-Water
Monitor" of the Business Publishers, Inc. (BPI), Silver Spring, MD, publishers
of many other water and environmental newsletters; (f) Short courses, activities,
and "Ground Water Modeling Newsletter" of the International Ground Water Modeling
Center at the Holcomb Research Institute of Butler University; (g) short courses,
reports, and activities of the Environmental and Ground Water Institute, Univer-
sity of Oklahoma and other Ground Water Institutes sponsored by EPA; (h) "GPO
Style Manual," which all Federal agencies are supposed to use; (i) ASTM recently
changed to the two-word version for all of its publications, i.e. their Special
Technical Publication "Ground-Water Contamination Field Methods;" (j) two words
used by American Institute of Professional Geologists, for example their publica-
tion "Ground Water--Issues.and Answers," (k) the many Water-Supply Papers and
other publications produced during the 100-year-plus history of the U.S. Geologi-
cal Survey; and (1) the classical Water-Supply Papers 489 and 494 and the
textbook "Hydrology" by 0. E. Meinzer, who usually is referred to as the Father
of Ground-Water Hydrology.

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