13. Ridington, R.W. and M.M. Williams. 1985. The Hidden Power
of Lotus 1-2-3: Using Macros, Brady Communications
Company, Inc. Bowie, Maryland.
14. Rouhani, S. 1985. Variance Reduction Analysis, Water
Resources Research, v. 21, no. 6. 837-846.
15. Sampson, R.J.1978. Surface II Graphics System, Kansas
Geological Survey Series in Spatial Analysis, No. 1,
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
16. South Florida Water Management District. 1984. Permitting
Information Manual, Volume IV. Management and Storage of
Surface Waters, Resource Control Department, West Palm
17. Tabios, G.Q. III, and J.D. Salas. 1985. A Comparative
Analysis of Techniques for Spatial Interpolation of
Precipitation, Water Resources Bulletin, v. 21, no. 3,
0 100 200 300
Simulated vs Measured Heads at Well 4 (Heaney et al., 1986).
Antonio are good. The most sensitive calibration parameters are
the storage coefficient and the rain gage weighting factors.
The results of these simulations are instructive in two
ways. First, they indicate that sets of plausible parameter
estimates can be found for this study area such that a good
simulation of the surface-groundwater hydrology can be obtained.
Secondly, it is also apparent that this solution is not unique.
Many other combinations of parameter estimates could have
provided similar or even better solutions. Thus, it is important
not to take these results too literally.
While it is possible to develop a very large surface-
groundwater model that could give much improved temporal and
spatial information, it appears to be more beneficial to use a
spreadsheet analysis approach to conform to the local problem.
The basic idea is to focus the effort on those components of the
hydrologic cycle that are most important for this area and this
problem. Also, the sophistication of the modeling should depend
on the available data. Lastly, it is very desirable to use
models that can be understood and used by technical people who
are not computer experts.
This model does sensitivity analysis very well. The user
only has to change the assumed parameter estimates) and the new
answer is automatically recalculated in about ten seconds. Thus,
it is possible to run a few hundred test cases in a single day.
These tests can be run by the experts who are most knowledgeable
about the technical aspects of the problem. The sensitivity
analysis shows the limits of accuracy that are achievable, and
that it is possible to get reasonable calibrations with numerous
plausible assumptions regarding the parameter estimates.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The microcomputer has revolutionized the way that
engineering problems will be analyzed in the future. The
electronic spreadsheet is the most popular piece of computational
software for microcomputers. The spreadsheet can be considered
to be a giant sheet of electronic paper, capable of data
manipulation, mathematical and statistical calculations, and
graphics. With a wide variety of commands, automated functions,
and programming options, the electronic spreadsheet allows the
user to quickly perform tasks on a single file that would other-
wise require hours of hand calculations and reams of paper. This
paper has described how these spreadsheets can be used to solve a
variety of water resources problems. These applications are
Data may be easily imported, exported, and stored on spread-
sheets, and can be manipulated in a variety of ways through the
use of the many functions and commands. Of particular use are
the Copy and Move commands that allow quick data entry,
maneuverability, and analysis. Other commands that allow a
variety of analytical techniques are the Data and Graph commands.
By using a variety of spreadsheet options, well organized and
fully documented knowledge bases can be constructed. Each type of
data may be reserved as a separate file, with all references,
explanations, and local data maps. Elementary statistics may
also be included in the knowledge base, and the data may be
exported for use in other computer programs. This spreadsheet
data handling technique was used in a large hydrologic study in
Florida with much success.
The spreadsheet may be used as a pre- and/or post-processor
for main-frame computer models. Alternatively, spreadsheets can
be used to create simpler hydrologic models that are not only
easy to understand, but can be customized to the local
conditions. Spreadsheet models constructed on the Lotus 1-2-3
spreadsheet include a runoff simulation, flood routing
simulation, and a continuous surface-groundwater model.
Copies of the spreadsheet files used in this paper can be
obtained by sending a check for $10.00, payable to the University
The original impetus for this paper was a water resources
study sponsored by the Southwest Florida Water Management
District, Brooksville, Florida. Subsequent phases of the study
were supported by Florida Water Resources Research Center under
the USGS Water Institute program. Numerous ideas on how to use
spreadsheets were generated by Professor Wayne C. Huber and
graduate students working on related problems, including Wayne C.
Downs, S. Wayne Miles, Thomas G. Potter, and Robert C. Dickinson.
We thank them for their support. Lastly, we would like to
acknowledge the helpful suggestions of the referees.
1. Anderson, D. and D.F. Cobb. 1984. 1-2-3 Tips, Tricks, and
Traps, Que Corporation, Indianapolis, Indiana.
2. Cruetin, J.D. and C. Obled. 1982. Objective Analysis and
Mapping Techniques for Rainfall Fields: an Objective
Comparison, Water Resources Research, v. 18, no. 2, 413-431.
3. Golden Software. 1985. Golden Graphics Systems, Version
2.00, Golden Software, Golden, Colorado.
4. Hancock, M.C. 1986. Analysis of Water Resources Problems
Using Electronic Spreadsheets. Publcation No. 92,Florida
Water Resources Research Center, University of Florida,
5. Heaney, J.P., W.C. Huber, W.C. Downs, M.C. Hancock, and C.N.
Hicks. 1986. Impacts of Development on the Water Resources
of Cypress Creek North of Tampa, Florida Water Resource
Research Center, Report No. 89, University of Florida,
6. Hicks, C.N. 1985. Continuous Simulation of Surface and
Subsurface Flows in Cypress Creek Basin, Florida, Using
Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF). Master's
Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
7. Johnson, L.E. 1986. Water Resource Management Decision
Support Systems, Journal of Water Resources Planning and
Management, ASCE, V. 112, No. 3, July, 308-325.
8. LeBlond, G.T. and D.F. Cobb. 1983. Using 1-2-3, Que
Corporation, Indianapolis, Indiana.
9. Lotus Development Corporation. 1985. Lotus 1-2-3. Release
2, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
10. McDonald, M.G. and A.W. Harbaugh. 1984. A Modular Three-
Dimensional Ground-Water Flow Model. USGS, Reston, Virginia.
11. Miles, S.W., J.P. Heaney, W.C. Huber, and T.G. Potter.
1986. Application of Lotus 1-2-3 to SWMM Preprocessing.
Proc. Fourth Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering,
12. Olsthoorn, T.N. 1985. The Power of the Electronic
Worksheet: Modeling Without Special Programs. Ground Water
Journal, v. 23, no. 3, 381-390.