Title: Karst Terrain of the North Coast of Puerto Rico, Table 3: Schematic Diagram of Possible Patterns of Groundwater Flow and Estimted Hydraulic Conductivities in the Major Formations
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 Material Information
Title: Karst Terrain of the North Coast of Puerto Rico, Table 3: Schematic Diagram of Possible Patterns of Groundwater Flow and Estimted Hydraulic Conductivities in the Major Formations
Physical Description: Photograph
Language: English
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Karst Terrain of the North Coast of Puerto Rico, Table 3: Schematic Diagram of Possible Patterns of Groundwater Flow and Estimted Hydraulic Conductivities in the Major Formations
General Note: Box 7, Folder 1 ( Vail Conference 1987 - 1987 ), Item 76
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Bibliographic ID: WL00000683
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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EXTENDED POTENTIOMETRIC HEAD OF
THE ARTESIAN AQUIFER OF THE CIBAO
FORMATION AND THE LARES LIMESTONE.


EQUIVALENT FRESH-WATER
POTENTIOMETRIC GRADIENT
OWING TO SEA DEPTH AND
8EA-WATER DENSITY.
A


S2000- POSSIBLE LEAKAGE -2000
LW f04NNk RESULTING FROM IL
Z4 + O4 DECREASED HYDRAULIC Z
SoCONDUCTIVITY DOWN DIP.
3000- -\ \ o3v000
SO HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
0" \ &P i (100) IN CUBIC FEET PER DAY -
__ J t 100)PER SQUARE FOOT -4000
S4000- (FEET PER DAY)
SAN SEBASTIAN FORMATION
AND VOLCANIC -00

8000- 6000



7000- 01 -
01 t t ooo
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION X 10
0ooo- -I00
10 5 0 6 10 15 20
DISTANCE FROM COAST. IN MILES


Fig. 3 Schematic Diagram of Possible Patterns of Ground-Water Flow
and Estimated Hydraulic Conductivities in the Major Formations.








obtained from these limestone aquifers.

The existence of the mountain core is very important

for the recharge of the aquifer systems. The mountain core

controls the rain concentrations in the north coast and

north-central parts of island causing the drainage direction

to be predominantly towards the karst terrains.

Recharge for the artesian aquifer (Lares and Montebello

limestones) is produced at the highest point of the karst

terrain. Recharge production occurs through sinkholes and

dolines which are predominant features of the Cibao

formation. This implies that a major form of recharge

occurs in fractures within the limestone. Most of the

drainage in limestone terrain occurs underground rather than

above ground. The recharge zone creates a high head in the

artesian aquifer making the aquifer a very important water

supplier.

The second aquifer system or water table recharging

zone is located farther north and supplies the Aguada and

Aymamon limestone. Sinkholes, dolines and the blanket sand

also act as recharge areas for the system.

These aquifer systems are used the most as water

supplies for the north coast. PRASA (Puerto Rico Aqueduct

Sewer Authority) has established many pumping wells for

domestic use. Industries like Abbott and Union Carbide

control wells that are pumping water for their own use from

the aquifer. Also some wells have been installed for
agricultural use by the land authority. Private wells also




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exist in the areas. These uses help to illustrate the

amount of pumping from the aquifer and to show the

importance of a clean aquifer.


IV. PROBLEMS OF THE AQUIFER
An increasing variety of problems are developing within

the aquifer systems. The increase of pumping in the zone

has produced salt-water encroachment into the fresh-water

aquifer. Groundwater pollution by way of sinkholes is

occurring in industrial, agricultural, and urbanized areas.

Industrial contamination is being directly accessed to the
limestone through the use of deep sinkholes being used for

drainage of waste water. This contamination problem is of

the most concern here because sinkholes access is a major

source of direct contamination to the aquifer.

High bacteria counts and pesticides have been also

found in water samples. This contamination is most likely

due to the increase in agricultural activity. Blanket sand

deposits used for agriculture contribute to the recharging

of the aquifer. Also some blanket sand contains water

reserves defined as surficial aquifers, or perched aquifer,

that are used for water supplies for domestic use.

Trace-organic pollutants have been detected in

Barceloneta and Vega Alta within domestic water samples. A
trace of trichloroethylene in the amount of 670 ppb has been
detected in a well know as the Ponderosa well in Vega Alta.
This is a unsafe amount for human consumption. The source




07o








of this pollutant is from a cleaner used by major

industries, as well as local dry cleaners, and the primary

source of contamination.

The contamination problem has now spread into the karst

zone and the lack of knowledge on water-quality degradation

of the aquifer in the water table (Aguada and Aymamon)

limestone is a very serious problem. This aquifer has the

potential to be permanently lost as a domestic water supply

if pollution continues to increase from the.present rate.


V. REGIONAL STUDY

The karst region of the northerncoast can be divided

into 5 sub-regions (Torres Atall-1984):

1- Aguadilla to Rio Grande de Arecibo

2- Rio Grande de Arecibo to Rio Grande Manati

3- Rio Grande de Manati to Rio Cibuco Area
4- Rio Cibuco to Rio de la Plata Area

5- San Juan Metropolitan Area

The Aguadilla to Rio Grande de Arecibo Area (Fig. 4)

has had limited groundwater data collected from it due to

the lack of understanding of the physical and hydraulic

characteristics of the water table. A good pattern of

groundwater flow has not been produced due to this lack of

information. Rio Camuy and Tamama, however, appear to have
good groundwater drainage based on the presence of many
interconnecting caves and fractures within the karst region.

The artesian aquifer in this region does not appear to be




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