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J i ...351985......I...167......15. 69.,53CONTENTSWETLANDSVolumeS Ecological and Pr __ R. __ ,010 Ma"h G .....SporoboIu,vIfgInlcu, IL.}Kun.h.. toSaIl,..ondAnoerobkSW.... L.A.DONOVANend J.L. Plant W...., SIoIu,R./atlomh/plamongMa}OrFIoodp/Gln511ft 0/,h.FIa,h.ad .RIM',Montana. L.C.W,.T.M.HINCKLEYendMLSCOTT... EI/ecU 0/ FIoodI"lIDn_"""..n and Nultfen'Cv
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1 arf't't'NWrii{'#fst'ttt'Qf,ai'tOiltrantttt1h'hr;;Xt'utWf tst"ct':5; I'J '.\.JI:TLANIIS. V"I. I,IIIW)MARSH COMMUNITYDEVfLOPMNTINA CENTRALFLORIDA PHOSPHATf SURFACEMINEDRECLAIMED WETLAND K{'vin l.frwin,Consulting Ecologist 2011 BaysideParkway Ft. Myprs, Florida 33901 G.Ronnie Best CenterforWetlands Research Universityof FloriddGainesville, Floridd32611 As thenation1sacreageofproductive marsh/wetlandscontinuesfadecreasetheneedforsuccessfulmarshincreases.AvarietyoflandusesinclUdingsurface mining, residentialdevelopmentandagriculturecreatedirectimpactsonwetlandsoftenresultinginanetlossofhabitatifappropriaterestorationorreclamationoftheecosystemisnotobtainedwithinareasonableperiodoftime.The 30hectarefreshwater reclaimedfromaphosphateminedarea is partof d 148hectareupland,61hectarewetlandecosystem(AgricoSwamp)reclaimedin1981/82.Topsoiladditions have beenasuccessful means ofestablishingamarshsystemwithinthesite.Thistechniqueshowsdistinctadvantagesovernaturalrevegetationofoverburden.Attheendoftwofullgrowingseasonsthetopsoiledarea higherspeciesrichnessandcovervaluesthantheoverburdenareas.Duringthisperiodaslightdecline in thespeciesrichnessinthetopsoiledareawas evident dueinparttothe aggressive natureofPontederiacordata.Conversely, speciesrichnessoftheoverburdenareasincreased si9nificantly. Tapsoi1ingappearstoencourage therlccelerated establishmentoflatesuccessionalIl]dnts in sufficientquantitiesto with dggress;vp weedyspecies stnhas latifolia. INTRODUCTION Freshwatermarshreclamationhas bern pursuedinthecentralFloridaphosphate mining areaforseveralyears especially throughconstructionof wptlands (Clewell. 1981; DunnandBest,1983; Gilbert, 1979;Rushton, 1983; Besteta11983;Bestand Erwin.1984; and Erwin ai,1984).In mostofthese areas vegetationhas

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I.". I'll\', IIl'MlNII N A (iNTRAI :MINIII RIIIAIMIIi WITIANII f. rwin. [coloyist.If'Parkway orilid 3JYlIit> Rest 41IndsResearch .f florida lorida 32611j':rWill11.""lit,,"LoUIIMh'ITI;\NIJ tlt't'rl ,lllnwl'd to IIlV,ld,' I.hl' wf'tlrlrld,1("'.1',n,tIIJ(.\llywhichr,,<,ulttrj in rl!yph.l-Inlllln,lll'''1',!l\y,r"l1l1n"'ill'ltl'01rlrrp"ff'd\llC(I'<,,,idP(PIl!l!'rill'vt'9t't.rt' Inonitor.'d ''In(I'I,ll I I(Hll.10dett!rmine if topsoillflqwith mullh (
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1')7WETLANIIS,Vol.I'IR')EnduLocation of .tudy aite show.location of aite withinthe UJ a <;;0{ z0 aN...J ex> .. ;' r V,<..to" r-:-..,_'I.t II' tt.\<:-'".r'll' IIIItoFIGURE1IIILATlTUOJ27040' \

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" .. .. .. Erwin6.Best. n.ORJ DARECLAIMf;DWf:Tl.AND depressions were constructedrandomlythroughoutthefluctuatingwaterlonetoretainwaterandharborfishpopulations during periodsoflowwater.Twolakeswerealsoconstructedintheuplandswhichoverflowviaswaleseastwardfntothewetlands.tfnefntercepttransects(Phfllfps1959,Smith1980)were usedtocomparevegetativecoverofmulchtopso11edareasvs.overburdensoi1.Themethodconsistedofobservationsontransectstnthestudyarea.Plantspeciestouching.overlying.orunderlyingthelfnewererecordedalongwiththedistancethateachspeciesinterceptedtheline.Inthiswaythelinecan bethoughtofasa twodimensionalplaneextendingaboveandbelowtheactualtransectline Individualintervals were totalledbyspeciesand bytransecttoyieldestimatesofpercent cover.Thismethod isadaptedformeasuringchangesin acrosstransitionalzones,andtransectscanberandomlyplacedandreplicatedtoobtainthedesiredprecfsion(Smith1980).SixpermanentlineintercepttransectsweremonitoredintheSpring.Summer andfall.Threetransectswererandomlylocatedinmulchtopsoiledareasandthreetransectsarerandomlylocatedinareasofoverburdensoil.Alltransectsstartedinthedeependofthelittoralzoneandrunupslopetothewetland-uplandinterface.Thethreetransectstnthemulchtopsoiledareatotal391.7mandthethreetransectsinoverburdenareastotal275.5m.Thedifferenceintotallengthofthetwogroupswasduetoslopedifferencestntherandomlocationsandwiderlittoralzonefoundinthemulchtops01ledarea.Theemergentzonesaveraged210.3mforthemulchtopsoiledareaand91.4m,fortheoverburdenarea RESULTS OISCUSSIONThemulchtopsoiledareacontainedhigherspeciesrichnessthantheoverburdenarea(Table1).However.duringfall1983and summer1984percentcoverwashigherfortheoverburdenareathanforthemulcharea(Table1).Thesedifferencesareattributedtothe invasion ofthesubmergedaquaticNajas9uadalenpsisintheshallowoverburdenarea. isoneoftheprimarywaterfowlfoods 1nFlori'd"'aWTth a11plantpartsconsumed.(Tarvereta1.1979).158

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PERCENTCOVER 1 H0.8.160 Typho Hydrocolylt Ponlc ... Ponltdtrlo PoIYG_ \.TOlot 10lhtrl \\.\\\....-.. -.... ..---"""'"./' .,,-.._... 50 FW Sp Su 8383848484 ----""\\\\\\ \ Sp83 Seonalchange1npercentcoverofaelectherbaceouaplantsinmulcharea.of Agr1coSwamp. W 83 MULCH "------'"/", .. "/, .' ,// .' ,"" FIGURE2...-"'_...O,t::.:.;,;,,;;;:;..;&. __ "-_ __'_ __ __'_ F82 2060 40530 Erwin&BesttFLORIDA RECI.AlHEDWETLAND ',"33728311062918410584907275specfes r1 chness, :0 34spec1 es and,.. 16to30 specleSic indicatesthe whfl ethe year.The ,';.'! Mulched aggressfve c,',>' thef1rst year, tot a 111 fedalong the',":,,, resulting II!.;c h ";,:r5 ;>;:,':1 .ebuthad f veatthe Aft, oponentof til!." latHolla IIi .,dviamulch .... transects) 2 and 3 ).,c"."burden 'ennf.l <.-.,>.. gentzoneofthes andcover values.. ,Itsaresfmllar to,', 1979) andClewell ,NOPERCENTCOVERDEN(0.8.1AREAS.

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"..c o o <;c0.c....J0C o <>Erwin"'I",;:.,fiIit,':;';<;.;..;"':-.'',}', -, 'J' ':,'.---:,1. _.. Typha Hydroca'yl. Ponicum Pontlderia PaIYODnum Totol (other)---"'f'WETLANDS. Vol.5,1985OVERBURDEN SO 6040 co > 0 <> 30 '-c" co Q. 20161-:-.',... .'..,,..... -",: .': t" :z'i, .. ,". 'j,11.... .... -,

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162I5084W84F835083Cumulattve chanRe intotal transectItnesoccupied .by select herbaceo\.ll:iI'Jantli Inmulchedareasof ARrfco Swamp.FIGURE 4-150-200""--......----'---"--....... -.....--'----'-FW Sp 82 8383200Mulch 150.. 100 ofII:;;.50c -J uII" I..0 c U" a I-Ponf.d.ria 01;-506Typha Ia Hydroco'yl.0 -100Panicum u I PolygonumEN!n &Beat, FLORJOARECl.AIMED Typha Hydraca'yl.Panicum pont.d.ria Pa1roanum Ta.alCather)w 5p 8484coverofselectIlched(overburden)--.........

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Additiu seedir.'ares usuttle specie ... study' speeh" in SUimarsh Best" wet 1 is: in th(displf has b,.Cattaimulchehefore quantitthe aveapparefl Bytheinthe specie:; 1) (En.1 n speeil"; area Ldom1n8'" (Figu, respofl'..rtchnc tothe specit'':: spec it?' The kej are Wf' 19B3,,' .. by CC,"'"clip' mast 'distuc'phnt'estae','Sever;-' a shi" domi nod': Erwin 6 Best a Pont.d.rio Tn>hoHyd,ocolyl. oPanlcurnI PolyVOftumWETLANDS, Vol. S, 1985CumulativeseasonalchanKetntotal lenRthtrans.ct linesbyselectherbaceousplantetn non-mucked(overburden)area.ofAgrieo Swa.p. OverburdenFIGlIRE 550 o !U""......,J;l:loL---Illli FW FW 83 200 &:-.r 100 -'fu-50!150 163

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164AdditIonalstudyisneededtodetermineifdirectseeding.sowingofpropagules.and/ordirectplantingaresufficienttoestablishlatesuccessionalplantsinsufficientquantitiestocompetewithagressiveweedyspeciessuchasT.latifolia.Presentdatafrom this studysU9gests that supplementalplantin9ofsuchspeciesasP.cordata,assumingresourcesareavailableInsufficientquantitles,atleastpartiallymeetsthemar.sh.reclamationgoals.assuggestedby(DunnandBest.1983).ofachievingdiverse.selfmaintafnedwetlandS.AnotherscenariocurrentlybeingevaluatedintheAgr1coSwampwetlandistheapparentdIsplacementof byScirpus wheretheSclrpushasbeenplanted within areasdominatedby Cattails are apparentlyin a stateof decline-Tn themulchedareas.beforeT. 14ttf0114was presentinsufficientquantttTestoexertadominatinginfluence in someoftheoverburden area (Figure3).T.14t1fo114fsapparentlyin a stateofdeclineTnthemulchedareas.Bythe sumMer ofthe1983seasonthenumberofspecies1nthemulchareadecreasedto34dndthenumberofspeciesintheoverburdenareaincreasedto24(TableI)(Erwlnetai,1984).A9aln,expressln9thisinformationasarate.themulchedareadecreased3speciesduringthe1983seasonwhereastheOVerblJrdenareaincreased8speciesduringthesameperiod.Thiscorrespondedwith a decreasein covpr valuesforeachdominantspeciesinthedifferentwetlandhabitats(FIgures2and3).Theseverewlnterof1983mayheresponsibleforadecline in covervalues. Species richness in themulchedareasfromthesummerof1983tothesummerofthe1984seasonincreasedto48speciesand tn theoverburdenareasdecreasedto26species.Thekeyto.arshreclamation is tocreate wet1ands thatarewellbufferedagainstdisturbances(Dunn andBest.1983 andErwin.etal.1984).In asuccessionmodelpresentedbyConnellandSlayter(1979),earlysuccessionalspeciesarejustasresistanttoinvasionbycompetitorsaslatesuccessionalspecies,sothe "climax" speciesofherbaceouswetlandsmaybethosemostresistanttobeingdisplacedorelimlndtedbydisturbances.furthermonitoringshoulddetermineifplantingpropagulesisasuccessfulmechanismfarestablishingP.cordatainmarshreclamation,and if asevereWinter-freeze is sufficientdisturbancetacauseashiftinspeciescompositioninportionsofa marshdomInatedbyT.latifolfatoa moredlversifledperennialecosystem.Erw!n lr!eat.FLORIDA RECLAIMEDWETLAND, I ;, ,. :$ 5084. W84 D pont.d.ria TyphaCHydracotyle oPanlc:umIpolYQonum InRe 1ntotallenRth a1 'therbaceou8plants1n area. of Aaricoswamp'j.s, 1985

PAGE 12

{;165 WETLANDS,Vol. S. 1985Erwin fACKNOWLEOGEMENT s,.....MechlnlslmsoftheirroleInTheAmerThlsresearch 15 beingdonetoprovidethephosphatemlnlnglndustryand envlronmentalregulatoryIgencleswith proven wetlandreclamationguidelines.Agrlco'scontinuedsupportforthisproject makes thisresearchposslble.WeareindebtedtoFredBartleson,RandyMathewsandDale CarsonfortheirassistanceInthefleld;toDonMorrow, SelwynPresnellandHlroldLongfortheirsupportand advice; andtoJln Hardwlck forpreplringthemanuscript.LITERATURECITEDErwin. KevfnL.1983.FirstAnnUliReport.Agrfco Mining Complny.Blrtow,Florldl.255pp.Connell.J.H Ind R.O.Sllyter.1977.successioninnaturalcommunitiesandcommunitystabl1ltyandorglnlzltlon.Nltur.1977Vol. 111,pp.111g. Dunn, W.J. and G.R.Best.1983. Enhlncln9EcologicilSuccession:5.Seed Blnk SurveyofSomeFlorldl MlrshesandtheRoleofSeed Banks fn MlrshRecllmatfon, NltlonllSymposfumonSurfaceMfnfn9. Hydrology, Sedfmentology. IndRecllmltfon,Offfceof ContinufngEducltfon,UnfversftyofKentucky, Lexfngton,KY.pp.365-370.Best,G.RP.M.Walllce,Ind W.J. Dunn,1983 Enhlncln9EcologicalSuccession:4.Growth,Density.Ind Specles RichnessofForestCommunitiesEstlsbllshedfrom SeedonAmendedOverburdenSoils,Proceedings,NltlonllSymposiumonSurflceMining, Hydrology.Sedimentology.IndRecllmltlon.OfficeofContinUingEducltlon.UniversityofKentucky, Lexington.KY.7pp8est.G.R. and K.L ErWin, 1984,EffectsofHydroperlodonSurviviland GrowthofTreeSeedlingsIn IPhosphiteSurface-Mined Reclaimed Wetland.Nltlonll SymposiumonSurfaceMining. Hydrology. Sedlmentology,lridRecllmltlon,UniversityofKentucky,Lexln9ton,K.Y.pp221-225.Clewell,A.F. 1981, VegetltlonllRestorltlonTechniquesonReclilmedPhosphiteStripMines InFlorldl,J.Soc.WetlandScl.1:158-170. ..""'f ..... ;

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CITED 5.1985: :, 166 ------_... _-----Erwin. K.l., G.R.Best.W.J.Dunn,andP.M.Wallace.1984.MarshandForestedWetlandReclamationofaCentra'FloridaPhosphateHtne.Wetlands Vol. C pp.87-104.Smith,R.L. 1980. Ecology andFieldBiology.HarperandRow.NewYork. 850pp.Tarver.D.P.,J.A.Rodgers. M.J.Mahler,andR.L.Lazor.1979."AquatlcWetlandPlantsofFlorida"8ureauofAquaticPlantResearchandControl, FOHR. Gilbert.To,T. King,8.Barnett.J.Allen,Jr andR.Hearon. 1979. WetlandsReclamattonTechnology DevelopmentandDemonstrationforFloridaPhosphateMining,Proceedtngs(D.P.Cole,ed.)6thAnnualConferenceonRestorationandCreatlonofWetlands,Hl11sborough CommunttyCollege,Tampa, FL.6:87-101.Philllps,[.A.1959. MethodsofVegetattonStudyHolt,RlnehartandWinston,Inc.,NewYork.107pp.Rushton,8.T.1983.ExamplesofNaturalWetlandSuccessionas a ReclamationAlternative,in ReclamationandthePhosphateIndustry, Proceedings oftheSymposium,Clearwater8each,FL. P.J. Robertson,ed.pp.148-189.Shuey,A.J.,andL.J.Swanson,Jr.1979.CreationofFreshwater MarshesinWestCentralFlorida.Proc Ann. Confr.RestorationandCreationofWetlands6:57-76.Erwin& Best, FLORIDARECLAIMED WETLAND MechanisimsoftheirroleinTheAmer1977.tiesandizatlon.9-1144. Enhancing[cologica1.yofSomeFlorida Banks inHarshlonalSymposiumon limentol ogy, and Afng Education,lton,KY.pp.365-370.nalRestorationhateStripMlnesini.1:158-170,ualReport.Agrl co lao 255pp.,EffectsofHydroperlodeSeedllngslna imedWetland.NationalHydrology,nfUniversityof221-225.'.J.Dunn, 1983.on:4.Growth,Density,t Communltlesnded OverburdenSoils.umonSurfaceMining.Reclamation,Officeof Ity ofKentucky,pro.tdethephosphateLI1regulatoryagenciesIguidelines.Agr1co's tect makesthtsresearch Bartleson.Randy assist.nceinthe'esnellandHaroldLonglndtoJan Hardwickfor ,M[ NT


Marsh Community Development in a Central Florida Phosphate Surface-Mined Reclaimed Wetland (Alternate Version)
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 Material Information
Title: Marsh Community Development in a Central Florida Phosphate Surface-Mined Reclaimed Wetland (Alternate Version)
Added title page title: Wetlands
Physical Description: Unknown
Language: English
Creator: Erwin, Kevin L.
Best, G. Ronnie
Publisher: Journal of Society of Wetland Scientists
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Law -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Lawyers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Abstract: Marsh Community Development in a Central Florida Phosphate Surface-Mined Reclaimed Wetland
General Note: Box 6, Folder 6 ( Vail Conference 1986 - 1986 ), Item 43
Funding: Digitized by the Legal Technology Institute in the Levin College of Law at the University of Florida.
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Holding Location: Levin College of Law, University of Florida
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WETLANDS

Volume 5 CONTENTS 1985


Ecological and Phnisological Processe
Morphologcal Responses of a Marsh Gross Sporbolu virglnkcus (L.) Kunth..
to Saine and Anaerobic Streses.
L.A. DONOVAN and J.L. GALLAGHER.. ...........................
Plant Water Satus Relationships among Madr Floodplain Saes of the Flathead
-Rier. Montana.
L.C. LEE. T.M. HINCKLEYand M.L, SCOTT ....... .......... .... 15
Ejects of1loodingon Decompositon and Nutrent Cycling in a Louisina
Swamp Forest.
G.P. KEMP. W.H. CONNER and J.W. DAY, JR.................. ........ 35
Diturbnce n a Cyprss-Tupelo Welland: An Interactin between Thermal
Loding and Hydrology.
M.L. SCOTT. R.R. SHARITZandL.C. LEE...................... .. ...... 53
Seasaala y and Community Sructure of the Bckswamp Invertebrates In a
LouIAsna Cypess-Tupelo Wetland.
F.H. SKLAR..................... .......... .......... ....... .... 69
Seected Ecologcal Charactertscs of Scrpus cyperinus and Is Role as an In.
wader of Disturbed Wetlnds.
D.A. WILCOX. N.B. PAVLOVIC. and M.L. MUEGGLER..................... 87
Physiography and VegetatWon Zonaton of Shallow Emergent Marshes In South-
western Florda.
B.H. WINCHESTER. J.S. BAYS, J.C. HIGMAN and R.L. KNIGHT ...........99

Wetlands Management and Case Studies
Guidelines for "Open Marsh Water Management" In Delaware's Salt Marshes -
Objectvles. System Designs. and Installation Procedures.
W.H. MEREDITH. D.E. SAVEIKIS. and C,J. STACHECKI........... ....... 119
A Detention Basin/Artficial Wetland Treatment System to Renovate Stormwater
Runoff from Urban. Highway. and Industrial Areas.
J.L. M EYER.................. .. ... ... ........... ........................135
Peat Analysis for Coastal Wetland Enforcement Cases.
W.S. SIPPLE....... ............... ........................... ...... 147

Wetland Reclamation Studles
Marsh Community Deuelopment in a Centrol Florida Phosphate Surface-Mined
Reclaimed Wetland.
K.L. ERWINandG.R. BEST............. .. ........... ......... 15
Ecology. Hydrology, and Aduanced Wastewater Treatment Potential of an Arti-
ficial Wetland n North-Central, Florida.
R.L. KNIGHT. B.H. WINCHESTER and J.C. HIGMAN.................... 167
Comparison ofSpartina altenmfora Lolel. Transplantsfrom Different Locations
In a Man-Intlated Marsh in North Carolina.
E.D. SENECA, S.W. BROOME. and W.W. WOODHOUSE. JR. ............... 181

Climatic Facton
Influence of Climatic Teds on Weland Studie In the Eastern United States
which Utiliz Tree Ring Data.
L.J. BOWERS. J.G. GOSSELINK. W.H. PATRICK. JR. and E.T. CHOONG.... 191









WI:TI.ANI i, V 1 .l 'I, 11 ')


MARSH COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN A CENTRAL
FLORIDA PHOSPHATE SURFACE-MINED RECLAIMID WETLAND

Kevin L. Erwin,
Consulting Ecologist
2077 Bayside Parkway
Ft. Myers. Florida 33901

G. Ronnie Best
Center for Wetlands Research
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Abstract. As the nation's acreage of productive
freshwater marsh/wetlands continues to decrease the
need for successful marsh restoration/reclamation
increases. A variety of land uses including surface
mining, residential development and agriculture create
direct impacts on wetlands often resulting in a net
loss of habitat if appropriate restoration or
reclamation of the ecosystem is not obtained within a
reasonable period of time. The 30 hectare freshwater
-narsh reclaimed from a phosphate mined area is part of
a 148 hectare upland, 61 hectare wetland ecosystem
(Agrico Swamp) reclaimed in 1981/82. Topsoil additions
have been a successful means of establishing a marsh
system within the site. This technique shows distinct
advantages over natural revegetation of overburden. At
the end of two full growing seasons the topsoiled area
has higher species richness and cover values than the
overburden areas. During this period a slight decline
in the species richness in the topsoiled area was
evident due in part to the aggressive nature of
Pontederia cordata. Conversely, the species richness
of the overburden areas increased significantly.
Topsoiling appears to encourage the accelerated
establishment of late successional plants in sufficient
quantities to compete with aggressive weedy species
such as Typha latifolia.


INTRODUCTION

Freshwater marsh reclamation has been pursued in the
central Florida phosphate mining area for several years
especially through construction of wetlands (Clewell,
1981; Dunn and Best, 1983; Gilbert, 1979; Rushton,
1983; Best et al 1983; Best and Erwin, 1984; and Erwin
et al, 1984). In most of these areas vegetation has









bin t l l I owfd t Int invid (f. li wO, tland Ai rV i ', e thal f y
which gIt 'n e ra lly rij e si l t S d in a ypli.t Inlnl ni t l I..'i -n ,. iii
tin s t a L o f a rrv l1 ed iti. ( S, st i ()e 'it J arn st ost ?*I 1 I)

Ihle pinrposre at miIIli i t r i nj ti 'v r c I lntr l infslih w.is .
character ol ve''tg t.at ic in found l in t wo wo'rl liA d ,it-roa
(topsoi led and overburdltn) iinmiuni a lt l.y a.ind f r sv tvti'r,
years after r c I amal t i on Perrc.nt ( ov' r vdilo'% d'.il
species richni ss were mnonitore'd in( O fall 198?. Io
determine if topsoil ng with ntrI Lh ian Ilenrlt thl,
reclamation goals i f establishing late sliuccn' inn.iI
perennials as well as controlling aggressive weedy
species (Dunn and Rest, 1'83J). Thr overall goal i(f
this study is to dtermlline tlith optional method of
establishing high diversity, late successional itdar hi
ecosystems immediately alter inining anrt reconto i rin q.


MATERIALS AND MfTHUDS

The freshwater marsh created at Agrico Swamp used two
restoration techniques which resulted in the
establishment of two wetland habitats. The reclamation
site was originally pine flatwoods and rangeland before
it was mined in 1978 and 1979. Construction of the
marsh was completed in May 1982. The area was surface
mined in typical fashion and recontoured. One habitat
was created by topsoiling with a ? to 10 cm layers of
mulch obtained from a wetlands borrow site. The mulch
contained seed and root material from the native
wetlands. The other habitat was created with
overburden soils. This area was recontoured and
allowed to revegetate naturally.

The project site, Agrico Swamp, is located adjacent to
the flood plain of Payne Creek at Agrico's Fort Green
Mine in southwest Polk County, Florida (Figure 1). The
surface mined land was contoured so that all drainage
in the project is from west to east. A levee
constructed along the eastern boundary of the project
impounds drainage from the 14H ha watershed to form
wetlands at the design elevation. Two swale outlets
were constructed in the levee to allow overflow
discharge of water from Agrico Swamp into the Payne
Creek flood plain. The elevation in Agrico Swamp along
the base of the levee is 35.9y7 m MSL. The elevation
rises gradually to 36.88 mi MSI. along the western
boundary of the wetland and less gradually on westward
across the upland portion of the project to 40.84 m
MSL. A water budget for the project was developed tu
evaluate the disposition of storage, inflow, and
outflow of water within the project area during a
typical year (Crwin, 1984).

Ponds were.constructed within the wetlands with b tttrni
elevations of approximately 32.92 m MSL to maintain
open water areas all year round. Small, shallow


E lw in A I iL:, I; i ti A 4 i 1A I A il I ) hk' l AND)









WE'TTANIS, Vol 5, 198


FIGURE 1 Location of study site in Florida. Inral
show location of site within the state.,


__









Erwin 6 Best, FLORJDA RECLAI:ED WMTLAND

depressions were constructed randomly throughout the
fluctuating water zone to retain water and harbor fish
populations during periods of low water. Two lakes
were also constructed in the uplands which overflow via
swales eastward into the wetlands.

Line intercept transects (Phillips 1959, Smith 1980)
were used to compare vegetative cover of mulch
topsoiled areas vs. overburden soil. The method
consisted of observations on transects in the study
area. Plant species touching, overlying, or underlying
the line were recorded along with the distance that
each species intercepted the line. In this way the
line can be thought of as a two dimensional plane
extending above and below the actual transect line.
Individual intervals were totalled by species and by
transect to yield estimates of percent cover. This
method is adapted for measuring changes in vegetation
across transitional zones, and transects can be
randomly placed and replicated to obtain the desired
precision (Smith 1980).

Six permanent line intercept transects were monitored
in the Spring, Summer and Fall. Three transects were
randomly located in mulch topsoiled areas and three
transects are randomly located in areas of overburden
soil. All transects started in the deep end of the
littoral zone and run upslope to the wetland-upland
Interface. The three transects in the mulch topsoiled
area total 391.7 m and the three transects in
overburden areas total 275.5 m. The difference in
total length of the two groups was due to slope
differences In the random locations and wider littoral
zone found in the mulch topsoiled area. The emergent
zones averaged 210.3 m for the mulch topsoiled area and
91.4 m for the overburden area.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The mulch topsoiled area contained higher species
richness than the overburden area (Table 1). However,
during fall 1983 and summer 1984 percent cover was
higher for the overburden area than for the mulch area
(Table 1). These differences are attributed to the
invasion of the submerged aquatic Najas quadalenpsis
in the shallow overburden area. N-jas s one of the
primary water fowl foods in Florida w th all plant
parts consumed, (Tarver et al, 1979).









WETLANDS, Vol. 5, 1985

TABLE 1. NUMBER OF MARSH SPECIES AND
FOR MULCH (M) AND OVERBURDEN

NUMBER OF SPECIES

M 0.8.


FALL 1982

SPRING 1983

SUMMER 1983

FALL 1983

SPRING 1984

SUMMER 1984


37 16
36 14

34 24

34 30

40 26
48 26


PERCENT COVER
N (0.B.) AREAS.

PERCENT COVER

M O.B.
91 33
84 72

105 83
84 110

90 62

72 6


Species richness and cover values generally Increased
during the study (Table 1) for the emergent zones.
Percent cover trends for five wetland Indicator species
(Typha, Hydrocotyle, Panicum, Pontederia, and
Polygonum) are depicted in figures 2 and 3. The change
in total linear feet occupied by these five species is
shown In Figures 4 and 5.

For all six sampling periods the emergent zone of the
mulch area has higher species richness and cover values
than the overburden area. These results are similar to
those reported by Shuey and Swanson (1979) and Clewell
(1981).
During the first year of sampling the species richness
declined in the mulched area from 37 to 34 species and
increased in the overburden area from 16 to 30 species.
Reporting this information as a rate indicates the
mulch area changed -3 species per year while the
overburden area changed +14 species per year. The
negative rate of species change in the mulched area can
be at least partially explained by the aggressive
nature of Pontederia cordata. During the first year P.
cordata increased in percent cover and total linear
feet thereby increasing the area occupied along the
transects during every sampling period, resulting in an
increased domination in the mulched marsh.

Tygha latifolia is also very aggressive but had to rely
on natural dispersal mechanisms to arrive at the Agrico
Swamp marsh. T latifolia was not a component of the
wetlands borrow site. As a result T. latifolia lagged
behind P. cordata (which was inocuTated via mulch and
planted in a few areas far outside the transects) in
dominating its respective area (Figures 2 and 3).
Hydrocotyle was first to invade the overburden site,
followed by a mixture of annual and perennial herbs,


I~

41










Erwin 6 Best, FLORIDA RECLAIMED WETLAND


F W Sp Su F W Sp Su
82 83 63 83 83 84 84 84


FIGURE 2


Seasonal change in percent cover of select
herbaceous plants in mulch areas of Agrico Swamp.










WETLANDS, Vol. 5, 1985


OVEROURDEN


Typho --
Hydrocofyle ----
Ponicum -.
" Pontederla ---
Polygonum -**-.-
Total (other)--


F W Sp Su F
82 83 83 63 83

FIGURE 3 Seasonal change in percent cover
herbaceous plants in non-mulched
areas of Agrico Swamp.


W Sp
84 64

of select
(overburden)










Ervin & Beat, FLORIDA RECLAIMED WETLAND 162













200 Mulch



150-



100








SPontederi

-50- Typha
C








E U Hydrocolyle

2 -100-. Panicum

SPolygonum

-150-



-200-
F W Sp Su F W Sp Su
82 83 3 83 03 8 4 84 84


FIGURE 4 Cumulative seasonal change in total length along
transect lines occupied-by select herbaceous plants
in mulched areas of ARrico Swamp.
in mulched areas of Agrico Swamp.








WETLANDS, Vol. 5, 1985


200 Overburden Pontederio

STypho
I150 Hydrocotyle

Sf QPoanicum
00 |Polygonum

I 50

JoLt-- iL;L-|rY



U -50 -


-100 I-
F W S Su F W S Su
82 63 83 83 83 84 64 84

FIGURE 5 Cumulative seasonal change in total length along
transect lines by select herbaceous plants in W
non-mucked (overburden) areas of Agrico Swamp. '






Erwin & Beat, FLORIDA RECLAIMED WETLAND


before T. latifolia was present in sufficient
quantities to exert a dominating influence In some of
the overburden area (Figure 3). T. latifolia is
apparently in a state of decline In the mulched areas.
By the summer of the 1983 season the number of species
in the mulch area decreased to 34 and the number of
species in the overburden area increased to 24 (Table
1) (Erwin et al, 1984). Again, expressing this
information as a rate, the mulched area decreased 3
species during the 1983 season whereas the overburden
area increased 8 species during the same period. This
corresponded with a decrease in cover values for each
dominant species in the different wetland habitats
(Figures 2 and 3). The severe winter of 1983-84 may be
responsible for a decline in cover values. Species
richness in the mulched areas from the summer of 1983
to the summer of the 1984 season increased to 48
species and in the overburden areas decreased to 26
species.

The key to marsh reclamation is to create wetlands that
are well buffered against disturbances (Ounn and Best,
1983 and Erwin, et al, 1984). In a succession model
presented by Connell and Slayter (1979), early
successional species are Just as resistant to invasion
by competitors as late successional species, so the
climaxx" species of herbaceous wetlands may be those
most resistant to being displaced or eliminated by
disturbances. Further monitoring should determine if
planting propagules is a successful mechanism for
establishing P. cordata in marsh reclamation, and if a
severe winter freeze is sufficient disturbance to cause
a shift in species composition in portions of a marsh
dominated by T. latifolia to a more diversified
perennial ecosystem.

Additional study is needed to determine if direct
seeding, sowing of propagules, and/or direct planting
are sufficient to establish late successional plants in
sufficient quantities to compete with aggressive weedy
species such as T. latifolia. Present data from this
study suggests tiat supplemental planting of such
species as P. cordata, assuming resources are available
in sufficient quantities, at least partially meets the
marsh .reclamation goals, as suggested by (Dunn and
Best, 1983), of achieving diverse, self-maintained
wetlands. Another scenario currently being evaluated
in the Agrico Swamp wetland is the apparent
displacement of Typha by Scirpus sp., where the Sclrpus
has been planted within areas dominated by Typha.
Cattails are apparently in a state of decline Tn the
mulched areas.










WETLANDS, Vol. 5, 1985


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research Is being done to provide the phosphate
mining industry and environmental regulatory agencies
with proven wetland reclamation guidelines. Agrico's
continued support for this project makes this research
possible. We are indebted to Fred Bartleson, Randy
Mathews and Dale Carson for their assistance in the
field; to Don Morrow, Selwyn Presnell and Harold Long
for their support and advice; and to Jan Hardwick for
preparing the manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED


Best, G.R., P.M. Wallace, and W.J. Dunn, 1983.
Enhancing Ecological Succession: 4. Growth, Density,
and Species Richness of Forest Communities
Estasbllshed from Seed on Amended Overburden Soils,
Proceedings, National Symposium on Surface Mining,
Hydrology. Sedimentology, and Reclamation, Office of
Continuing Education, University of Kentucky,
Lexington. KY. 7 pp.

Best, G.R, and K.L. Erwin, 1984, Effects of Hydroperiod
on Survival and Growth of Tree Seedlings In a
Phosphate Surface-Mined Reclaimed Wetland. National
Symposium on Surface Mining, Hydrology,
Sedlmentology, and Reclamation, University of
Kentucky. Lexington, K.Y. pp 221-225.

Clewell, A.F. 1981. Vegetational Restoration
Techniques on Reclaimed Phosphate Strip Mines in
Florida, J. Soc. Wetland Sci. 1:158-170.
Connell, J.H., and R.O. Slayter. 1977. Mechanisms of
succession In natural communities and their role in
community stability and organization. The Amer
Natur. 1977 Vol. tfi, pp. 1119-1144.

Dunn, W.J. and G.R. Best. 1983. Enhancing Ecological
Succession: 5. Seed Bank Survey of Some Florida
Marshes and the Role of Seed Banks In Marsh
Reclamation, Proceedings, National Symposium on
Surface Mining, Hydrology, Sedimentology, and
Reclamation, Office of Continuing Education,
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. pp. 365-370.

Erwin, Kevin L. 1983. First Annual Report. Agrico
Mining Company, Bartow, Florida. 255 pp.







Erwin 6 Best, FLORIDA RECLAIMED WETLAND

Erwin, K.L., G.R. Best. W.J. Dunn, and P.M. Wallace,
1984. Marsh and Forested Wetland Reclamation of a
Central Florida Phosphate Mine. Wetlands Vol. 4
pp. 87-104.

Gilbert, T., T. King, B. Barnett, J. Allen, Jr.,
and R. Hearon. 1979. Wetlands Reclamation
Technology Development and Demonstration for
Florida Phosphate Mninng. Proceedings (D.P. Cole,
ed.) 6th Annual Conference on Restoration and
Creation of Wetlands, Hillsborough Community
College, Tampa, FL. 6:87-101.

Phillips, E.A. 1959. Methods of Vegetation Study
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York. 107 pp.

Rushton, B.T. 1983. Examples of Natural Wetland
Succession as a Reclamation Alternative, in
Reclamation and the Phosphate Industry, Proceedings
of the Symposium, Clearwater Beach, FL. D.J.
Robertson, ed. pp. 148-189.

Shuey, A.J., and L.J. Swanson, Jr. 1979. Creation of
Freshwater Marshes in West Central Florida. Proc
Ann. Confr. Restoration and Creation of Wetlands
6:57-76.

Smith, R.L. 1980. Ecology and Field Biology. Harper
and Row, New York. 850 pp.

Tarver, O.P., J.A. Rodgers, N.J. Mahler, and R.L.
Lazor, 1979. "Aquatic Wetland Plants of Florida",
Bureau of Aquatic Plant Research and Control, FDNR.




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