Background Research from Buff Gordon


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Background Research from Buff Gordon
Series Title:
Archaeological Files for Aviles Street
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Elsbeth Gordon
Physical Location:
Folder: Research, Prior excavations


General Note:
BDAC # 10-3000

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University of Florida
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oSnJuan. 66 172 church n n 1566 1572 Church ojSn uan. 566 1572 Eight months fer the Spanish landed in 1565, their ampsite was destroyed by Ldi-ms Eight months aler the Spanish landed in 1565, their campsie .a, destroyed by Indils Eight mons after the Spanish landed in 5(5, their campsite was destroyed by Indians h ettlers mved to Anastasia Islnrl d where they built a nw irl own and chu th called he settlers moved to Anastasia Island w here they built a new for town and chumrh called The settlers moved to Anastasia island w here they built a new fon, town and church called chuh o n Juan (at Fo Si Juan?) It was near the e F dun church o or San Jan?) TI was near the well of Ensign ,i de unc, whh i, church oqSan Jua, (at Fort San Jua?) II Ias n" h) well f r ign Juan de Junco hich i next to the sorehouse which is joined with ihe church four fhur-wick candles and 310 war next to the storehouse. which is joinedwith the church. four jur-wirk c andles and 310 we next to the strehouse. which isined with the church four four-wick candies and 310 wax ndls e all pece [Mexico] w But, sa had atn a la part ofe and candles wer a o a ehe [xico] the sea had eaten a oh land cands were all o ehe Mexico wa Bu, e ea had eaten a prt o sland w hre the fort and town were and it was necessary to change it to the other side whre it is now, where theoirt and lown wele and it was necesary to change it to the other side whoe it ir now, where the fort and town were and it was nece sary to change it o tile other side where it I now, wrotc Alonso de las AL in ,60. The chuch oS Juan. andth nasentown andon now wro Aonso de la Alas in 1600 Ihe church fSan uan ,and the ,ascenttor n andfo now ro lAons delaAlAini 600,7 Thechurchof SanJuan. and the nascentmwna n lie under Salt Run on the east side of Anastasialand natulr altered the landscape and the lie under Salt Run onth eeas side of Anastasia island nature alteld he landscape and the lic under Salt Run m the eastl rie oAnast land -nature altered the landscape andthe coure lfhuman hisiory coue of humlan history coume of hnma history

NuesiraS~dor de lo Remedios. 1572 1702 uestra Seo de R s emedos, 1572 1702 Nuestra r iora d los Remedios. 1572- 1702

About 157I tie 722 r m1 bc-d back to tile ainland acros om Anasaia and built Abul 1572 the -i-rs moed back to tile milwd -cro rom nastaia, and built Ahoui 1572 tIN -,lldr movd back to -h mnl d roi f-or Anastasia, and blilt Ih ir1nsoth l [today s Plaza parih church r ,consructed It ~as depicted in 1586 b their town south oftoday' Plaza. Aparish church as constructed ItP asdepicted in 1586by their ton south of today Plaza." Aparish chuch, as constructed it wsdepicted in 1586by Bapusa Boaio, an d in 1594 by Ensign Hemando de Mestu Be'ore it was bumed in the Baptista Boazio, and in 1594 by Ensign Hornando de Mcstas Belre it was bumed in Ihe Baptlista Boazio, and in 1594 by Ensign Iermnando de Mestas.' Bcfore it was burned in the Frnlcis Drake attack (1586) Boaxio depicted it at the southei coner of a pha .Mer it was Fracis Drake attack (1586) Boazio depicted it at the southeast comer ofa plan. After it was Fracis Drake attack (1586) Boazio depicted it at tie southeast corner of a phza Afer it was torched and rebuilt. Mcstas shows it was near the town landing These are the oldest drawings of torched ad rebuilt, Mestas shows it was ner de town landing I heose ar the oldest drawings of torched and rebuilt. Mests shows it was near the town ]lding These are the oldest dmwlins of my sacred space in the United States They are representations, but it may be monlthan space in the United Staes ley ae representations, but it may be mo- than any iacre space in Ihe Inited Sates Ihey are representatives, bul it may be more ihan coincdence Ihat both depict the church near the Maltanzas River n landing and a pla as coincidence that both depict the church near the Matamzas rver town landing ad a plaza as coincidence that both depict the church near the Manvas River own lading and a pl specified in the Roy)l Spanish Ordinaces for planinng ew ons (Chapter Nine) ioever the specilled in Ihe Royal Spanish Oldinnces for planning new itowns (Chapetr Nine) How ever the specified in the Roal Spanish Ordinances for plamling new towns (Chapter Nine) However, the 1596 and 1594 1ading and plaza relate e to todas wtefron will have to be fund by 586 uid 1594/raiing and pla relaive to todas's aer ront will have to be ound by 1586 and 1594 lading and plaza reltie to tdaj 'watroni ,ill have -, be flibnd- by arehelogis(is: oaoM t) arhaelogist. (Figs: 1a3io; Mes-) (Figs B- ; l )

Si I ii i i h-h g I Iith SpL ,. di--, S -W p nt Sf ii, i iii iis I,-hSpun i i 6d'iii i d i

iI, di-id ii h ,,, id ni ii i IiIn-iil d ii iii 1ii i i iii iii i n in 5 di udn if-i &,p-1,-), ei nd i, d Ih uWIiiii

its precarious pon site (bebre thele was a I searll) in the fe of flood tides stoIm surges, its precarious port sile (before there as a sawall) ill ie face of blood tides stom urges, its precious pon site beforee them was a seaall) in the fcie of ood tides, storm surges, humans, a d assaus by ship-borne piraes and British enemies. Its ymblism on many levels hurricanes, and au bhip ne pir and ti nemie ts s lm on can, and assaults by ship-bome pte and Btish enemies s symboli on a Xas an impoant element in town planning, was an imponant element in town planning was an imponat elemnt in town plamling

Saint iAgustine of li.ppo was Ihe 'Titular Saint o Ihe church and Patron Saint of he Saint Augustine ol Hippo was the "Iillar Saint of the church, and Patron Sai of the Saint Augustine of Hippo as the "I itdl Saint of he church, and Paton Saint of the city" In 1576 the church was invcntloned with a rich assoi ment of intrior lumislngs Ihe city'" In 1576 the church inventoried aith a rich assonment of interior frnihings" The city" In 1576 the church was inventoried with a neh assonmcnt interior furntishings The iento implies an image of uesra noa d los Rnemediii was among the images, and that iinvntory implies n image of id ueitri i nora de o Remedios was moig the images, and Ihal in entor implies an image of Nuetr a Snora dlo Remed.i was aong the images, ald that the church had Iheome kon b his a caion (devoionandtle). Nueru aSnrawas de the churh ad become knonI by this advooon i(devotion and tille) iue, ,ora as the the church had become own by his ocin (devion and titll usiri ora was the first Marian image brought to the Ne World toMexico in th -early years ol Spash ianingeblhtth l to icinda ler Spih lirst Marian image buh to the New World to Mexico in the early years of Spanish colonization Io the Spanish, she was symbolic o the Spanish couverson of the natives o Lhe colonization To the Spanish, she was symbol of the Spanish conversion o ithe natives of the col onnizaion To the Spanish, she w symbolic of the Spanish conversion the natives of the Americas and is also associated with water sometimess prayed to for rain) because the origin Americas aid is also associated wth water (sometimes payed to br rain) because the original Americas ad is also associated ith iater (sometimes pred to fior rain) because he original figure was found in a well by a shephrd i Spain iigure was found in a well by a shepherd in Spain figure we bund in a well by a shepheld in Spain

n li (Chapter Nine) Ordinlces specified lh ciiom hose and arsenal be As noted earlier (Chapker Nihe). Ordinances specilled the cusom houe and arsenaI be As n ,ed earlier (Chapter Nine), Oinances specified he Iistom house and ienaI near ,h termp and port itelfso that in times ofneed the on ma aidM the other I 1578, thc near he temple and lrt ilselfso that in rimes ofneed the one may aid he other" In 1578, they near the temple andpur iel/so that in times oneed rhe one may aid the other.' In1578, d did indeed aid eh other what did noti i in thecustoms and munition houses as stored in hle did inded aid each lhe what didnot fit n thecnstosand muniltion houses was stoed in the did indd aid each other rhat did not fit in the custonnmsad munition houses asr ored in the large church: Inge church: large church:

'lhtn 46 casks ofwine; and ouide stowed agent the church Within 46 casks oline; and outside. sowed a Iainst the churh Within 46 casks ofwine: and outside stoed against the church

wial under ..i roofopalmert, 60 s, s& of flour all 1ell placed on wall. under a roofofpalmetro 60 casks i/lour all well plamed on wall, under a roofoflmetto, 60 caks oflour all well placed on

top ofthe#i planks. likewse 80 escaupiles [cotmn amor] all top oftheir planks, likewLee 80 escaupihe [cotton armor] all top oftheirplank, likewise 80 escauples [ cotton armor] al

hanging on their nails. hanglg on their naili hanging on rheir nails.

Mcrtas's drawing U, aro oI f buildings church goernor's house, and- grdhue esas's during o fa m 0 buildings church, g Wemr'r house, -d gudhtse Mestas s dlwing of a trio f building, church governor's huse, and gu-dhuse-

are suppo s this defensi umir ars l supports hi ln e umrae seal supports ti dc
Remedies was bumed to the ground twice, in 1586 md1l702 Its dimensions belore and .Remdio was burned o the g- ound twice, in 1586 andl 702 ls dimensions befor and Remedio was burned to the ground Ice, i n 1586 and 1702 h dimensions before and after 1586 air unDlow, i t was not rebuilt aier 1702 f harmonious proportions elr built into after 1586 are unknown; it was not rebuilt afer 1702 If hanonious proportions wcrc bull into after 1586 are ukown; it was not rebuilt after 1702 If rrmnious propunions were built into either or both church structure uch that oftheplaza ngth equal o o and halfmes either or both church stmctures such as thatItheple lnrhequa t one andrhalftimes ither or both church,,suctures. such as that, of the pla ', ngth equal to nan the Ph he rdr d arhetcI reiece d Medial and R ,ime beiefs tha ha nious ih, idh therorandatkhttisretd ed ie -alFnd Knais a beli Mlthamonious rhe di h bfh, -orderd,,ashetics N reflcedRMdi adRdnaisan li8l -hmonius propotions were thought to relect Ihe iundamental laws of nature, the universe and the proporlions were thought to reject the unimental laws of nature, the universe, and the proporions were thought to iflect the fndnnental laws of nature, the universe, ad the threshold to heaven They could be achieved by simple Solomonic ratios (St Peter's in Rome threshold to heaven They could be achieved by simple Solomanic ratios (St. Peters in Rome threshold to heavn They could be achieved by simple Solomonic ratios (St Peters in Rome consecrated ill A D 326 was 400 feet long by 200 et in breadth and its planned enlargm t consecrated in A D 326 s 400 feet long by 200 f in breadlh. ad its played nlargment consecrated ir A D 326 was 400 leer long by 200 fee in breadlh, and its planned enlargement ill 1452 ars to be 640 feet b 320 feetL ) A more complicated ratio known as the "Golden in 1452 was to be 640 feet by 320 feet f A more complicated ratio known as the "Golden in 1452 was to be (640 6 et by 320 fee") A more complicated ratio known as the "Golden Rtio" has been suggested at Ihe 17" celltul) Mission Sn Luis church described below Did this Ratio" is been suggested at the IT" cntul Mission San Luis chumh desrbed below. Did this Ratio" has been suggested at the 7I cenmy Mission San Its church described belo Did this reflect he engineers or FrIaciscans education. or hd an example been set at Remedios? mtect the engineers or Frrciscan's education, or had an exrnple been set at Rlmedios? mflect the engineers or Francican education, or had an example bei se at Remedios?

Boaio's 1586 Remedos is a rectangular basilica church extending th length of a town Boaxio's 1586 Remedios is a rect anllu basilica church extending the length of a mn Bo-ios 1586 Remedios is a rectungular basilica church extending the length ,la torn black, its entrance in the east, altar in he -,est. Mest.' 1594 Rmedios is also a rectangular block, its entrance in the east, altar in the west Mcstas's 1594Remedosisalso a rectagular bloek, its enance in he eas, alr in the est estas's 1594 Remi,,or i also a rectangular basilica, with a double door facing southeasterly (like his guard house ad O-i nunent House) basilica, with a double door lacing southeaster (like his guard hoe and Govemrnment House), basilica, with a double door faring southeterly (like his guard house and Government House), and vertical plank wlls joied with bought iron nails It has a detached post-and-bo-n bclfy d vertical plank alls joined with wrought iron ils. It has a delached poiw d- beam bely and veical plMk walls joined with rough irn nails It has a detached pos -and beam hellf with lour bells rung by rope pulls Both churches are roofed with palm tIhach, and both haw with four bells rung by rope ptlls Both churches air roofed wth palm thtch, and bolh have with four bells rung by rope pulls Both churches are roled wih palm thatch and both have long and nmw windowless naves, in which all eyes would be d rah thr ou1 the dareess long and navow windowless naves, in wich all eyes would be drai n through the darkness long aid naow windowless naves in which all eyes would be drawn through the darkness towed the dra of the candle-lighted -lcua and maln altar Mission San Luiss 171 century Ioward the dunaof the cadle-ligtcd shctua and n all, lar Mission San Luis's 171 century toward the dramao the eadle lig teds agInu and mainaltar Mission San Ii s's17 lu church (reconsruced according to achaeological data) is similar (Fig: S- Luis) church (reconstructed according to archeological data) is similar (Fig: San luis) church (reconstructed according to archaeological data) is simhs (Fig: San Luis)

About 1598, Governor Mendez de Cano (1597-1603) hosted: Thir ciTy is a present About 1598, Govemor Mendez de C o (1597 160597 )asd: hi i i arn About 1598 o o Mnd de Cano 7 1603) ted: This cio i at present with much public ador nment of shrines ofthe princiyde chrch.. He also rote the k ng the with muchpubli adornment ofshrines ofthe principl church. He also, wrote the king he with much i puhlic adrnment ofshrini olhe pricpple church.. le also wrote the king the church was in need 0e repairs: Likewise the principal church of this city has the same neresity of chush was in need of repairs: Likewise the principal church of this ci has the same necessity o/ church was in need of repairs: LikeI e the principal churc h 9/ th t h hsme nsierrit gi being coete *il rooJ r til and other ,an necssr ralr Your Mayo,0 in being motd wih a ur m-o tile andf ohr -ety nrrieary repais" ur b-b,,,v bl, bg ..ein cred with a fla, ,,fr t and her -,yo r rr ibor ,Afftm teing

payed to command ta be given iiie Iprocedl ,Jhe tihes /r ihir 'e orm yiu i r cn be pilumed to commad r be -in iihe gmrroeed ri the tithe /r three oi ,urlear- deJ t n be pl+' ed tc comand to, ht giottoi the proceeds o/h ihes o lhrir ori four ),'tt' it can b

-repaired tharwhich is done in he churh hai heen at the cost ofthe soldierhk andrsdeny who prepared. hatwhich i donre in h church ha been b hhe s oMfthe soldier and resi-dets ho repaired. ha. which i dnein he hurch ha, been atn he cost ohe oldiersand residents, ho have done it from heir povet In 1602 he rrote that the principle churchias one of the he de i rom their pover) 1602, he wrote that the pfincipl church was one ol the have done ii 6om thirpori in 1 602, he rote that the pnnciple church was one ofth nearest and bestfinished o its kind in the nd. neat and best finished e -- id id in the Idies nearest and best-nished its kind in the Indis.'

Robe Searle. alias the pirate Jo Davis, stripped the parish church of its ornaments in Robert Seale, alias tile pirate ohn Davi, sripped the parish charch ofits comments in Robert Searl, ais thie pirate Jo Dai, ripp, 1 parish churh of its omament i, 1668 in 1675, t he v isiting Bishop of Cuba wrote the Queen of Spain about the city o St. 1668 In 1675, the visiting Ri shp o Cuba wrote tihe Queen f Spain about the cty of St 1668. In 1675. the visiting Bishop of Cuba lrute the Queen of Span abot the city of St Augtlne: As regards it spiritual welfre it has a prsh church dedicated to St Augustine Augustine: As rga-rd it spritual welfr, ir h,, a parish church dedicated o St A uptine'." Auguse: As regard its spiritual welfare it has a parish church dedicted o 's A uustrine.1 In 1697, a report indicates the church was still near the gardhouse/senal a ponico along its h 1697, a report indicates the church as still near the guardhouse/arsenal a ponico along its In 1697 a repo- i indicates the church as still near Ihe guardhouse/arsenal- a ponio aong its side wall allowed a person to talk to the guardhouse watch Also in that year, Cveimor Quinga side wall allowed a person to talk to the guwdhouse watch Also in hat year, Govmar Quivga side wall allowed a person to t1 to the gup.dhouse watch Also in that yer, Govenor Quiraga built a new bell toFer ir the glesia mayor, but no description f llowsa" built lw bell tower for tile esia mai. but no deciption follows built a new bell tower for the iglesia mnor, but no description i bllo.'

In November 1702. when Carolin's Governor James Moore laid siege to St Augustine. in November 1702, 1hen Carllina's G vernor James Moo laid iege u St. Augustine, n November 1702. when Carlims Gove(inor James Moore laid siege to St. ugustine the inveis were overwhelmed by the sinirhe chu rch Townspeople fled with their the invm wer overwhebed by thesize ofthe church" I ownspeop led wihi heir the invadan ere overhelmed b the size t he chrch" Toinspoplc fed wit their livestock and possessions into the newly constructed sone fofn ad lived thee for fifty two days, livestock and possessions into thie newly constructed stone i1 ad lived them for flf-two days, l ivestock and possessions into -he newly constructed stone fod and lived there fr lilly-tw days, at the end of which, on December 3, the debated enemy depaed and set ire to the church and at he end of which, on December 30. the defeated enemy depaned and set fire to the church ad at the end or which on December 30. the debated eemy departed and set lire u the church and mrst Il St. Auguines wooden buildings." Remedios had stood near the ton landing since most St Augustine's wooden buildings. Remedios had stood near the town s landing since mostof St Aug stine s wooden buildings. -Rmedios had sood near the town s landing since 1572. but this lime its loss- as, o gYrat buden to ber t1 -as notrebuilt in 1730 an 1572, but tlis time itsloss as oo great a hurdon to bearl was not rebui.n 1730 m 1572, bu this time its los was too great a burden to bear I was notlr built in 1730 an Englishna marked its hallowed waterimnt plaza site on a map: A ros where stood therby Englishman marked its hallowed waterfront plaza site on a map: A crot, where stood there Engllshlan mrked its hallowed waterfront plaza site on a map A cross where stood thereb, Great Church desoyed 1 706 [1702] lever silce rebuDlt In the -0' centu a lew bufis have Great Church detroyed 1706 [I 1702] never since ebuild In the 20' century, a few burials have Great huch desr ed 706 1702 | neer since ,ehui." In d he 202M century a few burials have been excavated that ma be leading us I, the Great church site, 6 here, on June 25 1594, an been excavated that may be leading us to lhe Grat church site here, on June 25, 1594, a been excavated lbat may be leading us to the Great church site, whele, on June 25, 1594, an iJant named Mwia was baptized recorded in the nation s oldest church recrds, infant named Malia ws baptized -recorded in Ihe nation s oldest churb reoards iidant named Maria was baptized recorded in the nation s oldest church records.

NuesrnaSeora,, d liSoldad, ca. 1570s 1763 Nuetr, eorude lSoledad, ca 1570s- 1763 uestra r Rora de laSoledad. ca 570s 1763

A fer the destruction of Remedies, the St Augustine paish moved inland to an old wood Ater tihe destruction of Remedis, the St. Augustine paish moved inld to an old ood Aler the desluction of Remedis, the St. Augustine parish moved inland to a old wood

1 Von Simson, The Gothic Cathedral, 37 1 Von Simson., The Gothi Cathral, 37 1 Von Sinson. he Gothic Cathedral, 37

2 Gordon, lorid ColoalArhtcual heritage, 47, )6, 113-14, 5 2 Godn, Floidas (olonia chitcturaletae 47 96, 113 115 2 Gordon. Floidai olonal rchiect riage 47, 96 1131 4.

3 L6pezde Mendoza. in Ruidiaz Caravia La l-oda, II 451 See also Gon, he Crs in 3ilrda, 1 4 Sea nnn hr in Lpe d ndo in Ruidiaz Carava LaFloida, T 451. See also Gnnn, TheLros in the Sand 22, 26: Lyon The Enterprise ofFl-ori 91 107.213, 220J Ln "Richer Tha We the Sand, 22, 26; Lyon. he Enterprie off orida 91, 107 213, 220; Lyon. "Ricr Itan We the Sand 22, 26; lyn, The Enterprse ofForid 1 7, 213,220; Lon, Riche Ihan We ThUht,"35, Gordon. '" So prciousawatering..",9. e bells might not have bn Ihlu t, 35; Goldon,"So precious 3 atering.. ",9. Al the bells migt nothae been Tlht, 35; Gordon "'So preciousaw airing. 9 Al the bells might nolha, bee unloaded unloaded, unleaded.

4 Barcia, in Kmigan Baria s Chronological isry 88 4. Baria in K Rigan, ri iia Chnogial Hisory. 88, 4, B cia, in Kerrigan. Bareias Chronl8ogical Hlio, 88

5 So/is de Mers in Co.,rie dio Menne [O5 andaed from f uldiaz s 1893 ,9 e liT ), So/is de Mr\r in Co1n0r Pedro 5ennd 5,,z 05 translated I-, Ruid- 1813. he 11 5, Solis de Itra, in onner Pedrt endne, 05, translated from Ruiiaz's 1193 the frst publication ofSolisinSpmish Solis'smemorialhadheenquod in Baia, 1723. publication ofSols in Spanis Slis's memorialhad benquotcd in Brcia. 1723 publication of Solis in Spish Solis smcmorial had been quoted in Baria, 1723

6 Lyon, "Proct Histonan Repol," 17, 1 ; Lyon The First lhr e Wooden Fors N S 6. L on "Project Iistorian Report, 17. 1 ; Ilon "The FIir Thuee Wooden Fois of St. 6. Iyon, "Project Historian Repo," 17. 11; L on. "The First Three Wooden For of S Augusitei,"144 See also, Gordon, "So plrecious a waerin g." 25 Augline," 144 See also. Gordon, "Soprecious a atcring "25 Augusltine," 144 See also, Grdon, S precious a atering." 25

7 Aln delas A l to the Cro St Augustine, Janua1y12 1600, AGi Santo Domg 229, 7 Alonso delas Alas to 1heCrown St. Augustine, Januar 12 1600. GI Sano Domingo 229 7 Alonso de las as to the Cro .St Augusine, Jamuar 12,1600, AI Santo Domingo 229 translated in Lyon, "Project Historan Repon" 76 ranslated in Iyon Pmoect Histol rn Repon, 76 translated in Lon, "Proiect Hisman Repr 76

8. The townslocation southofthe pluais supportedb archaelogica edencefound b Dr 8 The tun's locationsouda oftheplazais supportedby archaeollgil evidence Fund br 8 he own l in ouh of he la i pp d by archaeological idcnce found by ir KathleenDeagan and Carl ialbin See Dcagan. "Archaeological Strateg in the Investigation of Kaihleen Deagan and Carl Habin See Deega. Archaeological Straegy in the Investigation If Kathlicn Deagan and Carl Halbint See Deagan "Alchae l gica Stategy in the nvesigatio of a Citiow Era: Sixteenth Centuy St. Augustine 'unpublshe summay repor prepared for an Unknown Era: Sixteenlh Cenlury St. Augustle," unpublished summary report prepared for mi Unknown Era: Sixteenth Century St Augustine," unpublished summmy, repon prepared for St Augustine Foundaion, Inc..onfile at tlhe Floida Museum of Naral Hisory, Uniernit ol St ugustine Foundatin, lnc on lileat he Flonddauseun ofNatual Histo, Uneivs of St Au1ustinel undaion. Inc..on file at the Honda Museum oNaturd IIisn, Univexrtyof Flonda, Gainevill; and Deaga, The *rleology fFirs Spanih Period St Augusie" 6 F lorida, Gainesville andDeagan,"heArchaenlogyl oFirs Spish Period St Augustin e" 6 Florida, Gainesville; andDeagan,"TheArchaeologyoflirst Spanish Peiod Si Augustie" (El Ecibone, 1978): Habirl, "Redeining the Boundaies o il 6* Centuly St Augustine," SAA4. (El scihbano, 1978): Halbi. "Redefming the Boundaries of 16 Centna St. Augustine," SAAA. (El scribano, 1978); lalnbin, Reode inin g the Bomdlries of 16' Cenrtu St. Augustine, St o/l, No I (Mah 1999); Hofma, "St Augustine 1580 the Research Project," 16 No I (March 1999); iofhlm, "St Augustine 1580, the Research Proect." 16 No I (March 1999); Homman, "St ugustilne 1580, the Research Poiect" 16

9 A copy f Boazios "battle plan" map of Drake s attack showing the clrch can he seen at the 9 A copy of Boio' battlee plan" map oF Drake s attack showing the church can be seen at the 9 A copy of Boxio's "battle plan" map of Drakes aLtack showing the church can be seen at the SAHS Resech Libry. Ii iasengavedandpublishedin1587inLain and rcnch and in SAHS Researcllibrary I wasengravedandpublishedin1587in Latin ad French. and in SAIIS RsenchLibra. It wasengavedandpublishcd in 587in Iain andFrench, nd in Biggest, Summarie and True Dis ourse ofSir Francis Drake s Wet Indian Voyage in 1588 Bigges, 4 Summarie and True I)scoure of Si Francis Drake s West hadian Voyage in 1588 Bigges, A Summarie and True Discour e ofSir iancts Drake s Wes Indian vage in 1588 with an English key. For more n the Drake attack, see Kelsey. Drake 275-78: Momson, The with aEnglish key For more on the Drake attack. see Kelsey. Draeh 275-78; Momnn. The with an English key For more on the Drake attack, see Kelsey. Drake. 275-78: Morrison, The Northern Voyages 65O A copy of the Mcstas dawing is also at tie SHS Research Ibry Northern Voyages, 650 A cop of the Mestus drain is also at the SAHS Rescach Libra. Nrhern Voyages, 650 A copy olthe Mestas drawing i also a te SAIIS Research T, -ib m

10 Ordinance No. I19 in "Ordinances concerning the Laying out of ne Towns," translacd by 10 Ordinmice No 119 in "Oldinances concerning the Iaying out of 1 Towns." translated by 10 Ordinance No 1 19 in "Ord-inmes conceing the Ia ing t ae mls ad b Nultal, hen Hisanic merlican Hristoical Rei 751 Nutal, The Hispanic American Isorical Retiew. 751 Nutal, 1he Hispani American Historical Review. 751

I I. See Calderon, in Wenhold "16 I ntuu letter" 7 and Iel rion o, "Memori to the King," 11 See Calder6n. in Wcnhold, "16 centu Letter,"7; ad Lcturondo, "Memorial to the King,' 1 See Calderon. in Wenhld."16' centur Lter."7: ad Leturiondo. emori al totheKing," /85, 185 18

12. An bvento by Battasar del Castelo khcd in 1576 in Lyon,"Richer an We Thought," 12An nventr -y WBaisar dl Castello y Ahedo in 1576inLyon,"Richer lhan We Thought" 12 An invenlo by Baiasar del Castelo Ahedo nin 1576 in yon "Richer n We Thuglht," 9296 92-96 92-96

13. Iam very gatfll far the research about Nuestra Scora de los Remedios shared with me by 13 i an vea r l the research about Nuestra Seioru de los Remedios shared wih me 13 1 am vey graaeul[ for the research about Nucstra Siora d los Remedios shared with me by Elizbeth luran G--snr Eiabcth Dura Gesnr Lizabeth Duran Gsser.

14 Ordinance No 121 in "Ordinmces concerning the Laying out of n ons, lransaed by 14. Ordiance No. 121 in Ordinanes cocemi the Laing out of new To s,"1ranslaed b 14 Ordinance No 121 in "Ordinances concmlng the laing ou new To s," trslated by Nuttal 7he 7hispani American iitorical Review, 751 Nu al, The ispanic American Historical Review, 751. Nuttat, The Hlspanic American Historica R 5ie 1,

15 Captain Alvaro Flores (visitdor, Kings. lbrl inspecto), translate by Comer. in Cnial 15. Captin ilvaro lores (visitador, Kings fort inspc tor) translated by Conner. in Colonial 15 Capin Alvaro Flores (vsitdo, King's fo inspector), trlslated hy Connr. in 1lodnial
Recod , 189 91 Rcord, 189 91. Rcord 11. 189-91

16 Sconi. Basiic. Building St Peter 34. 37 51 16 Scotl, ,i, i building St Peer 34. 7, 51 16 Sotti, Bai, a BuildingS P ,ete 34 37,51,

17 Goanr Mealdc de Car.olners 1 597-1603, AGT 54-5-9, letter to king, April 24, 17 Goveor Mendez de Canzo, letters, 1597-1603, AG154-9, ettei to king, April 24, 17 Govemor Mendez de Canzo, letters, 1597-1603, AG15 4-,-9, 1ctter to king. Apl6 24.
1601anscnbcd ind translated a SAHS Researh I ibra, i list.1 MC 63 1601tnscribed ad slated at SAHS Rscarch Librar, FI Hist5 MC 63 1601 transcribed nd translated at SAI1S RXse4 h Liba.y, F Hist MC 63

18 MendezdeCano, letter to king Febm 23. 1598inl cttelsi159741610, AGI 54n eru 4 6 4! 539i24SD 18 Mndez de Can, Iter to king, Februa 23,1598 i lettes,1597-161O .i 54-5-9/24 D 224, transcribed and ranslated at SAHS Reserch Libra, MC63. A "strong wind" dcmoved part 224, tascribed and translatd at SAHS Rescrch library. MC63. A strongg wind" destayed pa r 224, truscribed and translated at SAIIS Reserch Libra, MC63. A "strong wind" destroyed pan
of the fo and guard louse September 1599 according to Fray Baltasar Lopez, loer to crown, of the fon and guard house September 1599 according to Fray Baltar Lopez, letter to crown, of the lirt and grd house September 1599 according to Fray Baltasar Lopez, letcrto crown, 54-5-208 SD235 (Geiger records it was a hricane in599, Fr, iscan Conquet ofFlorida, 54 5 20/8 SD235 (Giger records it u a hurricane inl599, Franciscan Conqe t Florida 54-5-208 SD235 (Geiger eclrd it was a hunicane inl599, Franciscan (onques olorida, 122) 1 Mah 1599 the Franciscan Convent ad its Chu,,h burned, d the ianr moved inlo 122) In March 1599 h ,e Franciscan Convent and its Church burned, and the frian movcd into 122) In Ma h 1599 the Fa.ciscan Convent and ils Church bumed, and tie fri moved into the shne 9 and hospil li 1a Soledad (4Mende de Cano, letters of ieb 28. 1600 ad April 24, tie sine ad hospital of La Soledad (Mcndcz de Canz4 letters of Feb 28, 1600 and April 24, the shrine and hospital of La Soledad (Mendez de Canzo, letters o Feb 28, 1600 and April 24 1601. SD 224). I have not found a reference to the parish church buying ald leaving the city 1601, SD 224) I have not fbund a refrence to die prish church burning and leaving the cily 1601, SD 224) I have not found a reference to the pansh churh burning amd leaving the ci riautaparnshchurch, noritheingrebuilt Bushnellwrotein"SituadoandSabana. 88. the withoutaprishchurch, noritheingrehuilt Bushnellwrolein SituadoandSabana,"88,tae withoutaparishchurch noritbeingrebuilt. Buslncilwroein"SitudoandSabana,"88, the pish chu-h burned Kpitzke ics Bushnell in Relgion Power anddolitis,148,anaddsl pah church p h burs hch bu d.d KKepiae se u lie P nuninl il o wr oiin iso1ne4nnppa rliic. h e8 and addi
at it wasrebuilt in 1605 however. believetherefercncar th mnlchurhhihdid haitwr uilin 5 o h i r nces are to the conent church hihdid thatd uitu a rebuilt in 165 HoHcrv I behl liev creh rer ecf c are to the cone church w iich did
bum in d w complied 1604 according o Fay Bemeo, Vicar. burn and was compiled 1604 according t Fray Beejo, Vicr burn and was completed 1604 accordingto :ray Bermcio, Vicar

19 AGI 58 2 2/14, Marqus de Mancera, viceroy o New Spain, to the crown, Mexico, April 20, 19 AGI 58-2-2/14, Marqus de Mancera, vicomy of New Spain to the crown, Mexico, April 20, 19 AGI 58-2-2/14, Msquis de Mancera, viceoy of New Spain, to the cownl Mexico. April 20.
1669, 90 T Arana, "Defenses and Deenders at St Augustine," 7: Ioffiman. Florda's rntiers, 1669.90 ft Arana. "Defenses and Defenders at St Augustine" ; Ho lan, Florida s Fotmiers, 1669, 90 fl Arana, "Defenses and Defnders ar St Augustie," 7: Ho ffman loridas Froniers
143 43, 143

20. Welhold. "A l' centw letter of Gabriel Diaz Vara Calderon. Bishop of Cuba .", 7. 20 Wehold. "A 17" centu letter o Gabriel Diu Vmaa Caldernn. Bishop of Cuba .", 7. 20 Wenhold, "A 17" cenaug letter o Gabriel Diaz Vara Caldwm. Bishop or Cuba ".." 7

21 Bushnll."SiluedomldSabana,"8889 21 Bushnell,"Sit dndSabana,"88-89 21 Bushell."SituadoandSabma" 88-89.

22 Arnadc, Siege of 702. 57-61, citing Verner W Crane. The Suthern lontier 1670-1732, 22. Amde, Siege o 702. 57 61, ctiing Vemer W Crane, The Southern Frontier, 16701732, 22. Amad, Siege of I702, 57-61. citing c W Crate The Southern Fronie 1-0 1732,
Am Arbor. 1956, 76 Ann Arbor. 1956, 7(6 Ann Arbor, I956, 76

23 Made, he -g of 170i, 41, 43,5 7 23. m de, h Sige of 1702, 41.43.57 23 Amade, The Sge / 1702, 41, 43, 57

24. Wagner, "A Drat of own and ialrbour." 1730, copy at SAIIS Resench Library. 24. Wgner "A Draft of Tonl and H 7rur," 1730, copy at SAHS Research Iibray. 24 Wagner, "A Dra of Twn and Harbour." 1730, copy at SAHS Research Libray

25 See the inventor ol Nueira Senora de lo Remedros in L.yon, Riher Than Thought, 93 25 See the inventor of Nuestra Senora de los lemedios in Lyon. Richeri haon W Though, 93, 25. See the invent of Nuesra Senora de los Remedmis in yon, Richer Than Thought, 93 The planning ordinances are translated in Nutall, "Ordinances concealing the Laying out of new ihe playing ordinances are translated in Nutul, Ordinances conceniing the Lying out of new The planlng ordinance are t ans/latd in Nuttall, "Ordinances concming Ihe Laying out of new
3 ow4(n 752 as is a copy of te Wagner map Bulials ca be Ibund in the reports of Ton s" 752 as is a copy ol the Wagner map Burials ca be found in the repos of Toins," 752 as is a copy of the Wagner map. Burials can be found in the repons of
a6rcae ologists San Bond, Robert Sinbach, a4d Cal Hlbin rchalgis Sta Bond, obe Steinb ad Crl I ahin arch aeologists Stal Bond, Rob Steinbach, and Carl Halbin.

26. Bamej to king, Mlrch 30, 1604, AiG 54-5-20/12 264 B4ejm to king. March 30. 1604, AIG 54-5-20/12 26 Bermcjo to king, March 30, 1604. AIG 54 520/1?

27 Mendez de Czo, liners to king, A 54 5, Februar 23, I98, 34 f as transcribed and 27 Mendez de Cano, lr to king, Al 54-5-9, Februm 23 1598bed and Mende de C lee to kin, ebru 3 34 ft as ansbed and Sansla d at SAIIS Research Li bra, C 63, 2 File 10 The Hospial/ r the solders is translated at SAHS Reeach lra MC 63, 8x 2. File 10. he opital fi the solders is t also described by the p-ih riest Ieurriendo ca 1698I 700, iranslaed by Hamn, "ranslatlon of also described by the parish priest Leturiendo ca 1698-1700, translated by H Translation of also described by the paish priest Leturindo ca 16981700, trustated by Hann, 'Translation of
24 s de Ti 3elurindo Memorial to thle King, 194. Alsons de Lturiondo s Mmorial to the Kin g," 1944 Alsonso de Leturiondo s Memorial o the King," 194 254444444, 6,4. 5, *4 .42344444446,4444 0 4 4044,.2. 446,9140, . 4 *4 4444

.444,,544,4448034 44464< 4 4444445 4 4.,444444444444,4444N4-44. 44445.4444