Archaeological Methods Employed at 39 Magnolia Avenue

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Title:
Archaeological Methods Employed at 39 Magnolia Avenue
Series Title:
Archaeological Files of 39 Magnolia Avenue Site
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Language:
English
Creator:
Matt Armstrong
Publisher:
City of St. Augustine, Florida
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Folder: Reports

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Saint Augustine (Fla.)
39 Magnolia Avenue (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
39 Magnolia Avenue Site (Saint Augustine, Fla.)

Notes

General Note:
BDAC # 04-0271
General Note:
Paper written as part of an internship with the city archaeologist through Flagler College

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
BH-L2-L6
System ID:
USACH00597:00003


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Archaeological Msthods alwd at 39 Maoli Archaeological nethods loed at 39 apolla Archaeological Methods Eled at 39 Manolia



As excavations at 39 Ma-olia Avenue onC, nue t d the S excavations at 39 Magnolia venue continue and the AS excavations at t9 Magnolia venue continue and the artifacts and data recovered lend to the site being one of artifacts and data recovered lend to the site being one of artifacts and data -ecovered lend to the site being one of national historical significince rather thar merely a local one, national historical significance rather than merely a local one, national historical significance rather than mere y a local one, it becomes increasingly important for one on the outside to it beces increasingly imporantn or one on the outside to it becomes increasingly ioran or one on the outside to understand the ar-eaelogial methods hich are being ,Tployed understand the archaeological methods whch are being e loyed understand the archaeological methods w.ich a-e being employed by the City of St Augustine in this project, by the City of St. Augustine in this project. by the City of St. Augustine in this project.

Much of the development in St. Auistine (as well as the Much of the development in St. Augstine (as well as the Much of the development in St. Augustine (as well as the

res of Florida) comes pririly from single-farily residences rest of Florida) comes primrily from single-family residences rest of Florida) comes primarily from single-f ily residences and commercial buildings which inch their way onto every plot of and coamercial buildings which inch their way onto every plot of and commercial buildings which inch their way onto every plot of available land on a daily basis, meaning that much of the available land on a daily basis, meaning that much of the available land on a ally basis, meaning ha. much of the heretofore uncovered historical/archaeological record of the heretofore covered historicallarchaeological record of the heretofore uncovered his.orical/archaeological record of the nation's oldest otinuously occupied city is constant in tion's oldest ontinuouly occupied ci-y is Constantly in nation' oldest continuous y occupied city is onsttly danger of being disturbed by construction projects. It is the danger of being disturbed by construction projects. It is the danger of being disturbed by construction projects. It is the responsibility of the city' s Archaeological Division, within the responsibility of the ity Archaeological Division within the responsibility of the city's Archaeological Division, within the Planning ad Building Department to ensure the protection of Planning and Building Department, to ensure the protection of Planning and Building Department, io ensure the protection the data pertaining to city's archaeological heritage prior to the data pertaining to city's archaeological heritage prior to the data peraining to city's archaeological heritage prior to the developent of a certain site. The ongoing roection by the develoent of a certain site The ongoing protection by the development of a certain sie. The ongoing protection by such cultural resource -nagement program such ahs thi h.h Cu ...s serves such a cultural resource imnagetent program such as this serves to catalogue and preserve data from sites around the city so to catalogue and preserve data from sites around the city so to catalogue and preserve data from sites around the city so that they might be available to scholars and u-ure generations, that -ey mignt be available to scholars and uure generations th-they might be available to scholars and uure generations









The city of St. Agustine is one of he few municipalities in The Ciy of St. Augusine is one of the few municipalities in The City of St. Augustine is one of he few municipalities in the counr that has a cultural resource m-nage-ent program the cotry tat has a cultural resource managrent program the coutry hat has a cultural resource management program available for this ind of protection; most other such programs available for this kind of protection most other such programs available for this kind of protection; most other such programs in the united States ar administered at the federal and state in the United Staes are a-inistered at the edral and state in the united States re administered at the federal and state levels This is mde possible by the Archaeologi-ia levels. This is made possible by -h-lagi- 1-1- 1- i -, -i- by the Archaeologica

Preservation Ordinance adopted in 19B7. It p ... provides for an ... ti- Oldi ..... d.,,- i, 87 It p ..id- kIt -ation ordinance adopted in 1987 It provides for an

archaeological review of all bild-t- Igh--y hd Ilfy wynuit haical -1- lf 11 biild- ,gh-.f-y nd kl-t, ar ... review of all buildings, righ-ofway and itilty

projects before a city permit is rovded for development. The pkil- befli I Ily P-t i ... projects before a city permit is provided or development. The Ordinance divides the city up into three archaeological ones Ordinance divides the city up into three archaeological zones Ordinance divides the city up into three archaeological one5 based upon the ko, historical significance of the aeas I b-,se upon the kno historical significance o I thk k-- hll sicl e areas It also regulates a minimum time for excavation work based upon the also regulates a minimum time for excava-ion work based upon the also regulates minimum time for excavation work based upon the proximity to more historically siglifcu t regions and-- he scale proxmty to more historically sigificant regions and the scale proximity to more historically significant regions and he scale

fhe disturbance th the development will be inflic-ing of the disturbance th ththe development will he infli-ing of the disturbance tha the development will be inlicting.

in accordance with this City Ordinalce, the si e at 39 In accordance with this City Ordinance, The sie at 39 In accordance with this City Odinance, the site at 39

Pa-olia (seen on Fire I) is considered to e in one ID the -ag 1olia (seen on Figure II is considered to be in one ID, the -anolia (seen on Figure i) is considered to be in Zone ID, the delineation of highest historicalarchaeological sigificnce delineation o- highest hidorical/archaeological silificanee delineation o ghest his-orical/archaeological Iignificnc The site is in very close proximity to the archaeological The site is n vry close proximity to the archaeological The sie is in very close proximity to the archaeological excavations done at the Fo-tain of Youth Park with evidence of excavations done at the Founrain of Yoth par with evidence of excavations done at the Fountain of Youth Park with evidence of occupation that could mean tha botn sites are recovering data occupation that tould mea that both sites are recovering data occupation that could me that both sites are recovering data from the sme Native merican village (possibly Seloy's rok the sme Native k- erican village (possibly Seloy's from the same Native -1-ericn village (possibly Sel-y's village). The site is also considered very important because of v-llage. The site is also considered very i tportant because of village. The site is al.o considered very important because of historic doc nation that sugges-s it to be an area of historical dtc-ientation that suggests it to be an area of historical docuentatin that suggest s it to he an area of sixteenth century, Contact Period activity, near the original sixteenth century, Contact Period activity, near the original sixteenth century, Contact Period activity, near the original

-t' -t f A19-ti- -565 -Il O If -565 -setement of St- Autsine.









The first step in the archaeologica- excavation of this The first step in the archaeologica- excavation of this The first step in the archaeological excavation of this



large area o d e sie was put on a grid sys and the large ar pt a o and e sie was pu on grid syse and e postholes were han aug with a posthole digger. The postholes postholes were hand dug with a posthole digger. The postholes postholes were hand dug with a posthole digger. The postholes were dug do-until sterile sil was reached, so as to have a were dug da until sterile soil was reached, so as to have a were dug do unil sterile sa il was reached, so as to have a recorded base level below e archaeological deposit. In some recorded base level -elow the archaeological deposit. In some recorded base level below the archaeological deposit. In some postholes, particularly along the southern perimeter of the potholes, particularly a-g -tth- p--t- f p-th.1 pllttlal y long he th ohlern perimeter of the

-e, the water tale was reached before the sterile soil, in sie, the water table was reached before the steri-e soil, in R-to, the water aie was reached before the sterile soil, in wich case digging was stoed. The material extracted from wich case digging was stopped. The material extracted from ch case digging was sopped The material extracted from these postholes was dry screened on the site and brought back to these postholes as dry screened -n de site aO brought back to these postholes was dry-screened on the site nd brought back to the lab or rhe cling and analysis er an analysis of th lb e lab Aa or further cleaning and analysis After an analysis of the so- composition, she and ari composition was made the soil omposiion shell and artifact composition was made the soil cmosiion shell and artiact composition was made he da was then recorded to plot a general aisribion of the daa was then recorded to plot a general isriuion of the daa ws then recorded to plot a general distribution of archaeological deposit present on the site ih this archaeological deposit present on the site Wih this archaeological deposit present on the site. W th

ormaion plotted, the location o the backhoe trenches and information plotted, the location of the backhoe trenches d information plotted, the location of the backhoe trenches d test nits a tht d b y that would be necessary were determined test uns ha would be eessary were determined.

The majority of backhoe trench usage in this particular The majority of backhoe trench usage In this particular The majority of backoe trench usage in this particular excavation was concentrated on two pits he iirst, nnng excavation was concentrated on two pits he first, routing excavation w-s concentrated on two pits he -irt, ru-ing east to west along the southern perimeter oi -he site was dug east to west along the southern perimeter o The site, was dug east to wes along the southern perimeter of the site, was dug 20 meters long with a mechanically stripped area of a tfbout five 20 meters long with a mechanically stripped areaaaipp of about five square meters, about five meters in from the western edge. The square meters, about five meters in from the western edge The square meters, about five meters in from the western edge The second large backhoe trench as placed ruing east to west second large bachoe trench was placed r ing east to west eond large bachoe trench was placed r ing east to west along the northern pereer of the sie, and measures 2 meters along the northern perimeter of the sie, and measures 25 meters along the northern pereer of the sie, and measures 25 meters in length with a mechanically stripped area of about 3. square in length, with a mechanically stripped area f about 3.5 sqare in length, with a mechanically stripped area o about 3.5 sare









meters begi-ing at the eastern edge. Both of these backhoe meters beginning at the eastern edge Boh o th- b-kh- -t- b- lg Id- B-h If -ese backoe

trenches were approximately 1.07 meters wide (about 3.5 eet, trenches were approximately 1.07 meters wide {about .5 feet) trenches were approximately 1.07 meters wide (bout 3*5 feet. Smaller block units about tour meters in leng-) were Smaller block unts {about four meters in length) were Smaller block units {about four meters in length were mechanically dug to obtain an understanding of the snell mechanically dug to obtain an understanding of te snell mechanically dug to obtain n understanding of the shell deposits between these two large backhoe trenches e-ore test deposits between these two large backhoe trenches before test deposits between these two large backhoe trenches efore test units were hand dug. one of these smaller units as placed units were hand dug One f these smaller units was played units were hand dug. One of these smaller units was placed directly between he two stripped areas of each trench and the directly between the wo stripped areas of each trench and the directly between the two stripped areas of each trench and the other placed in about a meter north of the eastern edge of the other placed in about a mete north of -h, -t- dg. f the other placed -n about a meter north of the eastern edge o the trench dug along the southern perimeter (see Figure 2). These trench dug along the southern perimeter see Figure 2). These trench dug along the southern peimeter see Figure 2). These block units provided an opportunity to see the shell midden d block units provided an opportunity t. se th.-11 iddI.ad bl-k -- p- d pp.-bitye shell midden and

deposits present on these sides of the size in a very large deposits present on hese sides of the si e in very large deposits present on -hese sides of the si-e in a very large scale and helped to determine which areas of the site were more scale and helped to determine which areas of the site were more scale and helped to eeermine which areas of the site were more rchaeologically significant, indicating where test units should archaeologically igyicant, indicang where test units should archaeologically significant, indicating where test units should

-e hand dug b hand dg, he hand dg

The evidence extracted by both of these previous measures The evidence extracted by both of these previous measures The evidence extracted by both of these previous measures ndicaed that there were indeed significant archaeological indicated that there were indeed signific-t archaeological indicatedtat there were indeed significant archaeological Deposits present and the archaeological testnrg piogr deposits present and thb t 1.91. d-cit P-lt ld -e archaeological testg program continIed through a series of handdug test its Tese test continued through a series of handdug test units These test continued through a series o hand dug test units These test units were taken priarily fro two locations One of these was ,it were tak pprimaily from two locations0- if th- -s I- -b- plit-ilyese was in the mechanically stripped area on the backhoe trench along in the mechanically stripped area on the backhoe trench along in the mechanically stripped area n the backhoe trench along the northern perimeter. The other area, which received the mos- the northern perimeter. The other area ih received the mos the northern perimeter. The other area, which received the mesh focUs of these tested, w s the zone off the north western side focs of these tested, was the zone o the north western side focus of these tested, was the zone of the north western side of the southern backhoe trench Isee Figure 3). These test units of the southern backhoe trench (see Figure 3). These test units of the southern backhoe trench ,see Figure 3). These test units Pit in on the southern portion of the site were first organized put in on the southern portion of the site were first organized put in on the southern portion If the site were first organized









in a checkerboard pattern, each unit being excavated cabycoer in a checkerboard pattern, each unit being excavated cattycorner in a checkerboard pattern each unit being excavated eattyco,er to the other These its were generally excavated measuring to the other These its were genera lly excavated measuring to the other Th-ese units were generally excavated measuring two by one meters in length (6.6 by 3.3 feet). er the its two by one meers in length (6.6 by 3.3 fee After the its two by one meers in length (6.6 by 3.3 feet er the its were excavated do to the sterile soil level in this were excavated do to the sterile soil level in this were excavated do to the sterile soi level in this checkerboard configuration, it was decided that the two by one chekeboard ort-r-tion, it -as d--ide that hy I,. --b-d ti- -tt- it .. d--d at the two by one
meter units that had not yet been excavaed should also e taken meter units ha d no yet been excavated should also be taken meter units ha had no yet been excavated should also be taken out to get a eer understanding of -a -11 d aaaaa a Ld out to get a beter derstanding o a af thaaa-11 di-a d bt-It te shell distribution nd amore comprehense the network f features an d potholes which a more camprehense the network of features and posholes hich a more comprehensive the network of features and potholes which had been thus far excavated (see Figure 3). Material taken out hd been thus far excavated (see Figure 3) Matrial taken ou IId been thus ar excavated (see Figure 3. Material taken out of these units, staring with the shell midden under the modern of these units staring with the shell midden under the modern of thee units staring with te hei midden under the moder fill, was dry screened on the sie nd rouh to the lab for fill was dry screened on the sie and brought to the lab for fill, as dry screened on the site and brought to the lab for cleaning a analysis to e cataloged later. Alter bringing all cleaning and analysis to e cataloged aer Ater ringing a al g d analysis to be cataloged aer After bringing a these test units do to sterile soil, the features that were these test Units do-n to sterile soil the feauresth these test uni s dou to sterile soil the featres that were present in them were then ug ou and their contents were pesen in them were then dug out and their contents were present in them were then dg out and their contends were rought ack to the lab for cleaning. brought ack to the ab for cleaning brought ack to the lab for cleaning.

The overview of archaeological methods being employed to The overview of archaeological methods being employed to The overview of archaeological methods being em 1.oyed excavate the site at 39 Maolia up to this point has dealt excavate the sie at 39 Magnolia up to this point has dealt excavate the sie at 39 Magnolia up to this point has death siply wih a run through of an explanaio of the methods used simply wi-h a run through of an explanation of the methods used simply with a run through of an explanation of the methods used and a descr-iption of the procedures as they occurred in -- a a ipti f I thy I. i.and a description of the procedures as they occurred d in a

lchronalocaloder. The results and significance of these chronology cal order. The results and significance of these methods as used on tis project are as follows: methods as used on this project are as follows: methods as used on this project are as foll











Posthole survey Posthole survey Poshole Survey The posthole survey conducted on the site was I irrortant The posthole survey conducted on Ie site ws an important Te posthole survey conducted on the site was an i-portant first step insomuch as it provided a scale -n which to observe first step insomuch as it proded a scale on which to observe first step insomuch as it provided a scale on which to observe the shell and ariac distribution hroughu the property. I the shellac dis riution throughout the property. It the shell and atiact distribution throughout the proerty. It showed that the shell midden was denser in the southwestern shoed that the shell idden was denser in the southwestern showed that the shell dde was denser in the southwestern corner o the sie but sprea th roug a large percentage of the corner of the sie but spread through 1 P th b f th ut spread hroug a large percentage o the site. The density of the shell extracted and an estimated site. The density of the shell extracted and an estimated site. The density of the shell extracted and an estimated contour line of its disriuion throughout the site was dral. contour line of its distriuio ho th-ht ,I -Ith1e 1ite was dra-n. contour line of its distribution throughout the site w-s draw HOwever upon analysis of artifacts extracted f-ro -he posthole -owever, on analysis oi artifact5 extracted itom the posthole However, upon analysis of artifacts extracted fro, -he posthole survey in s case focusing an S. Jos variety aboriginal survey, hs case focusing on S. Jons variety original survey in tis case focusing on t Jol variety a-horginal pottery raens, it was seen that its dsribtion throughout pottery fraens was seen that its dsribtion throughout pottery f fragments it wa seen that its d riion throu ghout the site followed closely to that of the shell (see Figures 4 the site followed closely To that of the shell (see ires the site followed closely to that of the shell (see Fi.res 4 and 5). This implies th e sell preset- is o eced with and 5). This implies tha the sell present coeced with and 5). This implies that the sell present is connected d ith the pottery and would presumably link the denser shell deposits the pottery and would presmably link the denser shell deposits the pottery a-i would presumably lnk the denser shell deposit Sative merican occupational elens er making a o Native erican occupation elens er making a to Native Aerican occupational element. fer aing a orecion such as this, it is apparent which areas o the sie connection such a ths it is apparent which area o the sie oeion such as this- it is apparent which areas ofte sie iLl posses the majority of the culure- material and which will will pos- hh aj-ty f -t- --- and -iih ill ,it Iosses the majority of te cultural material and which will no contain y suiient deposits important to the no contain ay sufiient deposits important to the not contain any sufilen deposits important o the archaeological record. The oter Cer o dense shell, coupled archaeological record. The oer poet o dense shell, coupled archaeological record. The other pocet o dense sell, coupled wih a small density o aboriginal poery was alone near the ih a sall density o original poery was along near the wih sll densy o aboriginal pottery was along near the northern edge of the sie These two areas with ptentially northern edge o the sie. These two areas with potentially northrdge o f the sie These two area with potentially important occuational significace, along both the north and important ocaioal significace, along both the north and important occpaioal significance, along both the north and









south perimeters o the sie, were then th thIh.- e south e1imeters of the site, were then the chosen as the south perimeters of the site, were then the chosen as the

location of the backhoe trenches location o the backhoe trenches location of the bachoe trenches.



Bac'ihoe T-enhes Bac1oe Trenhes Back-oe Trches The mechanically ug trenches dug in this project, or any The mechanically dug trenches dug in this project or any The mechanically dg trenches dug in this project, or ay project for that matter, have certain pros and cons to consider project for that matter, have certain pros and cons to consider project for that matter, have certain pros and cons to consider when including tem with the arc theological methodology of when including them with the archaeological methodology of when including them with the archaeological methodology of xcavation. The glaring negative aspect would be that one does excavation The glaring negative aspect would be that one does excavaion. The glaring negative aspect would be that one does no have a y control over the material being removed fro. the not have any control over the material being removed from the not have any control over the material being removed from the pitor over the sensitivity with which artfacts are removed pit or over the sensitivity with which artifac s are reoved. dit, or over the sensitivity with which artifacts are removed. Artifacts that are discovered using this method are retrieved Artifacts that are discovered using this method are retrieved Artifacts that are discovered using this method are retrieved from the backill and therefore cannot be placed within the from the backill and therefore c-ot be pieced within the from the backill and therefore c- -o- he placed within the context f the sil sratificall relevance to all context o the sil sraicatJon and lose all relevance to al context of the soil stratification and lose all relevance to al other care lly recorded cultural material ro the site other carefully recorded culture material rm th her care ully recorded cultural material the site A good thing about a mechanically dug trench, however, is that it good thing about a mechanically dug trench, however, is that it good thing about a mechanical dug trench, however, is that it s not at all ime consing d efficient at sripping a is not at all time consuming and efficient at stripping a is not at all time consuing and efficient at stripping a specified area as deep doa as necessary. other positive specified area as deep do as necessary. Another positive specified area as deep do as necessary. her positive aspect is that it gives a straight and clean wall with which to aspect is that it gves a straight and clean wall with which to aspect is that t g-ves a straight and clean wall with which to observe the soil stratification along a long sretch of the site observe the soil stratification along a long stretch of the site obsere the soil stratification along a long stretch of the site (2025 meters in the case of magnolia, as previously mentioned). (2025 meters in the case of agn ola, as previously mentioned). (20-25 meters in the case of Magnolia, as previously mentioned) This allows the opportunity to see if the shell freqiencies and This allows the opportunity to see if the shell frequencies ad This allows the opportunity to see if the shell frequencies and distributions are concordant with estimations made with le distribution are concordant with estimations made wi thhe distribution are concordant with esti nations made w th rhe results of the posthole sueys and eoses so o the larger rsuls of the posthole surveys and oses sme o the larger results of the posthole surveys and exposes some o the larger shell eaures in these areas. The soil straiicaion present shell eaures The sil stratification present shel features in these areas The ol sratification present









in these backhoe trenches also gives a good indication of the in these backhoe trenches also gives a good indication of the in these bachoe trenches also gives a good indication of the sort of soil deposits to expect in test units in other parts of sort of soil deposits to expect in test units in other parts of sort of soil deposits to e-pect in test its in other parts of the sie as excavation continues In the case of the northern the sie as excavation continues In the case of e northern the site as excavation continues In the case of the northern backhoe trench and mechanically stripped aea at this site a backhoe trench and mechanically s. tripped aea at this site a backhoe rench and mechica y stripped aea a this site,a curvilinear pit filled with shell (mostly large oyster) was curvilinear pt filled with shell (mostly large oyster) was curvilinear pit filled with shell (mostly large oyster) was exposed and the feature was then hand excavated and is contents exposed and the feature was a aa tha h aaaad -a -- aa a at d asd fd -d nd its contents brought back to the lab. The extent of mechanical strp versus brought back to the lab. The extent of mechanical strip versus brought back t tthe lab. The extent of mechanical strip versus the hand excavation present in the archaeological works at 29 the hand excavation present in the archaeological works at 29 the hand excavation present in the archaeological works at 29 Magnolia can be reviewed n Figure Magnolia cabe eviewed on Fire 3 Magnolia can be reviewed on Figure 3



TeSt units Test Uits Test units The mjoriy of arifacs excavated at te dg site are The majority of artifacts excved at the d g sie are The -ajority of artifacts excavated at the dig site are raced in the test units and the majority of data relating to extracted in the test units and the majority of data relating to extracted in the tes units and the majority of data relating to the archaeological record is gathered through he process of the archaeological record is gathered throughthe process of the archaeological record is gathered through ihe process of digging these units Each soil layer is taken do separately, digging these units Each soil layer is taken do- separately, digging these units. Each soil layer is taken down separately, with he material screened and sorted out separately as well, to with the material screened and sorted out separately as well, to wit the material screened and sorted out separately as well, t obtain the most corehensive a aderstanding of the artifact obtain the most comprehensive understanding of the artifact obtain the most comprehensive understanding of the artifact disr ibtion d its relation to he sil stratifiation Eah bistribion its elation to the sil stratificatio Each isribtion and its elation t o the soil srriticaitn. Each level is meticulously measured ba aa sta d l ti ly d based off du, established level is meticulously measured based off a datum established before the iggng of the is Measuring both depth and before the diggg of the units Measurin g both depth and before the digging of the its Measuring bth depth and position in the hit provides or a veritable three dimensional position in the pit provides for a veritable three dimensional position in the hit provides for a veritable three dimensional understanding of the location the artifacts retrieved from understanding of the location of the artifacts retrieved from unerstndig of the location of the artifacs retrieved from these est units knowing exactly where you are in erms f thee est units owing exactly where you are in terms of these test units Knowing exactly ere you are in terms of depth d space is the key to successful archaeology anld this depth and space is the key to successful archaeology and this depth and space is the key to successful archaeolo gy and this









it s no exception. Wall profiles and features (prior to sie is no exception Wall profiles and features (prior to site is no except-d features (prior to feature excavation) in the test units are each individually feature excavation) in the test units are each individually feature excavation) in the test units are each individually mapped out, then incorporated into a larger site map to help mapped out, then incorporated into a larger site map to help mapped out, then incorporated into a larger site map to help obtain a sythesis of artifacts and features being uncovered and obtain a thesis of artifacts and features being uncovered and obtain a sthesis of artifacts and features being uncovered andf b g d an understanding cultural footprint that has been left behind by an dersnding cultural footprint that hs been left behind by an derstanding cultural footprint that has been left behind by the remnants of the Native erican occupants. the remants of the Native Merican occupants. the remn ts of the Native merican occupants

The Successful iplemenaion of the posthole survey and The successful irplemenacion of the posthole survey and The successful implementation of the posthole survey and the backoe trenches was invaluable to the City's rcheological thb bt- .. tll h uz t. .e bac..oe trenches was invaluable to the City's rchaeological Divisin in the excavation of this site in terms of the tme Division in the excavation of this site in terms of t-e time Division in the excavation of this site in terms of tee ime that was saved by focusing in on areas where test units were that was saved by focusing in on areas where test units were that was saved by ocusing in on areas where test units were laid out. With the city's limited amount of time available for laid out. With the city's limited amount of time available for laid out. With the city's limited amount of time available for excavation of the site, any extra rime available or the more excavation of the site, any extra time available for the more excavation of te site, any extra time available for the moe arduous work of digging out the test units is helpful. The arduous work of digging out the test units is helpful. The arduous work of digging out the test units i helpful. The tes of artifacts being extracted from the test i s on the tes of artifacts being -traeed from the test .1its on the types of artifacts being extraced from the test units on the southern side of the site trade beads, he muset hall, southern side of the site Itrade beads hema musket ball, southern side of the site Itrade beads, hem muske hall. seville blue on-blue pottery, Spanish olive jar) constitutes the sville blue-onblue pottery, spanish olive jar constitutes the seville blue-onblue pottery, spanish olive jar constitutes the

sixteenth century European presence These types of artifacts sixteenth century European presence. These types of artifacts sixteenth century European presence. These types of artifacts (sixteenth century) are the rarest and mos- (sixteenth century) are the rarest and most (sixteenth centu) are the rarest and most Culturally/historically important to the archaeological record culturally/historically important to the archaeological record culturally/historcally important to the archaeological record because of the limited area in which they are present. The fact because of the limited area in which they are present. The fact because of the limited area in which they are present. The fact that such artifacts are turning uI {regardless of time that such artifacts are turning up (regardless of time that such ar-ifacts are turning up (regardless of time

restrictions) in the screens of the test units of the Magnolia restrictions) in the screens of the test units of the Magnolia restrictions) in the screens of the test units of the Magnolia site, when it is kno that much of the property is bereft of site, whn it is ow that much of the property i bere of site when it is o that much of the property is bereft of such cultural material, is a testimony to thesuccess of the such culture] material, is a testimony to the success of the such cultural material, is a testimony to the success of the









archaeoogcal methodology of implementing posthle surveys archaeological ehodolo of ilementng posthole surveys archaeological methodology of implmnting posthole surveys, backhoe trenches a test nits, in that order backhoe trenches ane units in that order achoe trenches a nd es units, in hat order

Aide from the artifacts that suggest a sixteenth century side fro1 the artifacts that suggest a sixteenth century Aside -ro th tht suggest a sixteeth century Euroean presence at the sie, the large nuer o aive Eropean presence a the si, the large numer of atie Eroean presence a the site, the large nmoer o f Native American pottery sherds and occupation features thus ar -erican pottery sherds and occuption fears th d pltlly 1-1 I'd II1.pti. us far excavated sgge ha it is linked wih the dig sies a he excavated suggest ha it is linked wth thei dig l t A a d a add Ad A ad I: t da liaa dd dath Ah A sites at the Fotain of Youth Park, which have yielded d similar cultural ountain of Youh Park, hhiih hae yielded similar cultural If Y-h Pik, dih h.- yib!6 61-1-1 materials. I these sites are both uncovering parts of the sae materials. these sies a re both covering parts o the same materials. I hee sites are both covering parts a the sAe Native village, perhaps Selys village reached across the ative village, perhaps Selys village stretched across the Nadtive village perhaps Seloys village, s -retched across the river, then a fuure synthesis between the two archaeological river, then future syhesis between the two archaeological rver then a uure slth-esis between the two archaeological operations would e opp.,tlne fo both groups involved to help operations would. 1 e opportune fo both groups involved t. htip p-dtiodc ...ld bd bpp.,t,,I I- g-pl i .. 1- to help

them, and future scholars. to have a moe holistic uadersaddng them s,a to have more holsic dersardig them, and uure scholars to have a more holistic understanding of the archaeological record being uncovered of the archaeological recor being uncovered of the rhaeologca record being uncovered .

In cncluso, the archaeological methods Doing employed in In concus on, the archaeological methods being emoyed in In .oncuson the archaeological methods being employed in the excavaon of 29 a1oiia are optimal n thathey Provde the excavation of 29 Maaoia are optimal n that they Provide e excavation of 29 Magolia are optimal in that they provide the city archaeological t-with the most information about the the city archaeological eL with the most information about the the city archaealga eam with the most information about the sie to deal with the cultural evidence present in the limited sie to dea- ith the cultural evidence peset in the limited se to deal with the cultural evidence peset in the limited

excavation ime allotted to the by the City's Archeolog cal excavation ime allotted d to them by the City's rchaeological excavation time allotted to them by the City's Archaeologica Ordinance. Methods such as these, coupled ith the maping and Ordinanced. Methods such as these, ouled wa.dith ahe d dppa O*dia.Ithd -ng and do entation o the site and artifact analysis at the lab are documentation of the site and artifact analysis at the lab. are docuenation of the sie, and artac analysis at the lab, are the cornerstone of the reseraion of the archaeological record the cornerstone o the preerain of the acha eologial record the cornerstone of d the preservation of the achaeolagical record in the Cy of gusine hou: them much information In the City of S. Augustine .ihou the, ch information in the City of St. Augustine ihout the, nuch information would he lost to develoen within he city and along ith it, would be lost to deVepen within the city and along ih it would be lost to deelpent within the city and along with it, the heritage of the cities of cient City. the heritage of the cities of cient City. the heritage of the cities of ien City.







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