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THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD, WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON, SEPTEMBER 1965
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Pag,, Two THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECOD Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965
The Settlement Of St. Augustine
It all began at a little bay on ment of earth. Some cannon tablished in portions of the West Although Florida occupied a
the east coast of Florida during were already mounted behind Indies, Mexico, Central and strategic location along the September of 1565. Two large this breastwork. Menendez was South America by the time St. route of the treasure fleets, it galleons rode at anchor outside well pleased with what had been Augustine came into being. remained unsettled for fifty, the harbor entrance, while three accomplished. After holding a Fleets of galleons laden with years following its discovery.
smaller craft with sails furled council with his officers he re- riches from these colonies be- Numerous Spanish expeditions, and pennants flying from each turned to his ships to hasten the gan to sail slowly across the such as those of Narvaez, De masthead were moored within, unloading of the rest of his com- Atlantic to Spanish ports. They Soto, and Tristan de Luna set The ships were a part of the pany, artillery, and supplies be- became known as the treasure out to explore, conquer and fleet of Don Pedro Menendez. fore the French might descend fleets because they carried for- colonize Florida, but instead of They brought an expedition from upon them. tunes in gold and silver. Spain's gold and silver the conquistaSpain to establish settlements in European rivals watched this dores found only suffering and Florida and drive out the French When he had first come upon flow of fabulous wealth with bit- death in its wild interior or
Huguenots, who had a fort near this little bay and inlet, chosen ter envy, and pirates preyed in- along its beaches.
the mouth of the St. Johns Riv- for his base, he gave it the creasingly upon it. Some were
er in this Spanish-claimed ter- name St. Augustine in honor of genuine outlaws; others were During this period of exploraritory. The French colony, name the Saint's day (August 28th), merely adventurers, whose pir- tion and colonization Europe Fort Caroline, lay only some on which his ships first sighted acy had the tacit approval of was the scene of bitter religious thirty-five miles up the coast the Florida coast, their sovereigns, conflict. Spain, which was solidfrom the point where the Span- ly a Catholic country, enish ships were anchored. There The vessels of the treasure deavored to stamp out all deon this very same day Jean Ri- The Spanish Treasure Fleets fleets usually assembled at viations from its faith. While bault, who had just arrived neighboring France was prefrom France with reinforce- Havana, Cuba. From that point dominantly Catholic, there were ments, was preparing to attack At the time of St. Augustine's their route, taking advantage of a number of Protestants in the the Spaniards before they could founding Spain was the most the strong Gulf Stream current, country. They were called finish landing and fortify their powerful nation n Europe. Sat- lay up along the east coast of Huguenots and included some
i in ing under her banner, Christo- Florida and Carolina, thence Frenchmen of noble birth.
position pher Columbus i 1492 had in- east to Spain. This was an im- The Huguenots Occupy Florida itiated the discovery of strange portant lifeline in the then great
During the late forenoon, new lands across the sea. Other and powerful Spanish Empire.
Menendez and a group of his I n t r e p 1 d explorers followed Admiral Gaspard Coligny, officers transferred from the S p a n i s h, French, English, leader of the French Proteslarger of the two galleons off- Dutch, and Portuguese-search- Back in 1513 Ponce de Leon, tants, or Huguenots, dreamed of shore to a smaller boat along- Ing for the coveted sea-route to sailing northwestward from establishing colonies in the New side. Aided by a strong incom- the Indies. The vast extent and Puerto Rico in search of rum- World that might rival Spain's lng tide, the boat entered the wealth of the New World began ored wealth, had discovered the in riches and importance. An inlet and advanced across the to unfold. Florida peninsula. Landing in attempted settlement in Brazil bay toward the mainland, head- the vicinity of St. Augustine, he in 1555 was destroyed by the Ing for a little creek that wound Thus far only Spain, and to a claimed the territory for Spain Portuguese. In 1562 he sent out among the marshes to higher and gave it the poetic name La a small expedition under an ground. As it neared this point, lesser extent Portugal, had tak- Florida, because he first sighted able Huguenot navigator, Jean the roar of cannon and the en advantage, of their discover- its green shores during the Eas- R i b a u 1 t. These Frenchmen, blare of trumpets startled huge les. Almost two hundred Span- ter season, called by the Span- after exploring a portion of the flocks of marsh birds into noisy Ish settlements had been es- lards Pascua Florida. north Florida and lower Caroflight. lina coast and setting up columns, claiming the land for
On shore curious Indians France, built a small fort near
looked out upon the scene with ,Port Royal, South Carolina, mingled fear and wonder. A which was soon abandoned by
Spanish detachment, which pre- the small garrison left there.
viously had disembarked, was During the next two years drawn up along the bank to fighting broke out in France begreet the landing party. From tween the Catholics and Huguetheir ranks a robe-clad priest nots, preventing further colonizemerged holding aloft a cross ing activity. When peace was and singing in a clear voice the restored Coligny sent out a seeLatin words of the Te Deum end and larger expedition in Laudamus. 1564, consisting of three vessels, under Rene de Laudonniere,
"On Saturday, the 8th (of who had accompanied Ribault
t r lon the first voyage. These co
September)," relates the priest, onithe s a se olFrancisco Lopez de Mendoza onists chose as a site for their Chaplain of the Spanish fleet, settlement a point near the Chapainof te Sanis flet ~ff outh of the St. Johns River "the General landed with many oup pes at-y For a er
banners spread, to the sound of in present-day Florida. There
trumpets and salutes of artillery. As I had gone ashore the
evening before, I took the Cross ACKNOWLEG ENT
and went to meet him, singing
the hymn Te Deum Laudamus. The St. Augustine RecThe General, followed by all ord is deeply grateful to who accompanied him, march- Mr. J. T. Van Campen, ed up to the Cross, knelt and St. Augustine historian, for kissed it. A large number of permission to reprint this Indians watched these proceed- exciting and accurate acings and imitated all they saw count of the founding of done. The General then took St. A"ustine and its colorformal possession of the country ful existence through four in the name of his Majesty, and centuries. The material is all the captains took the oath of 'from Mr. Van Campen's allegiance to him as their lead- "The Story of St. Auguser and Governor." tine, Florida's Colonial S Capital," which is availBeneath the gnarled oaks able with full illustrations
festooned with moss the Span- in booklet form at the St.
ish knelt before a rustic altar to Augustine Historical Socicelebrate the first parish Mass ety.
on Florida soil. Much of Mr. Van Campen's information a n d
Menendez had instructed his many of his illustrations
advance landing party to select have been drawn from the a location suitable for an en- Historical Society's library.
trenchment and fort. For this The author also acknowpurpose they had taken over th e ledges the assistance and Indian village of Seloy and the *advice of Mr. Albert Man"great house" of its cacique, ucy, historian of the Nawhich stood close to the river tional Park Service, in the
bank. Around it the Spaniards Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, the great Spanish admiral, who found- preparation of the text.
were hastily digging a trench
and throwing up an embank- ed St. Augustine and made Florida a Spanish province.
These Two Pages Sponsored By
LWednesday Afternoon, 'Sept. 8. 19'65 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECOD Page Three
they built a fort, named Fort sibly held captive by the coastCaroline in honor of their boy al Indians.
king, Charles IX.
king, Chrles X rrf f After over a year's delay
After searching the area in Menendez was finally brought to
vain for evidences of gold and trial and fined. Upon his release silver, the Frenchmen ran short from prison, he immediately of provisions and were forced to sought an audience with King subsist mainly on food bartered Philip II to secure his permisor seized from the Indians. sion for a voyage to Florida in Meanwhile, some of their num- search of his lost son, and to ber mutinied and sailed away to t further explore its coasts on attack Spanish shipping in the which many Spanish ships were Caribbean. The rest were on being wrecked. Philip II not only the point of returning to France G granted permission for his voywhen Sir John Hawkins, an age, but welcomed this opporEnglish freebooter, happened tunity to commission him to by and sold them one of his undertake the settlement of ships and needed supplies. They Florida, and the task of dealing
were again about to embark for with the French Huguenots, who
France, when sails appeared off S had gained a foothold there.
the river's mouth. They were Gratefully Menendez knelt and the ships of Jean Ribault bring- kissed his monarch's hand.
Ing strong reinforcements. f Here was an opportunity to recoup his fallen fortunes.
When Philip II of Spain and
his advisors learned of these As customary in such matFrench Huguenot activities in ters, a royal asiento, or conFlorida, they were greatly al- tract, was executed. By it Menarmed. The French fort, if al- endez was bound to establish lowedto remain so close to the MEXICO three fortified posts in Florida route of the treasure fleets, at his own expense, and within would constantly expose them a specified time. In return he to attack. Manrique de Rojas was to receive a substantial was dispatched from Cuba to CENTRAL share of any riches that might investigate. During May of 1564 AMERICA be found there, certain privihe sailed up the Florida coast leges of trade, and the title of looking fer signs of a French Adelantado and Governor of the settlement, but found only one Province of Florida in perpeof the' columns left by Ribault, tuity.
the abandoned fort and a
French boy at Port Royal. Lau- Cartagen The contract also provided donniere did not arrive on the that Menendez should make coast until late June of that SOUTH every effort to convert the nayear.
year. Trm, care dovernd tives of Florida to Christianity, c" ihmus of rna, and for the purpose several The sovereigns of Spain and priests were assigned to the exFrance were at the time allied AMERICA pedition and others were to be
by marriage. The wife of Philip brought over later.
The -Rival Fleets
With characteristic v i g o r
seamen. It became increasingly resented loss of this authority. Menendez b e g a n collecting clear that to safeguard its claim ships and recruiting followers to the territory, and protect the When Menendez and his for his Florida expedition. In route of the treasure fleets brother, Bartolome, returned the midst of his preparations, Spain would need to establish intelligence reached 'Spain that forts of its own in Florida and from a voyage to the New a strong French fleet under expel the French trespassers World with the treasure fleet in Jean Ribault was being readied from its shores. 1563, they were met by armed to sail for Florida to reinforce officers of the Casa, arrested Fort Caroline. More arms and and imprisoned on vague soldiers would be needed. The Don Pedro Menendez charges related to smuggling or royal arsenals were thrown / accepting bribes. Soon after this open and the King agreed to The man destined to establish occurred, Menendez learned furnish one vessel and three he fireman destiermaned to establishement that his only son, Don Juan, had hundred soldiers at his own exthe first permanent settlement been shipwrecked on the coast pense. By late June, Menendez in Florida and expel the of Florida, or vicinity of Ber- had assembled a formidable arAdmiral Gaspard de Coligny. French Huguenots was a Span- munda, while returning with a mada of some nineteen ships lard of noble lineage, Don Ped- portion of the fleet. He hoped and 1,500 persons, most of it I of Spain was the daughter of ro Menendez. Born in 1519 in and prayed that some day he concentrated at the Spanisit II the little seaport town of Aviles, might find his son alive, pos- port of Cadiz. There were
the Queen Regent of France, on the northern coast of Spain, the crafty Catherine de' Medici. he was one of a large family Philip protested to Catherine and upon the death of his fathrough his minister concern- ther was sent to be reared by Ing the presence of her subjects relatives. Against their wishes in Florida, but received only he went to sea while still in his evasive replies to the effect that teens to fight the pirates, or
they had merely gone to a land corsairs, who lurked along the
called Newe France, discovered nearby French and Spanish many years before by French coasts. Within a few years he learned to command and navigate a vessel of his own. The
sea was in his blood.
His courage and expert seamanship caused him to rise rapidly in royal favor. He soon advanced to the most important
naval post in Spain, that of
Captain-General of the armada,
or guard of heavily armed ships
that accompanied the treasure
fleets on their long voyages to
and from the New World
through pirate-infested waters,
receiving this appointment directly from the King. But his
rise to prominence also created
jealous enemies. Among these
were officials of the Casa de Contratacion, or Board of
Trade, who formerly had ap- 'Indians worshipping one of the columns set up by Ribault, from a draw. pointed and controlled the arRene de Laudonniere. mada's commander, and deeply ing by the French arti, Le Moyne.
The Exchange Bank Of St. Augustine
Page Four THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965
scenes of parting froin loved his officers that it would be ones, the last solemn Mass at best to press on before the the Cathedral. Anchors were French had time to further weighed and on June 29, 1565, strengthen their position. Sailthe expedition set sail, but was ing northwestward, the Spandriven back by a storm and put iards sighted the shores of
to sea several days later. Florida on August 28th. It was St. Augustine's day and Te 1 Deums were sung. On the same
day Ribault's fleet reached the
15f mouth of the St. Johns River.
Ignorant of the location of the
crept cautiously up the Florida e -coast, sailing by day and anchoring at night. On the fifth
day Indians were sighted on shore. A party landed, followed
by Menendez himself, and
learned from the Indians that The following morning Men- sels,t his Capitana or flagship, the French fort lay thirty ilea- endez returned to the mouth of the San Pelayo, and another gues (90 miles) to the north, the St. Johns River to recon- galleon proved too large to enContinuing on up the coast the noiter the French position. Find- ter the shallow inlet. They were Spaniards paused at the inlet pg it too strong to assault, he ordered to leave for Cuba to seoand harbor of St. Augustine, sailed back down the coast to cure reinforcements as soon as where Menendez decided to es- the inlet and harbor chosen for most of their heavy cargo could tablish his base. They sailed his base. There on September 8, be removed. northward again the next day, 1565, as previously related, he and about three in the afternoon landed with fitting pomp to take Before daybreak on the morntheir lookouts sighted four ships possession of Florida and found tug of September llth, Meneo. on the horizon. A sudden thun- the fortified settlement of St.ng t e der shower obscured them tem Augustine. A French vesel ho- dez watched the two galleons porarily from view, followed by vere d a short distance out at set sail. With a sloop and sinaia calm that lasted until even- sea to watch the Spaniard's ler craft, loaded with 150 soling. Then a light breeze enabled movements diers and sutplles, he waited the Spaniards to bring their outside the inlet for a favorable ships within hailing distance. breeze and the tide to turn Out of the early morning mist the
About midnight Menendez or- ghostly shapes of French sb s loomed. Ribault had come to
supevise thecoloy duing rnedhsi thipes lanoundetdae.eseaeytome h
Weune m mres tnhere a attack St. Augustine before it "Whence comes this fleet," he was barely three days old. Ordemanded, "and what is it do- dering the anchor cables of his ing here?" boats cut, Menendez managed hto pilot them to safety across Philhp II, the King of Spain, "From France," a French the dangerous bar, which the l n n tesmnch Hgens ansFrench vessels could not naviwho commissioned Menendez spokesman replied, "nd it gate until about flood tide.
brings infantry, artillery, and
to settle Florida, and later supplies for a fort the King of On shore the Spaniards prosupervised the colony during France has in this land, and to pared desperately to meet the equip many more." threatened attack. Then, seemits early years. ingly, a miracle occurred. The iMenendez t h e n informed weather, which up to this time them of his mission, stating that had been relatively fair, abMeanwhile, the rival French he had no choice but to carry French ships sighted, ruptly changed. Strong northout his King'S commands. The erly winds arose, preventing the fleet under Jean Ribault had French Huguenots answered French from entering the inlet ailed a month earlier, leaving him with threats and jeers, and The Turn Of The Tide or returning north to their fort the port of Dieppe, Fance, on dared the Spaniards to come on. on the St. Johns. One of those May 28th, but unfavorable Angered by this, Menendez pro- Menendez next began the task northeast storms, common to pared to board the French ves- of completing the unloading of this section of the coast in the winds delayed its progress. The sels, but instead of waiting to his vessels. People, heavy artil- fall, whipped up high waves on
Ole meet the attack the French put lery, arms, building imple- the bay and seao. A driving rain to sea. The Spaniards opened ments, kegs of powder, boxes fell and dark clouds raced overfire, raised anchor, and sailed and hogsheads of supplies, head. in pursuit, but could not over- casks of wine and olive oil, take them because the masts chests of clothing and personal and rigging of their ships had effects-all bad to be transfer- Capture Of Fort Caroline been damaged in the Atlantic red to smaller boats to be storm brought ashore. Two of his ves- Menendez knew that the French vessels would be driven
helplessly before the raging
frtaysea, ht proposehd te storm. He also correctly surmised that Ribault had taken
aboard most of the French
S e p fighting force, leaving Fort Caroline weakly garrisoned. He called a secret council of his officers to outline his next step.
M to Since rough weather made it S impossible to reach the French
-fort by sea, he proposed the a ? d v daring course of marching over-- S land to surprise Fort Caroline
__ before Ribault could return to Florida-bound galleon. its assistance.
On the morning of September
Spanish fleet put in at the Can- 16th, Menendez and 500 picked 1, "' throughthendd Ma. Theyn. ary Islands for wood and water, r- oughm-' men attended Mass. Then
and to take a muster of its :tr h e n da h
forces. After leaving the Can- plunged into the 'wilderness, aries, it ran into a severe At- guided by two Indians who had lantic storm, which damaged 5 ga been at the French fort a few some of the vessels and drove days before. Menendez and a others far off their course. As a small party of axmen went result, Menendez reached San ahead to clear a trail and blaze the trees so that the men folJuan, Puerto Rico, on about Au- th tee.o ha teme fl
gust 10th with but one-third of lowing would not lose their way.
isrilfc- At places they waded through swamps flooded waist-deep by
the storm, at night seeking
A council of war was held. Fort Caroline as pictured by Le Moyne, consisted of a triangular stock- higher ground on which to camp
Should they go on or wait un- ade of earth and logs. within which barracks and other buildings were lo- andbuild a fire. Some became til the rest of the* fleet might exhausted; others lost courage arrive? Menendez convinced coated and turned back. On the evenThese Two Pages Sponsored By
Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Page Five
ing of September 19th the Span- in procession, singing the To
lards reached the vicinity of the Deum Laudamus. They reenemy fort. They were ceived the Adelantado with drenched to the skin, their pow- great rejoicing, everyone laughder damp and useless. It was ing and weeping for joy, praisstill raining and the wind whis- ing God for so great a victory.
tied weirdly through the pines. And so they escorted the Adelantado in triumph to the enWith the first light of dawn a campment and settlement of
Spanish detachment, guided by San Agustin." on
a. French deserter, advanced No word had yet been reinto the clearing, that surround- ceived as to Ribault's fleet ed Fort Caroline. A few French- which had been caught in the
men quartered outside the storm off St. Augustine. His
stockade fled in a l a r m. ships, driven aground many Hearing their cries, a soldier mires down the coast, were
within opened the wicket, or lit- being pounded to pieces in the a
tle door, of the main gate to surf. Most of the men aboard 0-admit them. He was quickly had reached shore safely with ,,
killed by the advancing Span- their arms. Hungry and conlards, who broke into a run and stantly harassed by Indians, /
poured into the enclosure, they were endeavoring to make
shouting "Santiago! Victory!" their way up the beaches back Fort Matanzas stands near the inlet where the French were slain.
to their fort. How they longed
Stos be back in their beloved same inlet. Some eighty, includ- who were too few to prove a France! ing their brave leader, Jean Ri- threat and were kindly treated.
bault, gave themselves up and At Cuba jealousy and intrigue Four days after Menendez re- were disposed of in the same still dogged his footsteps. The S ort Caroline turned from Fort Caroline, In- manner as before. A number re- officials of the Casa, by whom dians made known by signs that fused to place themselves at the he had been imprisoned in a party of men were marooned Spaniards' mercy and withdrew Spain, seem to have succeeded on the shores of an inlet fifteen to the south. When Menendez in injuring his prestige and remiles south of St. Augustine. He returned to St. Augustine his putation. He was cooly received immediately set out with a brother-in-law, Solis de Meras, by the Governor of Cuba, GarSt. Augustine small force of soldiers and, on observed that "some people cia Osario, and refused aid.
reaching the inlet at dawn, saw considered him cruel, and The belated arrival of several A.. I two hundred Frenchmen ga- others that he had acted as a of his ships enabled him to send Matanzas Inlet- thered on the opposite shore. very good captain should." his Florida posts some relief. V' r),WIWA a" One of their number swam On his way back he visited, the across the inlet and was told to The Spanish word Matanzas, Indians of Carlos, or Ckloosa inform his comrades of Fort meaning slaughters, became Indians, who then occupied Caroline's fate. They at first re- the name of the inlet near which south Florida. They made a fused to believe that the Span- the massacres occurred. practice of enslaving shiplards could have taken it, but wrecked Spaniards who fell into as proof were shown captured their hands, sacrificing some of French arms and clothing. Other Difficulties these victims in their pagan Fruitless parleys followed. Fac- rites. Menendez found several
- ed with starvation or probable Spanish survivors among them, death at the hands of the Ind- The French attempt to c- but looked in vain- for the familans, the entire French band un- cupy Florida was thus effective- liar features of his son, Don conditionally surrendered. ly shattered. Other difficulties Juan. R.isSip, threatened the permanence of or'"" wl,",, A boat was sent over to bring its settlement and remained to During his extended absence back their weapons and stan- be overcome-the unyielding from St. Augustine dissension Cape dards. Then the French cap- wilderness, the treacherous broke out among his followers. Canaveral tives were ferried across the in- wilderness, tWhen a vessel arrived with suplet ten at a time. As each group Indians, the colonists' lust for plies mutineers seized it and landed, their hands were bound gold, and hunger, that cause of prepared to sail away. A simibehind them with matchcords, so many early colonizing fail- lar situation developed at San and they were led up the beach ures. Food supplies diminished Mateo. Many had joined the exThe surprise was complete. out of sight and hearing behind with each passing day. The pedition only because they exSleepy-eyed Frenchmen, some high dunes. As they reached a buildings at Fort Caroline, re- pected it might lead to easy still in their night clothes, be- fatal line drawn by Menendes named San Mateo by the Span- riches. Failure to find any signs came the easy victims of Span- In the sand, their captors slew lards, accidentally burned down of gold and silver in Florida Ish arags. Laudonniere and them with swords and daggers, with all their contents shortly proved a bitter disappointment.
some fif of the garrison man- and then returned to the inlet to after its capture. The other ves- Or, they had secretly planned aged to escape to the surround- escort another group of ten to sels of the Spanish fleet, scat- to desert it at the first opporing swamps, and thence to their doom., Only a 'few were tered by the storm while cros- ity, and seek passage to French beats anchored in the ri- spared, sing the Atlantic, failed to ar- other Spanish colonies from ver. Among them was the artist rive with expected supplies and which fabulous wealth flowed to Le Moyne, whose drawings o About two weeks ater an reinforcements. To relieve the Spain. Now that the French had Fort Caroline and the early About two weeks later an- situation Menendez decided to been defeated there was little Florida Indians were later en- other party of Frenchmen, who go to Cuba for aid. On his way glory to be gained in the hardgraved and published by De had been shipwrecked farther down the coast he picked up the ships of fort building, and Bry. down the coast, arrived at the remaining French survivors, threatened starvation in this distant wilderness. A number
Leaving most of his force to of the mutineers eventualy emgarrison the captured fort, barked for the Caribbean, and which he renamed San Mateo, thence some went to Spain, Menendez set out with a small where they circulated damaging detachment to return to St. reports of Menendez and the
Augustine. Florida settlements.
The Victor Returns Gunpowder Versus Arrows
The Victor Returns ;.
The Indians meanwhile,
At St. Augustine work con- though at first outwardly friendtinued on strengthening its de- ly, became an increasing threat fenses. A week passed without to the new colony. Spanish mutinews of the attacking expedi- neers at San Mateo inflamed tion. Only exhausted stragglers their hatred by the unprovoked returned with terrifying reports murder of three of their chiefs.
of the swamps and other diffi- They held a great council and
culties encountered. Gloom and declared their enmity.
despair settled over the camp
until one afternoon a ragged Huddled within their stockSpaniard burst out of the wood- ades, the Spaniards could not land, shouting "Victory! Vic- venture out in search of food tory! The harbor of the French without fear of attack. The is ours!" savages lurked everywhere in the swamps and woodlands, and
"Four priests who were there shot their arrows with such (At St. Augustine) immediately force as to penetrate a soldier's set out, holding aloft the Cross, A Le Moyne drawing showing Florida Indians attacking a rival village coat of mail. The crude firefollowed by all the sea and land arms of the day were not entireforces, the women and children with flaming arrows. ly suited to Indian warfare.
Florida Power & Light Co.
Page Six THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965;
When a Spaniard paused to re- plundering Spanish shipping On the Brink of Failure ibbean, during which he agaiq load his slow-firing arquebus, and colonies in the Caribbean. briefly visited his Florida posts.
an operation requiring several During Menendez' continued The Low Countries, Holland and minutes, Indians rose fromlong bee minutes, Indianng s rose from By this time, in accordance absence in Spain, the condition Belgium, which had long been their hiding to shower him with under Spanish domination, were
arrows. When they saw the with the terms of his contract, and morale of his Florida posts in revolt.
flash of burning powder in the Menendez had established three grew steadily worse. Supplies
primer of his gun, they crawled fortified posts in Florida---St. were dangerously low, clothing In 1574 Menendez received thd through the tall grass and ap- Augustine in about its present was worn to shreds, and the crowning honor of his career.
peared in another place after it
had been discharged. Over one location, San Mateo near the shelters thus far constructed af- He was chosen by Philip II of hundred Spaniards were thus mouth of the St. Johns River, forded little comfort. Efforts to Spain to take command of a killed by the Indians during the and Santa Elena still further grow corn and other grains in great armada of ships and med first year of the colony's ex- north on the coast of Carolina. the sandy soil resulted in dis- being assembled in the harbor Istence. He had thoroughly explored the couraging failure. of Santander, presumably for
Indian attacks became so ser- Florida coasts, and gone up the operation against the Low Counious as to cause the removal of St. Johns River almost to its The summer of 1570 brought tries, and possibly the English the settlement to another site. source. He had traveled among no relief. The blazing sun coast. On the day he assumed One night, when Menendez was the Indians of South Florida, scorched the beaches and this important command he fell absent on an exploring trip, yel- and of Guale, or southeastern swamps. Mosquitos and other ill with a raging fever. The ling savages broke through the Georgia, endeavoring to win insects made life miserable. Es- usual remedies of purging and Spanish lines at St. Augustine, their friendship and subject blood-letting proved of no avail, and set fire to the storehouse them to Spanish authority. One teban de las Alas, one of Me- and he died on September 17,
with flaming,arrows, destroying of his lieutenants, Juan Pardo, nendez' trusted lieutenants in 1574, at the age of 55.
precious powder and supplies. had penetrated inland with a charge of the post at Santa Elefew soldiers a distance of 450 na, sailed with 120 men for The day before the beginning When. Menendez returned he miles to the mountains of west- Spain, arguing that those re- of his fatal illness he beginning
called a council of his officers.. ern North Carolina. Possibly al- maining would have a better of his fatal illness he wrote a "It was resolved that they ways in the back of his mind chance for survival on the limi- letter to his nephew, Marques, should move from there and lurked the hope that he might ted supplies. The garrison at St. expressing his desire to retur erect a fort at the entrance of come upon some news of his Augustine mutinied, burned its to Florida, and stating that he the bar... because there the lost son and once more em- fort, and began blding a crude hoped to do so in the spring Indians could not do them so brace him in his arms. boat in which to leave. The set- when he was confident the afs much harm ... and there they tlement of Florida hovered on fair in Flanders would be set
could better defend themselves thebrink of failure, tied.
against the vessels of enemies Menendez Goes to Spain
that might want to enter the At this crucial point Don Pe- "Then" he wrote, "I shall be harbor." In 1567 Menendez deemed it dro Menendez Marques as- at liberty to go at once to necessary that he go back to sumed command. He was a ne- Florida, never to leave it as Working in shifts, the Span- Spain to render in person a re- phew of the founder and had long as I live, for that is my
lards rushed the construction of port on the condition and needs served with him in the treasure longing and my happiness."
of the Florida and West Indian fleets. In a letter written from
a stockade and fort at the new colonies. The little garrison at San Mateo, he pleaded with the Storms prevented burial in his location. St. Augustine 'continued to cling mutineers at St. Augustine to native Aviles, to which his reprecariously to its narrow remain at their post, promising mains were later removed. During the summer of 1566, beach-head. In the spring of to transport them to Cuba if There an inscription on his
the lonely Florida settlers were 1568 the settlement shuddered supplies failed to arrive by a tomb eulogizes him as "the ilheartened by the arrival of sub- when a small French force un- specified time. His arguments lustrious Adelantado of the Prostantial reinforcements. A fleet der Dominique de Gourges, aid- prevailed and St. Augustine liv- vince of Florida... and Capof fourteen vessels under San- ed by Indians, wiped out the ed on. tain-General of the Ocean Sea."
cho de Arciniega brought 1,500 Spanish posts near the mouth
persons and welcomes supplies. of the St. Johns. Captured Span- His death was a blow to Part of this force was assigned lards were hanged from the Death of Menendez Spain. No outstanding naval fito bolster the Florida garrisons. limbs of the liveoaks in revenge gure arose to take his place, Menendez was ordered to em- for the Frenchmen killed at Events in Europe continued to and the great armada he was ploy the remainder against the Fort Caroline and Matanzas keep Menendez occupied in to have commanded- never
pirates, or corsairs, who were three years before. ,Spain, or on voyages to the Car- sailed.
The Years Accumulate
It was the following spring of next Adelantado and governor
1575 before the news of Me- of Florida. In the face of InMdian difficulties he abandoned
nendez' death reached Florida. an f t a E n andon the fort at Santa Elena and was
St. Augustine, now ten years removed from office. As his old, had lost not only its found- successor the king appointed er and a resourceful leader, but Don Pedro Menendez Marques, was left without his financial who had saved St. Augustine support. As he had spent his en- from abandonment in 1570, and tire fortune in establishing the was a man of proven ability. He Florida posts, his heirs were in remained governor of Florida no position to assume the ob- for the next twelve years from
ligation of sustaining them. 1577 to 1589.
Influential advisors in Spain Spain was at the peak of its
Frged that the settlement of wealth and power, but England Florida be abandoned, because under Queen Elizabeth was bethe province produced no gold,
silver, or other riches. King Phi- coming bold and a growing melip II weighed the problem care-. nance on the seas.
fully. He decreed that the Florida posts should continue to be
maintained, because of their First English Visit
value in protecting the vital
trade route along the coast, and The passing years rooted St.
as a refuge for shipwrecked _Z Augustine more firmly to its mariners and vessels in dis- soil. The spring of 1586 brought tress. Since the heirs of Me- fresh green to the grass and nendez could not finance them trees, a warmth and fragrance they would be made crown col- to the air. Mocking birds and onies under the supervison of bright red cardinals sang gaily the King, and would be sup- from the branches. The settleported by-an annual situado or ment was twenty-one years old subsidy, which the viceroy of when a vessel arrived bearing New Spain (Mexico) was ord- news that Spain and England ered to provide. were at war, and that Sir FranMap drawn by one of the participants in Drake's attack on St. Augus- cis Drake, the dreaded English Hernando de Miranda, a son- tine shows the English entering the town and their ships anchored outside corsair, was raiding Spanish
In-law of Menendez, became the the inlet, colonies in the Caribbean.
These Two Pages Sponsored By
e~V1dnesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Page Seven
Governor Marques took im- owner by the Spaniards, went Other missionaries of the Je- a mission bell went out over
mediate steps to prepare St. over to the English camp and suit Order had come before swamp and woodland calling
Augustine's defenses. Slaves Informed them of the garrison's them, but in the face of the them to prayer.
and soldiers labored in cutting withdrawal. They occupied the early antagonism of. the Indians
and hauling logs from the forest fort, finding in it some fourteen they were able to accomplish By 1595 the Franciscans to complete the new fort then large brass cannon and a chest little. Jesuit missions had been claimed a total of 1,500 Indian under construction. Detailed of money intended for the pay established as far north as the converts. Two years later their plans were made for the eva- of the soldiers. Chesapeake Bay region of Vir- success was interrupted by an cuation of the-familes and re- ginia, in the vicinity of Tampa Indian revolt incited by a youpg moval of supplies. Sentinels In the morning the English Bay, and at Tequesta, near the chief, who had been publicly scanned the horizon with more advanced into the town. The present site of Miami. In about censured for his desire to have than usual care. The month of English sergeant-major, a man 1570 the Jesuits were replaced more than one wife. Five FranMay wore on into June and it of considerable rank and im- by missionaries of the Order of ciscans were clubbed or tomawas hoped that the English portance, mounted a deserted St. Francis, or Franciscans. hawked to death.
fleet had sailed on by. horse and rode hotly in pursuit
of some fleeing Spaniards. He One of the highlights in the drove one of them to the edge early religious annals of Florida of a swamp and wounded him was its first visitation by a Biswith his lance. Mustering all his hop in 1606. Bishop Altamirano strength, the wounded Spaniard arrived at St. Augustine from turned upon his assailant and Cuba shortly before Easter. Imkilled him. The English version pressive religious ceremonies relates that the officer was shot followed with candles burning from ambush, and on falling to brightly on the flower-decked the ground was stabbed to death altars. On Easter Saturday the by several Spaniards. Possibly Bishop ordained twenty young due to this incident, Drake or- men as clerics, some of them dered the fort and town of Stground. natives of the settlement. On Afterstine burned tothe ground. Easter Sunday he celebrated After remaining a few days in Mass and confirmed 350 Spanthe vicinity to careen one of lards. After a week's rest, the their ships, the English sailed Bishop made a leisurely tour of away. the outlying Franciscan missions, confirming a total of 2,000
When the people of St. Aug- Indian converts. ustine returned, smoke still curled from the ruins of their fort
and homes. Even their fruit Each year this peaceful con trees had been destroyed by quest of Florida continued to
trees had been destroyed by th expand, and by the middle of invader. Governor Marques 1600's extended into north cen- sent word of the disaster to r ia o w
Havana. St. Augustine gradual- tral Florida, a region known as Havana. St. Augustine gradually arose from its ashes, rebuilt The presence of Franciscans Apalache, in the viciinty of presand soniewhat improved with in Florida is recorded as early ent Tallahassee. This was axich assistance from Spain and Cuba. as 1573, but for a number of agricultural area and at times The post at Santa Elena was at years they made only limited supplies, which were brought The Spanish lookout tower on this time permanently aban- progress. The courageous friars which were brought
'Anastasia Island as described doned in order to strengthen St. endured many hardships and around the peninsula. by boat, by, a member of Drake's ex Augustine's garrison. privations in attempting to car- or were carried overland on the pedition. ry the peaceful message ot backs of Indians to the capital Christ deep into the Florida The missions also embraced a Saving of Savage Soals wilderness, where they lived large section of Guale, or southOn June 6th (Spanish calen- alone far from civilized com- eastern Georgia. When Bishop
dar), the lookout stationed in
thedar), tall watch tower oned Anas- King Philip II of Spain, Me- forts and companionship. Some Calderon visted Florida in 1674theasia Island saw white specks demand their suffered torture and martyrdom 75, a remarkable total of 13,152 tasia Island saw white specks nendez and their successors at the hands of those they Indian converts were presented
appear on the horizon. They burned with zeal to convert, the sought to save, but all went re- to him for confirmation.
grew into sails and he signaled a natives of Florida to Catholi- solutely forth from St. Auguswarning to the settlement across cism, and regarded this as a tine eager to reap a glorious Aside from its religious signithe bay. Soldiers rushed to their sacred obligation. After Drake's harvest of savage souls. ficance, the missionary moveb a t t 1 e stations. Housewives attack, a friary or monastery ment had other far-reaching efcrossed themselves and whisp- was erected at St. Augustine to The first Franciscan missions fects. Through the missions St.
ered their Ave Marias with shelter the Franciscan mission- Auusnisn, w s a l y frightened hire i t shelter the Franciscan mission- were established along the coast small garrison, was ableto confrightenedir s children clinging to aries who were beginning to ar- north of St. Augustine, where trol a wide territory, holding
their skirts. Slaves began re- rive from Spain to work among
moving supplies, but in the con- the Indians. The friary was lo- they could e reached readily the numerically strong Indian fusion r ",h v -. 1ft behind. cated on what is now St. Fran- by boat. If the Indians proved tribes in check. It was said that
The powerful Engusnh eet of cis Street on the site of the pre- tactable and friendly, a crude a lone Frcaciscan, with no wea.
Sir Francis Drake, heavy with sent State Arsenal. chapel was built and the peal of Bibles other coulthdthan morehis Cross and
plunder from the Caribbean, Indians than a hundred men at drew closer and came to anchor arms. The missions also served in the roadstead outside the in- as outlying posts that could let. The Spaniards counted over warn the capital of approaching twenty large ships and their t strangers or enemies. When the auxiliary craft. The estimated abandonment of the settlement
outnumbered St. Augustine's lit- t A in 1602, the existence of the mis 2,0 merrsn afbar elsy d-was again seriously considered
Ue garrison of barely 150 de- Qln j1ur j 1 sins proved a strong argument
fenders.in favor of maintaining St. Auf a gustfne as their protective cenThe English, having sighted 0 8~ n- ter.
the settlement's lookout tower, .
decided to investigate what the Franciscan mis manner of place the Spanish sions of Florida were more nu
King had here. A detachment eos ria ere mnoerrori nu
soon landed on Anastasia Is- t tt -....... than thse of Cali fornia, they
land and marchedaround the o thae receiveof California, they
shore where, one of their num T I M U C U A little emphasis
ltl TeT or vigcUA Possibly because they were ber relates, "We might dis- I e Abuilt of wood and no physical
cerne on the other side of the ULF OF Cadla evidence of them remains.
non a ao dable of vhemreain o p river over against us a Fort ZZ ,1
which had been newly built by I I GI USTII h ne
the Spaniards; and some mile ll Another Criss
or thereabouts above the Fort a 200-mile Traila~i
little Towne or village without between St. Au stine In 1598 death brought to an
walles: built of wooden houses." and pa.a.eenand Apalachet lnrnfh e
oGULF t r end the long reign of that re Later the English landed can- markable sovereign of Spain,
ond day opened fire. Governor tPhilip oe had initiated te
Marques and his garrison, ac- settlement of Florida, and later
cording to his report, clung Indians of this region as a crown colony it had come bravely to their fort until they and of South Florida under his supervision. When
saw boats put out from the op- ;i were not Christianized
pos Shore. After firing a few news of his passing reached shots they retired barely in time Florida in March of 1599, the to escape capture. During the Franciscans gathered at St A- night a Frenchman, held pris- Approximate location of the principal Franciscan Missions in about 1650. prayers for their departed pa-y
Aircraft Service Division Of Fairchild Hiller
Page Eight THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8,- 1965.
tron. The same month the cry the same period an official gov- ers arrived with the -Arciniega creasing number of children in of "Fire" rang out in the quiet ernor's residence was establish- reinforcements and later fleets. the colony, and asked that the streets. Flames raced through ed on the site of the present Some of the soldiers married married soldiers be given extra the tinder dry palm thatched post office. Indian maidens, who had be- pay. The yellowed pages of St.
roofs of the town's buildings, come Christians and been given Augustine's Cathedral Parish destroying many, including the Women were present in the Spanish names. records, dating from 1594, indiFranciscan quarters. In the fall colony from the beginning, a cate an average of twenty-five
of the same year a storm did few having come with the ori- The governors complained of births per year during the early-considerable damage. The wind- ginal Menendez expedition. Oth- the problem of feeding the in- 1600's. They also record the
driven waters of the bay rose deaths and rnrriages.
bigher with each tide, flooding
dwellings and washing away a The pnucipal officers of the portion of the fort. colony consisted of the governor, who was' its chief execuPhilip III, who ascended the tive; the royal treasurer, who
throne of Spain in 1598, failed was custodian of the royal funds to share his father's interest in and their disbursement; and the this distant Florida post, from factor, who distributed the supwhich no riches flowed into the plies. A sergeant-major was in royal coffers. From it came command of the infantry and only constant pleas for more as- succeeded the governor in case sistance. of the latter's death or resignation. A minor but important ofThe King ordered Pedro de ficial, from the standpoint of
Valdes, the Governor of Cuba, historians, was the Escribano to make a thorough investiga- (writer), who kept a record of tion of conditions in Florida. meetings, handled corresponValdes sent his son to St. Au- dence, took the testimony of gustine in 1602 to hold hearings, witnesses, and acted as a
in which missionaries and set- notary public.
tiers of long residence testified.
While many of these witness ex- The governors of Florida pressed the view that a more were appointed by the King in favorable location for a settle- distant Spain from a list of ment might be found, the con- candidates proposed by the elusion reached was that St. Council of the Indies. They were Augustine should continue to be usually men of previous milimaintained as a center for the tary experience, and served genexpanding missions, and as a Bringing supplies to the capital from Apalache. erally for a term of six years.
base to guard the vital trade When a new governor arroute. rived at St. Augustine to take office, Indian chiefs trooped in
The passing years were being from the outlying districts to
added slowly to its age. Deaths, pledge their friendship' and albirths, marriages, Indian insur- legiance. They were entertained rections, the coming of new gov- as elaborately as the resources ernors, and the arrival of an oc- of the settlement would permit, casional ship made up the given trinkets and food for the drama of its obscure existence. long journey home. Although reIsolated by a wilderness of land latively small in size, St. Auand sea, it had little contact gustine was the capital and citawith the outside world. del of a vast area. La Florida then as claimed by Spain em. Braced not only the present
Capital of La Florida j .. peninsula, but the entire Atlantic coast as far north as CanAbout 1598, the older portion t ada and as far inland as the
of St. Augustine was laid out in continent was known to exist.
approximately its present form.to eL.
he plan foi lowed specifications For a time after the explusionll
contained in a cedula issued by --of the French Huguenots no the Spanish King in 1573, direct- other European nation seriously ing that all Spanish colonial 'The first buildings in St. Augustine were of wooden boards with roofs challenged this claim, but the
towns should have a central
Plaza with the principal streets of thatched palmetto leaves held down by stringers. clouds of strife were beginning
leading from it. During about to appear.
The English Threat
St. Augustine remained the Spain to strengthen Florida's of flour from Veracruz, Mexico, the pirate band rowed stealthsole European settlement in garrison and defenses to meet and a payment on its subsidy, ily ashore undetected, and scatwhat is now the continental Uni- this English threat. But the then eight years in arrears. The tered through the streets. The ted States for a period of forty- mother country, almost con- harbor pilot put out to bring the people emerged from their two years. About the time of its stantly involved in wars with vessel across the treacherous homes expecting to greet attack by Drake in 1586 it re- European rivals or vexed with bar. Soon two cannon shot were friends, but their joy soon turnceived vague but disturbing re- internal problems, took no do- heard, a prearranged signal ed to anguished cries of terror.
ports of the presence of Eng- cisive action. identifying the vessel as the one Many were killed by pirates in lish settlers to the north in a expected. The people were elat- attempting to resist or flee halfregion known to the Spaniards In 1665 St. Augustine became ed and retired confidently for clad to safety. In the darkness as Jacan, or the Chesapeake one hundred years of age. As if the night. It was difficult to distinguish Bay region of Virginia, This was to celebrate its centennial, the friend from foe. With shouting the ill-fated Roanoke colony. It English King Charles II, issued But the ship was not manned pirates at their heels, the govwas followed in 1607 by the a second patent opening up the by friends as was assumed. It ernor and part of the garrison founding of Jamestown, Vir- territory south of Virginia to had been seized by an English managed to reach their fort and
ginia, by the English, which re- English settlement. This patent pirate, Robert Searles (alias beat off attempts to take it.
presented a further violation of not only disregarded Spanish Davis), in the vicinity of Cuba.
territory claimed by Spain as a claims to the area, but even in- When the vessel arrived off St. The next morning the pirates part of Florida. Three expedi- eluded within its boundaries the Augustine the Spanish captain systematically looted the homes tions one in 1588 and others in very site of St. Augustine itself. and crew were compelled upon and churches, and a previously 1609 and 1611, set out from St. threat of death to appear on bidden pirate ship appeared in Augustine to reconnoiter these deck as if nothing were amiss. the bay. Unable to take the fort, rival settlements. A Midnight Raid The unsuspecting harbor pilot the invaders left their captives was tricked into firing the iden- on the beach and sailed away
The Virginia colony survived In the spring of 1668, during tifying signal and made priso- under the cover of darkness. St.
and others crept down the coast the delightful month of May, the ner before he could warn the
in defiance of Spain's claims to appearance of a vessel off St. settlement. Augustine's residents returned the territory. The Spanish gov- Augustine's inlet caused a rip- to find sixty of their comrades ernors at St. Augustine re- pie of excitement. The settle- Around midnight, when the dead in the blood-s t a I n e d
peatedly implored authorities in ment was awaiting a shipment town was peacefully sleeping, streets.
These Two Pages Sponesored By
(Wednesday Afternoon;' iept. 8 .''196 THE S T.F AUGUSTINE RECORD Page Nine
A Stone Fort at Last A husbands and sweethearts.
A Brief D ESc R P T1 n They sailed north in three ships, The founding of Charleston, destroyed a Scottish settlement
The .C., in 1670 brought the Eng- O F at Port Royal, plundered nglish threat still nearer. An ex- lish coastal plantations, and adpedition sailed from St. Augus- vanced on San Jorge, as the tine to attack the new settle- Spaniards called it, or Charlesment but ran into a severe ton. Suddenly a hurricane came storm and failed to reach its up driving two of their vessels objective. 0 F hopelessly aground. The third limped sadly back to Matanzas
The success of the pirate raid Bay.
on St. Augustine in 1668, combined with the growing English tA R O L N Soon after this expedition a encroachment on Spanish ter- boatload of half-starved Negro ritory to the north, finally con- t the CO A STS of FL OR E D A slaves arrived at St. Augustine, vinced officials in Spain that and asked for the Holy Waters something must be done to bol- of Baptism. They had escaped ster Florida's defenses. In the A ND from Carolina plantations. In fall of 1669, Queen Regent Mari- response to demands for their anna of Spain issued a cedula M Pre la c ra return the Spanish governor ofdirecting the Viceroy of Mexico ore particularly o a N wl laneaon fered to reimburse the English to provide funds for the con- begun the E NG L I H at Ce-Feare, for their loss. Spanish agents struction of nan impregnable 4r M and Indians secretly began to stone fortress at St. Augustine, on that River now by them called Charles-Rier, encourage slaves in Carolina to similar to the bastions guarding the 29th Of a', z66 run away, making it known that Spanish strongholds in the Cari- .St. Augustine offered them asybbean. All previous torts in r stfort, lum. These refugees increased Florida had been of wood and in number and were allowed to soon rotted in the moist sea air. rThe H lleabf ae i of the Air ; the Fertilit of occupy lands two miles north of The new fort would be built of he Eart and ater and the great e r and the settlement in the vicinity of
coquina, a shell-rock formation, and e great re and Mese Creek.
found in abundance on Ana- 'Trj Will Uccrue to thofe that hall go-thitherto enjoy
stasia Island across the bay the fame.
from the capital. Several earlier The Shipwrecked Quakers
Florida governors had urged its Aif f
use without success. Dirc~tionsand advice to fuch as all go thither whether John Archdale, a Quaker, beonothir own acoinptu or tofervc under alothe. came governor of Carolina in Florida's next governor, Man- P1695. He frowned upon the enuel Cendoya, went at once to dr tetgr r awtie slavement of Christian Indians Mexico to collect the funds ap- and returned four to authorities propriated to begin the new de- A o accurate MA P of the whole PROICf. at St. Augustine, who wrote him fense work. At Havana, Cuba, a letter of appreciation and se engaged the services of a agreed to reciprocate by accompetent military engineer, cording English subjects safe Ignazio Daza, to plan and super- Dn I Prited for be.rt 10r'.,ebi the fire Curt of GtrefEl i conduct through Spanish terrivise its initial stages. h l ,n u. tory. This accounts for the kind lvsoanu todal nu r of easi onay eiza1666. treatment accorded a small
Work on the new structure be- A pto attract settlers des- company of Quakers enroute to
gan rn the A pamphlet designed to attract English settlers des- Philadelphia, who were wrecked cribed Carolina as being "On the Coasts of Florida." on the coast of Florida in the vicinity of Robe Sound in 1696.
Jamestown near Matanzas Inlet, burned the ers began to work quietly The Quakers reached shore 1607 Spanish outpost there, and ad- among the border Indians, safely only to suffer torturing vanced toward the capital. weaning some of them away hardship among the coastal InWarned by alert sentinels, the from Spanish control and in- dians, who feared Spanish augovernor sent out a detachment fluence. These they then armed thority but were still savages in of musketeers, who waited in and encouraged to raid the most respects. ambush and drove the raiders Spanish Indian towns. Christian back to their ships. Indians captured by the English After two months of harrowcupin t l C h and their Indian allies were sold By 1696 the great stone fort into slavery. Florida's Governor wa o Cabrera (1680-1687) eomplain- rescued by a Captain Lopez and was about completed except for ed that they even seized the detail of soldiers from St. Ausome of the outer work, added "mixed ones," children of Span- gustine. They were brought to during later periods. Into its ish and Indian parentage. Small the settlement and later escortconstruction went twenty-four bands of Yamassee Indians, ed safely to the English border. long years of sweat and toll be- then allied with the English, One of their number, Jonathan neath the Florida sun, and the hovered about St. Augustine oc- Dickinson, wrote and published lives of an untold number of casionally seizing a stray Span- a book of their adventures, slaves, Indian, and peon work- lard, whom they carried back to which contains an interesting men. It was called by the Span- Carolina. The Carolinians even description of St. Augustine and lards Castillo de San Marcos, or offered the Indians a reward for castle of St. Mark. captured Spaniards delivered to them upon the pretense that it
was to save the victims from
Settlement of Pensacola torture.
The boundaries of Florida While the English were oc- By 1686, with its Castillie
cupying the Atlantic Coast north about completed, St. Augustine In grew smaller. of Florida, hardy French trad- felt ready to take the offensive.
ers and explorers, including the In the fall of that year
Stone masons and other skilled Jesuit, La Salle, came down the Ihe all of sode artisans were brought from Cu- Mississippi River building forts en waved farewell to soldier
ba. Quarries were opened on at strategic points. This threat- '
Anastasia Island. Gangs of Ind- ened Florida on the west. To
fan workmen and yokes of oxen meet the French threat to the - =
dragged the heavy coquina Gulf coast, the Spaniards under | ,R-gm
blocks to the water's edge, Andres de Artiola established a C
where they were loaded on rafts fort and settlement at Pen- .-or barges, and ferried across sacola in 1698, which later was -" _the bay to the fort site, to become the capital of West .- CI___Florida. A previous Spanish at- U The massive walls rose slow- tempt by Tristan de Luna to es- t 'ly. After an enthusiastic begin- tablish a settlement near this 0
ning progress lagged at times point in 1559 had failed.
for want of funds, lack of vigo.
rous prosecution, or when epidemics thinned the ranks of Border Conflict
slaves and Indian workmen. In
the spring of 1683 it was inter- Strife between the Spaniards
rupted by a threatened attack, In Florida and their English
one of many to which St. Au- neighbors to the north did not 'he grim walls of Castillo de San Marcos look much the same as wher
gustine was continually sub- at first break out into open war- the stones were lifted laboriously into place.
ejected. English pirates landed fare. English agents and tradH. E. Wolfe Construction Co.
Page Ten THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8-,196
Florida as these Quakers saw revolt. A remnant of the tribd them so many years ago. took refuge in the St. Augustine area where, according to EngAs the Quakers were brought lish reports, they were to En
ii te coast they noted the cored by the ringing of bells.
chain of Spanish sentinel posts, For some reason the Yamassouth of St. Augustine, which sees were banished for a time were located on high dunes south of the city. They were ov erlboking the sea, beach and later recalled, given weapons, river. By means of smoke sig- P. / and encouraged to make raids nals, or Indian runners, they on the Carolina border plantacould quickly warn the capital tions, bringing back bloody of danger. scalps and an occasional prisThe little Quaker band was oner.
hospitably received at the set- To put an end to these raids tlement and quartered among a Colonel Palmer swept south its inhabitants. "This place is a from Carolina in 1728 with a Garrison," wrote Dickinson, small force of militia and Ind'maintained one-half by the ians. They surprised and butchKing of Spain and one-half by ered some of the Yamassees id the Church of Rome. The male their villages north of St. Auinhabitants are all soldiers, gustine. After destroying every everyone receiving his pay ac- A gun emplacement in the defense lines. The platform sloped forward thing of value outside the city, cording to his post. All of their to absorb the gun's reoil and seizing many Spanish-ownsupplyof Bread, Clothing and e gunreo. ed cattle, Palmer returned to Money comes from Havana and Carolina. Following his deparPorta Vella, and it was going on ments during the fall of 1702. sequent invasions practically all ture the Spanish governor ordthree years since they had a Florida's Governor Z u n i g a of the outlying Franciscan Mis- ered the destruction of the misVessel from any place whatso- learned of the impending attack sions were destroyed. Only sion chapel of Nombre de Dios, ever, which made their needs in time to lay in adequate pro- those in the immediate vicinity which had afforded the English
very great. visions and put his garrison on of St. Augustine remained. cover in their attack.
a 24-hour alert.
"The Towne we saw from one The settlement of Georgia in
end to the other. It is about Colonel Daniel with one Car- The Capital's Defenses 1733 by General James Ogle three-quarters of a mile in olina detachment came up the Moore's siege of St. Augustine thorpe brought the English still Length, not regularly built, nor St. Johns River and thence in 1702 showed a serious weak- closer. Spanish authorities senthe Houses very thick (close to- overland. Moore with the other ness in the capital defenses. The sed an impending crisis and gether), they having large or- sent Antonio Arredondo, a comchards, in which grow plenty of came down the coast in eight enemy were able to occupy and sent Antonio Arredondo, a cornoranges, lemons, pome citrons, small vessels. Daniel arrived burn the town despite its im- petent military engineer and dioralimnges, lemonfigs, and pome citrons, small vessels. Daniel arrived pregnable Castillo. This led to plomat, to St. Augustine to nelimes, figs, and peaches. The first and advanced upon St. Au- the gradual construction of a gotiate with Oglethorpe and surhouses are mostly old buildings, gustine by land. Governor Zun- system of outer defenses to pro- vey Florida's defenses. While and not half of them inhabited, system of outer defenses to pro- Arredondo failed to persuade the number of men being around iga had few experienced sol- tect the town itself from future te doshfaile to persuade three hundred." diers, and did not try to save invasion. Georgia, under his able superOn their way north to the town. All of its inhabitants First an inner defense line vison St. Augustine's fortificaCharleston the Quakers stopped were ordered into the fort, was built extending westward tions were carefully strengthovernight at several Spanish which soon sheltered some 1,400 from the Castillo to the San ened. Rooms inside the Castillo Indian towns, where Dickinson people. Sebastian River along what is were rebuilt with arched ceilnoted that "the Indians go as now Orange Street. It consisted ings of thick masonry to make consistently to their devotion, at Moore soon arrived by sea of a moat, some fifty or more them bombproof. Backed by all times and at all seasons, as with a quantity of trench-digg- feet wide and six feet deep, Arredondo's recommendations, do the Spaniards." He also oh- ing tools and fifteen long lad- through which tide w a t e r Florida's Governor Montiano served that the Indian women ders for scaling the fort's walls. flowed. Earth from the ditch secured substantial reinforcemodestly clothed themselves But the English had greatly un- was used to build a palisaded ments from Cuba, increasing with the moss of trees (Spanish derestimated t h e Castillo's embankment. St. Augustine's the garrison to around 750 men.
moss), "making Gownes and strength and found there was City Gate is all that remains of
Petticoats thereof, which at a little hope of taking it with their this defense work. Oglethorpe's Siege
distance or at night looks very few small calibre guns. Colonel Later a fortified line was conneat." Daniel was sent to Jamacia to structed extending across the Spanish regulations allowed secure siege guns and bombs. peninsula between the bay and her colonies only limited tradThe Castle's First Test During the siege the Span- the San Sebastian River, "about Ing privileges with rival EngCastillo de San Marcos, com- lards made two sallies from the a cannon shot north of the land, which had become a great
'Caspleted in 169, had not yet m- fort to destroy their own houses fort." It was called the Horn- mercantile nation. To prevent dergone an attack. It was soon in its vicinity to prevent them work because a portion of it re- the prevalent smuggling of dto come. In Europe the War of being used as cover by the Eng- sembled in shape the horn of a licit English goods into their t o come. In Europe the War of lish. A total of 31 houses were steer. It consisted of a wide ports, Spanish ships were orSpanish England in a conflict thus destroyed as shown by ditch and embankment of earth dered to stop and search Enginvolved England in a conflict claims later filed by their Span- and sod, at one time further, lish vessels off their coasts.
with Spain and France that soon ish owners. strengthened by a stockade of One of the English merchantspread to their colonies, where logs, and a fort at its eastern men overhauled off the coast of it was known as Queen Anne's Almost two months of siege extremity. Florida or Cuba was commandWar. Governor Moore of Caro- passed. Within the overcrowded d by a Robert Jenkins. He relina obtained the backing of its Castillo inhabitants and gar- Another defense line extended ed by a Robert Jenkins. He recolonial assembly for an exped- rison prayed for relief. The day north and south along Maria ported that the Spanish captain, tion against Spain's citadel in after Christmas two heavily Sanchez Creek in the vicinity of Juan de Leon Fandino, cut off Florida. He recruited a force of armed Spanish ships appeared present Cordova Street, mark- his ear and handed it back to some 600 Carolina militia and a off the inlet bringing aid. Fear- ing the western boundary of the him saying, "Carry this to number of Indian allies. They ing their retreat would be cut original settlement. Other de- your king and tell him I would advanced south in two detach- off, the Carolinians burned their fense works protected it on the treat him in like manner." Intransports, abandoned t h e i r south. The lines were streng- cidents such as this caused ris0 D f heavy stores, set fire to the thened at intervals by redoubts Ing indignation in both countf g Pro J C town, and withdrew overland to and angular projections, in tries. The severed ear, or a subPro Vd vessels awaiting them at the some of which cannon were stitute, was later displayed by
SN mouth of the St. Johns River. mounted. Sentinels manned the Jenkins before the English ParM A defense lines day and night, liament, and gave its name to The Castillo had triumphed in once each hour passing the Al- the war that England declared Surefl HELP and DEFENCE, its first test, but the town of erto. against Spain in 1739, the War
I N St. Augustine was virtually re- of Jenkins' Ear.
Times of GreateCf DrFICULTY, duced to ashes. Spanish eye- When escaped Negro slaves
and molt Eminent DAN LX : witnesses testified that not a began to find refuge in St. Au- General Oglethorpe of Geors vDENCED building was left standing ex- gustine, a small fort was built gia was ordered to harass the
In the Remaikable Deliverance of R o s t cept the Hermitage of Nuestra for their protection two miles Spaniards in Florida, and proB AR Xo 1 with divers other Perions, from Senora de la Soledad, and some north of town. It was called ceeded to organize an expedithe Devouring Wavs of the S E .; mongit twenty houses of the meaner Fort Mosa, or the Negro Fort, tion designed to capture St. Auwhich they Suffered gustine. During the winter he
S H I P W R A C K: sort. These were probably scat- and served as an anchor for an gustine. During th e winter he
And lib, tered dwellings south of the other defense line running east probed Spanish defenses, seizFrom thecruelDevouring Jaws of the Iniumma Plaza. and west. ing Fort Picolata on the St.
Johns River west of the capital,
Canibals of Florida. Although disgraced by the and a companion fort across the _______________of _ failure of his expedition, Moore Palmer's Raid river from it. In early May of
rf 'elaqboneohePeraeoncerninhr*ie returned to Florida in 1704 with 1740 he moved south with 400
Jonwx A L DI csc.to N a large number of Indian allies. The Yamassee Indians of Car- of his Georgia regiment and
They overran the weakly gar- olina, once allied with the Eng- took Fort Diego, a Spanish Title page from one of the risoned Indian towns of Apa- lish, turned against them and plantation post fifteen miles many editions of Dickinson's lache and the interior, taking in 1715 were decisively defeat- north of St. Augustine, in the
book. 1,300 Indian prisoners back to ed. The Spaniards in Florida vicinity of present Palm Valley.
Carolina. During this and sub- were accused of fomenting this Leaving troops to hold it, he
These Two Pages Sponsored By
Wdihesdoay Afternoon, .Seit. 8,: 1965- rTHE ST. AUGud TINE RECORD rage Eleventhen retired back to the mouth camp. Soon afterward a Frenchof the St. Johns River to await man deserted the English the arrival of his other military VI of e TOW nd CAS T S.A GS TIST NE and went over to the Spaniards.
contingents. and the ENCLISHI CAMP bebreit June 2o.4 bylTHO.rSILV R. Oglethorpe contrived to send the
During early April six half Frenchman a letter, in which he directed him to lead the Spangalleys from Cuba slipped into lards to believe that the EngSt. Augustine's Matanzas Bay lish were weak, and to persuade in response to Governor Mon- them to attack. As expected, the tiano's frantic pla for* a '. *. ,..,. .'... '.- 'J- ,-,..:. ., t el to ta As xpected, the
tiano's frantic pleas for assis- letter fell into the hands of the tance. They were commanded Spanish commanders who were by the same Juan de Leon at a loss as to how to interpret Fandino, who is reputed to have A "-..'"' it. Muih to Oglethorpe's relief
cut off Jenkins' ear, and proved they decided to withdraw.
an important factor in saving -..
the city. Encouraged by his sucthpe city. cess, Oglethorpe returned to
Oglethorpe's other military ;,Z Florida next year. Masching
units finally arrived and he 96 miles in four days, he
moved south over the land route appeared before St. Augustine from the St. Johns River, and : with a small detachment, keepoccupied Fort Mesa, two miles ing his main force hidden in north of the capital. In addition .. ambush. His ruse might have to his Georgia regiment, he now Al succeeded, had he not captured had a detachment of Carolina in his advance a small company militia, a company of Highland- of Spaniards guarding some ers some Indian allies, and the workmen. Their failure to reassistance of an English naval turn alerted the garrison. After unit of four twenty-gun ships a few days he withdrew, reand two sloops, a total force of marking that "the Spaniards about 900. as are so meek there is no pro....: ra.,W v:':: 'i : :: yoking them ."
His original plan of making a oking them."
concerted attack on the city Frederica, which Oglethorpe from its land approaches and 4 ohad established as a Georgia waterfront was thwarted. The military stronghold against the inlet proved too shallow for the b, Spaniards, gradually became a English ships to enter and pro- S r gaghost town after peace was revide a covering fire for the stored in 1748. In the meantime landing of marines. The Spanish 1 Oglethorpe returned to England half galleys received from Cu- -and never threatened St. Augusba effectively controlled the --- ---:.tine or Florida again. In Engbay. They were a small man- I land he became an intimate of euverable type of boat, propel- s the great literary figures of the led by oars and sail, and mount- ... day, and lived to the ripe old
ed long brass nine-pounders. age of 96.
To attack from the north, the The next twenty years might
English would be exposed to a be called St. Augustine's Golden murderous fire from the Castil- Age under Spain. Substantial lo and Cubo Line. The only al- coquina houses and tastefully ternative was a siege that batteries shell decorated chapels lined its narmight starve St. Augustine into Map showing disposition of Oglethorpes forces and batteries ngrow streets. The inhabitants livsubmission. Colonel Palmer, thetown fromwhatisnow DavisShores. ed in relative ease and comfort.
who had raided the city in 1728, Social life was gay with colorwith a hundred Highlanders and managed to reach Matanzas In- sail in St. Augustine's harbor. ful carnivals and religious celea few Indians, and prevent sup- let, and from that point sup- Soon more arrived, and a strong brations rivaling those of Havplies from reaching St. Augus- plies were brought up the in- expedition composed of uints a city of three thousand souls, tine from the north. Colonel land waterway to relieve the be- from St. Augustine and Cuba and would soon be two centuries Vanderdusen, with the Carolina leaguered city. set out for Georgia, with Flor- old. Florida seemed held firmdetachment, was stationed on The hot summer sun beat ida's Gov. Montiano in com- ly in the grip of Spain.
Point Quartel, north of the in- down on the English camps mand. The attack was directed
let. Guns were landed on An- Swarms of toward Fort Frederica, which But English colonists to the
astasia Island and dragged into across the bay. Swarms of
astasia Island and dragged into sandflies and mosquitoes tor- guarded the approaches to Say- north now numbered almost one position as near the fort and tured the besiegers. Due to annah. Landing on St. Simon's million and one hundred thoutown as the swampy terrain brackish water from shallow Island, this superior Spanish sand Frenchmen had settled in would permit. The English na- wells and improper food, many force was ambushed and de- Canada. The struggle for power val unit tightly blockaded the were ill. Groups of the Carolina feated in the Battle of Bloody among European nations was to
coast and inlets to prevent aid militia were daily deserting. Marsh, and withdrew to its decide St. Augustine's fate.
from reaching St. Augustine by The commander of the English sea. General Oglethorpe then naval unit informed Oglethrope boldly called upon Governor that he would soon be forced to Montiano to surrender. The lat- withdraw his support, because
ter replied that he would ba of limited supplies and the
glad to shake hands with his of limited supplies and the Excellence within the castle's danger of storms. Faced by Excells.ency t h e s e unfavorable circumstances, General Oglethorpe
From their batteries across raised the siege, crossed over
the bay, the English began an to the mainland, and began the
intermittent bombardment of long trek back to Georgia.
the fort and town that continued The people of St. Augustine
for some twenty-seven days. returned jubilantly to their
The terrified inhabitants with- homes, which had suffered litdrew out of range, greeting tie or no damage in the bombeach enemy shot with a chorus tie or no damage in the bombeach enemy shot with a chorus ardment. Chapels and churchof Ave Marias. es rang with Te Deums of
On the night of June .26th, thanksgiving.
during a lull in the bombardment, Spanish and Negro troops Further Hostilities
crept out of the defense line, Hsitisand at dawn fell upon the Eng- S.Agsnehdsuccessull
lish at Fort Mosa. Palmer and St. Augustine had successfully fifty of his men were killed, and stemmed the English advance.
some taken prisoner. Spain further strengthened its
garrison and defenses. Spanish
Within the city supplies were privateers, some of them based
f a s t diminishing. Governor at St. Augustine, preyed upon
Montiano sent messengers to English commerce and plantaCuba, stating that if aid was not tions along the coast to the ,Isent all at St. Augustine would north. During 1741 no less than soon perish. On July 7th he re- thirty English prizes were
ceived encouraging word that brought into Matanzas Bay.
two vessels from Cuba had Oglethorpe momentarily ex- Windows on the street side of the houses in Spanish St. Augustine had eluded the English blockade and pected the Spanish to launch Georgia. a projecting lattice work of wood, no glass window panes, but inside wooden
eighty miles to the south. Pur- During June of 1742 a Georgia shutters to keep out the wind and rain.
sued by the English patrol, they scout boat discovered fifteen
Saint Augustine Historical Society
Page Twelve THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD We'dnesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1 965
Under British Rule
While St. Augustine lived on colonists to East Florida. Glowin apparent security, ominous ing accounts of its agricultural events were taking place in the possibilities were published and circulated. Titled Englislh gentleworld outside. England and men and wealthy Carolina planFrance fought the Seven Years' ters secured grants of land in SWar, toward the end of which the vicinity of the capital and Spain allied itself with France. along the St. Johns River. The Far to tohe north French Que- eccentric Denys Rolle e.tabbec fell to English arms in lished a colony called Rolles1759, and to the south Havana, town near the present site of Cuba, on which St. Augustine East Palatka, where he planned heavily depended, yielded to an to rehabilitate derelicts from
English fleet in 1762. Ministers the streets of London.
of the three nations gathered at
Paris to decide the terms of By 1768Governor Grant was peace. able to report encouraging proOn March 16, 1763, a lieute- gress: "This province, which
nant from the English sloop was a desert when I came into onetta came ashore at St. Au- it, although inhabited by the
(arietta came ashore at St. Augustine with important papers Spaniards two hundred years, for the governor, who was as- will soon be a fruitful country.
wounded by what he read. Under It fills faster with inhabitants the terms of the treaty just con- than I could have well exluded, Spain ceded Florida to pected, and there are already a England in exchange for the re- number of slaves at work on the
turn of Havana and other terri- different plantations."
In contrast with conditions
St. Augustine's shocked resi- under Spanish rule, vessels bedents soon gathered around the gan to sail from St. Augustine proclamation posted on the gov with cargoes of indigo, barrels ernment house. It specified they of oranges, casks of orange would be given eighteen months juice, lumber and naval stores.
in which to settle their affairs, Grant made various improve.
dispose of their property, and ments to the govenor's resievacuate Florida, unless they dence, facing the I'arade, or desired to become subjects of Plaza. The Fran cisc a n the British Crown. The very Monastery was converted to thought of remaining under serve as quarters for the garEnglish rule violated their deep prison, and later large new bardevotion to King and Church. racks were erected along the All prepared to leave; only A s bayfront south of it. One of the eeht being designated to re- churches left by the Spaniards main in an official capacity, was taken over by the English, main in an official capacity. Vorothy Murray, wife of the Episcopal clergyman, John Forbes, lived and later remodelled by LieuteBusy months followed. Homes in St. Augustine fro 1769 to 1773. She came from a prominent Boston th e additionor of a handsometh
were stripped for their furnish-n their an At p ao wings. Linens, silver, clothing, family Her portrait painted by John Singleton Copey, angs in the Fogg clock and steeple.
and various personal articles Museum of Art at Harvard University.
were packed into chests and The New Smyrna Colety
boxes. Tearful groups gathered
t the landing place to bid fare- 21, 1764. The departing Span- sence of the English staff and
well to friends and neighbors. ards took with them all of their garrison. Dust and cobwebs During Grant's administraSome residents were able to sell movable possessions including, s o n covered the Spanish tion, a Doctor Andrew Turnbull their property to the English, it is said, the bones of their shrines. Weeds and brush grew and associates of London sewho were at first hard-pressed former governor and remains of deep in the yards of the vacated cured a large grant of land near to find accommodations, but several of their Saints homes. As time went on a few Mosquito Inlet, some eighty much remained unsold and was English families began to move miles south of St. Augustine.
left in the custody of Spanish Records show that St. Augus- in, and English gentlemen of There they planned to establish agents until more English buy- tine at the time of the Spanish wealth and standing arrived to a plantation colony for the proers might appear. Some, indcud- wlook over this new province duction of indigo, for which the evacuation had a population of which their country had ac- British government offered an ing that of the Church, was 3,096-961 men, chiefly soldiers q tuted, attractive bounty. Turndeeded in trust to two friendly and officials; 798 women, and bullquired. amed te place ew English traders, John Gordon 1,337 children. The majority Smyrna in honor of his wife's
and Jesse Fish. went to Cuba and the West In- On a hot August day of 1764 Smyrna dies to find new homes. The a salute of the fort's guns greet- native Smyrna. On July 30, 1763, Major Fraa- English flag with its cross of ed the arrival of Colonel James After visiting East Florida to
cis Ogilvie arrived at St. Au- St. George waved over the cap- Grant, who came from London inspect his land grant, Turnbull gustine with an English regi- ital. The stout Castillo, the nar- to serve as East Florida's first returned to Europe to recruit ment. English soldiers in their row streets, and the name St. English governor. He had ear- colonists from the shores of the bright red coats paraded bra- Augustine remained, lier led an expedition against Mediterranean. H e secured zenly en the Plaza green, while French-held Fort Duquesne and some 200 from Greece, 110 from remaining Spaniards looked on British Rule Begins had served in the Cherokee In- Italy, and then went on to the in sullen resentment. Governoran wars in Carolina. island of Minocra, where se
Feliu and the last of the Span- St. Augustine became virtual- Island of Mincra, where sevish families sailed on January ly deserted except for the pre- eral years of drought had imGovernor Grant brought to St. poverished many of the inhabiAugustine all the picturesque tants. This island, one of the
qualities of English colonial life. Balearic group off the coast of
GEORGA Handsomely attired gentlemen Spain, was then an English pesmoved about the streets in their session. At its port of Mahon white stockings, silk or velvet more people than expected
knee-breeches, and rich em- flocked to join the projected
SSt. Augustine broidered coats with lace at the colony, bringing the total to
New uIcuff. Grant's distinguished around 1,400.
Oeans t New Smyrna Council included the aristocrat01en ,ic Moultries from South Care In the spring of 1768 eight ves,r lina, Chief Justice William sels brought these hopeful coll Drayton, and the Episcopal onists to East Florida, saddened Clergyman, John Forbes. Also by the death of almost 150 durrick George Mulcaster, reputed from the British base at Gifwo provinces East Florida, with St. ;tto be the natural brother of braltar., As customary in those ugune s c eEngland's King, George III days, these colonists bound ugustine as its capital, and West Florida, themselves to work for a period
With Pensacola as its capital. Liberal grants of land were of seven or eight years in re; offered by the British to attract turn for their passage and sueThese Two Pages Sponsored By
Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Page Thirteen
tenance, after which they were publishing Florida's first newsto receive parcels of land and paper, the East Florida Gafreedom from further obliga- zette. The population of East tifreedomn. Florida soared to 17.000 including slaves.
After touching at St. Augus- s einaltine the vessels proceeded to In 1781 Goveruor y na
New Smyrna, where crude shelo ly called East Florida's first ters were built. Clearing the Legislative Assembly. It met in land for cultivation, and in the the statehouse at St. Augustine meantime feeding and clothing that year and again during the such a large number of people winter of 1782-83. But there was proved more difficult and ex- little left for it to do but pass pensive than anticipated. Due in laws governing the conduct of part to crude living conditions, -the many slaves, who had three hundred died during the poured into East Florida with
first winter. Soon after their ar- their Loyalist owners.
rival, some of the Greeks and
Italians broke into the storehouse, fatally wounded an Another Treaty
overseer, and were on the point A view from the Governor's window looking toward Matanzas Bay,
of sailing for Cuba when inter- Toward the end of the Revolucepted by an armed vessel sent about where the Bridge of Lions stands today. From a drawing in the British tionary War in 1779 Spain defrom St. Augustine to subdue archives made in 1 764. clared war on England in althem. The ringleaders were lat- liance with France. A Spanish er captured, brought to the cap- expedition captured Englishital, tried and three condemned At St. Augustine the refugees engagements vere shipped to held Mobile in 1780 and Pensato death. One was pardoned on were assigned lands north of the St. Augustine to be held until cola in 1781. Spanish spies were agreeing to act as executioner City Gate, where they built exchanged. In 1780 forty pro- active in St. Augustine, which for the other two. crude shelters and managed to minent American Patriots, cap- braced itself for an attack on for the other two. crude shelters and managed to tured at Charleston, .were East Florida that was planned eke out a living by fishing, hunt- brought here. They included but never carried out. suGovernor Grant, who fully ing, and gardening. Time three signers of the Declaration
to see his New Smyrna colony proved them a self-reliant, in- of Independence Edward Rut- Across the sea in Paris ministhrive, returned to England in dustrious people, who gradually edge, Arthur Middleton, and ters of England, France, and 1771. He was temporarily suc- attained more comfortable cir- Spain gathered again at the ceeded by Lieutenant-Governor cumstances. They and their des- The surrender of Cornwallis peace table, and another treaty21,
cendants became a distinctive at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, 1783, Governor T o n April 21,n a part of St. Augustine, and con- marked virtually the end of the nounced what had already' betinued to live in the city down conflict. The English evacuation come generally known, that FRANCE to the present day. of Savannah in 1782, followed England had ceded the Floridas by their withdrawal from Char- and Minorca back to Spain in During the Revolution leston, caused Loyalists to pour exchange for the retention of into East Florida and St. Au- Gibraltar and other territories. Soon after Tonyn became gov- gustine by the thousands. British subjects were given' ernor of East Florida reports Housing was inadequate. Many eighteen months in which to disSPAIN R, began to reach St. Augustine of of the unfortunate refugees pose of their property and evSPAIN AEk unrest in the English colonies to lived in mere huts of thatched S ISLANDS the north, followed by. news of palmetto leaves. Plays were gi- acuate Florida.
bloodshed at Lexington and ven in the statehouse for their SE" Bunker Hill. Tonyn suspected benefit. One of the newcomers This'trend of events was a some in East Florida of being set up a print shop and began crushing blow to East Florida's AFRICA in sympathy with the rebel cause, including his old enemies, Drayton and Turnbull.
Most of the inhabitants, howMap showing location of ever, had arrived too recently Minorca. from England or other loyal colonies to desire independence.
St. Augustine remained as faithful to its English rulers as it
Moultrie. In 1774 Patrick Tonyn, had been to its Spanish Kings.
an ardent and arbitrary Loyalist, arrived from England to In 1775 two detachments of take over the governorship of troops, comprising 160 men, East Florida. Serious friction were sent from St. Augustine to developed between these of- Williamsburg, Virginia, to supficials and a faction in East port hard-pressed Governor Florida that included Turnbull, Dunmore. During August of that Chief Justice Drayton, and year another incident brought others as to convening a repre- the war home. The British brisentative assembly, such as Vir- gantine Betsy lay off St. Auginia and other English colonies gustine's inlet with a cargo of in America enjoyed. The "in- gunpowder for the garrison. A flamed faction," as Tonyn rebel sloop from Charleston termed them, questioned the swooped down and captured it power of the governor and his within sight of people on shore.
Council to rule arbitrarily in the When the news of the signing of absence of an elected legislative the Declaration of Independence' body. They became bitter per- reached this East Florida capisonal and political rivals. tal, there was no rejoicing. Instead angry Loyalists gathered
In 1776 Chief Justice Drayton in the Plaza to cheer the burnand Turnbull sailed for London ing of strawstuffed dummies reto seek redress and answer presenting. Samuel Adams and
Tonyn's charges. During Turn- John Hancock.
bull's absence, the surviving
New Smyrna colonists, who now Expeditions left St. Augustine numbered barely 600 out of the to attack the "traitorous neigh1,400 who had left their Mediter- bors" in Georgia and Carolina.
ranean homes, secretly sent a They in turn organized forces to delegation to St. Augustine. invade East Florida. These reThey demanded release from suited in little m6re than border their contracts and reported skirmishes. The East Florida being cruelly treated by their Rangers, a militia organized by overseers. Assured of Governor Tonyn, plundered the frontier of Tonyn's sympathy and protec- cattle, from the sale of which
tion, all of the surviving col- the governor is said to have pro- i
onists-men, women, and chil- fited. As the war progressed an dren-later marched in a body increasing number of Loyalists up the King's Road to St. Au- fled from patriot wrath into
gustine. Turnbull returned from East Florida. His Excellency, Patrick Tonyn, Governor of East Florida for 10 years* London in the fall of 1777 to find from 1 774 to 1 784. From a portrait in the Division of Prints and Engrav
himself and his New Smyrna Some of the prisoners of war
colony ruined, taken by the British in various ings, British Museum.
The St. Augustine National Bank
Page Fourteen THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Wednesday Aftermoon, Sept. 8, 1965
numerous English residents, were loaded aboard ship for ed to St. Augustine from New were Catholics and spoke a lanMany had just recently moved transfer to another colony in the Smyrna in 1777, were not great- guage similar to Spanish. They to the province, purchased or Bahamas. ly disturbed by the impending supported themselves by fishbuilt new homes, and cleared The Minorcans, who had mov- change in sovereignty. They ing, hunting, and by cultivating land for cultivation. New towns small groves and gardens. Some had grown up, such as St. *lf i had become small shopkeepers.
Johns Bluff, which contained St. Augustine was their chosen
300 houses, two taverns, stores, home.
and even a lodge of Freemasons. Appeals were addressed to Many English still remained the British Crown to retain pos- when Governor Zespedes arsession of East Florida, but to -rived off St. Augustine with no avail. thirteen vessels to take over the province of East Florida for
A period of confusion and dis- Spain. The official transfer of
order followed. Lawless ele- 1 1 the government took place on ments, termed banditti, took ad- July 12, 1784. The Spanish flag vantage of the unsettled condi- was unfurled again over the tions to plunder plantations and capital to volleys from the travelers. The painful evacua-nd -- Spanish infantry and a fourtion of the English continued teen-gun salute from the artill through the year 1784 and the lery. "On the following day,"
spring of 1785. Many took the Governor Zespedes wrote, "we wilderness trails to the west, rendered dutiful and solemn adothers went to the Bahamas,
some returned to England, or oration to Christ the King, by
embarked for Nova Scotia, Ja- attending the Te Deum."
maica, Dominica and elsewhere. They took with them all A view of the Governor's residence in St. Augustine from a drawing The curtain fell on twenty
of their movable possessions. of English occupation,
Even the bells and pews of their made in 1764. The exterior architecture of St. Augustine's present post of years of English occupation, Even the bells and pews of their and a second period under church, and a crude fire engine fice is based largely on this picture. Spain began.
Spanish Rule Returns
When they reoccupied Florida post, heavily dependent upon lish and their slaves had clear- Philip Fatio, a Swiss, owned a in 1784, the Spaniards had outside sources for its supplies ed. Indians again roamed at large plantation on the St.
changed but little during their and financial support. will through the countryside. On Johns River in a section now twenty-year absence from the the heels of the departing Eng- known as Switzerland. He mainscene. With their re St. Agriculture was ish they burned Bella Vista, the stained a store 'and residence at gustine reverted to its former and brush soon covered the beautiful cntry estate of ieu- St. Augustine, and had other etenant-Governor Moultrie I- tensive land holdings. Among status as an isolated military plantation fields, which the Eng- cated a few miles south of St. the Minorcan group was Aughstine in the community Estevan Benet, one of whose now bearing his name. descendants was Stephen Viacent Benet, the noted writer.
The population of the capital,
which had overflowed into new Jesse Fish lived across the districts just before the English bay on what is now called Fisht', left, shrank to a fraction of its Island with his many slaves former size. Only a few score and famous orange grove, from English remained to take the re- which he shipped fruit and juice quired oath of allegiance to the to England. He was sent to St. Spanish Crown. A relatively Augustine as a youth by a tradsmall number of St. Augustine's ing firm during the first former Spanish residents, or Spanish period, won the confiFloridanos, uprooted in 1763, re- dence of the Spaniards, and returned from Cuba to claim their mained as custodian of some of former homes. The Minorcan their property through the Enggroup, including a few Greeks lish regime. The old patriarch and Italians, made up the major still occupied his coquina manportion of St. Augustine's civi- sion across the bay when the lian inhabitants. Spaniards returned.
Father Pedro Camps, Padre
Vacant houses stared blankly of the Minorcan group, followed along the narrow streets. Some them to St. Augustine from New with flat roofs and outside kit- Smyrna in 1777, and continued chens were relies of the first as their beloved spiritual leader Spanish period. Others had been until his death in 17980. Also proremodelled after the English minent in the city's religious taste with glass window panes, life was Father Michael 0' gabled roofs, and chimneys. St. Reilly, an Irish priest, who Peter's Church, in which the came with Governor Zespedes English had worshipped, re- in 1784 and remained active unmained unoccupied and soon be- til removed by death in 1812. come a ruin.
Life in St. Augustine followed
Although a Spanish posses- a distinctive pattern, due to its sion, St. Augustine acquired isolation and lack of frequent from time to time interesting communication w it h other residents of other nationalities. cities. It was Spanish in langJuan McQueen, a close friend uage, dress, customs, and for of George Washington, Thomas the most part in architecture Jefferson, and Lafayette, came and population. Some of its ofto the city in 1791 to escape em- ficials and planters owned barrassing debts, and held of- slaves, fine horses, and lived ficial positions under the Span- comfortably if not elaborately. ish regime until death closed his They enjoyed leisure time for colorful career in 1807. John gambling, cock fighting, and to Leslie, the famous English trad- lounge through the long sumer, also lived here after the Re- mers in a cool patio or at a volutionary War. The firm of congenial tavern. The populace Panton, Leslie and Company was characteristically lazy and
enjoyed a monopoly in trading did little more than necessary thC "" with the Indians of Florida, and to keep body and soul together.
supplied St. Augustine with As in other Spanish colonies, A page from Florida's first newspaper, the East Florida Gazette, pub- many of its needs on liberal cre- the siesta, or after dinner nap,
lised at St. Augustine February 1, 1783, to March 22. 1784. dit. was routine. During the midThese Two Pages Sponsored By
tWednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Page Fifteen
day heat streets were deserted of general relaxation, on the and nothing stirred as if under eve of the Carnival, which is the spell of an enchanter's celebrated with much gaiety in wand. all Catholic countries. Masks, dominoes, harlequins, punching~
One of the chief additions Ioes, and a variety of grotesmade to the city during its sec- que disguises, on horseback, in ccarts, gigs, and on foot paraded end Spanish perio was the con- ,%l -- -. the streets with guitars, violins, struction of a graceful new Par- -and other instruments; and in sh Church. The building was the evening the houses were begun in 1791, dedicated in 1797, opened to receive masks, and and later consecrated as a Ca- balls were given in all directhedral. Damaged by fire in 2-.---- tions.
1887, it was restored the follow- Ruins of the Fish mansion on Anastasia or Fish's Island, from
ing year with the addition of the a pencil sketch made by the Rev. Henry J. Morton in 1867. Ceded to the United States
present clock tower. The Spanlards also commenced a new After the War of 1812 there was still friction between SpanTreasury building, which was ish Florida and the United never completed due to lack of States. Bands of Indians and esfunds. Its mute wall remained caped slaves occupied choice standing until after the Civil lands of the Florida interior, War. fortified the navigable rivers, and made. occasional raids
across the border. The Spanish For a time the Spanish gov- garrison was not large enough
ernment offered grants of land to control lawless elements. In in East Florida on liberal terms 1817 Fernandina and Amelia to attract settlers. Hardy pio- Island were taken over by Macneers from the adjacent South Gregor, an English soldier of poured in, who secretly wanted fortune, later occupied by the to overthrow Spanish rule. pirate Autry, and became a den Fearing this influence, Spain of outlaws and smugglers. Uniclosed the territory to further ted States troops were sent to settlement by Americans in 1804. dislodge them and restore law and order. General Andrew
Jackson led an expedition into
The story of East Florida and north central and west Florida
Its capital from 1800 on is one in 1818 to punish the Indians, of ncr e a s i n g difficulties, and, after destroying th ei caused by the course of events and, after destroying t h ein in Europe and friction with c stFghola. ds, oupied Pensaneighboring southern states.
Spain's wealth and power were The unfinished Spanish Treasury on St. George Street, from a 'sketch England and Spain vehementrapidly declining. One after an-o
other her American colonies made in 187. Present Old Spanish Treasury, shown in the background, still ly protested these violations of
dence. In the southeastern Uni-s tands. for the purchase of Floridai ted States sentiment for the os- were reopened. During Febsession of Florida was fanned ruary of 1819 a treaty was conby Indian raids and the loss of provinces, s h o u I d England eluded whereby Spain finally.
slaves across the border, which threaten to seize them. ceded Florida to the United Spanish officials seemed to do A Bit of Spain States, which appropriated up little to control. President Madison appointed to five million dollars to pay the old General Matthews as his In a Narrative of a Voyage to claims of Americans arising In 1812, to assuage popular agent to East lorida. He was a the Spanish Main, published in from the recent depredations.
clamor the Spanish Cortes Revolutionary War veteran and 1819, an Englishman gives the Spain ratified the treaty in 1820.
placed wer termed, anRevolutionary War veteran and Ms teres w adopted a more liberal constitu- following description of St. Autidn and decreed that monu- a former governor of Georgia. gustine's residents during this On July 10, 1821, Colonel nents be erected to commemo- With promises of liberal grants period: Robert Butler and a small derate it. At St. Augustine a co- -of land, Matthews encouraged tachment of United States quina shaft was raised that still the planters along the northern "The women are deservedly troops received possession of graces its Plaza, but scarcely borders of East Florida to set celebrated for their charm, East Florida and Castillo de
had it been dedicated when the up an an independent republic, their lovely black eyes have a
constitution was revoked, and The plan was to then turn over vast deal of expression, their San Marcos from Jose Coppinthe monuments were ordered the territory it occupied to the complexions a clear brunette; ger, the last of the Spanish dismantled. Here only the tabs United States. After seizing Fer- much attention is paid to the governors. After the Spanish lets were removed and later re- nandina these Patriots, as they arrangement of their hair; at flag was lowered, leaving the placed. were termed, advanced on St. Mass they are always well stars and stripes flying over the Augustine with a small detach- dressed in black silk basquinas Spa in r ment of regular troops, oc- with the little mantilla over fortress, Spanish troops marchThe North Florida Republic cupied Fort Mosa on its north- their heads; the men in their ed out between lines of Ameriern outskirts, and called upon military costumes." can soldiers and they mutually When the war of 1812 broke the Spanish governor to sur- saluted. The Spaniards then
out between England and the render. He sent a gunboat up The same traveler later re- boarded *American transports United States, it was feared the river to dislodge them, but turned to St. Augustine by land, waiting to convey them to Cuba,
that England, then allied with they continued to camp in the and found the city in a gay
Spain, might seize the Floridas vicinity for several months. St. mood despite its difficulties, one of the few remaining posas a base for military opera- Augustine was cut off from sup- sessions of Spain's great colotions. The Congress authorized plies and the surrounding coun-ial empire in America.
President Madison to appoint try plundered by Indians and tI had arrived at the season
two agents, who were to en- outlaws.
deavor to secure the temporary
cession of East and West Flor- Loud Spanish and English ida to the United States. In the protests caused President Madievent this failed, steps were to son to recall his agents and rebe taken to forcibly occupy the pudiate their actions.
--- -._ __.___.._- . __ -L
Ruins of an unidentified building in St. Augus- The Cathedral before the fire of 1887. and addition of the present tine, which has since disappeared, as sketched by clock tower.
an 1867 visitor.
Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph Co.
\_ P_80Sixteen THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965
Under The United States
St. Augustine was at last a rus industry moved farther part of the United States. Most south and was not again reof its Spanish residents bid the vived on a commercial scale in narrow streets farewell. The St. Augustine or its immediate Minorcans, now firmly domi- vicinity. ciled here, made up the major
portion of the town's population.
Many by this time had risen to The Seminole War positions of influence in its affairs. The Seminole War followed closely on the heels of the disOfficials of the new regime
astrous freeze of 1835. Shortly
found St. Augustine a rather di- after New Year's day of 183 St. lapidated old town, devoid of Augustine learned of the masprogress and ambition. Due to sacre of Major Dade and his the poverty that had Imarked command of 110 men. T h s the closing years of the second were ambman s hed by Seminoles Spanish period, public and pri- were ambushed by Seminoles yvate buildings were badly run '. while enroute from Fort Brooke
down, some almost in ruins. (Tampa) to Fort King (Ocala).
On the same day, December 28,
Soon after the change of flags, 183a General Wiley Thompson, speculators a nd promoters the Indian agent at Fort King, flocked to the city, and were and another officer were killed. quartered in some of the de- Soon plantations in the vicinity serted houses. In the fall of 1821 of St. Augustine were attacked an epidemic of dreaded yellow and burned, and refugess ar fever carried off many of the rived with gory tales of Indian newcomers. A new cemetery atrocities. The February 27, was opened up near the City i ms 1836, issue of Niles Register earGate to receive the victims,ied the following item: few of whom may have been of
Huguenot descent. It became "The whole country south known as the Huguenot, or pro-. St .- h t st o tetntwn cemter ... St. Augustine has been laid tetnt cemetery. -. .. waste during the past week, and In spite of its unkempt condi not a building of any value left
tion, S. Augustine possessed ahoe remaining betwee a thi certain mellow charm. At times , city and Cape Florida, a disthe scent of orange blossoms tance of 250 miles.' hung heavy in the air and could t. Augustine's City Gateway has changed but little down through the benoticed by passing ships at When this occurred the origlsea. years. nal Indian tribes of Florida, encountered by the early SpanAlong the narrow streets lat- iards had completely disapticed gates led into cool co rt old city which the United States lahassee. St. Augustine began to peared. Some had been wiped yards and secluded gardens. had recently acquired. They prosper in a small way from its out during the long period of iThere was no industry or com- were chiefly invalids and tuber- increasing number of visitors border conflict with the English. merce to disturb the serenity of cular victims, for whom the and winter residents. Others had succumbed to epidethe scene. St. Augustine's shall mild winter climate was 6onsid- mics of disease. By the early low inlet, which preserved it ered beneficial. Ralph Waldo 1800's the principal Indians from its enemies, also pr Emerson, who was later to be- The Freese of IMs found in Florida were called vented it from becoming a place come the noted New England Seminoles, and were a combinof bustling trade. poet and philosopher, visted St. The growing of oranges was nation of several tribal remAugustine in 1827, at the agg of nants from Georgia and AlaVisitors Begin To Arrive 23, suffering from what he aama.
termed a "stricture of the gustine and its vicinity at this chest." During his ten weeks' time. Many of its residents de- Under United States rule the Although difficult to reach by stay he recorded ian his journal rived their principal income Seminoles were first restricted sea because of its treacherous and letters his impressions of from the sale of the golden to a more limited area by the bar, and by land over a road the city as he then saw it. fit, which was shipped Treaty of Moultrie in -18. But that was little more tha a fruit, which was shipped by as settlers continued to pour in, trail, a few adventurous tray- "St. Augustine is the oldest sloop to northern cities. The a demand arose for their comle began to visit this quaint i town was described by visitors plete removal from Florida to town of Europeans in North
America," he observed, "full of as being virtually bowered in reservations in the West, which ruins, chimneyless houses, lasy groves, and on each side of he the younger Seminole leaders V people, horse-keeping intolerab- Plaza were two rows of hand- were determined to resist. The ly dear, and bad milk from some orange trees, planted by effort to force their removal to swamp grass, as all their hay Governor Grant during the Eng- western reservations resulted in comes from the North." lish occupation. conflict that dragged on for seven years, from 1835 to 1842.
But it restored his health and During February of 1835 a bitlater he was inspired to con- ing cold of extended duration Officer after officer was sent ment: "The air and sky of this swept down out of the north- to Florida to take command of ancient, fortified, dilapidated west. At nearby Jacksonville operations against the Indians, sandbank of a town are de- the thermometer dropped to including General Winfield Scott licious. It is a queer place, eight degrees, and ice formed of subsequent Mexican War There are eleven or twelve hun- on the St. Johns River. St. Au- fame, and General Zachary dred people and these are in- gustine's beautiful o r a n g e Taylor, later to become Presivalids, public officials, and groves were killed to the dent of the United States. But Spaniards, or rather Minor- ground, sweeping away the roving band f'Seminoles concans." main source of livelihood for tinued to strik and vanish into many of its people. Only the the dense swamps and little bare trunks and branches re- known woodlands.
While here Emerson met an- mained, making the city look
other distinguished visitor of the bleak and desolate. In 1837 two prominent Semitime, Prince Napoleon Archille nole leaders, Oseeola and CoaMurat, son of the King of Na- Some of the trees sprouted coochee, with seventy of their ples, and nephew of the great from their damaged roots; warriors, were seized by Gen Napoleon. Murat came to Flor- others were planted, and in a eral Hernandez under orders ida in 1824, purchased an es- few decades St. Augustine's f r o m General Jesup at a tate south of St. Augustine. and orange groves were again the point a few miles south of St. Napoleon Achille Murat, one was a frequent visitor to the subject of admiring comment Augustine. The Indians had of St. Augustine's early city, living here for a time dur- on the part of visitors. But dur- come in under a white flag for visitors ing the Seminole War. He later ing the winter of 1894-95 another parley with United States ofsettled on a plantation near Tal- freeze destroyed them. The cit- ficers. The captives w e r e
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Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Page Seventeen
brought to St. Augustine and Union sentiment in the city due imprisoned in the Castillo, from to its number of northern-born
which Coacoochee and twenty residents.
companions managed to escape.
Osceola died soon after transfer Edmund Kirby Smith, who to Fort Moultrie, Charleston. had played in St. Augustine's streets as a boy, became one
During May of 1840 a party of of the leading Confederate Genactors enroute from Picolata to St. Augustine were attacked by Indians, and near the same point two St. Augustine residents were murdered.
"It is useless 'to complain,"
stated a news item of the day.
"The fact remains that we have
been pent up in this little city s
for the last four years and a /"
half by a few worthless outlaws.
Our friends and neighbors, one C,
after another, have been hastened to the mansions of the
dead, and he who is foolhardy 0
enough to venture beyond the gates may be the next victim."
But St. Augustine as usual
managed to be gay. A young "O
lieutenant, William Tecumseh
Sherman of later Civil War General Emdmund Kirby Smith
fame, was stationed at Picolata
and frequently rode into St. Au- Orals. His father came to the gustine for diversion. In one of city in 1822 as Judge of the his letters home he wrote under Superior Court and died here in date of February 15, 1842: 1846. His mother continued to occupy their home on what is
"The inhabitants (of St. Au- now Aviles Street. During Jangustine) still preserve the old ury of 1861 she wrote her son: ceremonies and festivities of "Our hearts are steeped in sadold Spain. Balls, masquerades, ness and anxiety. Forebodings etc., are celebrated during the of evil yet tocome depress us.
gay season of the Carnival (just We are threatened with the over,) and the most religious greatest calamity that can beobservance of Lent in public, fall a nation. Civil war stares us
whilst in private they can not in the face."
refrain from dancing and merry
making. Indeed, I never saw In the same letter she tells of anything like it-dancing, danc- Osceola, colorful leader of the Seminoles. From a portrait by George how the news of Florida's secesIng, .and nothing but dancing, Catlin, painted during the chief's imprisonment at Fort Moultrie, S. C. sion from the Union was rebut not such as you see in the ceived at St. Augustine: "Our North. Such ease and grace as state has seceded, and it was I never before beheld." announced here by the firing of Another visitor of 1843 was
Dr. Motte, a young military Henry B. Whipple, later a prosurgeon, made a similar obser- minent Episcopal Bishop. He nation in his journal: "The St. fod masquerading still a pop
Augustine I a d i e s certainly found masquerading still a ppdanced more gracefully, and ular pastime in the city. Maskkept better time, than any of ing began during the Christmas my fair country women I ever holidays and continued until saw in northern cities. It was Lent. Small groups of people really delightful to -see the dressed in various disguises beautiful Minorcan girls moving spent the evenings going from through their intricate waltz to house to house, acting out their
the music of violin and tam- parts and furnishing their own ....
bourine." music with guitar and violin.
Whipple wrote that St. AugusFinally most of the Seminoles tine was still full of old ruins, Travelers complained bitterly of the service on the Picolata
were killed or surrendered for and that "he liked to wander
transfer to reservations in the through the narrow streets and stage line, here shown bogged down en route to St. Augustine,
West. A few were allowed to re- gaze upon these monitors of
main deep in the Everglades. time, which whispered that the trom a sketch made in 1867.
There were probably less than hands that built them were long 5,000 Indians in Florida at the since mouldering in the grave."
outset, yet the war involved the
enlistment of 20,000 men, an es- In 1845 Florida became the timated cost of thirty million twenty-seventh state, admitted dollars, and 1,500 United States to the Union. Tallahassee had casualties. been selected as its territorial capital in 1824, being a comSt. Augustine somewhat re- promise between St. Augustine
luctantly saw the war come to and Pensacola, both of which an end. The presence of officers were difficult to reach from
and troops had enlivened its so- were difficult to reach from
cial life, and poured govern- most of the state.
ment funds into the city.
During the Civil War
A Peaceful Interlude
St. Augustine lived on, en-Q The end of the Seminole War livened during the winter by an ~ I~ .
made Florida safe again for influx of visitors, and drowsing
travelers. William Cullen Bry- undisturbed through the long E[
ant, the popular poet and summers until aroused by an-
author, paid St. Augustine a other conflict-the Civil War.
visit in 1843 and wrote articles
about the city that were widely Slaves played a relatively miread. He noted that gabled roofs nor role in its economy, as comwere rapidly replacing the flat pared with the rest of the state.
roofs of the first Spanish period, Although a few plantations in and that some "modern" wood- the immediate vicinity emen buildings had been construct- ployed slave labor, they were 'Ihe San Marco, St. Augustine's first great resort hotel, was opened in
ed. More than half the inhabi- chiefly used as domestic sertants still spoke the Minorcan, vants and were generally well I 5885, and burned to the ground in 1896.
or Mahonese language. treated. There was considerable
Diesel Engine Sales, Inc.
Page Eighteen- THE ST.; AUGUSTINE RECORD Wednesday Afternoon, Sept.' 8, 1965
cannon and musketry, and sumed. The city was still ex- did coquina wall, which might purchased the small railroads much shooting. A large flag ceptionally quaint and foreign have stood for another century, in the vicinity, improving their made by the ladies is waving on in appearance. having been torn down to make service and facilities as a the square. By order of the Gov- room for this ephemeral box." means of making the area ernor of this State, the Fort, A visitor of 1869 found the The same observer lamented easier to reach. This marked Barracks, and Federal property Florida House, one of the city's that because of these changes the beginning of the Florida were taken possession of. Can- three small hotels, crowded the city was losing some of its East Coast Railway, which he non are mounted on the ram- with guests and wrote: "The former charm: "The romance later extended down the coast, parts of the Fort to defend it number of strangers here great- of the place is gradually de- creating Palm Beach in 1894, if any attempt should be made ly exceeded our expectations, parting now. The merry proces- and launching Miami upon its to retake it." and thronged in every street sions of the Carnival, with career of magic growth in 1896.
and public place. The fashiona- mask, violin and guitar, are no Soon the shouting ceased and ble belle of Newport and Sara- longer kept up with the old
war became a stark reality with t o g a, the pale, thoughtful taste; the rotund Padri, the de- The Changing Scene
its heartaches, poverty, and clergyman of New England, licate form of the Spanish lady,
privation. Many young men from were at all points encountered." clad in mantilla and basquina Progress, like St. Augustine's St. Augustine went into the Con- are gone." former invaders, had little, resfederate armies. The majority The city badly needed better pect for the past. The old, and of its northern-born residents hotels and travel facilities. Visi- In 1883 the Jacksonville, St. storied inevitably gave way to returned to the North to live for tors then had to come up the Augustine and Halifax River the new and so-called modern.
the duration of the war. The St. Johns River by steamer to Railway was completed, linking Old houses and remaining secflow of visitors to the city Picolata, and from there a the city with South Jacksonville. tions of the defense lines were ceased. horse-drawn stage jolted them A mammoth four-story wooden torn down to make r o o m for eighteen miles over a mis- hotel, the San Marco, arose on for new buildings of the prevailDuring March of 1862 aUnion erable road to the San Sebas- a site just west of the Castillo. ing period, and the changes
blockading squadron 1862 a ioppeared tian River, where a flatboat The tide of tourists swelled, were hailed as a great improveoff the inlet, and an officer ferried the carriage acoss the Souvenir shops, museums, and ment.
came ashore with a white flag river to the city's outskirts. showplaces sprang up.
to demand the city's surrender. By 1871 travelers could go up Even before this took place to demand the city's surrender the St. Johns River by steamer many of the old landmarks had fedeurinrathe night arrits smallonwithdrew to Tocoi Landing, and there The Flagler Influence disappeared. When building maNext morning St. Augustine was take a mule-drawn car over a terial was needed, St. Augusoccupied by Union forces and crude railroad that ran fifteen Among St. Augustine's many tine's residents of former peroccupied by them during the re- and miles east through the wilder- visitors during the winter of iods used the stone from some maid fby them durnflict. Bthe re ness to St. Augustine. It was 1883-84 was Henry M. Flagler, old dilapidated structure. It was mainder o co ore called the St. Johns Railway one of the co-founders of the much easier than cutting' and the Federal troops landed the and a few years later installed Standard Oil Company. Imense- transporting new blocks of cowomen of the city cut down the two wood-burning locomotives. quina from the Anastasia Island
flag pole in the Plaza so that
the Union standard could not be quarries.
raised where their Confederate Its Isolation Broken
banner had waved. Fires also took their toll. The Thebonds of isolation and in- settlement w a s completely The bonds of isolation and in- burned by the Carolinians under Tourist Industry Resumed accessibility, which had re- Moore in 1702. In 1887 flames tarded St. Augustine's growth swept the Cathedral and porWhen the Civil War came to yet preserved its Old World tions of the block north of the
an end in 1865, St. Augustine character, were gradually being Plaza. Again in 191ou a difstwas three centuries old. As the removed. Some signs of this rbuils fire wiped out many of the awakening w e r e apparent. buildings in the older section o effects of the war and the re- "Hammers are ringing on the the city between the City Gate
construction period wore away, walls of a new hotel," a visitor and the Plaza.
the entertainment of winter re- noted, "in which northern toursidents and visitors was re- ists are to be lodged, a splen- In spite of the many changes made in its physical appearance down through the centuries, many evidences of St.
Augustine's historic past have
,I, 'managed to survive. Massive ', /- Castillo de San Marcos still Sfrowns upon the bay, as it did l Henry Morrison Flagler pio- two centuries and a half ago. nered in the resort devlo- The City Gateway remains as neered in the resortevelo a mute reminder of the capital's Sent of St. Augustine and former defenses. The narrow streets of the original town have
the Florida East Coast. defied complete alteration, and
ly wealthy, he came to rest but
was impressed with St. Augustine's charm and possibilites.
Many well-to-do families were
then wintering on the southern
shores of France and Italy, a
section known as the Riviera. -1
Flagler believed they could be
induced to come to Florida if
proper facilities were provided
for them. He decided to invest
in the construction of luxurious
hotels at St. Augustine that
would make the Florida coast
an "American Riviera."
His first hotel, the Ponce de
Leon was begun in 1885. Two K
others, the Alcazar and Casa
Monica (later renamed Cordova), were soon underway
nearby. These and other Flag- Entrance to Ponce De Leon; ler financed structures were
massively built of solid concrete
in a style of architecture adapted from palaces in Spain.
The magnificent Ponce de l
Leon opened on January 10,
/4c ~. v1888, the Alcazar and Cordova
soon afterward. Wealth and
fashion flocked to St. Augustine,
which became termed the
"Southern Newport." Sailboats
dotted the bay and fine carCharlotte Street, north of the Plaza, was picturesque before the fire of riages dashed about the streets.
When Flagler began the con|1914 destroyed many of its old buildings. struction of his hotels, he also
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Wednesday Afternoon, Sept. 8, 1965 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD Page Nineteeni
can Monastery, from which the
still reflect their Old World ori- heroic Friars went forth to *
gin and character. Christianize the Florida Indians. 1 Across from it the Oldest d The ancient Plaza, with its re- House, owned by the St. Augusfreshing shade, is possibly more tine Historical Society, prebeautiful now than when worn serves some of the Spanish atby the tread of parading gar- mosphere of former periods. Its risons. Here also stood the resi- connecting museum and library dence of a long line of Spanish contain many relics and records
and English governors. Facing of the past.
the Plaza on the north the Cathedral looks down in simple The Old Spanish Treasury on dignity, its clock and sundial St. George Street was once the marking the infinite procession residence of the Royal Treasof hours, days and years. urer, from which Treasury Street also derives its name.
North of the City Gateway the
The city's long period under Fountain of Youth perpetuates
Spain is reflected in some of its the memory of Ponce de Leon's
architecture, In many of its discovery of Florida and his l
street names, and in the gen- search for youth-restoring eral plan of the older section, waters. Occupying high ground which was laid out as specified nearby is the Mission of Nomby the Spanish King. The name bre de Dies, the landing place St. George Street, honoring of Menendez, the hallowed spot England's patron Saint, is a leg- where the first Parish Mass was
acy from the English period, as celebrated.
is also Charlotte Street, named
for the queen of George III. Few who visit St. Augustine can fail to feel the romantic
At the south end of the origi- spell of its antiquity. The memnal settlement the State Arsenal ory of its eventful past still As in all towns of Spanish colonial origin, a occupies the site of the Francis- haunts its sandy shore. stately Cathedral looks down upon an ancient Plaza.
City of o ench mit through your "gates
I ste uIto a stilness strange as sleep Ta indh s wit han u a dreia.i a sleepei brain.
fooblep echoes against barred qraqt stones Where tures bohtu nolmnui leg moved.
Hnv4e i te hs bom-s
Wnien a this sunny landi was Indin groud*
~-' The echo .o cn nor stir, Sslan of him w nd our waters
o_ niqhttie dfea .i in s co If vL4 rer
Of Spain.anrld ii.au an s
Nor c the I t w echo mr the deep
eex Eectronics A Div hs ision Of Halleburton
No rir ai t ire attlm.rr andi mar Of monks, brotherrs of him who r dihe i. The holy wall they xift shurds unb
Sif ufaen, you whose ga mad Slra
On the new tourng America go n burm.
who thi roa17
de ~~~,n m~J td~~~~
UADRICENTENNIAL GUIDE TO HISTORICAL ST. AUGUSTINE
PONCE DELEo556OL5VAU b W U~tflt- - 0M-~N OrOE OU-- --E7A- -
i --- -- -i__ 0d .
-~, C.K'i- -n
Ic- / .,.. l 4 :.: ~ .. rL ,,. ;~
SOTH -x d Aroend the Spenish toeonel
H mch ched, the NORTH CASLE AND CITY
( - ldSpnshchurch ... the- RESTORATION AREA G AE
Here, on SI. Fttcis St., is St. dent; the "churde ens but int tSnAuef niua 1696, the Spanineds no St. MISSION AREA
Angustine's Oldest Monte, es- 1797, reteedeled in the 1880's ted agoin in (Se Aogo ntge) Angtimne completed this mrg- X. .. The sttry of this famous tity
'P. loontlly recognized historic 1965. Opposite is the irst Ptotesttnt Epitscat %.. behind the City Gate is the ificent fortrs, the" Conlili de hbegins tt the lovely Mi'nino of
dealing dstiog from Spsnish Chueds (1524) sod nearly the esely Amteticon l~h Colle Rent (Royal treet), re- $ Svon t. It is nw s Nation- l d-Nomtfre de 'Diet (Namre ef
oloilt dtys. Secluded pstio Pnbic Marehe. \, ,,ostnaed hy thefBitith, St. Getoge slMontment. ~. .:pjGod). Here Doe Pedro Meand gsrdenoenhtnceits Old Worldttssrst,saw At theecer ooquaint Acidestrteet is the \ NO,9Steet. Third stteeteu nation's The towering wtlls, op to 12 feel thich, 'r onedet sod his prieststand setsdjtining enuseonts pocrtay St. Augtstine's rich Tonee House, reconstencted for s Fioride N8,"7 fitst, rnse the length ofl the city. were constencted froen s estive sheltench called tienrseaded en Septemher e, 1565, to hegis history though four cenors. State Exhihit Ceoter. Ailies Street is lined The ates is now the center ef n enassice coquina (ho-KEE-na), red secoessfelly with- the settlement of It. Angottine. Here the lirst
Ftcing the set wrlt, tetrby, on the site of with colonial hoese, incledieg the dirtin- Stnte .sponsored proggram to restote the old stooderaids hy pirates, tndiast and Englishen, Mss wtt eltered, and th~e inst enission erected
the 16th tenttury rencisen Contest, is the gtished Jirdner-Fatio House.f Spsnish coloniat city. Existing old houses have end twe fell-sette Eglish sieges, it 1702 nd to the North Amnerictn Inditer.
Florida St'tte Arsenal, To the west is he West of the Pleen see three gteet hetelt hee restored, others hsve hee esenstencted 1740. To ohserve the Minsion's 400th AnnicressFeensndes-Llnehies Hoese, restored sod for- heilt hy Henry 00. Fleglee, enmouments to the en their original foundationr. The itmprestice, The castle's hatteenents end couttyerd stilt ep, a 200-foot: high Crens the tallest Cross wished ens a erin to Minerenn colonists. 'Gty Nineties": th~e Ponce de Leon is still s per Spanish Cent Ilihee presents asuhstan- echo the edeent no there gallant ties. Sn in the western hemisphere is cow heiog Amng the severet reonstructed Spsntsh hotel; the .Aletne! hoses n Motse ci tilemansion, s compcted toehe simplehone also dothe CityGtend theecnstncted seo raised. The Cress wilt marh the place where houses in chit ten is the Ateotnder-ODo- Hobhies, oft e wcknhee entrs the etneet; Cs Gellegos. tion of the Tewe Well, heth of which ste adja- Christianity ets litst peesanently pleated is an House en Chsrltee Street, which hoses Esst terets the tdidge of Liens teord the Typict halconied houses earth sothncard nent to the Castle. The. picturesque getewny was 000 tend. A Veive Chnrch sod Resesrch Lbthe city's histerictl lihrtry end srchices. Stencahes is the St. Augnstine Aephithestte, in ten hlochs to the Mari-Hsesett Heuse (cor. heilt in 100. The wsll, sensaed pelisede, was hrtrysreetLuteingbslt.
The Oldert Noose seed Mesres tee til. Whieh highly (015 P.M.) except Friday don' strected ns a Pen Amnerioan Center in ceopere. hegun in 1754. There is no tharge to see these stred sod
"ninisteted hy, the St. Aegustine Historienl to- ing the suemmer s professional cast performt lien wcilh the Orgouizntio of Amnerican Sta~rt), Ademnirtered hy the Netine Parh terelee. histric geonds. Admiistered hy the Cttholic ciery. A nemisel edeisina is skhed. Opsi Pent Greeo's denesic stoty ef she City's he- end, teens aneHityanic Gatden, thoenailin of A neominel adeissin cheege is eshed, Open Chinch. Offerings see septsd. Open daily
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