The Ancient City [insert]


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The Ancient City insert
Series Title:
Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board Newspaper Collection
Uniform Title:
St. Augustine Record, Mid-Summer Mail-Away Edition
Physical Description:
Newspaper ( donor )
The St. Augustine Record


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Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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Historical .Sketch

By NimA HAwKmS

St. Augustine, the Oldest City! On such dramatic incidents is the early history of St. Augus.
This city of Spanish origin, founded in 1565 by Pedro Menen- tine built.
des de Aviles, is the oldest permanent white settlement in what The city is on the site of the Indian village of Seloy, so the is now the United States of America. story of locale runs back to the days of the Redmen, when they
The history of this section, so far as the white man is con- wandered free throughout this area to fish and hunt, and carry
corned, however, runs further back, to 1513, for it was on these out their strange customs, some of which have been made a matter shores that Juan Ponce de Leon landed while seeking for the of record through the prints of the French artist LeMoyne. These Fountain of Youth, are a part of the interesting study of the history of St. Augustine.
Name origins are of the greatest interest while considering Indian, Spayish, French, English; then Spanish again for
St. Augustine and Florida. the second occupation, left their imprint. Finally, with the trans.
Ponce de Leon, on the momentous voyage that was to reveal for of Spain to the United States of America, in 1821, came the
this fair land to his eager eyes, sighted land on March 27, in that Change of Flags, and the Americans.
year of 1513, the date falling during Pascua Florida, for which -The cross currents of the world were felt in this little fortified the translations of "Flowery Easter" and "Feast of the Flowers" settlement on the Atlantic seaboard. Shattering world events in
are given. The time of year and the appearance ofi the fair Europe had their reflex here.
green land are supposed to have inspired the commander to call St. Augustine is 374 years old. She has felt the clash of many
his discovery Florida, the Land of Flowers. countries, many nationalities.
As for St. Augustine, itself, it derives its name from the faet Authentic historical material concerning St. Augustine is in S that it was on August 28th, the Feast Day of Saint Augustine, the great libraries of the world. The archives at Seville, Spain;
in 1565, that Pedro Menendes first saw the site where a few days libraries in London and Paris, are full of priceless records. Much later he was to plant the banner of Spain, and watch the priests research work has been done in order to reconstruct the story of in his party solemnize the first mass on these shores. The actual St. Augustine, but they tell us the surface has just been'scratched.
ceremony was on September 8th. Historically St. Augustine is the nation's treasure.
A half century had elapsed from the time of Ponce de Leon's Pictorially the city is unique for its narrow streets, old al-..
doiery. Spain had paid little or no attention to this part of conied houses, charming gardens, coquina walls, and beautiful Sthe New World. The advent of the French under Laudonniere modern buildings, many of which bear the foreign imprint, show-.
in 1564 precipitated a conflict between Spain and France for ing the Spanish influence particularly.
control of the Florida coast. Menendez, as the foremost admiral Through the leadership of Mayor Walter B. Fraser and others of Spain, was named to protect 'the rights of that country, and in the community, the Restoration and Preservation Program is this he did with the energy and resourcefulness which had won developing, and promises much for the future. Carnegie Institation of, Washington,.D. C., is cooperating., Through this, wide.
him the favor of his sovereign through a distinguished career. tion of Washington, D. C., is cooperating. Through this wide.
Luck was with him, and when a hurricane arose, the French flung program, and the research work that precedes it, St. Augue.
ships, which stood off the harbor of St. Augustine, tacked seaward tine as the Oldest City stands forth in the eyes of the nation.
to prevent being blown ashore. Menendes hastened to Fort The city is one to know, to love, to enjoy. One may just loo1 and like it. Or one may study, going far below the'surface
Caroline to wipe out the French while they were weakened by and like it. Or one may study, going far below the surface, and drinking deeply of the joy that comes from delving into a
the absence of their ships. After achieving, this victory, he suc- romantic and colorful past.
romantic and-,colorful past.
eessfully disposed of the army of shipwrecked Frenchmen some Come to St Augustine, and learn to know the city in your
miles south of St. Augustine, at what is known as Matansas, the own way !
Spanish word for bloody ground, or place of slaughter. The City Gates stand open wide .

The St ,Augustine Record is sincerely appreciative of the fine support given this peciol Mail-Away Edition, and would like to point out to its readers that It was made possible by fine c6op-eration, evidenced through Liberal advertising and contributions of local business Institutions and civic organkations.


-Photo by' Victor Rahae
Old City G.~ aes


.4 -O THE Gates of St. Au- the gates against the walls and cannon the city council on various occasions, was gustme" was the goal, of mounted for instant use. concerned with repairs of the stone work would-be conquerors of and the Gate and bridge. On Jmie 1, 1831, this Spanish stronghold for hundreds of In 1812 the President of the United in the City Council an appointment was years. Now they stand mute tribute to the States permitted troops to try to take St. made of someone to "attend to unlocking
skill of the builders that defied their be. Augustine after a republic had been estab- and Closing the Gates."
siegers. lished in Fernandina on Amelia Island.
The troops encamped at Fort Moze and The City Council had a disagreement
While neither the time the, city first had the soldiers frequently scouted down to the with the ollcer in charge of the Fort as to
its gates is determined, nor the actual'year Gates, all in vain.. The Spaniards remained what repairs te city must make before the in which the hinged leaves finally vanished safe behind the Gates until the President officer would repair the towers of the Gates.
from between the protecting pillars of ordered the U. S. soldiers to give up the There are still accounts handed down of coquma now standing, there is in the Webb attempt to take the City. picnic parties that arrived after the sunset S" Memorial Library an Index to Cedulas in Theseates'are referred to on a map of gun had been fired and the gates closed
which in 1708 one entry says "That the Gov- 1737 as the "Gate to La Leche." Later maps when the hard-hearted commander allow
rnriinomdHsMajesty has approved 13 ste"aet aLce"Ltrmp
e 'pa is informed which he has madefor te use the same designation. At times they ed the women and children to come into thewere referred to as "Puerta d Tierra" or the city, but the men had to remain out.
better defense of this Garrison." Surey the the Land Gate side.
Governor must have provided a protected No record shows any continuation of the entrance to this palisade that the King .ap Famous writers, who came by way of the stone work beyond the gates farther than proved for the city's defense. St. Johns and across land from Picolata to it is shown now. Beyond the stone work the San Sebastian by stage, there, taking was a stockade for a short distance with In 1720 an attempt was made to attack ferry and again a coach, describe their ar- earth banked against the inside and beyond
St. Augustine from the North, from Geor- rival at the Gates of the city as if it was an the stockade was the wall of earth. But all
gia. It is written they came even to the event 'of more than passing interest, the way, and under the bridge at the Gates
Gates, but the Spaniards refused to come flowed the tide waters.
out. One writer even mentions a drawbridge
that had to be lowered for his entrance The Gates of St. Augustine that opened In 1740 Oglethorpe's soldiers came even after the governor had sent word that he and shut are remembered by only one perto the Gates of the City, not once, but sev- be admitted, when he had arrived after son, Mrs. Jane Manucy, whose father, eraI times. hours for closing the Gate. There are no Gasper Masters, lived at the Gates on the plans showing a drawbridge operation, west side of the street. Mrs. Manucy re. There in a picture of British times with calls as a small child seeing wooden gates
soldiers on the platforms erected south of After the United States acquired Florida, just hanging by the old hinges.



Fort Marion National Monument


By ROGERS W. YOUNG Pedro Menendes with a force to drive out England held Florida for two decades, these "French heretics" and as Menendes including the critical years of the Ameri. National Park Service first saw Florida on August 28, Saint Au. can Revolution. When Charleston, South gustine Day, the settlement he founded was Carolina, fell into British hands, the pris. named Saint Augustine. oners, among them three signers of the F ORT MARION was de Declaration of Independence Edward
cared a national monu- Hostilities between the French and Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, and Arthur ment by Presidential Spanish soon began but the Spanish were Middleton-were taken to Saint Augustine. Proclamation of October 15, 1924. This eventually victorious. The French fort The prisoners were ultimately released, old Spanish fort, originally constructed to was taken and most of the shipwrecked and Florida returned to Spain in 1783. protect Saint Augustine, has recently be. Frenchmen at Matanzas Inlet were slain.
come a part of the extensive system of na The old problem of runaway slaves and
tional historic sites preserved and aninis. The French Huguenots had been driven Indians that had caused friction between tred by the National Park Service. Built out, but a stronger rival arose-England. Spain and England continued. These of coquina, thea natiolve material of sea she lls Preying on the West Indies and Florida, marauders made a practice of robbing which Nature has cemented together, this English buccaneers caused endless trou- Georgia plantation owners, who found it fort in its ub-tropical climate has with- ble. In 1586, Sir Francis Drake burned necessary to cross the Spanish border to stood for generations the effects of wind Saint Augustine and its partially complet- run them down. To end these difficulties, and weather. ed wooden fort. negotiations were undertaken for the pur.
In 1607, the -English founded James- chase of Florida and were consummated Fort Marion, the oldest fort extant in the town and soon began to make settlements in 1821.
United States, was started in 1672 by the both to the north and south of it. Spain, Under the American regime, trouble Spanish to protect Saint Augustine, the with its small garrison in Florida, needed with Indians increased. The Second Semfirt permanent white settlement in this a stronger fort if she wanted to hold this inole Indian War broke out in 1835, dur. country. It guarded the north inlet of the territory. Two events forced her hand. In ing which Fort Marion was used as a prisMatanzas River. A synmetrically shaped, 1668, John Davis, an English freebooter, on. The most famous of its prisoners was four-sided structure, it is constructed in the sacked and plundered Saint Augustine, and Osceola, the Seminole Indian leader. fashion developed by Vauban, the great in 1670, Charleston, South Carolina, 200 French military engineer. Surrounded by miles from Saint Augustine, was founded. Fort Marion has lost its usefulness for a moat 40 feet wide, its only entrance is As a result of the growing British menace, military purposes, but not its charm for across a drawbridge. The great walls are the present stone fort, Castle San Marcos the visitor. The secret dungeon, Osceola's from nine to twelve feet thick. Beautifully (Fort Marion) was started, cell, the council room, and the chapel are arched casemates and interesting cornices always interesting. The castle stands proudtestify to the good taste and creative When General James Oglethorpe found- ly on the banks of the Matanzas River and imagination of the Spanish builders. The ed Georgia in 1733, rivalry between the shows almost no signs of decay. From its fort contains a council chamber, dungeons, Spanish and English became even more thick walls can be seen the narrow streets living quarters for the garrison, store acute. Troubles arose on land and sea. of Saint Augustine, the old city gates, now rooms, a chapel, and a room of justice. Spain, expecting war, built Fort Matanzas a part of the monument, and the quaint Nearly all the rooms face on a court, about and strengthened Fort Marion. Spanish buildings which it has protected 100 feet square. In 1740, General Oglethorpe attacked in the past.
This fort was constructed because of in- Saint Augustine. For 27 days, during the Fort Marion is readily accessible on U. S. tornational rivalry over Florida. Spain heat of summer, more than a thousand Highway No. 1, in the heart of Saint Au. laid claim to this area through the dis- souls were huddled in the 100-foot square' gustine. The guided tour of Fort Marion eoveries of Ponce de Leon (1513), the ro- court of Fort Marion. The English be- includes an inspection of the most interest. antic adventurer in quest of the fountain came disheartened and gave up the siege, ing historic rooms and a brief talk on the of youth. After his early visit, French but they finally secured Florida from the history of the area, concluded by a histor Huguenots built a fort on the Saint Johns Spanish in 1763 at the close of the Seven cal slide lecture. A small fee is charged River, in Florida, in 1564. Spain sent Years' War, for all adults entering Fort Marion.


-Photo by Victor Rahas

Oldest House

COMPILED By Mis. E. W. LAwsow

two hundred years this is the only one in Governor Gonzalo Mendez de Canso wrote which mention is made of any residence. the King in Spain that he had been testing OUR FLAGS flying above During British occupation o Florid the use of stone and results were so satisfao the entrance to the Old (17631784) this property went to Joseph tory he wantedto make a fort of stone. On est House at No. 14St. Peavet. When he died his 57-year-old his arrival the June prevholdus he at once had Francis Street refer to two Spanish oc- widow married a 28-year-old Irishman, made a place of stane to hold the powder li s Street refer to two Spanish c- widow married a 28-year-old Irishman, which previously had been kept in wood. eupations of St. Augustine, to one British, John Hudson. After Maria Evans Peavett to a Confederate regime, and to that of and John Hudson the house became prop. In 1599 Governor Ganzalo Mendes de the United Stites.
erty of a young Spaniard from Asturias, Canso wrote the King that the Franciscan Maps and documents displayed carry Geronimo Alvarez, who had come among Convent and some houses having burned, the house back into the First Spanish oc- the earliest Spanish arrivals for the See- the Friars had taken refuge in the hospital cupation. Its records show it was deeded ond Spanish occupation. The Alvarez maintained* by a cofradia. Previously he to Jesse Fish in 1763 by Tomas Gonzalez name, is frequently 'found connected by had written that when he arrived in June, Hernandez. Photostats of the Oldest Rec-. alliances with the Menendes branch of the 1597, he found a hospital under construeords in America, north of Mexico, are in great Adelantado's family. tion, the first in this country. Through the St. Augustine Historical Society Li. It was after the house passed out of pose generations it has been handed down that brary files. This Society owns this Old- session of Geronimo Alvarez' descendants it was on this location the friars found eat House in the Oldest City in the United that radical alterations were made in its refuge while their monastery was being States. In these Oldest Records has now
States. In the Oldet Reords hTomas Gno appearance. Straight simple lined door. rebuilt. an found the mainag e of Tomais on- ways were replaced with arched door e Hernande in1723; thee of his frames The woden hutters, heavily Floors of the old house are nearly two daughters' marriages, a second marriage hinged also disappeared. Gradually the feet thick and other indications of ancient' of one of them and also a marriage of a entrance way was enclosed to form a hall. construction are constantly appearing as daughter of the mother of Hernandez by necessary repairs are carried out. a third marriage. Now there has been Recent engineering surveys determine traced and translated among the Burials that north walls were extended and an Adjoining the Oldest House the Histor.ithe sepulture of an infant son of Tomas addition was made at the west end. While cal Society maintains a very valuable iGonalez Hernandez "who lives next (or piercing into the thick walls, wood frame brary for researeh free of any charge, its adjoining) the Franciscan Convent." This work was reached which was filled in with books, maps and manuscripts odstituting is in 1727. Most remarkable is this entry stone and mortar. This is one of the earl- a collection relating to Florida and espethat carried Hernandez' occupancy back iest known types of house construction cially to St. Augustine, that has no equal as that year, for in all the interment in here in which stone was used. In 1598 in the South.

Af, ~


-Photo ba Victor Rahnur

Prince Murat House



RACEFUL in every line is not likely apassing visitor would have ment being applied to a former Spanish and proportion, the stone been accepted on such a bond. Also, he Province. Once there he remained to make ri a cottage at the corner of purchased property on Moses Creek, large it his home until his death, his residence Bridge and St. George Streets, known as enough so that he could create such a land. being interrupted by.a number of trips dhe Prince Murat flouse, is striking evi- ed estate as he later developed at Talla- abroad. He was quite a prolifie writer, dence of the peculiar manner in which the hassee. This Moses Creek property was snappy m his descriptions of Florida inpersonality of a notable individual in brief named Portenope, why is not known. For stitutions, and broad minded in his studies
contact with a structure can thrust into some years it has been the property of the of the government of this new world.
distant background all memories of the Montgomery Sisters of this city. The sedate old-world atmosphere of thi
owner of the house. Sometimes it is thought Murat may have house, to which Murat's name is given, has
Prince Napoleon Achille Murat was son built the cottage while here, but in the been carefully maintained by its present
ed Joachim Murat, king of Naples, and in famous William Stork map made by Jef. owner, Miss Helen Meeker. She has been
Sbore thetitle of Prince of the freys and dated 1769, there is a stone house able to combine its historic features very youth bor e marks the age already at the corner. This map is con- skillfully with modern life, so that a visit
wo Sicilies. is name marks the cottage sidered authoritative for the period, al- to the Murat Coffee House is a noteworthy But it belonged in the' Canova family. Dur. though no list of house owners has been event and visitors find all their expectag the second Spanish occupation, Canovas found to identify structures. tions fully realized by their surroundings.
were property owners in the city. Later
they had several houses beside this athe Murat was a young bachelor when he This house is one of the small group in Sthe came to St. Augustine. If the little house, the city that has, been distinguished by reBridge. Street corner and remained in the
iborhooe until long a r theWar Be- was half as distinctive as now, the young ceiving recognition through the Departneighborhood until long after the War Be-er ment of the Interior, Office of National tweenenjoyable under the CanovaParks, Buildings and Reservations, Jacke enjoyable under the Canova roof. Hewas sonville Office, in a certificate signed by the It was in Washington in the winter of witty, entertaining and particularly inter-, Secretary ofth erior. It stae the
1823-24 that Murat met General Call, who ested in the Republican form of govern Prince Mlurat House has been selected by persuaded him to come to Florida. St. Au- ment. As St. Augustine had been the seat the advisory committee of the Historic gustine was his first destination. That he of government for Florida it had been ex- American Buildings Survey as possessing intended to remain in the city is borne out ~pected it would remain so for East Florida. exceptional historic or architectural interby a record in the city council minutes in i But Tallahassee was chosen, and Murat est and as being worthy of most careful which he is noted as being surety with one was not slow in deciding that was where he preservation. A copy of its record is deof the Ormond men for the city treasurer. could best study this free form of govern- posited in the Library of Congress.
'4 :f:


-Photo by Victor Rahaer

Don Toledo House



B ELOVED of artists is the as the piano once belonging to the Bern. In the de la Puente map, made for the
old Don Toledo House in ardo Segui family which owned the old King of Spain, when his rule in St. Angusthe street where was once part of the building now housing the tine was ending in 1763, the owner of a located the Royal Hospital that gave its Public Library in the block beyond the house of ripio (a form of stone construcname to the narrow way. Now its name, Don Toledo. tion) here was a senora of the del Pueye Aviles, commemorates th birthplace of family, Dona Teresa, and what became of the founder of the city, the Adelantado The coquina walls and floors of the house her does not show in records, as is true of so Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Southward make an admirable background for the many prominent people of that time. Othfrom the Plaza, past the' house of Father many old tables, chairs and several rare ers of the family were owners of houses O'Reilly, and the high convent wall is the chests. Not least interesting is the four close by Dona Teresa's at the same time. It balconied house to which the name Don poster bed that once belonged to the first is interesting to note this definitely links Toledo is attached. ancestor of the Masters family who found the property with the first Spanish occupahis way to St. Augustine. His descendant, tion.
The house itself is well worth a visit and Captain John Masters, was a well known A secret little hiding place. in the close study, for it indicates dn early type citizen and a famous Indian fighter in the chimney of the kitchen from which several of construction after the beginning of the Seminole War. gold doubloons have been taken, adds to use of coquina. In early times there were the romance of the house. There are many no windows or doors on the north side .of Visitors to the house delight to hear the characteristic features of old St. Augustine the house and the main entrance was di- tradition of the Indian bride for whom a construction to be noticed. The patio and rectly from the street. Spaniard was said to have built the house, garden give added harmony to the whole When the displeasure roused by such a picture. Not a little interest is added to Within the house on every side the vis- marriage became more than he could stand the house by the custodian, who is a itor meets, relies of old St. Augustine. he finally went back to Spain. But the descendant of two old families of the city, Sometimes it is a piece of furniture from Indian girl was left behind to pine herself while the house is owned by the Sisters one of the older families of the city, such away for her Spanish lover. of St. Joseph of the nearby Convent.




-Photo by Victor Raber

Old Spanish Treasury Building.


SComnED BT R. E. W. LAwse

Before the Spaniards left in 1821, and many visitors who spend hours studying T E Old Spanish Tress. the United States took Florida, the aged the display.
ury Building, located at condition of the building resulted in the Out of te old strong room into sunlit the southeast corner of St. Spaniards beginning erection of a new arden is but a There on fairish day George and Treasury Streets, was be- Treasury. When they departed, they left visitors linger about tea tabje where the queathed to the City of St. Augustine by standing the front wall on the northeast Exchane serves the various fod o Miss Anna G. Burt, and is in charge of the corner opposite the present Spanish Tre which it he aquired special rp nation.
Woman's Exchange. ury. It remained until after 1870, the hand. Or, if preferred, there is the cheerful old smtlish Omest piece of stone work of which any dining room. There, about the same anti.
tace has been found in St. Augustine. t around which Miss Anna Burt, the Treasury of the Kings of Spain early t, in the First Spanish occupation. As early When Dr. Seth Peck of Connecticut and her ancestors entertained notables of as 1687 its repair was urged because of its bought the old house in 1832, it was de. the mid 19th century, groups gather. Surely condition, and on December 30, 1689, the seribed as a "lot of land with the dilapi. the spirit ofhopitality, traditional with
King of Spain ordered it rebuilt, the lower dated building---eame formerly ueed as a the Old South, hovers here.
tory of rock and the upper of wood. Dnur Spanish Treasury." Architectural features of the old Spanish ing the two years of correspondence, the Under care of members of the Woman's Treasury have gained approval from re.
S tUnder care o meters o the Womans
location is so established that it is clearly Exchange, rare furnishing gathered by the searh engee, who have surveyed it determined. In 1751 Don Juan Estevan de Peck family have been carefully preserved, loy recent mothe resulting in it Pena made out an annual stateme signed in g many mseum piece giving die* recexvng a ertifacate attesting ite "poeas Treasurer, his own salary being 1]470 tinctive character to every room in the seeing exceptional historical and architeopesos. This house was assigned to him as hose tural interest, and as being worthy of t the Treasurer. In numerous transfers of hsmostet carfulprst, aedrvation for the benet property in succeeding years, the building The King's strong room has been resto of future generations." The measured is described as "the old Spanish Treasury" ed to its probable early appearance. It drawings, and other data concerning the or the "great building called the Spanish contains an ancient treasure chest. Aged house, are on file in the Library of Con.
Treasury." Spnanish monies form an attraction for the gres Washington, D .... 4 ':RE T' E~EADTRAUYSRE


-Photo by Vieter RIahnw

Oldest School House



T HOUSANDS of school itemized map list (1788), Gianopoly is ish keys, old kitchen and house tools, and
children from all over the owner. Adult members of the Minorcan cannon balls are part of the collection im United States, visit the an. colony did not care fox themselves, but the house. Some of these have been uncient school house near the City Gates, and children had to learn the tongue of the earthed in the garden where the very old leave with a realization of the advantages English among whom they had come to trees form fitting frame for the old school under which they are getting their educa- live. And out of the school came many house. tion. They think of the old school teacher useful citizens for St. Augustine. Older and his old desk; of the pupils on their residents tell of their fathers and mothers Just behind the house is the detached hard benches, with no comfortable desks who were its pupils. When the Spaniards kitchen, quite in harmony with the main
and chairs scientifically fitted to children's came back, the Minorcan colonists had bebodies, and wonder how a school could be come accustomed to the city and their The owner of the School House prop. so simple and poor. Gates. Some of the men were working erty some time ago received a letter from
This is the Oldest School House in the farms to the north. of the city, and the the Office of National Parks, Buildings and Oldest City in the United States and has little school house was convenient for the Reservations tatinghat measured dr been in service both in British and Spanish children.: ings and records of the Old School Houm were to be made because of its architeeoccupations. Juan Gianopoly is the name Marvel of the child visitors is the so tural and historic value to posterity. Now most closely connected with house and called "dungeon," the little closet under a certificate has been received stating that school He was from te Morea and was the stairs into which the master sent dis- record of its present condition and ap. one of the three en chosen to head the obedient pupils. pearance has been made and deposited in exodus of the Turnbull colony when that the Library of Congress for permanent body migrated from New Smyrna to 'the The house itself of red cedar, has solid reference as the advisory committee of the protection of the British in St. Augustine. wood shutters held back by shell shaped Historic American Buildings Survey do.
That there had been a building at this wrought iron stops.- Handhewn timber is ided the Old School House poses ame location before the coming of Gianopoly seen in the construction. The small doors eeptional historic or architectural interest is certain, but its history is not determined, have H and L hinges. Wooden pegs are worthy of most carefu preservation. This used instead of nails generally and nails survey is under the Department of the In In the English map of 1769, there is a that can be seen are hand made. The stone terior and the certificates bear the sipn house here also. In the famous de la Roque floor shows generations of wear. Big Span- tua of Secretary Harold L. Ickes.





Photo by W. F. Gereek

Marine Studios


By M. EDWARD BACON, JR. Burden, with ia A. Toletoy, grandson of More than 200 portholes at strategic Count Leo Tolstoy, the famous Russian levels in the sides and bottoms of the huge author, and their associates began to figure tanks enable the visitor to observe and fN THE HIDDEN fastness ways and means of adapting these con- photograph the inhabitants of the sea. In glmof amp ets trolled conditions to marine life. these giant reservoirs have been placed a leam of campre casts seven-ton coral reef, a five-ton rock garden fitful shadows against the blackened back- When the announcement was made that and countless sea-fans, shells and plumes.
ground of night. The carmine embers of Florida was selected as the site for such an In these cavernous grottos, gayly colored one fire lightened the glistening faces of enterprise, Floridians were skeptical. A tropical fish seek protection from their native bearers. million dollar aquarium? Why, the whole predatory enemies. Playful porpoises rise
A few yards away, around a second fire, thing was preposterous--not even plans- to the surface to breathe air through the
two white men were engaged in conversa- ble! curious blow-hiles in the tops of their tion: Merian C. Cooper, Hollywood, Cali- But on the morning of May 15th, 1937, heads. Clumsyturtles, some weighing 300 fornia, producing the motion picture actual construction was begqn, 18 miles pcent waters. A school of mullet stuphe iridesly "Chang"--the other, a young Harvard grad- south of St. Augustine at what is now stumble over themselves as they endeavor nate and trustee of the American Museum known as Marineland. The huge pile of to avoid the path of a mammoth shark of Natural History, W. Douglas Burden. steel and concrete rapidly took form and Fair weather or foul, the colorful members
That conversation, ten years ago, resulted on June 23rd, 1938, Marine Studios was of Neptune's family parade in bright reIn what is now science's newest outpost for formally opened. view.
the study of marine life--Marine Studios, Since then, Marine Studios has become Equipped with its own modern laborsworld's only oeanariun and only specially world famous. Thousands upon thousands tory, Marine Studios has a competent staff
designed profesional underwater motion of visitors, scientists and moving picture of scientists constantly cataloging the newpicture studios. technicians have inspected this novel insti- ly acquired knowledge garnered from the
Cooper, in producing "Chang" built a tution. lives of the "inmates".
corral in the heart of the jungle, where he
introduced the wild animals captured ii ere in two giant tanks, marine life s Marine Studios has endeavored to build
the neighboring territory. Thus, off in the not segregated by species, but placed to- something which is sound and of Insting wilds, under controlled conditions, he was gether as it exists in the open sea. The value to the public and of value to the able to make observations and photographs size of the oceanariums provides an un- community in whici it is located, and of
of these animals which could not otherwise usual opportunity for studying the he- value to science. Shave been obtaine. havior of the different species, their schooling instincts, and many of the heretofore Truly, "the ocean floor--through 200 portWith this controlled technique in mind, "unknowns" in the field of ichthyology. holes!"


Hotel Ponce de Leon


Y OUTHFULin years as corn- perfect keeping with the spirit of this his- first sight of the exterior. Heavy wood- pared with most of ancient toric city. It is constructed in the style of work, exquisitely carved, adorns the rotunSt. Augustine, Hotel Ponce the early Spanish Renaissance and the da from which broad onyx and marble de Leon is nevertheless rich in tradition, strong Moorish influence during that part stairs lead to a dining hall of magnificent the tradition of fine and gracious living, of Spain's history is manifested in the elab- proportions. The domed ceiling and walls Since its formal opening on January 10, orate design of loggias, balconies, and of this room are decorated with allegorical 1888, it has been the gathering place in the turrets. murals by the artist Maynard. South of the elite of the society world and
of the sports world. Not the least interesting feature of the To the right of the main dining hall is construction is the fact that coquina, a the "Venido Room," naed from the The massive structure which is 4he ma- nativerock, was used to a great degree. Spanish expression "Bien Venido," meanterialization of one of the late Henry Flag- This rock was transported to the site of the ing "Welcome." The "Venido Room" is ler's finest dreams has been the heart of hotel, mixed with cement, and poured into the scene of the gay parties which have St. Augustine social life for more than moulds whilestill soft.As a result, there been for many years the highlights of the fifty years. Famous personages from all is not a structural joint in the walls of the winter social season. parts of the globe have been, and still are, building. The balcony which surrounds the rotunits guests. A complete list would read like The b y w hi s ame rtun. a composite of the Social Register and Not only in the tremendous patio which the rest of the hotel. Historical paintings Who's Who down through the years. encloses the main approach to the hotel, stand at either side of the main stairway
And the building itself is fully worthy but throughout the grounds, are gardens while the balcony walls are decorated with of those who have been housed beneath its whose beauty rivals that of any in the paintings of Florida scenery by Heade. roof. Given carte blanche by Flagler in world. Palmettos and date palms provide Portraits of Cortez, the explorer, and both design and construction,, the New a stately atmosphere which is relieved and Osceola, the Seminole chief, -are also found York architectural firm of Carrere. and brightened by the glossy leaves and white here. Hastings produced a masterpiece. Consid- blossoms of the magnolia arid the brilliant ered the most beautiful hotel in America scarlet of the hibiscus. Cherokee roses This, and much more, meets the eye.

isrstilled o allon rtsidrd th conry. WVenido" which fills the heart of every travelled to all parts of the country. Within the hotel exists the same sense traveller who sets foot within the doors
*In general outline the building is in of grandeur which impresses one on his of the historic "Ponce."



-hooby Vietor aha

Florida State Arsenal



SARLIEST indication of the in the transfer of protecting Spanish rights Post, giving a military flavor to the lie E first European building in the property. of the city. As late as 1895 descriptions on the site now occupied The British government, however, took appear of gay social affairs at the barracks. by the Arsenal, Military Headquarters of possession of the convent, turning it into When Geronimo's Indians were impris.
the State of Florida, links it with a map barracks for their soldiers. Later a large oned in the Fort, soldiers of the barracks
dated four years after the devastating visit two-story building was put up south of the were their guard.
of the English pirate, Sir Francis Drake, old convent to serve as barracks. When It remained a military post until 1900.
in 1586 Spainrecovered Florida, twenty years later, Seven years later the reservation, then
On this so-called map, which has all the her regiments occupied these capacious unoccupied, was leased to the State of
characteristics of.sketch maps of the Eng- barracks until their destruction by fire in Florida for military purposes. The Adjulish of that and the following period, San 1792. Then once more the old convent tant General removed his office from Talla.
Augustine's north boundary apparently is was called into use for soldiers, and Sthe hassee to St. Augustine. Eight years later related to the line of the present St. Francis regiments of Spain were quartered in it fire ravaged the main structure, and, for Street. Close to the northern edge of the until Florida became United States terri some time, the partial ruin was a dismal sketched town is a building topped with tory in 1821. reminder of the long years since the Frana cross and designated as a church. The Franciscans had not been able to ciscan monastery had been first built and
Drake reported that he had set fire to come back with the returning Spanish gov- of its eventful, physical history,
the town, including the public buildings, ernment after 1783. The Governor argued In 1921 Congress donated the property
Franciscans, according to both church the monastery, as altered, was not suited to the State of Florida for military purposes
and government records, had been occupy- to needs of the Franciscans and anyway exclusively, and the 'State accepted with ing a friary and church that were burned conditions in the mission fields had condition that if more than $40,000 was in March, 1599. changed from the former first Spanish con- spent in restoring it to its former condition,
Already a fort had been nearly com- trol. While there is a record indicating a proviso would bring the national govern.
pleted, at the time Drake was here, located permission- was given for their return to ment into a partial payment for the extra
near the site of the present Castle San their old convent, only two of the Order expeniture.
Marcos (National Park Monument Fort are known to have actually reached St. Old workmen, who were engaged in ro Marion), so when the settlement expanded, Augustine. One of these was Father Tro- pairs at that time, relate curious traces of it was farther north. The Franciscans seem conis. He is mentioned as having been early construction they encountered while to have remained in their old location. No delegated, the first teacher in the free putting it into its present general condition.
records have been produced to show that schools the King of Spain had ordered Testimony given by Col. Harvey Brown,
the new church and friary were on other started in East, Florida. Brevet Lieut.-Col., U. S.A., quartermaster land than that now occupied by the State During the Seminole War, United States of American troops in 1821, included deo Arsenal buildings .troops occupied the barracks. From there scription of the Franciscan convent, which
When Governor Moore of South Carolina troops departed on those expeditions that was part of the property turned over to
conducted a two months' useless siege of carried the men down south among the him. "In 1848 he stated at Washington St. Augustine, in 1702, he didn't spare the :harried plantations of the Mosquito and hearings that he found the walls standing

on his departure. Again rebuilding was the St. Johns River. Realistic descriptions used in subsequent repairs. On the south necessary. of barracks life appear in books and other side he found a row of cells, the walls of
When the Spaniards had to hand over publications written by officers who were which were fifteen feet high, and with a
Florida to the British in 1763, and left St. stationed in the city. stone wall connectiqg them to the wall of Augustine, the Franciscans also departed. Again during the War Between the the convent, forming a barrack yard ms.
The convent of St. Franci was sold by a States, northern soldiers were quartered in closure. He repaired these barracks in
S representative of the Spanish government the barracks, swarming over the nearby 1821 and 1822 for the United State s ad
i to an Englishman, there being some idea area. Following the peace it remained a added no new buildings


-Photo by Vietor Rahner

Fort Matanzas National Monument

Bir ALBERT C. MANUCY waterways eonnectlng with St. Augueine, In 1740 General James Oglethorpe eIthe Spaniards constructed outlying~fortifl- Georgia besieged St. Augustine, and hi National Park Service eations. At Matansas a wooden blockhouse blockading vessels were anchored off both was built and garrisoned with a small force. St. Augustine and Matansas inlets. The But: with the coloniation of Georgia in English General unwisely withdrew the BOUT fo teen miles 1738, and movements of the English ever Matansas blockade however, and supplies
l south of St. Augustine, on southward toward St. Augustine, the need and reinfoicements arrived at Matnima
Rattlesnake Islandt Ma- for stronger fortifcations became dnpera- from whence they were brought in small tanas Int, stand Fort Mataas, ancient tive. boats up the inland waterway to the besamas Inlet, stands Fort Matanzas, ancient
defense for the back door to Spanish St Without waiting for royal permission, leaguered city. Their advent was a major SAugustine the oldest permanent, white in 1737 the Spanish governor and his engi- factor in Oglethorpe's decision to raise the settlement north of Mexico. This small neer erected the "Torre de Matanzas" siege. fort, built of the unique coquina rock (Tower of Matanzas). Then they wrote a In the years following, Fort Matansas which extends for a hundred and fifty diplomatic letter to His Majesty the King continued to be regarded as an essential miles along this part of the Florida coast, of Spain, telling him about the new struk- outpost both by the Spaniards and the was made a national monument by Presi- ture, and cleverly intimating that His Ma- English, who held Florida from 1763 to dential Proclamation of October 15, 1924. jesty would, of course, approve their action, 1783; There was usually a small garrison T sincee ertainly was wise enough to ap- stationed at the fort. But after Florida
The structure derives its name from the preciate the emergency which'did iot allow
inlet that Uw was built to protect, and the priat the emw as purchased by the United States in inlet in trnhad been called Matansa time for asking royal consent. 1821, the Mathnzas fort fell into disuse and (which is Spanish for "slaughters") be- The "Tower of Matanzas" we know today deteriorated rapidly. In 1915, preservacause of gruesome incidents which occurred simply as Fort Matansas. It is a structure tion work was done by the War Departnear there in the dawn of Florida History. about forty feet square. There are two ment, nder whose authority the Fort had S . level: the main portion is a platform passed. The sentry box, fallen away, wa s
-It happened in 1565: Don Pedro Menen- about twelve feet from ground level, while restored. dez de Aviles, founder of St. Augustine, the "tower" level is about eighteen feet removed for.good and allthe French threat higher. Both levels are protected by para- Since the National Park Service in the to Spanish' Florida by. putting some three pets, and attached to one corner of the Department of the Interior has taken achundred French Huguenot colonists to lower parapet is a bartian or sentry box, tive responsibility for its protection, addi
death. Built on a small island and protected on tional work to preserve the interesting old Aside from the ever-presnt trouble with all sides by either water or marsh, the structure has been done, and custodian's pirae d ans, the ent S fortification needs no moat. Its ramparts quarters were constructed on Anstaia

Augustine existed in comparative peace were accessible only by ladder, which was Iland oppte for more than a century after the Huguenot drawn up into the fort when the 'vatch Fort Matanzas National Monument is events. Then, with the establishme t of was inside, open the entire year, and is accessible via Charleston in 1670, the threat of the. Eng- The Tower of Matanzas was not engaged either the Ocean Shore Boulevard or the lish to the north grew stronger, and, in .an in any major action, but nevertheless Inland Waterway. The fort itself can be effort to protect the various trails and played a part in protecting St. Augustine. reached by ferry from Anastasia Island.



Photo bW W. F. Gereche

The Fountain Of Youth

T HE FOUNTAIN of Youth deeply gray coquina give seclusion to the tion at Fort Caroline, on the River Mai (St.
Park (turn right at the spring which Juan Ponce, the explorer, Johns) a large stockade was built. AdherSign of the Big Water- most likely visited in his search for the fe- ing to the French artist's description, wheel and the Coquina Gateway, to the bled fountain. When his sailors tasted its cypress posts were used for the circle.
Avenue of Flags, a mile north of St. Augus- clear water, in all likelihood a good supply Over the excavations, where the skeletons tine's City Gates) commemorates the dis- was put aboard Ponce's three ships, include were slowly and carefully released fiom covery of La Florida by Don Juan Ponce de ing the San Cristoval, the only one of the the covering earth, there has been placed Leon, in the year 1513. three whose name is known. Freedom from a replica of a cacique's house, the TimuBelief in existence of some stream, lake, strong flavor in this water is described as cuan design being followed in every detail
well, spring, some water, with mysterious due, according to determination, of scien- as found in Le Moyne's sketch.
power to restore youth to the aged, had tists, to its origin in certain peculiar strata Now, from an elevated earth platform, place in pagan and early Christian years, of coquina formation existing in this coastal one looks down upon all that remains of continuing through many centuries in all area. these Indians, men, women and children, the known world. Handed down by pages From this House of the Spring, vistas who show so plainly in their method of
of history, it kept strong hold on minds of radiate, each disclosing a compelling scene. sepulture a Christianizing influence.
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. An avenue of old oleanders leads to the The close observer notes indications of
Today in St. Augustine, it finds sym- east, and the harbor shore, where a simple family groups. Some of the skulls are inbolic expression in the appropriate sur- coquina shaft calls attention to the land- tensely dramatic in appearance, their large roundings of the Fountain of Youth Park. ing of Ponce de Leon in April, 1513. size being in harmony with the unusual
In a veritable temple of Nature, rest and In a location on the border of the park, height of the adults.
relief come, and fears engendered by mod- tastefully secluded by shrubbery, so that At a distance from the major excavaern materialism's catastrophes, give way its modern significance does not intrude tion, a native shelter protects a small group before the sure psychology of the very on the thought of Ancient Seloy and the of skeletons, less well preserved apparently words "Fountain of Youth." dwellers of the Indian village, WFOY than those in the coniunal house. These
In the park, near Easter time, many na- station daily radios, from the Fountain of may represent a transition period, a stage
tive giant Magnolia Grandiflora cover them- Youth to the world, accounts of the -un- between native heathenism and complete selves with their proud pageantry of great equalled interests that centre in St. Augus- conversion to the European religion. While petalled creamy cups, flooding the air with tine, first permanent settlement within the the figures are not flexed, with knees drawn their insistent, alluring odor. Double rea- United States, to the chin, as in other primitive heathen son had Juan Ponce de Leon to call this Indian Burials brought to light on this burials that have been located nearby, they son had Juan Ponce de Leon to call this Indian Burials rought to light on this still do not indicate a Christian type, faospot La Florida, and believe the land he site take high rank among archeological ing the easdo not with arms crossed ovtype, thefac
had come to in the season of Pascua de discoveries in the United States in the past chest.
Florida, was in truth Land of Flowers, since few years. No similar burial of such num- The entire Indian arrangement conveys it was the home of such as these. bers of people, or in the periods indicated a better idea than can any words of those
Changes have taken place in the shore by them, has been found.. While it was savages, who met the first French and Spanlines of the Indian village of Seloy since known that human bones had been en- ish explorers of the Eastern ocean coast of Juan Ponce de Leon arrived in his quest countered in farm work, they created small Florida, and the shores of what was to be.
for a land of youth and riches. No effort interest. No systematic excavations had come St. Augustine.
has been spared to retain as far as possible ever been proposed. Several years ago, Much time can be spent in the museum and ensure permanency for the ancient con- when it was recognized during routine at the Fountain of Youth Park. A rare figuration; no radical re-arrangements like- preparations for tree planting, that evi- collection of little known historical doculy to hasten greater changes have been at- dences of a quantity of human bones were ments is on exhibition. Many of these are tempted. Art has been used only to sus- being reached, the historic importance of the only copies in this country, and relate tain and strengthen natural features. any extensive location of interments about especially to the life of Don Juan Ponce
Every foot of soil has historical values, the Oldest City was realized. Smithsonian de Leon.
SOnly a small portion of the centuries of Institgtion was informed immediately. Throughout the park and museum is a events connected with the site has been Since then there have been brought to display of war implements of much educagiven visible form for the desired informa. view nearly 100 skeletons, male and female, tional value. It includes offensive and detion of the many visitors to St. Augustine, adults, young children and infants, the fensive weapons, ancient arrowheads, great who eagerly seek traces of the discoverer of gaunt bones being promptly treated with bows and arrows such as the Spaniards Florida. ,- preservative to ensure that they would not found their heaviest armor no protection
Re-location of a former owner's large disintegrate immediately, against; also cannon of the fifteenth cencolonial dwelling provided space for erec- Taking for models original sketches tury. Cannon, including one from the histion of a picturesque reproduction of an made by Jacques Le Moyne from his toric ship, the Constitution, are correctly
old Spanish type building. Its walls of studies, while with the Laudonniere expedi. mounted and marked for study.



Br Parms W. UsmA

HE St. Augustine Ostrich.- filled to capacity with interested vacation- tropical birds have been hatched and raised Alligator Farm has for lts. there, in many instances having been used many years been among to supply the demands of amusement the outstanding tourist attractions in the As interest gre in the unusual colleo- parks, zoos and exhibitors throughout the
South. Located on beautiful Anastasia tion, Mr. Fire and Mr. Reddington de-. country.
land, the farm contains the world's cided in 1901 to concentrate their efforts
largest collection of live alligators number- on the development of an alligator farm, On February 19, 1937, the farm was p
ing more than 6,000, and a large exhibit of and operated it from that time as a co hased by F sU Ja
live ostriches. mercial enterprise. The exhibit then in- Drysdale of St. Augustine. The new owncludedAabout 40ylarge 'gator* era, have still further plans for the imAlthough yung ini comp arison to the provement of the establishment, adding
Ancient City's famous historical landmarks, In 1921, when the collection had grown more interesting specimens to the present it is one of the oldest establishments of its to several thousand, and the site at South collection which now includes a rare A4kind on this continent. The collection Beach was found to be inadequate, the bino alligator with light eyes, "Bobby,"' was started by Felix Fire and George Red. farm was moved to its present location on an alligator 'five feet in length with five dington, several years prior to the begin- Anastasia Island, about two miles from legs and no tail, a reddish brown alligator ning of the 20th century. It was shown the heart of the Ancient City. The collec. seven feet long, which is believed to be Sfor some time without charge at old South tion of marine measures, and other cu the only one of its kind in captivity, and
Beach, near the site of the new fishing pier, osities which formed the nucleus of the many others.
when tourists flocked there to enjoy the present museum was moved also and, toamusements offered at the pavilion. At gather with other features of the farm, has The farm yearly draws thousands of that time sightseers were transported to been added to from time to time, tourists, many of whom pay return visits to this popular resort in a two-car steam enjoy in leisurely fashion its many intertrolley. Running usually at half-hour in- A year later a number of ostriches were esting features and listen to the delightfully t .rvals, the trolleys were nearly always added and since that time, many of these droll lectures of the southern darky guides.



-Photo by Victor Rahaer

Trinity Episcopal Church


IHIRD of the trio of strue. for the lot on which to build the church, in the embarrassing situation of having to
tures dominating the his. they advanced the arvments that the pro. address practically two congregations at torie surroundings of the posed new structure would "be an orna. the same time. The present church build. old Plaza, is Trinity Episcopal Church, ment to the city and being directly opposite ing was started in 1902, and finished the oldest parish of that faith in Florida. In to the Catholic Church, would create an following year at a speed the original par.
1921 the centennial of Trinity Parish and uniformity in the Public Square." ish couldn't have visioned.
the coming of the church to Florida were That portion of the present building The restful dignity of the old Gothie
celebrated. i on the presen ouiPzint
now fronting directly on the Plaza, and the entrance apd front on the Plaza excites The beginnings of Episcopal worship in great sycamore tree, belong to the original pleasure and interest in thousands of visit.
St. Augustine belong to *the English ar- church. The building was 36 feet wide by ors, whether or not they be communicants
rival in 1763. After the Spaniards had 50 feet long, and in 1831, although uncom- of the Episcopal Church.
packed up every single article belonging pleted, the church was opened for divine History of the church body is interwoven to the churches and cofradias of East Flor- service. There was no organ for almost closely with early Florida territorial life, ida, and sailed to Havana, Catholic wor- ten years. The first musical instrument while Statehood and wartime periods all ship ceased in East Florida. was described by Major Fairbanks as hav- produced events of more than passing
Although efforts had been made by the ing been a violincello purchased by Judge concern. During the War Between the
British fo years to capture Florida Thomas Douglas to provide accompani- States, religious work was carried on in from the Spaniards, its final acquisition ment. Many people thrust out of old world Trinity by the Federals. The Rev. H. Clay came with startling suddenness. Totally events came to St. Augustine. Among them Trumbull, chaplain of the 10th Connectiunprepared for creating a Florida popula- was George L. Philtop, an Englishman by cut Regiment, was early in charge, fol.
tion, English authorities hastily orgaized birth, who had been one of the sub-officers lowed by the young Anthony Comstock, the migration of the first colonists. This detailed to guard Napoleon at St. Helena. who became the famous censor of public
haste did not cause neglect of religious It was Philtop who is credited with organ. morals and nationally known.
provision. The Rev. John Forbes was "li- izing the first choir in Trinity. The growth of the church and its wellcensed to the plantation" of East Florida During Trinity centennial observances being have been largely influenced by.
in May, 1764. He arrived soon after Gov- in 1921, the late Mr. Reginald White de- women.
ernor Grant. Early services were held in scribed the first Trinity church building At present, accounts of Trinity Church
-the Old House of the Bishops that stood as consisting of but one aisle, facing north and its predecessor, St. Piter's, exist only
where Trinity is now located, while the and south, with the chancel at the south in fragmentary writings. Its parishioners old Spanish Church in St. George Street end. On both sides of the chancel the ten have had such an important part in all was being rebuilt to become St. Peter's commandments were painted on the walls. phases of St. Augustine's existence, that if Episcopal Church. Episcopal form of At the time of Mr. White's description the its story is all brought between two covers, worship continued until the British also tower and the north porch were the same it will be found worth reading, aside from
had to leave, to allow the Spaniards to as originally finished, but there had been its spiritual significance.
come back to Florida in 1783. a stairway on the outside at the east of the Returning, to earliest known phases of
Then, until the entry of the United States building. This gave entrance to a gallery its predecessor buildings, not long age,
into St. Augustine, Protestant form of wor- at the north. In 1893 the church was en- when it became necessary to do more emship was not publily.existent. The very larged by adding another aisle at right tensive repairs than usual under the pree.
name St. Peter's disappeared, so that when angles, to the old one and facing east and ent walls, workmen encountered heavy rock chaer of incorporation was obtained, it west. footings of what may have been walls of the charter of incorporation was obtained, it House of the Bishops in which the Auxwas for Trinity Church. Withl the chancel at the southeast end of iliary Bishop of Santiago was living when
When wardens and vestrymen applied the two aisles, the clergyman found himself Oglethorpe bombarded the city in 1740.


-Photo by Victor Ralmer

Nuestra Senora De La Leche Shrine

(Our Nursing Mother of Happy Delivery)

S EVEN BLOCKS beyond Spaniard from the hands of a drunken of the Spaniards in 1784 they failed to the old City Gates is soldier and taken to his home where little have the statue with them; it had either Ocean Street. If one turns shrine was established. Soon thereafter been lost or retained by some devout memto the right one soon reaches the Ancient the good wife of the Spaniard became her of their race who did not accompany
Shrine--Nauestra Senora de la Leche y Buen desperately ill and there appeared no hope them upon their return to St. Augustine.
Part (Our Nursing Mother of Happy De. for her or her expected child. The devout During the occupation of the English the livery), beautifully located on the Matanzas couple prayed'long and earnestly before second chapel of La Leche, along with all Bay, across which the founder of St. Augus- the small image asking the assistance of other remnants of things Catholic, was
tine came. Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles the Blessed Mother. The answer to their allowed to fall into ruin:
sighted land in this vicinity on August prayers was the birth of a beautiful baby In 1872 Bishop Verot, the first bishop of '28th, 1565, the feast of St. Augustine, and boy with both mother and child in radiant St. Augustine, acquired the original site it was in honor of this great Saint that the health. In thanksgiving they named the of the chapel, and caused the erection of city was given its name. statue Nuestra Senora de la -Leche y Buen another shrine on the first foundations
One of the most interesting historic spots Parto. The devotion to the Blessed Mother which were still visible. This chapel being
in Old St. Augustine is the peaceful setting in this form soon spread throughout Ma- poorly built was within a year blown down of the Shrine of Nuestra Senora de la Leche, drid and came to the notice of Philip III, during a storm, the ruins remaining until for it was here that the City of St. Augus-. the new King of Spain, who was a devout Bishop M. J. Curley, now Archbishop of tine was founded. But most of all one Christian. A chapel was erected by-this Baltimore, erected the present chapel on thinks of it as a religious landmark. Here pious couple where the little statue was the same foundations and along the same a rude altar was erected and on this spot placed with great ceremony. A solemn general plan as the original building. This the first Holy Mass was celebrated on the magnificent procession participated in by chapel was furnished by Mrs. Martin D.
8th day of September, 1565, the feast day King Philip with his wholq court, (the Hardin in memory of her late husband,
of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. king bearing the expense) joined by the General Martin D. Hardin.
The official landing that was effected on ecclesiastical authorities and the populace, Since the opening of the shrine to the
September 8th, was carried out in great accompanied the statue. public a few years ago, thousands of people splendor; with trumpets sounding and the" It was quite natural for devout Spaniards have visited it, leaving the sacred place soldiers singing the Te Deum, Menendez coming to the new land to continue invok- refreshed in the memory of the early landed and was met by a procession led*by ing the aid of the Blessed Mother and they martyrs who struggled against unnumbered Father Mendoza Grajales carrying a cross. caused a replica of the statue to be made perils and difficulties to bring the faith
The Admiral knelt and kissed the cross, his and brought to this country about the year to the New World.
followers doing likewise. Then there fol. 1602 and placed in the chapel of Nombre At the shrine one may see a replica of lowed the celebration of the first Holy de Dios. the little wooden statue that gave to this Mass that began the service of the Church Even a spot dedicated to God may not city the unique devotion of "Our Nursing in the new land for all centuries to come. be always at peace. In the varied history Mother of Happy Delivery," the only
This holy spot consecrated by the Mass and fortunes of Florida, border raids and shrine of this kind in the United States.
was called Nombre de Dios-Name of God threatened attacks from the English, the Continual improvements are being made in --by the Spaniards, and they soon erected a governor, in order to save the chapel from the landscaping of these beautiful grounds.
little chapel there, which in time came to desecration, caused it to be dismantled and Apart from this, one renews history from be called the Chapel of Nombre de Dios. removed nearer the City Gates, within the studying the new diorama which shows in
How this chapel received te name of second line of defense. This was done in minute detail the celebration of the first
INuestra Senora de la Leche is a colorful 1728 and the chapel was continued until Holy Mass. Each year there occurs on the
* and interesting story. It begins in Madrid 1763, when with the advent of the English, Sunday after Easter, Low Sunday, a pilthirty-three years after the founding of St. the Spaniards were compelled to move grimage, historic -as well as religious, to Augustine. A small wooden statue of the away, They again dismantled the chapel commemorate the great events which took Blessed Mother holding the Infant Jesus and removed the shrine's ornaments and place on this sacred ground in those most
iose to her breast was rescued by a pious the little statue to Cub Upon the return ancient days of or history


The Slave Market


T HE PAVILION type strue- getic governor, Gonsalo Mendes de Canse, Many other negroes were landed at this
ture at the east end of the wrote his king "Since I came I caused spot and the Market Basin became the Plaza shares largely in at- them to make a Plaza and that all of then place where they reached their new mae. tractions of the park's notable landmarks, come to sell there and a house where there ters.
and few tourists leave St. Augustine with- are weights and measures, which until now Also the County Court House provide out having asked "Where is the Slave Mar- they have not had." Thusin 1598 Mendes slave sale records.- In Book E, Page 28A, ket?" de Canso creates a picture of a Plaza with there is found notice of public sale at ane.
As with various historical locations, a market house in it. His king is so pleased tion of a woman slave named Tamaha, age
records concerning structures existing at that he writes i the margin of the paper 28, for $180, at the public market, in 1824.
this east end of the old Plaza do not yet that the governor has done well; that he In Deed Book M, Page 24, is found is to keep right on, and not to hesitate notice of a sale of Slaves at the Marke about writing him plenty of information House. Thompson Mason and wife had Recently, however, translation and inter- about such things. given a mortgage to Theodore Flotard on

detato oa hose or ar m ake m elvt From this it is considered St. Augustine two slaves, "Malvina 19 and Gabina, about Sthe t h possesses the oldest example of the typical ame age," and the notice stated that the century. s laprojected Plaza with market. Also re. "two slaves are to be sold at public action search authorities now maintain this local. to the highest bidder." This was in 1836. Exceptional interest has now been added tion would be where people sold by weight If the mortgage money was paid the sal
to the formerly known records by a cedula e and measure for the first time in these would not take place.
of the King, Philip the Second, issued in United States. Royal officials had weights These are examples of what may
1573, only eight years after the founding and measures for their dealings, but now found in court records.
of St. Augustine. In this cedula King the residents were equipped for business. In a private letter, an old resident of th

as are located with water fronts. house. There also is mention of a person to be sevee, and once, while the slave wa
After the land for the settlement was living in a market house being whfor ipped, he watched a trained bea1
chosen, his first thought was for the Plaza It has never been claimed by historians performing in the Plaza.
Mayor, what dimensions would be most that such institutions as a slave pen and The dale of construction of one market desirable for certati size population; also slave block, as known in cities with huge house has been argued without consider.
what relationthe width of the plaza should plantation back country, were maintained tionfor the succession of structures that bear to the length, with room provided plntSt. Au ckcwstie had served the purpose since that first one for expansion of thorigi plaza to meet increasevi- m thi i St. Augustine. Gozalo Mende de Cano wrote about in in population. He distinctly recommends The old Spaniards handled their trans- 1598. A record seemingly not previously "The principal Plaza from which the set- actions in slaves in a more personal fashion brought forward is inothe report of the ement is to commence being on the coast projecthan lave owners of the 19th century. In Committee on Public Property, date Sept.
of the sea" is to be made the "disembark. 1792 one Gaspar Papy "being sick in bed 9, 1821. Then P. Lynch, Was in 1836Living.
ing place of the port" beingst has now beenter of the accident that God our Lord has been stone amond Charles Vignoles said in "Item of the settleme kn rd b a cedua n pleased to give me" and "fearing the No. 17. The Market Place-The small death," made a will in which hiads financial wooden buildings and sheds erected n this H ere is the inception of the old Market condition is recounted. He says "I declare public square are strongly recommended
SBasin that came so close to the market that I have enterustipped to Do n Miguel d to be removed as a public nuisance. The Building that a t one time there wal settle- Acosta, Captain of a recloop, onear housdre Bl market may tethat rem ain until a more ular ca road or street between them and eighty pesos for the purchase of a suitable place can b rovideght d. h is s All thindis cellbdula was 13 years before the negro" and other apprticles "stone market" was left by the Spaniards
coming of Francis Drake to wreak damage Possibly by another inmetane ie a recostrd of the second occupation.pedat the Mar
on the young St. Augustine town, and it arrived with thpeople d negro, Papy, who didn't The story of the slave dealings of thet
is not yet known whether any part of this die of theater als accident he names, mntion of a pers fn t Spanish occupation will sometime pro
plan ofer for king had been carried out wain living ibeen able to be waiting at the Market to vide information connecting a trained beare

that 1586 location. But, eleven years after receive the negro as de Acost aine ashore Market transactsions wit those first two
beare tte k n the with ro, provided n i n St. Augustine. e f the prt." hundred yar i n St. Anat ina. n


-Photo by. Victor Rahner

The Villa Zorayda


T HE VILLA Zorayda is one "harem windows," and gazing upon them, Thia. story is told of the choice of name
of the most interesting and the imagination of the beholder may help for the Villa Zorayda. The Moorish king, educational places to be him to weave romantic stories of other Mahamad Aben Alahmar, had three lovely seen anywhere. It was built in 1883, and time, other lands and other customs; of daughters named Zayda, Zorayda, and is one of the outstanding showplaces of dark-eyed'beauties who lived a life apart. Zorahayda. Princess Zorayda was his faSt. Augustine. It has bee' opened by re- To carry-out the effect and design of the vorite. Because of the story, and the musiquest to visitors, who, through a glimpse Far East one finds traceries of Arabic in- cal -lilt of the name, the building was of its unusual and fascinating features, are scriptions, such as "Wa la ghalib illa ila" named for her. transported in spirit to far-off scenes that (There is no God but Allah and Mohamhave felt the imprint of mediaeval hap- med is His prophet.) While in St. 'Augustine, the minds of gniU.. The building is the only one of visitors, dwell.much on thoughts of the openings. The building is te only one of Visitors at the Villa Zorayda are shown Moorish dominance in Spain in the 12th ts knd n the Unted States. the miniature of the Court of Lions, Hall century. Much of the art, architecture The Villa Zorayda incorporates in mini- of Justice and other interesting features. and literature of Spain show the influence ature many of the details of the famed Rich furnishings, and Oriental antiques, of those remarkable people. Most famed Alhambra of Granada, Spain. It is built privately owned, and brought to this coun- perhaps of the buildings which the Moors about a lovely patio, its upper gallery sup- try from all parts of the .world at great left behind them, when they were driven ported by horseshoe arches, which, like the expense, are effective in this unique set- out of Spain, was the great and massive
walls, are covered with intricate carving. ing. Alhambra, so long cherished as the most Priceless Mosaics, and rare tiles, centuries Villa Zorayda is one of the many sur- perfect relic of their art and skill. To the old, said to be from the Alhambra itself prises which St. Augustine holds for the traveler imbued with a feeling for the hisand other famed buildings of the Old lover of the picturesque. Students and torical and poetical the Alhambra of World, give that richness of color and others interested in the ancient arts may Granada is as much an object of veneraSeauty which hold the visitor enthralled. while away hours there with pleasure and tion as the sacred shrine of Mecca is to profit.' all true Moslem pilgrims. Balconies of unusual design, and win- Strange and exotic as the building is, it That St. Augustine has a place, which dows of odd shapes, no two of them alike, seems appropriately placed in Old St. Au- emphasizes interesting phases found in the are among the distinctive architectural gustine, where the Moorish influence is Alhambra, has profound meaning for all features. Somnie of the windows are called strongly felt in much of the architecture. residents and visitors .
E~ 1 I C;


-Photo by Victor Rahner

The Post Ofice


A FTER a four months' ad- house was so dilapidated. The master ture had been built for a county court venturous trip from Ha- carpenter testified that, when Quiroga ar- house. Far from that. A week later the vana, including two ship- rived, they even borrowed planks to. lay same paper on its editorial page, told how wrecks, Governor Gonzalo Mendez do over the passageway roof, so this new a generous Congress had appropriated Canso reached St. Augustine in June, 1597. governor could put his bed there. But $5,000 for repairs to the old Government Then started the series of events that has there was' to be no new Royal House, for House. It went on to describe what might led to the present Post Office in St. Augus- the King wrote that the old one should be happen if county court dates, conflicted tine. rebuilt with the lower story of stone. with state and national court dates. IrriGonzalo Mendez found- two preceding In 1696, when Jonathan Dickinson's ship- tation of citizens at being unable to secure governors had lived and died in a damp wrecked party landed in St. Augustine entire possession of even the repaired house built over water. He promptly after a perilous starvation trip from the building is indicated. Also, ;four years disaster site at Hoe Bay (Now Hobe later, a report to Congress on Territorial built himself a house on his own land in Sound), they were welcomed by the Span- Buildings in Florida, emphatially states a good location so satisfactory that when ish Governor, who stood at the head of that a Congress appropriated i$5,000 for Pedro Ybarra came to govern St. Augustine the stairs. repairs to government buildipgs at St. he was able to persuade the king of Spain Finiancial accounts of British occupation Augustine and Pensacola, but ",when work to buy it. Ybarra got that sale though in continue to show numerous repairs to the on the former governor's house at St. Abu1604. It became known as the Governor's house. Always it is described by travellers gustine was completed, not a dollar remainue, Ith Ral Ho Governor's as at the head of the Plaza or the Parade, ed for Pensacola."
Houal House,Govern ala as the British called it. One of the first acts of the new city or Government House. From that time to When the United States couldn't com- council, after the United State8 took pothis no record has yet been produced of plete plans for transfer of East Florida session, was to provide for cntinuatiou total destruction of any building correctly from Spain in time to take over early in of the St. Augustine-St. Mary's mail, which known as the Governor's House. Nor, July, 1821, as had been hoped, a arge had been fairly regularly oper ted by the morover, is any. such named house de- public ball was held on the Fourth of July governor and private citizens Tduring the scribed as located elsewhere than where the in the Governor's House. late second Spanish rule. But o mention in the Governor's House. late second Spanish rule. But 11 present United States Post Office is now After the transfer, some St. Apgustine occurss then of a Post Offie. at the west end of the Plaza. people were determined to' get possession In 1869 an inspector of post voices listed Numerous records appear of repairs to of the. Governor's House for county pur- St. Augustine as only a fifth blass office, it, and several times of rebuilding, poses. But it continued to be held by the when the postmaster had to provide his When Governor Quiroga y Losada, in national authorities, and used for general own office. However, something between 1687 to 1690, was trying to get the house purposes, as during Spanish times, when that report and 1872, a postmaster obtained put in condition he urged that a new house there were no such political divisions as permission and moved into the old Govershould be' built nearby for the Royal counties, nor's House and repaired his quarters, all House of the Governor. One workman Photostats of records of 1836 reveal that at his own expense. Two postmasters ocutold the King that the Governor's House this "court house" element held a grand pied the old building under sch condij" was a very ancient house, having been "dedication." The local paper hailed the tions.
built in four parts at different times. The "County court house and a hymn was Finally, the government di make reformer governor had gone three years sungn" to the "Hall of Justice," the im- pairs, and in 1873 regularly occupied it a before to live in the "Castle," because this pression being conveyed that a new struc- a Post Office..




-Photo by Victor Rah ne

Old Cathedral

HE Oldest Parish in Amer uses. So the need for a church was acute Various amounts, spent on this new ica, north of Mxice, wor. when Spain came back to Florida and St. church are noted in correspondence be. ships in the Cathedral of Augustine. tween the Governor of Florida and the St. Augustine, that stands in austere sim- The old mansion of the Bishop was still Spanish Secretary of the Treasury between
plicity on the north side of the Plaza. standing at the southwest corner of the 1791 and 1797. They totaled $16,602.
During almost the first half century of Plaza. It was so called' because the Auxil. Many stories are told of how the people
the existence of St. Augustine, the location' iary Bishop of Santiago de Cuba resided of the parish, out of their slender means, of the principal church is obscure. There there on his visitation to Florida. Here it contributed their offerings, bringing pro.
was a chapel for the military; also the was that Bishop Tejada lived during his duc6 from their farms in many cases to be
church of the Franciscans and a parish ten years' stay in St. Augustine, being in sold for the building fund.
ehurchi But fires occurred; and there were the city during the Oglethorpe siege of
changes in the-locations of the settlement, 1740.' When, after long yearshoprifeffort, it warida all tending to confusion 'about sites of The British had used part of it while extending west t Pensacola and Bishop buildings. the old Spanish church was being fixed Verot made St. Augustine his residence,
Out of this finally emerges a principal over for their services. Now the Spaniards the church became a Cathedral.
or parish church, located on St. George began to turn the upper story into a chapel Street opposite the present convent of the for temporary use. Until that was ready, struedntilthding destmaindctie as fire in con Sisters of St. Joseph. When the Spaniards Mass was said in a private houise. structe nti he dest ctiv e fire inPmu 1, had to give up Florida they left unfinished 1887, that necesitated rebuilding' mucl al ofa new and larger church standing Work was begun on a new church on the especially at 'the north end and oof.
wall ofPlaza, nearly opposite what is theanding north side of the Plaza in 1791. This site, Henry M. Flagler is credited with having in the Plaa, nearly opposite what is the according to Father Clavreul, is mentioned given material aid in making the rebuild.
in Havana archives as having been sold ing possible at the time. That was in 1763. When the British had "in confidence" to Jesse Fish, a British sub- .
to get out, and the Spaniards came back, or ject (1764-1783). It does not appear, he having been bareul describebidding, in its their descendants arrived in 1784, their old adds, that a church previously occupied auntess.en bare, gloomy aspect produid church had been rebuilt for an Episcopal' the location. gbyaun thess. Thophomy asp.i t prndows, ih c church with a steepleand called St. Peter As was common in many towns of Old in the heavy coquina walls, was somewhat
ee unehe was o th o"chlch Spain, or in Spanish colonies of America,. relieved by the facade, with its dome-like
were gone. Ther e was no Catholic place the church seemed thrust forward. Street structure of Moorish' design, surmounted n worship, exept th Capilla Minorqun walls extending east and west from the by the sign of the Redemption as an em.
in the north part of St. George' Street. church were set back of the front line of blem of the victory of the Cross over the
The chapel of Our Lady of Guadeloupe the building. Old pictures show this clear- Crescent. The door in the tower leads to
in Tolomato was in ruins, only the tower ly. The 'church was dedicated six years the belfry and above it, fronting the Plaza,
remaining. The chapel of Nuestra Senora after its beginning. The Spanish govern- is engraved a sun dial. With the dial ap-
de la Leche had been put to other uses, ment, through its officials, ordered, planned pear the Latin words "Pereunt et Impubeing designated as a hospital by the and directed the work, this being custom- tantur," referring to the hours that pass
British and was not in condition for church ary in purely administrative matters, on, and for which we must account.


-khoto by Victor Rahaer

Plaza Of St. Augustine


~ ELOVED of all the city, naturally he built his own house at the some humorous, others covering tragedy and all who come within head of the Plaza or public square. to residents. the spell of its personality The constantly chg life of St. Au Not until well into this period was any is the Plaza of St. Augustine. Its full story gustine surged in and through the Plaza. attempt apparently made at planting trees would touch much of the city's history, dians came in groups, hungry for their or shrubs inbethe Plaza. Mr. Holmes Amsince it is only a few decades less in age gifts and food. A governor tells that a midownhas been g credit for the first than this city itself. great Apalache cacique, attended by more systematic effort. Ts metwith many
Early in 1598, Governor Gonzalo Mendes than fifty of his head warriors, had arrived. etbacksl including fondness of roaming.
de Canso reported to his King that he had He received them at the door of his house, attle and horses for uiredning young trees.ication caused a Plaza to be made. The monarch as they came singing and dancing to the Final slender fencePlaza acquired turnsophistication was pleased, and wrote that the Governor strains of their peace song. Others came trances. It was on the road to becoming had done well at times less friendly, Timuquas, Yemasses, the Plaa that charms with every phase of Creeks. Christianized Indians, from the a sh
Authorities on development plans of old missions, passed through, or halted in the sun an adow.
Spanish colonial settlements stress the crea- Plaza on their way to the Franciscan con- Office Park, is not really a part of the Pold
tion of central public squares. A valuable vent. a
publication carries as illustration the "tra- Plaza. It is a comparatively late develop.
itional Plaza mayor of San Augustin." Sometimes the governor himself passed meant, but no stranger would realize how ditiona Plaza mayo of San Agustin. hurriedly by, starting on his way to puish very recent is the gorgeous huge arbor of
After he had caused the Plaza to be rebellious natives. Messengers from the wisteria.
made, the Governor ordered all the people threatening English colonies to the north, The three monuments, that are dominant to come there to do their buying and sell- or spies, lounged in the Plaza, bent on in- features, all have their own stories, none ing if produce. He had a house built, in formation from casual gossipers, more interesting than that of the hidden
which sales were made by weight and The House of the King's Accountants, tablets of the Constitution shaft."
measure, which they had not had here, long established at the corner of 'the Here in the Plaza was flown the first heretofore. Naturally, the shore in front of Plaza, where now is Charlotte and Cathe- flag of Florida as a Confederate unit. Imthe Plaza became a landing place for the dral Place, was another center for activi- mediately after news arrived of the action fishermen. Ships of many lands tried to ties. in coming out of the Union, the women carry on commerce with St. Augustine and hurried to make a flag, while the men much illicit trading with ships went on. Three days' festivities in the Plaza cele- hastily prepared and set a pole. No m
Often the Kings sent orders forbidding it. brated the Spanish Retrocession, with the tonis made of who designed this flag.
One even directs brandingas punishment Government houses magnificently deco. Indus o t e n
for illicit trading. And still the vessels rated, and processions forming at the west Industrious card players o today ae not ame to St. Augustine. It takes no stretch head of the Plaza, the horsemen resplend- the only amusement seekers, or, at the west of fancy to see sailors swaggering ashore ent on. their ornamented steeds. The end of the Plaza, it is kno that inthe atthe Plaza, while the busy landing basin King's proclamation of returned Spanish late sixties women in trailing skirts

Soon there was a guard house in the to be gaiety in and about the Plaza. happenings belongs to the Plaa diary. So
Plaa and, close to the waterfront, north Ceremonies happened when kings and it is tting to hear thatnce there was of thegreuars house, Adedone th R l -flowing wel in the Plaza to which depart. of, the guard house, Arredondo, te Roal queens died, and princes were born, but ing tralers went for a fintd dr b engineer, shows what he describes as a his Majesty's minister bore the expense, sting t a n theirjorey. l y cr er
hospital "ipan nof the 1737 cityin dee in'hi by royal orders and drank, firm in the belief that this Endless allusions to events or buildings, drink ftom the Plaza well would ensure As the Governor himself owned land to in or about the Plaza, appear in first city their return to the Plaza and old St. Authe west, extending north some distance, council records of St. Augustine, U. S. A, gustine.

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