Section E

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Title:
Section E
Series Title:
Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board Newspaper Collection
Uniform Title:
St. Augustine Record, Historical Restoration Issue
Physical Description:
Unknown
Donor:
Newspaper ( donor )
Publisher:
The St. Augustine Record

Notes

General Note:
VOL. XLIV. NO. 7; Agricultural Section

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
USACH00079:00005


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Agricultural Published in the Section Oldest City


Restoration Issue ST. AUGUSTINE, FLA., SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937 Section E










ST. AUGUSTINE


The Restoration Program, it is evident, will make the beautiful Oldest City even more famous than it is today.
sNow it enjoys fame as the Mother City of the Nation. As such it attracts thousands of visitors annually, who enjoy its storied charm, narrow SATHrAN MAYO streets, grim mediaeval fortifications, and quaint
coMMISSION of AGRIC TURn-, balconied houses. However, under the RestoraNathan Mayo has held the position of Commis- tion Program, St. Augustine is assured of a vast
sioner of the Florida State Department of Agriculture since 1923, covering a period of 14 years, and increase in travel to its ancient shrines, because
during that time has made and held the friendship of men and women in all walks of life. Mr.
Mayo has made an enviable record in the post he the city, in cooperation with Carnegie Institution
holds by his thorough knowledge of the problems
confronting his department and his efficiency in
caring for them.-Editor. and allied groups, will become known far and wide

as an Historical Laboratory, in which numerous interesting things are being done, attracting
men and women of culture the nation over.
What benefits St. Augustine will help the entire State of Florida, and as an official of
this great commonwealth, I am delighted that the State Legislature authorized an appropriation of $50,000, passing a bill which Governor Fred P. Cone signed.
I look for the Restoration Program to give great impetus to St. Augustine, the County
of St. Johns, and Florida as a whole.
The people of St. Augustine are to be commended on their foresight in appointing a
National Committee for the Preservation and Restoration of St. Augustine, and securing the interest and cooperation of such men as Dr. John C. Merriam, president of Carnegie Institution and his associates.
Having the interests of the entire State of Florida at heart, I cannot say too much in
favor of a program that originates in this Oldest City, a state treasure and a national shrine.

(Signed)
NATHAN MAYO.







E-2 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD SUNDAY, JULY 4,1937





Farming Is On 12- Months Basis



... Crops Are Continuous


of In Sunshine State;



Conditions Are Ideal


Entire Nation Florida Covers Large Area; Temperature

Dependent On Is Varied
Florida is almost in a class by itself in the matter of crop producAgriculture tion substantially every month in the year. In thinking of this feature of Florida agriculture it should
Florida Offers Every- be borne in mind that its surface SO extends over a considerable area thing That Can Be from north to south and from east tto west, the latter in its northwest
Desired section. This affords a varied temDe e perature rendering it possible to provide a yield of certain products
in one section that may not be sucAmong the things that have de- cessfully grown in another. But in veloped as the result of advanced the sections of the highest temperathinking is the fact that the entire ture, fruits and vegetables may be nation is more and more dependent produced substantially every month upon the agricultural pursuits for in the year. To those who have not maintenance in every way. The
maintena witnessed this fact, this may aprush from the farms that began a pear to be of an imaginary charquarter of a century ago has been r heppl one of the calamities from which acter, but the people of Florida inour people in the United States have vite personal inspection of these suffered. On the other ha e ep c nd the sections for indisputable verificatendency to return to the farm on tion, so when all year around farm tendency to return to the farm on production is claimed in Florida it the part of thousands and thou n i e ri the part of thousands andof th cou- means just that to those who are sands in different parts familiar with the picture.
familiar with the picture.
try offers hope for final recovery The valuable crops of Florida are from conditions which have brought too numerous to mention in any distress to all alike. Farm owner- one discussion of farm products, ship, personally operated by the but there are a few theatre so outowner is reviving interest in agri- but there are a few that are so outculture and brininng toit a degree standing that the reader will enjoy
B n d p a e o o n ei ei tr umsprooductin tin c ng botk the ralcter ow the of success which it has never known noting both the character of the bef of A u crop and other items relative to its beFlorida, with its favorable im production and sale. It is quite ed States are edarFlorida, with its favorable clim- probable that many of Florida's ate and abundance of precipitation robbse thhoat ae ot F iar' offers everything that can be de- friends throughout the country are sired to the agricultural-minded not acquainted with the fact that Not only is the climate adapted to corn is produced in the state to profitable production in agriculture, tremendous advantage. but the diversified soil, responding For example, in 1935, the acre:fk to cultivation and moderate use of age of corn for all purposes amountlwell selected fertilizer, makes it ed to 717,399 acres whereas the topossible for the prolific production tal number of acres raised for grain of substantially every crop that was 685,211, yielding 5,928,977 furnishes wholesome and health- bushels. While oats are not proO giving food. duced in any great quantity for
_threshing purposes, at the same S om time in the year 1935, 4,746 bushels Pyrethrum Found To Be were produced and oats for feed totaled 7,089 acres.
Money Crop For Florida, The state had 91,629 acres of cotton producing 28,332 bales. ToAccording To Reports bacco is one of the great crops of the state and in the year mentioned
above, with 6,114 acres there was
Photo No. 1, above, shows one of Florida's productive cabbage fields, in No. 2 we find proof that Florida In a report made at the Second a yield of 4,654,398 pounds.
produces corn on a very large scale and to a tremendous advantage to farmers Photo No. 3 shows a Dearborn Conference by R. E. Cul- Irish potatoes with 26,303 acres farmer and his son proudly displaying his Florida-grown Grapes. bertson, Research Fellow in Pyre- produced 3,609,947 bushels while thrum Investigation, Crop Protec- the growers of the state furnished tion Institute, it was stated that 1,485,814 bushels of sweet potatoes. after eight years of experimental Celery is one of the extensively Agricultural College South Florida Makes Author Writes About work with hundreds of plots in raised crops of the state, the yield
Editors Are To Meet Tremendous Strides In "WildLife In Florida"; thirty states, results showed that in one county alone amounting to Epyrethrum can be grown success- as much as 2,000,000 crates with a In State August 17-19 Specialized Farming Takes Different Phases fully in the United States. It was value of more than $1,500,000.
also determined that toxicity of The Florida State Department of Between 50 and 75 representa- Those visitors who have not made In a book titled "Wild Life in pyrethrum produced in this coun Agriculture is now preparing to
tives of the United States Depart- a recent trip to Florida would find Florida," written by F. Trench try equals or surJa passen or its native will be printed in bulletin form and ment of Agriculture and agricul- that the South Florida region is one Townshend, B. A., Capt. 2d Life brought in from Japan or its native ready for distribution the latter tural colleges throughout the Unit- that has undergone a remarkable Guards, and published in London home Dalmatia. part of the year. The information ed States are expected to gather in development in the past few years, in 1875, various articles are men- Some of the earliest experiments which it furnishes will be amazing Florida August 17-19 for the an- With the exception cf the citrus tioned not commonly described by were begun in Florida. As long to those who are not familiar with nual meeting of the American As- fruit industry, the development of better known authors who treated ago as 1928, a base was established the resources of the State of Florsociation of Agricultrral College agriculture has only begun on a of Florida. Captain Townshend at the Experiment Station in ida in connection with its farm Editors. This will be the first time large scale, and the progress that travelled via the St. Johns River, Gainesville. This site was selected, products, which of course covers a the association ever has assembled has been made justifies that belief visited St. Augustine and went on the report says, because of the sim- great variety of fruits as well as
in Florida. in the possibilities of this portion by any accommodation he could ilarity of climate to parts of Japan vegetables.
Following the business sessions, of Florida which prompted pioneers find to the southern portion of the and the Mediterranean countries; 0
which will be held at the Univers to settle here and experiment with East Coast. Of the Indians at Mi- because plants could be raised
which wil be held at the University hitherto untried soil types. ami he says, "The only curious throughout the year and sent to Florida Maintains Its of Florida in Gainesville, the group One of the most promising indus- article of native work we saw was other locations and because labor Marketing Bureau; Is will make a trip into parts of south- tries, and one that is limited to a s- ecies of musical instrument was plentiful at low costs. A fourern Florida, visiting interesting only a few parts of the United which might be called a pair of acre planting was established at Great Aid To Farmers scenic pointsand agricultural areas. States, is the growing of rare Indian castanets. These were made Gainesville Experiment Station The trip, which will be made Au- tropical fruits for a highly special- of six small land tortoise shells grounds and plots at Sanford, Florida maintains a State Margust 20-24, will include Silver ized market. It offers unusual op- sewn on to pieces of embroidered Ocala, Quincy, Lake Alfred, Bar- keting Bureau, which is also under Springs, the 4-H club camp in portunities for those qualified for deer hide which was cut so as to fit tow, Pennev Farms, Brooksville and the direction of the commissioner Ocala National Forest, Sanford, this type of farming, on to the thighs of a squaw. The Baldwin, Fla. of agriculture. Orlando, Lakeland, phosphate The popularity of South Flor- shells were filled with beans of the For those wishing to grow pyre- The chief functioning of the bumines in Polk County, Cypress Gar- ida's climate has made it, along w!trl coffee plant which rattling thrum it is of interest to know that reau is the system for providing dens, Bok Tower, Sebring, the Ev- with other Florida regions, one of about as the woman danced, pro- it will not become a noxious weed. markets, not only in connection with ergades, and East Coast points, the favorite playgrounds of the duced sounds not unlike that of Neither will it be harmful to bees the marketing centers, but to aid in
An informative program con- nation. Thousands of visitors come Spanish castanets. They were or livestock. In fact the stems ma every way the sale of all products cerned with problems and work of annually to rest and play in South curious specimens of native work be used for hay. offer state which the farmers may agriculture college editors is be- Florida, and each year a great nuo for sale. In this connection ing prepared for the business ses- h ber of these tourists remain in a us- One planting under favorable con- the bureau publishes a "for sale,
sons in Gainesville. Duncan Wall ida to make it their future home. dians usually refuse to sell them." years. Pyrethrum is started from carries a large number of adverof Oklahoma is chairman of the A variety of manufacturing en- In this ame volume Captain the seed and is handled very much tisements offering for sale pracprogram committee. I. G. King- terprises contribute toward the Townshend mentions that the "milk like celery or tobacco. The average tically every item that the farmer horn of Colorado is president of prosperity of this section and give of fresh coronuts.was said to be market price of seven and a half of the state produces. This bulletin the associations, M. S. Eisenhower employment to thousands of indusof the U. S. Department of Agri- trious Floridians. a cure for dysentery." cents would not justify American has a wide circulation and is sent
__production but when it reached 12 without cost to those who desire it. culture is vice-president, and W. o- o cents, the highest quoted in New Market News Service is maintained A. Sumner of Wisconsin is secre- Florida truck growers are rap- Six hundred and twenty- five York, the farmer can make some in connection with the Federal Detary. idly learning the value of soil- acres of farms and groves were money, partment of Agriculture and the
o building crops. Several nunded planted to crotalaria last month in A full account of pyrethrum crop Bureau cooperates in every way
One Florida 4-11 club boy made a acres of sesbania, cowpeas, and velprofit of $135.10 on his poultry vet beans have been planted by one Florida county. A total of making in every detail as experi- which is helpful to the growers.
project this year. The boy has a growers during the past few weeks, 5,200 pounds of seed was used in can be found in the Second Dear- in poultry, dairying and marketing flock of 70 birds. in one county of the state. the plantings, born Conference report. I cover every sr eion of the state.







SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD E-3



Bureau of Immigration



Has Important Work To



SDo For State of Florida


Naan Mayo Many New Residents AtStracted to Florida as

Commissioner Result

For 14 Years INTEREST SHOWN

Activities of Department People Ask Seriously for
Have Increased Tre- Information on Numendously merous Topics

The directing head of the Flor- Under authority provided in the ida State" Department of Agricul- State Constitution the Commissionture is Honorable Nathan Mayo, er of Agriculture is in charge of commissioner. He has held this the Bureau of Immigration, the position since 1923, covering a per- scope of which has been extended iod of 14 years. During that period from time to time by the legislaI It, of time the activities of the depart- ture. The work of this bureau in\ ment have necessarily tremendous- cludes editing publications discussly increased and agriculture has ing all farm subjects which are benefited materially in every way. distributed to farmers throughout The population of the state has al- the state as well as to prospective most doubled and farming has be- farmers living in other states. It come a real business in every sec- also prepares literature furnishing tion of the state, information about Florida which is The commissioner has charge of sent to inquirers from other secthe citrus inspection, which send tions of the country and also to forout millions of boxes of oranges. eign countries intended to set forth grapefruit and other citrus prod- the advantages of coming to Florida ucts annually. He is also prison for amusement and health purposes commissioner, and also becoming a permanent Other matters coming specifical- resident of the state. ly under his direction cover such For a number of years since the activities as The Law Prohibiting organization of this bureau the inthe Sale of Immature Fruit, The quiries were principally made for Frozen Fruit Law, The Arsenical the purpose of satisfying curiosity Spray Law, The Standardization with no apparent serious intention Fruit and Vegetable Law, The Milk of either coming to Florida for a and Milk Products Law, The Ice visit or for the purpose of locating V .Cream Law, The Commercial Fer- in the state and making it a home.
tilizer Law, The Commercial Feed- In recent years, however, the attiing Stuffs Law, The Agricultural tude of people from far and near (Continued on Page E-6) (Continued on Page E-7)










Celery is one of the state's most profitable crops and is extensively
raised in several parts of Florida. The above photo shows a packing plant preparing shipment the market, while the inset shows celery growing in the field In photo No. 1, at the right, is shown a group of pickers gathering blackberries. Scene No 2 is of a grapefruit grove


Many Problems Federal Census

Are Peculiar Shows 72,857 Florida Farms
TO This State It will be of interest to Florida's friends, and particularly to
the thousands who have made inExperimental Work Is quiry of various organizations
of Greatest Value to about the extent of farming in Florida, to know that according
Florida to the federal census of 1935 there were 72,857 farms operated by
Thefollow fm th45,751 full owners, 3,668 part
The following from the Agricul- owners, 3,039 managers, 20,399 tural News Bulletin, issued by the tenants, 4,674 croppers.
College of Agriculture, University The value of all farms, land \ of Florida, gives such an interest- and buildings was $321,077,653, ing discussion of agriculture in this average value per farm $4,407, state that the information con- average value per acre ,$53.08 gained undoubtedly will be given with a total acreage of 6,048,406 :
general attention: making an average of 88 acres to"Florida agriculture is peculiar e rmak farm. average of 83 acres to itself.
"Climate and soil conditions, ;0 natural enemies of plants and animals, and other factors differ from Central Florida Has those of other states and, therefore, it is necessary for farmers to Favorable Climate And have different cultural methods and
different ways of combatting natu- Products Are Varied ral enemies of their crops and livestock. neSome of the most beautiful lands
"But it is necessary for Florida in Florida are located in the central to call on other states and coun- part of the stae state. Here one one finds a tries for new varieties and breeds region complete in natural beauty, at times to continue advancement agricultural productiveness and in"This is where the agricultural Those who think of Florida as a
scientist comes in. A plant strain low, flat peninsula will find a revethat flourishes in another section lation in the rolling lands and slopof the country might not do as well ing hills that characterize Central here because it might have more Florida. The favorable climate lonatural enemies than it had in its cation of this section, together with original habitat and it might not be the abundant water supply and good as hardy as plants which have been drainage facilities, renders it pargrowing in Florida for many years ticularly suitable for truck and fruit Varying soil conditions might also growing, dairying, poultry raising have a large bearing on the mat and other agricultural activities. ter. So, the agricultural scientist The production of phosphate, goes to work with the imported lime rock, kaolin, lumber and ther plant-observing its behavior, its valuable commodities gives Central strong points, and its weaknesses. Florida an important position in the Perhaps, in time, the new strain will industrial development of the state, . develop a resistance to its natural and a variety of manufactur ing enenemies here and become adapted terprises contributes substantially s
(Continued on Page E-4) to the income of Florida.






E-4 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD SUNDAY, JULY 4,1937

Marketing Centers Form

Most Important Phase


Poultry Gains Commissioner Hopes to See One in Every

In Popularity Community
No agricultural program would
Florida Shown to Be Ad- be complete if it could only assure the producer that weather and soil
mirably Adapted for conditions make it possible for the yield of large quantities of the variProduction ous products. It must loan aid in the marketing of such products.
So, to take care of this very great
The poultry industry, like that need, which was long since recogof dairying, has just recently pro- nized by the commissioner of agvided convincing evidence that riculture, Nathan Mayo, under his Florida is probably better adapted supervision and direction, marketto poultry products than any state ing centers with warehouses are in the union, being established in various parts This is true not only because of of the state. It is Mr. Mayo s amits climate that makes it compara- bition that at the earliest possible tively easy to produce and market moment, one shall be made convenipoultry but especially because of ently available in each community its inexpensive housing. In many in the state. These market centers states the matter of heating and furnish booths where the grower ventilation tremendously reduces can bring his farm products and the profit of the poultry industry place them on display for sale to But here in Florida almost anytype buyers who come from various of housing takes care of the situa- parts of the country. Telephone tion; but it is not to be understood and telegraph services are mainthat because of this fact there is stained in these buildings. A restauany indifference applied to the rant, ice house, crate material and quality of poultry in any class gasoline filling station are located .4Soecial attention in many instances on the premises. Federal and state is being given to the use o only the market quotations are furnished best grade of birds with a history daily through the State Market back of them that makes certain of Board. the profitable production of both Market bulletins covering comteggs and poultry meat. Very natu- modity prices on the market are t rally, it is here as it is everywhere furnished daily through the coopelse, there are some who do not reap eration of Federal and State Marsatisfactory benefits, but those who ket News Service. In fact, every are giving it thoughtful and per- facility and convenience is placed sonal attention are finding it to be at the disposal of the producer who one of the most satisfactory indus- takes advantage of this helpful systries occupying the attention of our tem. people. These marketing centers have Not many years previous, Florida been found profitable to growers, had to be supplied largely with securing, not only, better prices eggs and poultry from other states, for them, but making it possible for but we are rapidly coming into our the immediate disposition of whatown and it is apparent now that ever they have for sale. soon we will not only furnish eggs h and poultry for our own consump- To establish a marketing system tion, but will be in a position to par- and to promote poultry production Sticipae in profits that come from in this section are primary aims of Supplying the needs of other states recently organized poultry groups with poultry products, in Florida.









Photo No. 1, above, displays a group of Brahma cattle grazing. Cattle raising is one of Florida's leading enterprises. In No. 2 are dairy cattle of a type that finds popular favor with Florida dairies. The photo at the right gives evidence of the state's splendid tobacco fields. Tobacco is also one of Florida's great crops. o
Young Floridians Are MANY PROBLEMS
Being Encouraged To (Continued from Page E-3) to soil conditions. If not, the scienFollow Agriculture tist endeavors to cross the imported strain with the strain already
Earl Faircoth of Chiefand is growing in the state, hoping to dethe new president of the Florida velop a variety having the producAssociation, Future Farmers of tive qualities of the imported plant American, having been elevated to and the hardy characteristics of
the office at the ninth annual con- the Florida plant. This has been the office at the ninth annual done often and farmers of the state vention of vocational agricultur done often and farmers of the state students at the University of Flor- "Thave rfitsame condition applies to ida. The Future Farmers of Flor- "The same condition applies to ida include numerous youths and livestock. Native Florida cattle,
young men who are being encour- hardened to the task of rustling for aged to stay on the farms. The themselves and having built up sessions were attended by nearly through the years a certain amount 700 students from high schools all of immunity to their natural eneover the state. mies, do not produce as good beef
Other officers for the ensuing as purebred and high-grade strains in other sections of the nation.
year include Eli Redd of Trenton, These purebred cattle from other vice-president; Warren Woods of sections, however, will not flourish Redland, secretary; Dan Stone of under Florida conditions, or, at Gonzales, treasurer, and Jim Mc- least, they will not do as well as the natives. The Florida stockman
Clung of Aucilla, reporter, wants good beef so he can compete X Livestock judging and other con- with stockmen of other parts of the tests featured the three-day pro- country. So the scientist takes up gram, which was directed by J. F. the task of developing stock that Williams, Jr., state supervisor of will inherit the productive characteristibcs of the purebred and the
vocational agriculture with the hardinessof the native. State Department of Education. "A cross-bred or grade animal Teams representing Sanderson, is the result and the Florida farmer Tate and Springhead chapters won finds that this type of stock produces fine meat, thrives under contop honors in livestock judging. ditions here, and offers first-class Highest individual judges were W. competition to stock from other B. Dowling of Sanderson, T. W. states. Harrison of Inverness, and Eugene "This developing work by scientists has meant many dollars of adWadsworth of Aucilla. ditional profits to Florida farmers
Prizes were awarded at a closing since the establishment of the State banquet session at which Colin H. Experiment Station. Many accomEnglish, state superintendent of plishments along this line are on public instruction, made the prin- the station records. It is one of the major fields of activity in the stacipal address. Dr. John J. Tigert tion. It is a very necessary phase and Dean Walter J. Matherly of of work if Florida agriculture is to the University of Florida also ad- keep step with that of other states dressed the group during their ses- of the nation." sions. o The convention for 1938 will cover Natural seedings of Vasey, Dala period of four days, an extra day pst are grnfe n have having been voted by the delegates attracted considerable attention this year. from cattlemen and dairymen.






SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD E-5

FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT GROVE























The Sunshine State is well noted for the deliciousness of its grapefruit and Florida citrus growers annually realize a neat profit from groves similar to the above.



TRUCK FARMING IS PROFITABLE























The variety of richness of Florida soil makes it especially adapted to the growing of truck crops, offering year-around planting and results that make truck farming pay.









In No. 1, above, is a group of registered spotted Poland China Hogs, while scene No. 2 shows a fine brood of chickens raised on one of \ Florida's poultry farms.
S> Photo No. 1, at the left, shows one of the familiar scenes that greet tourists in Florida, a fine Orange Grove surrounding one of the Many lakes that abound in Florida. No. 2 shows field workers gathering a fine crop of lettuce.


FRESH FROM THE FIELD






















A fine gathering of peppers grown on one of Florida's Truck Farms which in their surprising way seem to "grow everything".


SWEET POTATO FIELD


















SMillions of bushels of sweet potatoes are produced in Florida as I nually from fields similar to the above.






E-6 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD SUNDAY, JULY 4,1937
SO I 1 .tMount Oswald, sugar was actually Soldiers WAjf produced in good quantities. It was of interest to find that cane plantl ed two years could make so much
Menendez Made su
Following that, Moultrie was experimenting with rice at one of his
POO Fr lerS plantations below Moultrie Creek Indigo was the subject of most
interest apparently and the exports
Early Spaniards Paid during the British period proved that Florida offered good opporLittle Attention to tunity for its production.
Cattle raising attracted attenAgriculture tion and the area north of St. Augustine especially on what the first
ENGLISH BOOM Spaniards had named Diego Plains, and along Pablo Creek, were known
With Advent of British, for the good grazing to be had. In
With both the English and second SpanThen Americans, Prog- ish periods, that section was in high favor.
press Came By the time the United States came, in 1821, if it hadn't been for
The first strike in East Florida Indian troubles the plantations and might be called an agricultural farm owners would have seen an strike. It took place within six era of prosperity. months after St. Augustine was Efforts were being made to guide founded. When food seemed scan- and advise settler in choice of ty and planting was suggested as land and crops. A book which cona remedy the soldiers who had ar- stained much on crops to be made, rived with Menendez issued a state- and how to handle them, says: "The ment. They had not "come to land in the neighborhod of Pablo plough and plant and wished to go is held in such high estimation that to the Indies to live like Christians many productive settlements have .... and not to live like beasts in Flor- been made and are now making. 7 ida." Agriculture received small No part of this country comes support from the earliest Spaniards. more generally into notice than At the same time Menendez had this presenting some of the largest planned to provide plenty of farm- settlements on the present route ers in his Florida settlements. In from the United States to the capione description of the situation tal of the Province." there were 12 farmers and the A picture of life on the farms is laborers w7re soldiers married to found in John L. McKinnon's Histhe farmers' daughters. tory of Walton County. The setOne of the earliest reports of tlement he is describing was largeplanting mentioned that one man ly made up of Scotch ancestry peohad planted barley and other grains pie, whose thrift had helped them and garlic and onions and peas. succeed. "In the Euchee Valley
Corn was the only crop. At- Settlement in Walton County in tempts were made to raise olives, the 1820's sugar cane soon beSo far as agriculture really went came the important crop. Mills under the Spaniards less was done primitive enough, with rollers made in nearly 200 years than the British of live oak or other hard woods, accomplished in the following 20 were set up here and there, three years. When they came in, it was and four families owning and using pretty well understood that the best the same mill-they would comlands in the peninsular, as then mence grinding in October and understood, were west of the St. grind until Christmas. Johns River and portions of the "The Mossy Bend mill, as were northern and central parts were the others, was a great resort for highly thought of. the young people to spend their
But one of the biggest develop- evenings exchanging jokes, swap
ments was along the Halifax, the knives, play games, have candy s Mosquito and Tomoka Rivers. At pullings and court sweethearts. The










In the top photo workers are busily engaged in cleaning an d packing oranges at one of the state's terminals for such work. Photo No. 2, above, shows another industry that employs thousands in Florida, cigar ii making.
At the left, photo No. 1 displays sugar cane and pumpkins growing to advantage in the same field. No. 2, a citrus grove. No. 3 shows a strawberry field and packing house.
only rivalry was to see who could be burned by the savages. For a get the most young people to come brief period after the war was endthe week they were grinding, to ed farmers again pushed operahave the most fun. They observed tions. Once more Florida offered their turn to grind, systematically." prosperity.
Continuing the picture of Walton This time cotton was king, and County, as McKinnon draws it, the the farmer found market near farmer depended on corn for much home for all he produced. Several of his daily living. The writer says mills were in operation in West "Corn was at first ground in simple Florida when the war started beoc hand-turned mills and Indian mor- tween the States.
tars, a stationary bed-rock of flint Opening of land in the lowerpart
of same dimensions, with an aper- War Between the States brought ture in center for corn to drop wide settlement south in sections through; fastened directly above, seldom heard of as possible agriso that it could be raised or low- cultural locations, previous to 1861. ered as the meal needed to be coarse Its rich soils and advantages of or fine, was a runner manipulated warmer climate gave the settlers by a wood rod fastened above and new openings for raising vegetables placed ia a small hole near its h i edge; and the Indian squaw would and fruit t nder different conditions.
sit down and turn this upper rock Time has solved many problems for around and around by means of this South Florida agriculturist, while around and around by means of this the farm and home demonstration pole and make good meal." Similar staffs have aided in converting devices were adopted by these fa ove abut in u o r tie
-I farmers, many a loss into a gain for the During the early part of the growers. SUnited States' control of Florida, NATHAN MAYO huge sugar plantations occupied (Continued from Page E-3) areas in the sections south of Moul- Marketing Law, The Pure Food trie Creek and down as far as New and Drug Law, The Advertising Smyrna. Land grants were made Law and the Gasoline Inspection conditional on occupation and im- Law. provement. Sometimes only one Commissioner Mayo is also a negro would be put on some tract farmer on an extensive scale and to clear land and plant corn. But has been all of his life. Almost until Indians became too fierce and everything that can be grown is destroyed too many homes, the produced on his farm located at sugar plantations were operating Summerfield, and he is the owner extensively. Sometimes as many of a very fine citrus grove. His in1' 1i as 100 negro hands would be em- terest therefore, in all classes of ployed on such a plantation, farming in Florida is definite and At the same time the territory actual and his experience in all west of the St. Johns had begun to lines of agriculture has prepared feel the diligence of the farmer, him in an ideal way for the work Both the national and State gov- to which the state has repeatedly i ernments were carefully studying called him.
the soil and its possibilities. Flor- Many demands have been made ida was to be an agricultural State upon him from time to time by his in which semi-tropical products hosts of friends throughout the would be raised. Easy conditions state that he become a candidate for acquiring land were offered set- for Governor, but up to this time, tIers. The Seminole war interfer- at least, he has preferred to remain ed, as farmers were attacked, or as commissioner of agriculture, where he has felt that he can renfled with their families, leaving der the greatest service to the their homes and out buildings to greatest number of people.






SUNDAY, JULY 4, 1937 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD E-7

Florida's Citrus Justly

Claims World-Wide Fame


Livestock On Superior Quality Recognized; Yield Is InFarms Shows creasing
While Florida by no means
e gr claims as its only principal crop orange and grapefruit and other
citrus products, its fame in this
particular is world-wide, not only
Quality In Every Line because of the extensive yield but also by reason of the unrivaled deIndicated by Improv- liciousness of the fruit taken from the citrus trees.
ed Breeds This reference is not intended to reflect upon the excellent fruit produced in other sections, but is given
The type of livestock which may in full confidence that this fact is be found in various sections of the easy of substantiation. One has but to place a Florida orange by the
state is a matter of general pride, side of that raised in any other secThere was a time when all the cattle side of that raised in any other see tion of the world to be convinced
and hogs to be found in Florida of its superior value and its grapewere those that roamed the forests fruit has never been surpassed by and fields but rapidly has the indus- any competing product. try passed from merely the con- The yield of citrus fruit in Flormon herd or flock into that type of ida has steadily increased in the animal that represents the highest past few years until in 1935-36 the standard of reeds. total production of oranges, grapeOne only finds it necessary to fruit and tangerines reached the visit our various agricultural ex- grand total of 30,000,000 boxes with hibits given throughout the state an estimated increase in 1936-37 of each year to discover the advanced substantially 39,000,000 boxes. The Ssr quality in substantially every line industry represents an investment of livestock such as would do credit of from $350,000,000 to $500,000,to any climate that might be found 000. Shipment of these various in any country. fruits including oranges, grapeHorses and mules of the very best fruit, tangerines, limes, lemons, fruit, tangerines, limes, lemons,
class and among the most capable satsumas and kumquats begin in animals are extensively used on September and frequently extend
the farm to replace the old, faith- through July. ful ox that pioneered our fields and
other states for many decades. The
last available census showed there The first ice used in the fishing were 17,976 horses and colts, 40,- business at Titusville was made in 946 mules and mule colts. Added to
this type of stock are 713,001 cat- a DeLand ice plait and shipped to tle, with cows and heifers two years Titusville on the J. T. & K. W. old and over, 376,522 and as indis- R. R. In 1869 there were only three putable evidence of Florida's agree- houses in Titusville. Sam Norton able climate mere reference need
be made to the fact that at the same made the trip from Albany, Ga., time there were 39,942 sheep and with mules and wagons over the lambs. sand roads and took 30 days, in all, The state is also pr6ud of its the party coming by way of the old record in raising of hogs with the
last census showing 447,135 hogs Government trail through Live Oak
and pigs. and along the Wekiva River.







In the top photo we see tourists inspecting a stately orchard of Sand Pear trees and in photo No. 2, above, clusters of grapes grown in a Florida vineyard.
Photo No. 1, at the right, one of Florida's healthy dairy herds; and No. 2, a cotton field. Photo No. 3 displays a pecan and satsuma grove, with cover crop between the rows.
BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION Dairying In Florida
(Continued from Page E-3) Heights has entirely changed and serious Reaches New Heights and earnest inquiries are now being As Breeds Improved made by those who are either intending to tour the state or preparing to locate here permanently. Dairying in Florida has reached Not only is this indicated in the enormous proportions, and it comes nature of the inquiries, but also in like a fairy tale or some fancy arthe large number that are received. riving from dreamland when it is
In many of the letters which recalled that 15 or 20 years previcome to the Department of Agri- ous to the date of this paper, the culture a statement is made that most of the cattle were of the native farm land has already been secured unattractive type. It was perhaps and the writers are looking for in- thought in those days that Florida formation that will be helpful to would have to depend upon the open them in ensraging in agriculture in range cattle with no background or Florida. Files of the department future. But what a change has show that there are as many as 20,- come over the industry. COO inquiries received in one year It is not necessary to leave Florasking for Florida literature and ida to find both the attractive and in most instances information con- pedigreed kind furnishing dairy cerning agriculture. These letters products of the highest quality and are all answered and the inquiries in the most profitable quantity. replied to in detail in addition to Florida can well boast of her highthe literature sent bearing on the class dairies and also of the large specific subjects named. number that are daily serving our
The Department of Agriculture people. The most careful superhas issued more than 100 publica- vision authorized by well selected tions on different subjects. In none and strict laws is maintained by the of these publications is it intended Department of Agriculture; sanito mislead or overstate the facts tation is the main requirement and about Florida, but extreme care under the Milk Control Law, the is exercised in an effort to provide dairyman finds it possible to enjoy the inquirer with the actual infor- a profitable income. These dairies mation at hand, whether it be rela- are to be found in almost every lotive to agriculture or the amuse- cality and are managed and oper- Ci ments which the state offers to ated in a way that is most creditthose who are seeking recreation, able both to the industry and to the
Fairs and exhibits at various ex- people of the state.
positions have been a part of the work of the Bureau of Immigra- farming of Florida is done in North : tion in order to bring to the atten- and Northwest Florida, and cattle ... tion of the people everywhere Flor- raising and the production of naval ida's availability as a playground stores contribute substantially to and as a permanent home, both for its income.
Much potential wealth lies in the t"

North And Northwest areas in this section. Springs,
coast line at many points give it


North and Northwest Florida is industry.
a portion of the state that is well Along the coast of this region known for its agricultural produc- are located several important ports tiveness, the industrial activity and from which there is shipping to all its natural beauty. ....... The greater part of the general Iparts of the world.






E-8 THE ST. AUGUSTINE RECORD -SUNDAY, JULY 4,1937

AWAY DOWN SOUTH

















Negro cotton pickers delight in getting at a field like the above which is taken from one of Florida's farms.



LETTUCE SEED BED


























Truck farmers in Florida have rare opportunities for diversified crops and the results are many varied products. Above is a lettuce seed bed.












The Irish potato crop As also one of the leaders in agricultural pursuits and in photo No. 1, above, is a growing crop. Photo No. 2, above, shows one of the state's fast developing industries, Tung Oil. This photo shows the Tung Oil tree in full bloom.
No. 1, at the lower right, two Cauliflower heads that any farmer y would be proud to select from his field; No. 2, picking Cucumbers in a Florida field; and No. 3, picking Peppers from a forty-acre pepper field.



STRAWBERRIES IN THE FIELD



















Strawberries grow large and luscious in Florida soil. Above is a field of the delicious berries which will net a full crop.




BIG JUICY FELLOWS









grow ar






Melons like the above, grown in Florida, are noted for their delicious
flavor and juicy interiors. They add to the prosperity of Florida agriculturists.