Reports of Sub-Committees of the National Committee for the Survey and the Development of the Historical Resources of St...

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Material Information

Title:
Reports of Sub-Committees of the National Committee for the Survey and the Development of the Historical Resources of St. Augustine, Florida
Series Title:
St. Augustine Historical Resources
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Creator:
Chatelain, V. M.
Publisher:
St. Augustine Historical Program
Physical Location:
Box: 1SW6

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Saint Augustine (Fla.)
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine

Notes

General Note:
The last part of the document is a copy of a letter sent to Dr. John C. Merriam (of the Carnegie Institution of Washington) from Waldo G. Leland, in which recommendations are provided as to how the elements of the historic areas of St. Augustine should be developed

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
USACH00006:00001


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REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE NO. 1 DEALING
WITH THE FACT FINDING SURVEY OF HIlTORICAL
MIATERIAL5 PLETAi:L:'G TO ST. AUGUoTIIl;, FLORILA


The proposal for some form of development program for
the conservation of important features and values in
the ancient city of St. Augustine, Florida, is one
which has had consideration for many years. It has been
noted on numerous occasions by visitors and local inhab-
itants alike that the physical conditions in St. Augustine
have been gradually drifting more and more into a chaotic
state, wherein the chief historical assets and much of
the charm of the old city is being lost.

Those appreciating the rich historical traditions and
assets of this region, where the first white settlement
having continuous history in American was established, have
watched ancient landmarks disappear time after time through
one cause or another. Disastrous fires, the thoughtless
action of private property owners as well as city offici-
als, and the general destruction that comes through the
operation of natural causes in time and change, all have
conspired to bring about a condition in which historic
sites have been lost sight of, ancient edifices have
passed into oblivion, and the elements making for object-
ive physical evidence in history have been squandered.

For the moment it does not make so much difference how
the idea originated of saving what is left, or who contrib-
uted to the beginnings of the program which has resulted
in the preliminary survey now drawing to a close. Suffice
it to say that it remained for Mayor Walter B. Fraser to
take the action which led to the organization of a National
Committee for the conservation of this area. Matching
Mr. Fraser's deep interest in this program is that of
Dr. John C. Merriam and others of the staff of Carnegie
Institution of Washington, who, at the psychological moment
threw the weight of their influence and support to the
carrying out of the survey program, which it is hoped in
time may lead to a plan for saving what remains of the
physical history of St. Augustine and utilizing a well-
articulated city plan, based upon the development of the
natural and historical assets existing here.

After a series of conferences between Mayor Fraser and
representatives of Carnegie Institution and the National
Park Service during the summer of 1936, a committee was
appointed with a membership containing certain of those
locally interested as well as a number of persons of
nation-wide pretige interested in the possible contri-









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butions which the story of this area might afford to the
American history. Also, it was decided to hold a pre-
liminary meeting of the National Committee in Washington
on October 26, 1936, at which time the organization of
an historical survey was discussed and certain tentative
conclusions reached. Among other things, the committee
took cognizance of "the importance to future generations
of the history and culture of early Spanish settlement
on this continent", and particularly "of the first perma-
nent white settlement in the United States (at St. Augus-
tine)", where the committee believed "that the historic
setting should be faithfully preserved and that it should
explore every avenue and possibility to the end of pre-
serving, ... restoring and constructing ... such sections
of the old part of the city as were once within its for-
tifications to the extent which documentary evidence and
other reliable data and research will permit".

As a first step in the study of a proposed plan of devel-
opment it was determined that a sub-committee should be
formed, to furnish to the full committee information re-
garding the documentary data, "legendary and factual,
bearing on the settlement of the city by the Spanish and
subsequent occupations and development relating to the
architecture, customs, and means by which early settlers
utilized local material to replant old world civilization
in the new". This sub-committee furthermore was instructed
to begin archeological excavation work immediately to un-
earth and bring to light such evidence as would enable the
National Committee to consider fully the culture, customs,
and development of St. Augustine. It was thought that
such information would be useful in determining to what
extent a development program should be carried out,
affecting city planning, the possible preservation, recon-
struction and restoration of historic sites and the general
treatment of St. Augustine as a part of its immediate en-
vironment.

Immediately after the formation of the National Committee
and its first meeting in October, Dr. John C. Merriam,
who had agreed to serve as temporary chairman, in consul-
tation with Mayor Fraser and other representatives of the
city of St. Augustine, agreed upon the setting up of a
staff having as its purpose the conduct of the historical
survey to provide data for the report of the sub-committee
on fact finding.

In passing, it should be noted that a second sub-committee
was decided upon to formulate recommendations on policies












of development. The work of the Historical Survey
staff was also to provide a basis for the report of
this second sub-committee.

For the purpose of facilitating the activities of the
sub-committee on fact finding, the National Committee
placed in Dr. Merriam's hands the problem of selecting
and organizing the personnel to carry out the work of
the historical survey. Verne E. Chatelain, formerly
the Chief Historian and Acting Assistant Director in
charge of the Branch of Historic Sites and Buildings
of the National Park Service, Washington, D. C., was
selected to direct the historical survey, following his
appointment as Research Associate on the staff of
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Subsequently, the
members of Sub-Committee No. 1 on fact finding were
named, as follows: Dr. Waldo G. Leland, Permanent Sec-
rotary, American Council of Learned Societies, Washington,
D. C.; Dr. Herbert E. Bolton, Profusaor of History,
University of California; Dr. A. V. Kidder, Chairman,
Division of historical Research, Carnegie Institution;
Dr. William E. Lingolbach, Professor of History, Univ.
of Pennsylvania; Dr. Matthew W. Stirling, Chief, Bureau
of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution; together
with Dr. John C. Merriam and Mr. Chatelain.

It should be added that to finance the historical survey,
the city of St. Augustine and other interested persons
pledged two thousand dollars, which sum was supplemented
by funds provided through Dr. John C. Merriam from various
Carnegie sources, as well as by certain assistance given
by the Florida W.P.A.

Mr. Chatolain began his work on November 15, starting
first with a survey of materials to be found in the
libraries in Washington. On December 7, he came to St.
Augustine, here, with the cooperation of the Layor and
other civic leaders, offices were provided for the survey
in the First INational Bank Building and other personnel
selected to assist in carrying out the program. Including
those selected were: iMr. Rogers Johnson, Engineer; Mr.
U. J. winter, Archeologist, Mri Albert Manucy, Historian;
VMrs. Blanche Royos, Typist; Miss Vera Smith, Typist; and
Miss Ruth E. Harris, Secretary4 Also it was provided
that Miss Frances Bonjamin Johnston, under a grant from
the Carntgio Corporation, should come to St. Augustine
in order to make a photographic record under the direction
of Mr& Chatelain for the purposes of this survey. Miss


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Johnston arrived on December 15 and continued in St.
Augustine until January 24. The nature of her , will be referred to hereafter and some of her pictures
are incorporated in this report.

It should be added that through the cooperation of the
City Manager, Mr. Eugene Masters, a U.P.A. labor crew
was provided for the archeological excavation work, which
was inaugurated officially by Dr. Merriam upon his visit
to St. Augustine on January 12. This work has continued
to date under the direction of Mr. Winter, Archeologist,
and Mr* Johnson, Engineer. On February 1, owing to an
interruption in the W.P.A. program, a re-organization of
this part of the work i,as undertaken, and a now arrange-
ment made tith Mr. Masters, whoreby the City furnishes
directly a crow of six men to be paid out of the funds of
the City of St. Augustine. This arrangement will continue
at least through the first neek in March.

In addition, several members of the staff of Carnegie
Institution have paid visits to St. Augustine during the
course of the preliminary survey, among them Dr. Merriam
himself, Dr. Leland, and Mr. Charles W. Eliot, connected
with the National Resourceus Board. At the time of the
October meeting of the National Committee it was decided
to hold a second meeting of the committee in St. Augustine
during the month of March, 1937. Thf date of that mooting,
March 2, marks the end of the period of the preliminary
survey and the report uhich follows represents a statement
covering the general activities of the research program to
date and the report of the first sub-committee on fact
finding.


OBJECTIVES AND VALUiS.

In approaching the problem of research relating to St.
Augustine and its environment, several considerations may
be pointed out vhich have a definite bearing, it is
thought, upon the nature extent, and justification for
such activity. Unlike oiher problems of historical re-
search, uhich have sometimes confronted students of his-
tory, it need here only be mentioned that this program
has been set up and conducted for the purpose of shedding
definite light insofar as that is feasible upon the life
history of this community and with the idea in mind of
translating the results of this effort into a plan of
physical development, and wise city planning for the









- 5 -


oonservatlon, stabilization, interpretation and g&noral
educational use of the materials and values thus dis-
covered.

The student will note among other things that St. Augus-
tine is the oldest community of the uhite race having
continuous history in the United States, that its racial
stock, while basically Spanish, has been influenced by
other races, -- Indian, Negro, and other Caucasian stocks.
All of these have had their part in creating the physical
and cultural environment in St. Augustine. It should also
be emphasized that the history of white settlement in this
community, which dates from the year 1566, has passed
through many successive and distinct phases of development.
Each of these has its own peculiar significance in the
story as well as a relationship to what existed before and,
to what was developed afterwards. It would seem, there-
fore, unwise to settle upon any one particular time level
as the point of emphasis, either in the natter of histor-
ical interpretation or physical development. Rather, it
is thought that the philosophy of research and development
should be one having as its purpose the gradual unfolding
of the story, considering origins, causes and effects and
the various contributions of all natural and human influ-
ences to progress as measured in terms of time and change.

In this connection, the fact should be stressed that St.
Augustine, far from being a dead and abandoned area, is a
living, growing social organism. The object of research
should be to single out the individual historical sites,
buildings, other structures and remains, to find every
possible shred of historical evidence as to the record of
these places and the general life story of this community,
and to stabilize, preserve and accentuate this physical
history and the story which goes with it, insofar as
possible consistent with civic progress and social well-
being. Research should give the student the clue to the
fundamental historical values existing here, and then a
wise program of development should serve to put these re-
sources in a setting which will unify their physical treat-
ment and presentation under conditions as harmonious and
as conducive to public welfare as is possible.

Insofar as the written source materials are concerned, the
ideal program of research certainly should be to ascertain
fully the nature, extent, location and condition of this
material, and to effect the concentration of the original
manuscripts, et cetera, or copies thereof, in a central









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place of deposit, preferably in the historical museum
and library, which it is to be hoped may be developed
in connection with the general program hereafter for
St. Augustine. This material not only will throw light
upon the many problems of proposed development and res-
toration, none of which should be made except in the
light of rigid tests of historical accuracy, but also
will lead to the time when monographs dealing with par-
ticular aspects of history in St. Augustine and evuntu-
ally a definitive history, dealing with the entire
story, can be written Undoubtedly, too, much of this
source material itself eventually should be published,
not only the manuscript records, but rare editions of
books no\; several centuries old which at present are
almost entirely inaccessible. Added to these prospects
for research and scholarship will be the development of
studies looking toward the complete collection of the
traditional stories, to be gathered systematically from
different families in the region, a collection of
pictures and the recorded studies involved in the engi-
neering, photographic and archeological activities,
begun under the preliminary survey, and possibly to be
continued in a further program of research.

Respecting archoological research, it should be noted
that thu preliminary survey already indicates its great
value not only in the field of prehistoric origins, but
as well in thu historic period. Archaeological studies
and the written sources uill go hand in hand in the idual
program of research, and in passing it is well to note
that such a method has been used in the preliminary sur-
vey "with interesting results to be referred to hereafter
in this report.

The ideal nethod of research for this program, it is
believed, should be pan-scientific, that is to say,
every science and art should be given full consideration
in order that all aspects of community life may be fully
appreciated. Significant studies for this region may be
made in the fields of physical and human geography, cli-
mate, foods, medical history, anthropology, agriculture,
plant ecology, paleontology and geology.

The ordinary methods and disciplines in history encompass
a much more limited field of research, involving often a
consideration only of written source materials. However,
the subtleties of human life are rarely to be gleaned and
understood as a result of mere written records. Few men
ever record a full analysis of themselves, their neighbors
and their environment in writing, and even to the extent








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to which they make such a practice, the subjective
coloring of prejudice and attitude necessitates great
caution on the part of the student in the use of written
sources. Consequently, the practice of using conscious-
ly, as a contribution to historical evidence, the col-
lective disciplines of all other sciences and arts, par-
ticularly physical records in the realm of natural
sciences and archeological evidence, will stimulate
interest on the part of the student, all of which will
add to the sum total of information and understanding
of life in sti Augustine. Tho physical environment of
a people, when carefully studied, will shed much light
upon the reasons for their successes and their failures
respecting their individual and collective enterprisesA
The geography of St. Augustine is very significant, as
is its climate, its fauna, and its flora. The study of
the domestic equipment of a Spanish kitchen, other fur-
nishings of the house, machines used, and methods of
transportation, cannot only be ascribed to certain causes,
but in turn are conditioning factors in the mores and
culture of the people. For these reasons they constitute
proper objectives of historical research and shed light
upon the history of a city and a region. It should be
noted in passing that very few people, even students of
history, can describe and explain the primitive machinery
and the methods of manufacture, fra:u sugar cane, of syrup
and sugar, the appearance in the growing condition, and
use of, indigo, the processes of spinning and weaving
cloth from cotton and wool, the preparation and the
character of certain Spanish dishes, the methods of dress
and appearance of various social classes which once lived
in this community, or the types of schools and teaching
which once had vogue here.

A full utilization of the pan-scientific method of research
in this historical field will lead, it is submitted, to
a much more complete comprehension of the life history
of St. Augustine. And when these studies have been made
and their full significance has been brought to the
attention of scholar and the layman alike, there should
be developed in the citizen of this community, as well as
in the visitor, a better realization of the charm and
historical values of St. Augustine, represented in its
climate, its natural scenery, its physical historical
resources, and such modifications and artificial elements
as have been introduced by man into the natural setting.
The preservation of the assets of St. Augustine its
natural charm and its historical resources presents a
social challenge, which it will be interesting to discover
whether the community will meet.









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Viewed in its entirety, a progressive research and devel-
opment program in St. Augustine should result in making
this place a great laboratory of history, as well as in
the fine arts and social democracy, useful not only in
understanding more fully how life progresses, but effec-
tive because of its objective realism, far more than the
books and the class-rooms can be, in educating all classes
of citizens in what may be termed "historical-mindedness".

Finally, it should be pointed out that research respect-
ing St. Augustine should pay careful attention to the
relationship of this area to other regions in the United
States, Comparisons and contrasts between colonizing
efforts here and elsewhere under different auspices, will
prove both fascinating and valuable, and will lead to a
better comprehension of the entire scope of American
history. As in studying history elsewhere, attention
must be given to the fact that St. Augustine was, through
several centuries, a frontier outpost and conditioned as
such, that it represented the northern-most advance of
Spain along the Atlantic seaboard, that much of its
story is inextricably interwoven with conflicts involving
other nations, first France, then Great Britain, and
eventually the Americans themselves. Throughout its
history, until the time of the American Civil War, the
military theme is very important, as is the relationship
of St. Augustine to other centers of Spanish and French
culture and to cities such as Savannah and Charleston.


SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND THEIR TREATI.NT IN THE
PRELIMINARY SURVEY.

The first consideration involves the problem of printed
materials, insofar as they exist for the study of the
history of St, Augustine and its environments. The stu-
dent will not be disappointed in the number and variety
of printed books, pamphlets, circulars, newspapers, et
cetera, for the study of this region. Of course, there
is no such thing at present as a definitive history of
St. Augustine, and no published work has appeared which
considers all possible sources of information for such a
study. There are monographs concerned with special as-
pects of the field, which have been done reasonably well,
such as those of Mrs. Connor on the period of Menendez
and the earliest Spanish period, and Miss Brevard's per-
taining to the British, the second Spanish, and the
American periods, in the Florida State Historical Society
series. In this connection every volume of the series#
edited by Dr. J. A. Robertson, eleven in all, as well as









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the quarterly magazines, have been valuable. Mention
should be made here of works, also published under
these auspices, such as Siebert's work on the Loyalists
of the Revolutionary period and :hitaker's, having to
do with the commercial trade with the Indians in the
British and Spanish periods, notably that of the Panton,
Leslie Company.

Inter sting published works, many of them rare books in
Frenc and Spanish now out of print and difficult of
accec give to the student the sources of the earliest
Spani h and French colonization. For instance, De Bry's
Brev1 Narratis preserves the unusual pictures of LeMoyne
dealiKg with the early Indian life of this region. Pro-
bably no single collection of early pictures of Indian
life in Amierica has comparable value, unless it is that
of Uhite's collection relating to the Indians of the
Virginia region. Fortunately also, there are fairly
accurate accounts in published form containing the
sources for the Ponce de Leon story, and that of Menendez.

General narrative histories of St. Augustine, such as
those of Fairbanks and Reynolds, provide illuminating if
not altogether complete surveys Moreover, several im-
portant contributions have been made to the church his-
tory of St. Augustine such as those of Shea, Kenny and
Ugarte, the last published in the Historical Records and
Studies of the United States Catholic Historical 5ocie-Y .
There is also published in a recent pamphlet from the
Smithsonian Institution a Seventeenth Century letter of
the Catholic churchman Calderon, describing the Indians
and Indian missions of Florida. Works like that of
Winsor, in his Narrative and Critical History, afford
discussion of biTbIographlTc'l material as1 well as an
historical summary especially of the earlier period, in
the same way, Parkman has value, and likewise Bourne and
Priestley. The published guides of the Carnegie Insti-
tution of Washington are indices to the masses of archival
materials, many of which are to be found in foreign
countries.

Without exhausting this subjects it may be indicated that
during the preliminary survey a bibliography of printed
materials has been made, which, while not complete by any
means affords an opportunity of suggesting further
researches looking toward the preparation of a completely
adequate bibliography. For this purpose the bard index
and other aids to be found in the Library of Congress, as
well as in the libraries in this vicinity have been used.










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Efforts have been made to discover and estimate the
value of special sources of materials such as those in
the Buckingham-Smith and Lovery collections, some of
which are in manuscript as well as in published form.
Such work as has been done thus far in this preliminary
survey with newspapers points to the fact that there is
probably a great deal of information to be gained from
such printed sources of material, although unfortunate-
ly newspaper files in St. Augustine are not available
locally except for the period from 1889 to the present.
It should be said in passing that newspapers were pub-
lished here as far back as the Eighteenth Century and
there is a published guide to those beginning with the
period of American occupation. Such a private collection
of newspapers, as that of Mr. Phillip Yonge of Pensacola,
containing St. Augustine newspapers since 1830, can be
mentioned as one collection offering considerable possi-
bilities for investigation. The newspaper files in the
Library of Congress offers much, as also newspapers of
Jacksonville, Savannah and Charleston, t~horein materials
relating to St. Augustine are likely to bo found.

Bibliographical studies of this preliminary survey have
dealt in the second place with problems of manuscript
material. In considering this field it should be noted
that in the aggregate this form of written sources con-
stitutes by far the largest single field of endeavor for
future research. Such guides as those of Carnegie Insti-
tution of Uashington, already mentioned, and Dr. Corse's
list of Floridiana to be found in the Library of Congress,
point to the almost appalling masses of manuscript source
materials, comparatively little of which has been publish-
ed. Among the foreign archival deposits certainly the
most significant is that of the Papeles Procedentes do la
Isla de Cuba, to be found in the Archivo General de Indias
at Seville, Spain. In this collection, approximately
58,000 documents have been calendared by Carnegie Insti-
tution of UWashington, covering in general the period from
1761 to 1821 and dealing with such subjects as Indian
problems, colonial finances, military, social and relig-
ious matters. While copies of some documents of the
Papeles have been made, a great proportion of them are
still inaccessible to students of this region and the
working of them presents a practically virgin field for
investigation.

Another great deposit of manuscript material pertains to
the East Florida papers to be found in the Library of
Congress. Those contain for the years from 1740 to 1821
a variety of items, such as correspondence with the









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British authorities, roy1l regulations and orders,
documents relating to the delivery of East Florida to
the United States, the embargo and the revolution of
1795, Indian presents, negro problems, plans of froti-
fications and public buildings, edicts, proceedings,
secret correspondence of the Governor, and many other
subjects. The Papeles and the East Florida papers con-
stitute only two of many such archival deposits. Others
are to be found in libraries in France, Great Britain,
Rome, Mexico City and elsewhere. At Tallahassee in the
State Archives are found source collections in manuscript
form for the period from 1821, such as data upon land
grants and other official documents. In the city vaults
in St. Augustine are official manuscript records involving
various transactions of the city government, particularly
since the beginning of thu American period of occupancy
in 1821. These last named records are fairly complete
from tho year 1840.

Manuscript sources involve thu student in researches in
almost ovcry direction. The St. Augustine Historical
Society Library contains photostats and copies of many
sources of this type. The library of Fort Marion National
Monument also contains valuable photostat material, secured
from the wVar Department through the historical activities
of the National Park Service. Thu Fountain of Youth
Library has a collection of photostats of source material
some copied from the LoLory collection in the Library of
Congress, including maps, the Buckingham-Smith collection
in Nuu York, and from the Library of theo isconsin His-
torical Society. Of value also are such records as the
field notes of engineers more particularly those relating
to the Clements' survey of 1833-34 and those recorded
with de la Rocque's survey in the year 1788.

Of most unusual significance are the early Catholic
church parish records of births, marriages and deaths, of
..hich there is almost a complete series from the year 1594.
Th: condition of these records is a matter of great con-
corn and it is hoped that out of the activity of the pre-
liminary survey there may come some plan for their preser-
vation and more general use. At present they are in such
shape as to be practically inaccessible. Dr. J. A.
Robcrtson, already mentioned, has collected several thou-
sand photostats of manuscript source documents pertaining
to Florida history, of whl h many involve especially St.
Augustine. There is much material of a similar nature in
the collections of Brooks, Mrs. Connor, Buckingham-Smith,
and LoJcry.

It can be stated without fear of contradiction that the









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work of investigating, classifying, and giving careful
study to the manuscript materials relating to St, Augus-
tine and East Florida, as weall as the laying of plans
for their copying and eventual concentration in ono
magnificent deposit is an enterprise worthy of any re-
search institution in this country. It is believed that
no more valuable contribution to the study of American
history could be made at this time than the massing and
systematic use of all documentary materials, i.herever
found, on St. Augustine. While in this report no attempt
can be made to deal ..ith all the ramifications of this
problem, yet it should be pointed out that it is a task
which will take c reful organization and skillful work-
ers, in libraries covering many parts of the United
States and foreign countries to bring this riaterial
together as a partial basis for a definitive history
and publication for St. Augustine.

As another consideration of importance, the subject of
cartographic material will appeal strongly to the student.
During the preliminary survey photostatic oopios have
boon made of many important maps applying to this region,
involving every period of whito occupation. In this con-
nection, guides to certain map collections and bibliograph-
ical references to many published maps have been noted.
To attempt to evaluate conplutely the importance of carto-
graphic m.toerial in this field of c~arso wouldd be impossible
in this report.

Hol.ovor, a fu; observations should be madc. The best
single index to maps is of course th:.t of Lov.ry involving
his valuable collection, no,:; deposited in the Library of
Congress. Dr. Corse had made a valuable map collection
and has brought together as well, materials on the Minor-
can colony at New Smyrna. The guides to manuscript mator-
ials in the Library of Congress and in foreign archives
contain many references to maps, many of them in manu-
script form and as yet inaccessible and unused by students
of Amurican history. Publications such as Winsor's, re-
ferrod to previously, list and publish interesting maps
relating to St. Augustine. The Florida Historical Society
publications have also bebn the means of publishing impor-
tant riaps, sketches, and charts1

Some of those map records, especially those in pictorial
form, give much information regarding the extent and
degree of the city from time to tim. They are, of course,
the best sources regarding the position of various houses,
the location of ancient defense lines, the months and
other military fortifications and outposts. Especially
significant in this connection are the maps of DrJake 1586,







- i3 -


Arredondo 1737, de la Puente 1764, the British| tax map
for the period 1763-1783, Stork's map for the British
Admiralty 1766, the unsigned British map of 1782, de la
Rocque 1788, the Clements' Survey 1854, and a sketch map
made about 1885, which pictures the streets, houses and
other structures of that period.

The preliminary survey has given much attention to pic-
torial materials, which of course have peculiar value
in research, having as one of its principal objectives
the possible re-development of certain physical features
including houses and other structures in St. Augustine.
Pictorial materials, to be found in the period prior to
the American Civil War, are of course somewhat scanty.
Attention has already been called to the work of the
artist LeMoyne, dealing with early Indian life in this
region. Notew.orthy also is the pictorial element upon
some of the early maps of St. Augustine, of which a good
example is the Drake map of 1586, showing the Fort, some
of the houses, vessels lying in the harbor, and the geo-
graphical setting. Mention has likewise been made of
the map of St. Augustine, dating about 1885, which con-
tains pictorial representations of various houses and
streets as they appeared at that time. In the survey
thus far there have been accumulated certain sketches,
probably antidating the Civil liar period, such as one
featuring the Moat and City Gates and the coquina bridge
crossing the lloat, and another sketch from the harbor
emphasizing the entire shore-line of St. Augustine front-
ing upon Bay Street, dating possibly before 1861,

With the more general use of photographs in the post-
bellum period there has come do%,n to us a fairly com-
plete record of features of the town and region for this
period. Old stereotypes, of which the St. Augustine
Historical Society has a large collection, cover a range
of subjects including exterior and interior house views,
street views,,pictures of gardens, and of transportation
facilities, such as the ancient ox-cart, and the horse-
dra::n tram cars.

Of great value from a historical standpoint is the com-
parative study of the street scenes and houses of earlier
periods in conjunction with recent pictures taken from
the same locations. In the survey there has been an
attempt, more or less successful, to arrange pictures
dealing Twith the same subjects in different periods of
time which show the effects of time and change on the
physical environment in St. Augustino and vicinity. Very
significant was the discovery during the course of the
survey of thirty-three 11 x 14 plate negatives taken








- 14 -


probably in 1882, and found in cleaning out a store-
room in the City Hall, all made apparently at the same
time and covering more or less completely the principal
streets and features of St. Augustine. Possibly no
prints had ever been made from these negatives before
being ordered under the survey program. They consti-
tute most important historical evidence.

As a special feature of the survey the photographic
activities of Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston should be
mentioned. Following the preparation of a list of approx-
imately fifty historical buildings and other structures,
Miss Johnston in her very effective way has made a most
unique record of the major physical historical aspects
in St. Augustine. Her contribution in preserving a
faithful record through photographs of historic archi-
tecture, splendidly artistic, and yet faithfully accurate,
is one of the features of the survey likely to have last-
ing significance. Such work of course calls attention
to the chief historical assets still remaining in this
City.

Along with the photographic record prepared by Miss
Johnston there has also been prepared a ''case history"
of tho house structures so photographed, setting out in
as much detail as possible the history of these struc-
tures. An effort has been made to arrange a chronologi-
cal grouping of the subjects of these photographs. Case
histories for other houses and house-sites also have been
prepared.

Another type of pictorial record with which the survey
has been concerned is that of archeological excavation
work. Each step of excavation, as it has been developed
would become the subject of careful pictorial study,
which used in conjunction with the field notes of the
archeologist and the drawings and measurements prepared
by the Engineer, give a summary of this phase of the
program. Photographs also have been used to record the
appearance of important artifacts discovered thus far in
the preliminary survey. The pictorial material to date
includes old prints, maps with pictorial features,
photographic enlargements, such as those prepared by
Miss Johnston, stereotypes and film strips. In this
last connection film copy records of manuscripts, maps
and other illustrations have been made as a part of the
records of the survey. Many grouij and individuals in
St. Augustine have had a part in contributing to the
collection of pictures, and this work represents one of
the finest cooperative activities in the program thus
far. Fortunate too is the student in history in having
for his use rather adequate collections of pictures at





the St. Augustino Historical Society, and at the Public
Library, as well as less complete collections of Fort
Marion, the Fountain of Youth, and in the files of
several local commercial photographers.

One of the principal sources of information developed by
the preliminary survey involves the interesting field of
archeological investigation. This investigation is giv-
ing attention to both the prehistoric and historic periods
in this region. The archeologist, as a part of his activ-
ity, has made a preliminary study of prehistoric mounds,
both sand and shell, and while no systematic effort has
been made to compile the full data on the location and
nature of these mounds, a tentative bibliography dealing
with the work of earlier archeologists in this region has
been brought together throwing light upon prehistoric man
as well as prehistoric animals. There of course remains
very much to be done in this field of investigation in
any future research program which will be developed in
St. Augustine. In passing, it should be noted that even
in excavation work, the primary purpose of which is to
determine the nature of historic sites, pottery and their
artifacts relating to the aborigines have been discovered,
preserved, and photographed. Archeological effort relat-
ing to the historic period has involved excavations for
the purpose of obtaining the exact location, measurements,
and other data on the Moat along Orange Street to Fort
Marion and a "sampling" of certain historic house-sites,
such as that at 56 Marine Street, to develop evidence re-
garding ancient house foundations and artifacts which per-
tain to the life of the people. This sampling process
during the period of preliminary survey, indicates the
considerable potentialities of this method of developing
historical evidence. Archeological work relating to his-
toric sites is, of course, closely co-ordinated with the
research in the written records to determine as fully as
possible "the case history" of such sites. Needless to
say, no reconstruction work could be done in St. Augustine
in a duvelcm.-nt program without the accompaniment of a
basically sound archeological research. The field notes
of bhe Archeologist, as in the case of the field notes
of the Engineer, and of the photographer accompanying such
activities as has been mentioned, constitute important
historical evidence developed during the course of the
preliminary survey.

Aside from archeological remains developed through excava-
tion below the surface of the ground, there are left in
St. Augustine many interesting structural materials in
the forms of walls, portions of walls of ancient build-
in.g, arches, gardens, cvlls, chimneys, et cetera. Some
of these have been the subjects of photographs and a








-16-


partial recorded list has been prepared. Undoubtedly
much historical value is to be attached to this form of
material.

In addition structural remains include of course the
historic house itself, constituting as it does one of
the probable historic records of St. Augustine. In
connection with the comments regarding photographic
activities of Miss Johnston attention was called to the
preparation of a list of approximately fifty historic
structures, among them the Burt House, the so-called old
Spanish Treasury building, which is an outstanding period
house both from the standpoint of its exterior, and in-
terior furnishings and having important historical value,
contributing to a knowledge of historical architecture
and also of many phases of the domestic and cultural life
in St. Augustine.

Such historical evidence has, of course, tremendous
psychological appeal in the educational program to be
associated with the proposed plan of development and
provides one of the main features of objective reality
linking the present with the past.

The problem of collecting historical evidence concerns,
to be sure, many other possible sciences and arts. Local
historians from time to time have made records of oral
traditions, recollections and specific unrecorded infor-
mation, dealing with the home life of the people, special
events, religious observances, goods including recipes
for now almost entirely forgotten Spanish dishes, dress,
military events, famous legal battles and, in fact, an
almost unlimited range of information vhih is of interest
to the community in connection with its political, economic
and cultural background. Fortunately, this material has
become the subject of papers of the local Historical
Society as well as for special feature articles in the
newspapers. Needless to say, there is much yet to be
dorn in this connection and a systematic attempt should
be madu in any research program hereafter organized to
carry' for.;ard this program.

Furthermore, a study of language elements and the electri-
cal recording of voices of representatives of chief lang-
uagc groups in the community offers a range of possibili-
ties which might eventually lead to the production of a
linguistic atlas, such as has been worked out In New
England under the auspices of the American Council of
Learned Societies,

A point of close connection with the study of language is
the consideration of other types of demographical material








- 17 -


as a part of the general historical evidence of this
area. For instance, there is an opportunity for anthro-
pological studios concerning both prehistoric and historic
stocks in this area. Already extensive skeletal remains
have been uncovered which will enable the student to study
the size, bony structure and other anthropological fea-
tures of various racial groups here. As a special feature,
a local committoo organized by the St. Johns County Medical
Society is engaged in an affiliated investigation of tho
history of medicines, surgery and health conditions in St.
Augustine. In addition, much attention can be given to
the ninutia- of moros and customs for which not only the
written records contain material, but information to be
secured from representative living persons of different
racil-. stocks. A study of names also offers fascinating
questions from such standpoints as the consideration of
the origin of the name, the transfer from one place to
another of names and persons, as well as variations in
n.mes which have boon developed from time to time. Again
the development of folk songs and folk tales in their re-
lationship to the cultural development of St. Augustine,
it is submitted, will be of great interest and worthy of
serious research.

Finally, there should be considered in connection with the
development of historical evidence rul.ting to the life and
growth in St. AuLustine, certain ccologicl- materials.
This field of research includes the problem of natural
ca.usation in its effect upon human beings. Aside from
general questions of climate, soil, rainfall and sunshine,
considered in their effect upon the development of certain
social forms and activities, there .re involved such specif-
ic considerations as meteorology, zoology, geography, both
physical and human, biology and botany. Without taking up
in detail consideration of the special contributions of
these fields of scientific activity to the problems in
human history, as affecting this region, it should be said
that human causation finds many of the well-springs in
environmental conditions, whether such are realized direct-
ly or indirectly. The foliage on the trees, the flowers in
the gardens, the humidity in the air, the general esthetic
problems affected by plant life, the river, the bay, the
ocean; the types of food, the absence of mountains, the
presence of various forms of acquatic and land life, the
length of seasons, the temperature, -- all these consid-
erations and many others, developed through careful ecolo-
gical studies, will go far in explaining human existence
as it affects St. Augustine and its vicinity. It is be-
lieved that such studies should be made a part of the pro-
gram of research, which is being suggested in this survey
report.








- 18 -


In connection with the survey, it should be added that
research has been conducted in several special fields,
looking toward the development of an orderly plan of
growth and well-being for the future St. Augustine.
Questions have been raised and partially answered as to
the economic basis of this community, its industries,
its trades, its businesses, or in other words the means
by which community life is now sustained and the question
of how the proposed development plan may modify such con-
ditions hereafter. Questions have been raised and answers
sought to the problem of why the tourist business, which
centered in St. Augustine fifty years ago, has been dis-
placed at least in part and has gone to other parts of
Florida or elsewhere. Studies have been made relating to
traffic and traffic control in relationship to a proposed
plan of development. All of these problems need further
research, as do special legal considerations involving the
effective use of zoning, eminent domain, the possible de-
velopment of easements relating to private property and
the question of what is the best form of business organ-
ization to carry forward the incidents of tourist trade in
the event of a development program. Needless to say, modi-
fications of State law and City Charter along the right
lines will be necessary, and the research now being carried
forward through such local committees of citizens and the
Bar as they have been formed, are very necessary, looking
toward ideal civic planning.

This report has not referred specifically to a great deal
of historical evidence, the details of which are to be
found in the files and special reports of the St. Augus-
tine Historical Survey. An examination of bibliographi-
cal records, photostatic copies of maps and other data,
studies of the pictures of different periods and subjects,
special reports, sketches, and case histories of sites
and houses, and studies contributed by certain local his-
torians such as Miss Emily L. Wilson and Mrs. E. W. Lawson,
and thu artifacts uncovered thus far in excavation work,
as well as other records developed in the course of the
Survey, while incomplete in the sense that no exhaustive
research has been made, points to the amazing range of
possibilities for future activity in this field.








HISTORICAL FEATURES lI\ ST. AUGUSTINE AND VICINITY


I. PREHISTORIC

A. Indian Mounds

1. In St. Johns County, Dupont's and Rhotan
mounds (Pellicer Creek vicinity), Moses
Creek Mound, Sanchez Mound and others
(north of St. Augustine), and mounds along
St. Johns River.

B. Indian Village Sites.

1. Seloy
2. Tolomato
3. South Indian Village
4. St. Johns River Indian Village Sites

II. HISTORIC

A. Sites

1. Tolomato Village
2. lNorth Indian Village Site
3. St. Augustine Harbor Channel
4. Anastasia Island Battery Positions and
Coquina Quarries.
5. Fish Island
6. North Beach
7. Kurth's Island
8. M1atanzas Inlet and Fort
9. Cape Canaveral (place of Ribault's shipwrecks)
10. Plaza
11. Plantations: Portenope, etc.
12. Powder lots, south and west in city limits.
13. Missions, Tolomato and Cano de la Leche
14. Tocoi
15. Picolata
36. 1840 Massacre

2. Fortifications

1. Iarion
2. Matanzas
3. Diego
4. Picolata
5. Francis de Pupa
6. Peyton
7. Moultrie (Camp)
8. Caroline








- 2 -


B. Fortifications (Cont'd)i

9. City defenses

a. Moosa
b. 2nd line
c. 3rd line
d. Redoubts

10. Powder House lot south at Lewis Field

C. Roads

1. Spanish Trail
2. Bellamy Trail
3. King's Road
4. Shell Road
5. Anastasia Island Road
6. Tocoi Road
7. Picolata Road

D. Architecture

1. Fort Marion
2. City Gates
3. Old Wooden Schoolhouse
4. Arrivas House
5. Watkins House
6. Old Curiosity Shop
7. Spanish Inn
8. Slater House
9. Spanish Treasury
10. U. S. Post Office
11. Trinity Episcopal Church
12. Lindsley House
13. Bigelow House
14. McMillen House
15. St. Joseph's Convent
16. Murat Coffee House
16A House, 46 Bridge
17. Graham House
18. Llambias House
19t Casa de Cannonoso
20, Webb Memorial Library
21. Oldest House
22. St. Francis Barracks
23. King's Bakery
24. Archway near Bay and Treasury
25. Worth House
26. Sanchez House
27. Slave Market








3-


D. Architecture (Cont'd).

28. Catholic Cathedral
29. Public Library
29A Davis Shores Building
30. Fatio House
30A House, Green & Aviles
31. O'Reilly House
32. Don Toledo House
33. Alcazar Hotel
34; Ponce de Leon Hotel
35i Villa Zorayda
36. Memorial Presbyterian Church
37. Spanish Cemetery
38. Huguenot Cemetery
39& Shrine of Nuestra Senora de la Leche
40. Fountain of Youth Park
41. Indian Burial Ground
42' Seawall
43. Treasury Street
43A Puerto Berde
44. St. Augustine
45. Fort Matanzas
46. Arcade, Snow Residence
47. Constitucion Monument
48. Cordova Hotel
491 Grace M. E. Church
50. Bridge of Lions

III. SCENIC

A. Drives

lI St. Johns River
21 Moultrie Point
3. Lewis Point
4. Ocean Shore Boulevards
5. North Beach
6. South Beach
7. Palm Valley








REPORT OF SUB-COMiiITTEE NO. 2 OF THE
NATIONAL COMCr1iTTEE FOR THE SURVEY AND THE
DEVELOrI.IE1E OF TI-E HISTORICAL 11L'S,-URCES OF
3T. AUGlUSTIILE, FLORIDA


PRINCIPLES


In considering the r. s3ed plan of development for the
city of St. Augustine, Florida, and its imu.iediate envi-
ronment, attention is called to certain fundamental pro-
blems which it would seem necessary to keep in m'.nC- as a
basis for intelligent planning. These are indicated as
follows:

1. St. Augustine is the oldest community of the white
race having continuous history in the United States.
Its racial stock, :7hile basically Spanish, like many
other communities in this country, has received and has
been influenced by a variety of racial contributions-
Indian, %He-gro, and other Caucasian stocks. All of these
have had their part in creating from the natural physi-
cal environment originally obtaining in St. Augustine
the city which exists in the year 1937. To atte-:t to
force a development, having as its purpose the settinv-
up of a single type of architecLturu and representing a
single cultural influence, would be in effect a plan
which would ignore the contributions of many other peo-
ples and cultures. Stating this principle in other words,
the prevailing environmental tone in St.. Augustine,
j,-d3 historically, is Spanish, but the effects of time
and car.,age and the contributions of points of view other
than the Spanish, should be taken into account and pre-
served to whatever extent is possible in an ideal plan
of develo:'-.ent.

2. It would seem to be a mistakee in the development pro-
gram to 'freeze, history" at any particular time level,
whether in the year 1565, 1586, 16V0, 1740, 1765, 1785,
1821, 1865, 1i85, or 1937. These dates are mentioned
because they represent progressive time levels and
stages of history which are more or less marked and dis-
tinct in characteristics. It is believed that the phil-
osophy of development should be one having as its theme
the ir.-dual unfolding of a story which has its peculiar
significance in the fact that there have been origins,
causes and effects, distinct contributions from first
one and then another racial stocks and individuals, and
significant relationships that can only be viewd .in
terms of progress, as well as in terms of time unr.








- 2 -


change. To express in a physical plan for St. Augus-
tine this philosophy involves much more extended and
elaborate consideration of the problems of history than
to arrest a city at a particular level and through the
setting-up of controls and force, make impossible the
deviation thereafter from that condition.

3. The city of St. Augustine is a living and growing
organism, and this condition is of basic consideration
in the proposed plan of development. It follows that
careful attention must be given to singling out and
listing completely the principal historic sites, houses,
and remains associated with various stages of history
to which reference has already been made. The plan
should have as its purpose the stabilization through
preservation, repair, and incidental re-creation or
restoration of the physical elements of history in St.
Augustine, while at the same time permitting the con-
duct of the normal life of the community. It is
thought that emphasis upon the stabilization and con-
trol of determined historical features is not at all
inconsistent with the orderly processes of community
life and growth.

In this connection it should be noted that one of the
basic differences between a planned community condition,
such as is now being proposed, and the condition obtain-
ing up to this time, is the emphasis to be given here-
after to the fixation and stabilization perpetually of
prime historical resources, as represented in houses,
other structures, remains, and written sources. These
constitute assets which cannot be estimated in value
and their future protection in a more or less rigid
condition of stabilization is imperative; however, in
the proposed plan of development, which leaves the prin-
cipal historical resources unchanged, many things can be
done and should be done to facilitate the normal processes
of growth and progress. In other words, "social utility"
would seem to be a fundamental requisite and the problem
of developing a condition whereby the "protection" and
"growth" principles can be made to function side by side
without either seriously circumscribing and curtailing
the well-being of the other, is a matter of first-rate
importance to the proposed plan.

4. During the preliminary survey, the fact finding
activities have extended to the problem of determining
what is of value from a broad historical viewpoint in








- 3 -


shedding light upon the growth and development of St.
Augustine from the time of the aborigines and the
earliest Spanish settlers to the present. Insofar as
written source material is concerned, it can be said
in passing that the ideal and comprehensive program
certainly points to not only the desirability but also
the necessity of such activity and study as will be
needed to ascertain fully the nature, extent, location
and condition of this material, wherever it is to be
found, and to bring about such a condition as will lead
to its being concentrated in one central place, prefer-
ably in St. Augustine, where it can be studied in order
that light may be shed on many problems of physical
development of historic sites and to the interpretation
and to the educational use of this historical field.
Such activity, of course, will lead to the solution of
many of the proposed restoration difficulties, deter-
mining whether such features of change can safely be
made in the light of the rigid tests of historical
accuracy. The creation, the concentration and the study
of written source materials will require a considerable
period of time to carry out, and properly should be con-
sidered as a part of the general program of development
under the proposed plan.

The same is true of the conduct through progressive
stages of the archeological investigation, in this
region applicable alike to the prehistoric and historic
periods. This work should go hand in hand -with the
activity for the collection of written source materials
and will contribute vitally, it is submitted, likewise
to the essential information necessary to accurate
physical planning and development.

Finally, it is thought that the approach to the study
of historical conditions must give full attention to
every element of natural and human causation, which can
in any way throw light upon the understanding of the
historical problem. The method of research should be
pan-scientific, that is to say, every science and art
should be given careful consideration which can in any
way contribute to a fuller appreciation of what has hap-
pened in St. Augustine. Studies should be made in
fields of physical and human geography, climate, foods,
medical history, and the relationship of astronomical
phenomena to mores or customs such as those affecting
religious and social observances. Also indicating the
broad scope of the studies, attention should be given
to the physical and mental characteristics of the







- 4 -


racial stocks, their language, their writingg, thoir
health, and the different aspects of art and cultural
and economic back-ground. If the pan-scientific method
of research is used, studios in agriculture, plant
ecology, anthropology, geology, and paleontology can
be used to advantage in the interpretation of the life
of St. Augustine*

It is admitted that the prevailing methods and disci-
plines in history are much more circu,.scribed than
those suggested in this proposed plan. The point of
departure of the professional historian is ordinarily
written source materials, which he is prone to regard
as the evidence for his record of events; however, the
subtleties of human life are never ascertainable from
mere written records. S3ch evidence never fully
accounts for things as they are, because few men ever
record formally by written records complete analyses of
themselves or other people and natural conditions with-
in their sphere of activity. Written records are inad-
equate to a complete underst&aning of past events and
so we must find historical evidence .here vie can,
whether in one body of scientific knowledge or another.
The disciplines and methods of many sciences will col-
lectively contri'ite much to a fuller appreciation of
human events and, particularly applied to the problem
of research in tilis field, 7"y be used in order to gain
a better Knowledge of the history of St. Augustine.

A plan of physical develoT::ent in St. Augustine must
involve first of all a written Ireconstruction of the
actual life of the city. For instance, it will be
desirable to develop, as has been done in other regions,
a linguistic atlas, an- perhaps make electrical record-
ings of such data as the voices and speech of represen-
tatives of different language groups in this community.
Likewise, studies in the botany of this region will be
of great importance in helping to explain the environ-
inert vmnich the first .mnite people found in coming here
and the use wnich they made .,f plant life. This region,
as well as other parts of America, has contributed very
considerably to the i' xos, miedicines, and clothing of
the w*,orld through, its aint life.

An analysis of physical anthropology of racial groups,
for uhichi trcer is considerable evidence in archeologi-
cal discoveries airuady made here, will involve the








- 5 -


study of the size of individuals in various racial
groups, their bony structure and diseases. Questions
of insect life such as those pertaining to the mosqui-
toes and other pests, bringing discomfort if not actually
diseases in their wake, gives rise to interesting specu-
lations on what history might have bh--n if freed from
such influences, as well as a consideration of what it
was because of these influences.

The plan of development for St. Augustine should, it is
thought, give full effect to the completion of a pan-
scientific historical survey, such as has already in a
measure been started in the preliminary survey.

5. An essential test of the development and the con-
trol of salient physical historical features involves
such planning as will make thea entirely obvious and
which will relate them to each other in a unified pro-
gram. In contrast, the present condition, i.hich con-
fronts the visitor and even the citizen of St. Augustine
is worth noting. Perhaps the best term to use is
"confusing". The visitor, upon his arrival in St.
Augustine, is able not4here at present to secure a com-
prehensive statement of the principal historical features
in relationship to each other, much less to secure more
than casual assistance, such as would be possibly afford-
ed in a guided tour, in visiting one after another of
these sites in some logical fashion. Confronted as he
is with the confusion of badly congested traffic condi-
tions, disconcerting signs, over-head wires and other
obstructions to his full appreciation of an historical
situation, he is likely to maice a timid attempt to en-
joy and to understand old St. Augustine, after xvhich he
finds relief in driving his car out of the toin, proba-
bly with the unsatisfactory feeling of realizing that
he has not gotten what he care here to find. A planned
presentation of historical houses and other structures,
as well as sites where important happenings have occurred
involves, it is thought, two things: First, a unified
and harmonious physical condition and, second, its
skillful interpretation and educational use.

In this connection, it should be noted that the general
effect upon the thoughtful person, although he may be
draun enthusiastically to a contemplation of certain
beauty spots or historical features in St. Augustine,
is generally one of distaste for the prevailing unesthet-
ic conditions. Certainly St. Augustine is not "playing








-6 -


up" its outstanding cultural and historical assets.
Rather, they are at present lost in a welter of un-
sightly distractions. Common sense will dictate a
policy of eliminating the confusion that now prevails
and replacing it with a system and unity of approach,
into which the elements of harmony and beauty will be
introduced. To take such a step is merely to seize
upon the natural advantages in climate, tater, sun-
shine and gorgeous foliage and flowers vihich manifest
themselves at every season of the year even under the
most unfavorable conditions. Without much difficulty,
and without the introduction of any noticeable degree
of artificiality, the wonders of nature can be brought
to the assistance of those planning the future welfare
of this region. Such features as the wvido-spread re-
introduction of semi-tropical gardens, a large variety
of trees, shrubs and flowers, as well as tho natural
advantages of climate and a magnificent waterfront,
all conspire to bring out in high relief and mellowness
distinctive old historic structures, which for centur-
ies have served to epitomize the color and grandeur of
Spanish, French and British efforts at colonization in
the Neo World.

The plan would emphasize the inherent as well as the
obvious historical features in a unified presentation,
surrounding these with the striking beauty of the nat-
ural scene, while at the same time there is developed
a systematic program for handling the tourist and giv-
ing to him an intelligent and complete interpretation
of all that St. Augustine mbans in American history,
Added to this is the fact that the community will it-
self, in adopting this program, be surrounding its life
and directing it in the conservation of its most funda-
mental, natural and esthetic as well as historical values.

Finally, in the presentation of the story, prime consid-
eration must be given to psychological factors, such as
that of beginning the story in the right historical set-
ting. It is thought that one of the first points of con-
tact, if not the first, for the visitor should be the
mouth of the 1Matanzas Inlet where attention should be
called to the entrance upon the historical scono of
intrepid Spanish and French colonizers during the Sixteenth
Century. The student of history and the average layman
alike should have the opportunity to come into contact
with and understand the geographical setting. They
should have pointed out to them and be able to identify,









- 7


before an examination of the details of history, such
general features as the Matanzas River, Anastasia Island,
the peninsula upon which h St. Augustine is built, the
San Sebastian Rivur, the location of Maria Sanchez
Creek and Marsh, as v.ell as the North River and Vilano
Beach. Also, their attention should be drawn to the
location of the previously existing North and South
Indian towns in their relationship to the general Indian
groups which once existed in this region.

As a possible mt-ans of orienting a visitor to the phy-
sical geography of the area as uoll as to the oxamin-
ation of the minutiae of history, it is suggested that
relief models, dioramas, pictures, sketches, and charts,
faithfully developed and accurate in historical and geo-
graphical detail, will contribute to a better understand-
ing of the situation. Their formal presentation in the
planned historical museum is a matter of prime importance
in the program at St. Augustine, which also will become
a concentration point for the mass of historical evidence
and other data to be secured in the research program.



THE SUGGESTED PLAN OF DEVELOP. iEUT.


It is recommended that the suggested plan of development
for St. Augustine, Florida, should give consideration to
the following objectives: First, civic organization and
control, and second, physical elements of the plan.


CIVIC ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL.

It is suggested that the entire program, admitting that
some degree of cooperation and assistance will be necess-
ary from the State of Florida, St. Johns County, and
certain outside groups and persons, will be handled
directly under the auspices of the City of St. Augustine.
It is quite clear that no degree of compulsion or per-
suasion exerted from the outside can accomplish the ends
to which this development should point. Every feature
of the plan depends upon the willing cooperation of the
citizens themselves, upon their ability to see clearly
their own future welfare as a part of the related pro-
gram, and upon their cheerful compliance with certain
features of stabilization, preservation, and conservation








- 8 -


which must be stressed and which must be respected by
local citizen and tourist alike, if harmony and success
are to attend the inauguration of a planned program in
St. Augustine.

Certainly there should be a careful revision of the City
Charter with the consent and authority of the Florida
State Legislature, as well as expressed declaration by
the Legislature involving the principle of eminent domain
in its relationship to the conservation of historic
houses, sites, and remains, in the interest of the public
welfare. Authority for the proper zoning to control the
danger of destruction, the alteration or the reconstruc-
tion of historic buildings is absolutely imperative.
Likewise, zoning should involve features of possible al-
teration and change of other business houses, residences
and various forms of use of private property within the
zoned area. In this connection it should be noted that
zoning will have as its purpose the simplification of
traffic, the removal of cong..stion and confusion of
wbhtever sort it may be, the development of harmony,
ae proper handling of tourists and the intelligent pro-
tection of all historical values within the city.

An important feature of the plan, which it is proposed to
set up, involves the development of some form of city
department or semi-public business corporation having a
close relationship to the city Covrirnment, which can so-
cur'p through donation and other imans adequate resources
witi. which to finance certain features of the plan as
well as to operate the business of visitor contact with
this historical area. This corporation or department
of the city government, depending upon which form of
organization is best adapted to these purposes, would
have charge of the entrance station features, the dis-
semination of information to the visitor, the conduct
of guide service, the handling of parking lots, the de-
velopment of recreational features and parks, in cooper-
ation with other agencies already established for that
purpose, the dealing with the individual owners of his-
toric buildings, where the visitor will go, and in short,
the general conduct of the business features of the pro-
gram.

PHYSICAL ELE, ifTS OF THE PLAN.

The physical elements of the plan involve principally
the following considerations:






- 9 -


(a) The treatment of zoned areas C-I and C-2, as shown
on areas A-1, C-1, and C-2 of the attached map. This
is the district, generally speaking, within the old
defense lines of the city, bounded on the north by the
moat, the City Gates and Fort Marion Reservation, on the
west by the north and south defense lines which ran along
Cordova Street, on the south by St. Francis Street, and
on the east by the Matanzas River-front.

(b) The development of park-like areas, indicated on
map as the series from A-1 to A-3.

(c) The development of certain boulevards and drives
outlined on the map in heavy black lines.

(d) The development of certain promenades, as for in-
stance, a proposed boardwalk feature along the entire
waterfront of the zoned areas C-1 and C-2, extension of
which might possibly include the front of Fort Uarion
grounds and the park-like area A-4 as indicated on the
map: the promenade along Orange Street paralleling the
City Gates and the moat, an ancient defense line, and a
promenade on either side of the bridge-head on Anastasia
Island immediately facing the Hatanzas River and over-
looking the city of St. Augustine.

(e) Development of certain parking concentration areas,
such as B-1 and B-2, having as their purpose the bring-
ing of cars within comfortable proximity to the princi-
pal business district of St. Augustine as well as the-
old historic section shown on the map as C-1 and C-2.

(f) The development of other zoned areas including sov-
eral important residential districts, as indicated in
the series from D-1 to D-8, inclusive, having important
relationship, especially from the esthetic standpoint to
other areas and features of the proposed plan.

(g) The development of a system of traffic circulation
involving the general use of boulevard drives, the lim-
ited use within restricted areas of automobiles, except
as permitted especially, and the putting of emphasis on
walking tours specially within the areas designated as
C-1 and C-2 on the map.

(h) The development of an historical museum presenting
in objective fashion the complete story of St. Augustiro
from its aboriginal beginning up to modern times, featur-









- 10 -


ing period rooms, each containing dioramas, models,
pictures, charts of explanation and artifacts relating
to single stages in the history of this area. This
museum, furthermore, would servo as the point of con-
centration and deposit of the masses of written histor-
ical materials and archeological "finds" discovered in
the preliminary survey and to be discovered in tho re-
search activities accompanying the general program of
development hereafter.



The objects of this program of physical development are:
First, to put the major historical areas in their proper
setting, to relate them to their general environment,
and to develop a unity of treatment and interpretation
through educational use of the same; Second, to create
an atmosphere having elements of basic historical accur-
acy and a high degree of esthetic harmony and beauty;
Third, to facilitate the movement of visitors, to in-
crease their opportunity to enjoy in leisurely contempla-
tion the natural beauty and the historical resources of
St. Augustine, and to develop high recreational features
in the drives, boulevards, and beaches: Fourth, to stim-
ulate a development in St. Aug;ustine among civic clubs
and other groups and individuals of cooperative activi-
ties such as those relating to garden clubs, the develop-
ment of art colonies and othtr creative viork in the field
of art and history, in the staging of pageants, art ex-
hibits, other special exhibits, historical pilgrimages,
historical progr-as, historical pantozmines und theatri-
cals, and special exercises and commemorative holidays
such as fiestas, days in Old Spain, Ponce de Leon Cele-
brations, tourist activities, and many other special
events and features which will lend color and drama to
the natural setting in St. Augustine, and which through
the medium of state and nation-wide publicity will do
much to attract the visitor to this region and develop
in him a consciousness of the meaning of this program;
Fifth, to encourage creative activity in the development
of a consciousness of, and a desire to preserve, the
folk traditions, skills, and home manufacturing of handi-
crafts, such as linen and lace making, the preservation
of traditional domestic foods and dishes, and the tradi-
tional stories, literature, religious observances, and
folk culture generally of various racial groups, in all
of which program the local Historical Society can be of
much assistance and through participation in which the








11 -

Society itself should develop new fields of worthwhile
investigation and interest; and Sixth, to develop and
prepare a definitive history and publication on St.
Augustine which will take account of all phases and all
forms of historical evidence uncovered in the exhaustive
study of the source materials in this rich historical
field.


Attention is called tc the accompanying map and diagram of
this plan, as well as to the memorandum-letter from
Dr. WU. G. Leland to Dr. John C. Merriam, dated February
24, both of which will serve to explain and clarify the
various elements involved in the proposed program with
which this report is concerned.









- COPY -


AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LAR&ED SOCIETIES
.Ie.,iber of the
INTrr;.'TIOIlNAL UI IOI! OF ALCADE 'FES
EXECUTIVE OFFICES
907 FIFTET"Ir STRIT
UASHINGTON, D. 0.


February 24, 1957



My dear Dr. Merriam:

Following the telephone conversation of yes-
terday afternoon, I beg to offer the following reflec-
tions on what sse:s to me to be a suitable programme
for the St. Augustire project.

In the first place, I think that we should
assume that it is not proposed to turn the town, or any
part of it, into a museum, or to freeze it into any one
moment or phase of its history. Any plan must be based
upon the recognition of the fact that a town is a living
thing, and that its growth cannot be arrested.

W7e should also assume that any plan to develop
the historical values of a toxin should have regard to
its entire history. This is particularly true, it seems
to me, of St. Augustine, whose history has had several
distinct periods, marked off in an unusual manner by
changes in political control and even by changes in
population.

I think that our plan must be fairly simple;
it seems to me to involve the following things so far as
the physical disposition of the town is concerned:

While there is much in the town of historical
or cultural interest outside the area within the defences,
it is the latter that we are chiefly considering. This
area extends from the City Gates to St. Francis Street,
and from the Bay to the west end of the Plaza, or Cordova
Street. The plan of this area, that is, its street plan,
seems to me to have been fairly constant from early times.
It should not be disturbed.









Dr. Merriam 2 Feb. 24, 1937


A certain amount of clearance should be effect-
ed about the City Gates to bring them into relief and to
disengage them from the ugly and defacing commercial
structures that have been erected in their vicinity. It
is important, first of all, to make the principal entrance
to the town impressive and beautiful.

I do not think that Bay Street can be much
changed, but I think it might be possible to make a prome-
nado along it on the water side by building a boardwalk
over the water, or perhaps by abolishing the parking bays
and making the present sidewalk, next to the sea wall,
available throughout, in its full width.

A certain number of structures throughout the
area under consideration should be set aside as historic
monuments, and agreements should be reached with their
owners, unless they are actually acquired, for their pre-
servation. In some cases no restoration will be necessary;
careful repairing and strengthening of the present struc-
tures will suffice. The Fatio, Don Toledo, and some other
houses, as well as the School House, soeamed to me to re-
quire little more than repairing and restoration to their
original aspect. The Old Spanish Treasury needs hardly
to be touched; on the other hand, there are structures
that have been modified in recent y..rs by removing bal-
conies or in other ways, and these might be restored to
their earlier appearance if that can be surely ascertained.

An important part of v:hat I should like to see
done has to do with the gardens. These are one of the
most attractive features of St. Augustine. Many of them
are within walls, which ought not to be demolished, be-
cause the privacy obtained by ..alls is characteristic of
Spanish and French dwellings, but they could be beautified
and made accessible and even visible from the street by
openings hero and there.

Some ugly buildings could be masked by palms,
shrubs, and vines. In short, the entire area could easily
be made one of exceptional and characteristic beauty by
proper attention to yards and gardens.

There are only two structures in the town that
seem to me to need radical treatment. The First National
Bank Building ruins the sky-line and greatly mars the as-
pect of the town, as seen from without. This should be
lowered until the spire of the Cathedral is completely








Dr. Merriam 3 Feb. 24, 1937


disengaged as one looks at the town from midway across
the bridge.

The other structure is the water tower. Per-
haps this can some time be removed, but if that cannot
be accomplished at present, I should think it might re-
ceive treatment, as by camouflaging, that would make it
less unpleasantly conspicuous.

Perhaps the most difficult problem is that of
the traffic. 'Jith the streets as they are now, and as
probably they must remain if the historic aspect of the
town is to be preserved, their use by the pedestrian must
be made both safe and agreeable. This is an essential
element of any plan, it seems to me, and unless this is
done, no plan can be really successful. It must be made
an unmitigated pleasure to stroll about the town; to
examine it leisurely and without danger to life or limb.
Eventually this ought to be excellent for retaining busi-
ness within the area, for it would encourage patronage
which now is wholly lost. But it would also require a
good deal of modification of present habits of traffic,
and it would drive out of the area the garages, service
stations, and other structures that depend upon automo-
tive traffic for their existence.

Especial attention should be given to acquir-
ing park areas near the town. First of all, I would sug-
gest securing control of the shoreline across the Bay,
opposite the town, both north and south of the bridge
end. This should be a public promenade and drive, and
could be made a singularly beautiful area from which the
town could be seen to fine advantage. The old moat could
be made Into a promenade, and the western line of defense
might again be planted with Spanish Bayonets. A section
of the moat might be excavated, as a sample. Beaches
should also be reserved for recreational purposes.

I think also that the area about the Fort,
north of the town, to and beyond the Fountain of Youth
Park, should be, if not acquired, at least controlled,
especially near the shore. To the south of the town, the
area that includes the ball park could be improved;
indeed, that area seems to me an ideal spot for a general
park, if the ball park could be moved to some other site.


These, then, are the immediate measures that I









Dr. Merriam 4 Feb. 24, 1937


would suggest. Their details are still to be carefully
studied, and this plan is only a sketch intended to show
in a general way what I think might be done with reason-
able expenditure of funds and without dislocating the
life of the town.

I should like to emphasize, however, the im-
portance of attracting attention and study to the cultur-
al tradition of St. Augustine and to the interest of its
history. If one of the buildings in the tov;n, such as
the Alcazar, could be made into a sort of Folkmuseum,
like those in the Scandinavian countries, I believe that
a most attractive exhibit could be set up. I should also
like to see attention directed to the study of the popu-
lation itself: its racial composition, its speech, its
oral tradition, etc. A great impetus should be given to
the collection of all kinds of historic objects and to
the gathering of those epehemeral materials that are so
useful to the social historian. Little of this seems to
have been done yet. The establishment of the museum and
a sort of archive of cultural history would give great
encouragement to such activities.

Of course the question arises as to what effect
all this might have upon the industry of the town. I
believe that it would encourage industries based on folk
art, especially the various handicrafts, and that the
products of such industry would find a sale in the town
itself, to the thousands of visitors that are sure to be
attracted. But the effort should be made to keep the
industry as uncontaminated as possible by commercialism.
The antiques offered for sale should be the genuine anti-
ques of the region, and not the heterogeneous junk that
is to be found in every tourist center.

The above is Offered as a very superficial
statement of suggestions, but I think that they are fund-
amentally sound, and that a plan that should take them
into account would be practicable.

Very sincerely yours,


daldo G. Leland

Dr. John C. Merriam,
Carnegie Institution of Washington,
Washington, D. C.




Full Text


-9


(a) The treatment of zoned areas C-I and C-2, as shown on areas A-1, C-l, and C-2 of the attached map. This is the district, generally speaking, within the old defense lines of the city, bounded on the north by the moat, the City Gatus and Fort Marion Reservation, on the west by the north and south defense lines which ran along Cordova Street, on the south by St. Francis Street, and on the east by the atanzas Rivtr-front.

(b) The development of park-like areas, indicated on map as the series from A-1 to A-3.

(c) The development of certain boulevards and drives outlined on the map in heavy black lines.

(d) The development of certain promenades, as for instance, a proposed boardwalk feature along the entire waterfront of the zoned areas C-1 and C-2, extension of which might possibly include the front of Fort 1Marion grounds and the park-like area A-4 as indicated on the map: the promenade along Orange Street paralleling the City Gates and the moat, an ancient defense line, and a promenade on either side of the bridge-head on Anastasia Island immediately facing the ia-anzas River and overlooking the city of St. Augustine.

(e) Development of certain parking concentration areas, such as 3-1 and B-2, having as their purpose the bringing of cars within comfortable proximity to the principal business district of St. Augustine as well as the. old historic section shown on the map as C-i and C-2.

(f) ThG development of other zoned areas including soveral important residential districts, as indicated in the series from D-1 to D-8, inclusive, having important relationship, especially from the esthetic standpoint to other areas and features of the proposed plan.

(g) The development of a system of traffic circulation involving the general use of boulevard drives, the limited use within restricted areas of automobiles, except as permitted especially, and the putting of emphasis on walking tours specially within the areas designated as C-1 and C-2 on the map.

(h) The development of an historical museum presenting in objective fashion the complete story of St. Augustine from its aboriginal beginning up to modern times, featur-
































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HISTORICAL FEATURES L ST. ALGUSTINIE AND VICINITY


I. PREHISTORIC

A. Indian Mounds

1. In St. Johns County, Dupont's and Rhotan
mounds (Pellicer Creek vicinity), Moses
Creek Mound, Sanchez Mound and others
(north of St. Augustine), and mounds along
St. Johns River.

B. Indian Village Sites.

1. Seloy
2. Tolomato
3. South Indian Village
4. St. Johns River Indian Village Sites

II. HISTORIC

A. Sites

1. Tolomato Village
2. lorth Indian Village Site
3. St. Augustine Harbor Channel
4. Anastasia Island Battery Positions and
Coquina Quarries.
5. Fish Island 6. North Beach
7. Kurth's Island
8. Matanzas Inlet and Fort
9. Cape Canaveral (place of Ribault's shipwrecks)
10. Plaza
11. Plantations: Portenope, etc.
12. Powder lots, south and west in city limits,
13. Missions, Tolomato and Cano de la Leche
14, Tocoi
153 Picolata
-6. 1840 lMassacre

.Fortifications

1. arion
2. Matanzas
3. Diego
4. Picolata
5. Francis de Pupa
6. Peyton
7, Moultrie (Camp)
8. Caroline









Dr. Merriam 2 Feb. 24, 1937


A certain amount of clearance should be effected about the City Gates to bring th6Le into relief and to disengage them from the ugly and defacing commercial structures that have been erected in their vicinity. It is important, first of all, to make the principal entrance
to the town impressive and beautiful.

I do not think that Bay Street can be much
changed, but I think it might be possible to make a promenade along it on the water side by building a boardwalk over the water, or perhaps by abolishing the parking bays
and making the present sidewalk, next to the sea ,;all, available throughout, in its full aiidth.

A certain number of structures throughout the area under consideration should be set aside as historic monuments, and agreements should be reached with their owners, unless they are actually acquired, for their preservation. In some cases no restoration will be necessary; careful repairing and strengthening of the present structures will suffice. The Fatio, Don Toledo, and some other houses, as well as the School House, seemed to me to require little more than repairing and restoration to their original aspect. The Old Spanish Treasury needs hardly to be touched; on the other hana, t ere are structures that have been modified in recent ycurs by removing balconies or in other ways, and these might be restored to their earlier appearance if that can be surely ascertained.

An important part of ,.hat I should like to see done has to do ''ith the gardens. These are one of the most attractice features of St. Augustine. M any of them are within walls, which ought not to be demolished, bocause the privacy obtained by :.alls is characteristic of
Spanish and French dellings, but they could be beautified and made acce(ssible and even visible from the street by openings hero and there.

Some ugly buildings could be masked by palms,
shrubs, and vines. In short, the entire area could easily be made one of exceptional and characteristic beauty by proper attention to yards and gardens.

There are only two structures in the town that seem to me to need radical trcataQnt. The First National Bank Building ruins the sky-line and greatly ars the aspect of the town, as seen from without. This should be
lo;orod until the spire of the Cathedral is completely








14


probably in 1882, and found in cleaning out a storeroom in the City Hall, all made apparently at the same time and covering more or less completely the principal streets and features of St. Augustine. Possibly no prints had ever been made from these negatives before being ordered under the survey program. They constitute most important historical evidence.

As a special feature of the survey the photographic activities of Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston should be mentioned. Following the preparation of a list of approximately fifty historical buildings and other structures, Miss Johnston in her very effective way has made a most unique record of the major physical historical aspects
in St. Augustine. Her contribution in preserving a faithful record through photographs of historic architecture, splendidly artistic, and yet faithfully accurate, is one of the fGatures of the survey likely to have lasting significance. Such work of course calls attention to the chief historical assets still remaining in this City.

Along with the photographic record prepared by Miss Johnston there has also been prepared a 'case history" of the house structures so photographed, setting out in as much detail as possible the history of these structures. An effort has been made to arrange a chronological grouping of the subjects of these photographs. Case histories for other houses und house-sites also have been prepared.

Another type of pictorial record with which the survey has been concerned is that of archeological excavation work. Each step of excavation, as it has been developed would become the subject of careful pictorial study, which used in conjunction with the field notes of the archeologist and the drawings and measurements prepared by the Engineor, give a sunary of this phase of the program. Photographs also have been used to record the ap-parance of important artifacts discovered thus far in thE preliminary survey. The pictorial material to date includes old prints, maps with pictorial features, photographic enlargements, such as those prepared by Miss Johnston, sterotypes and film strips. In this
last connection film copy records of manuscripts, maps and other illustrations have been made as a part of the
records of the survey. Many grouli and individuals in St. Augustine have had a part in contributing to the collection of pictures, and this work represents one of the finest cooperative activities in the program thus far. Fortunate too is the student in history in having for his use rather adequate collections of pictures at































































-r -r i-1












British authorities, royhl regulations and orders, documents relating to the delivery of East Florida to the United States, the embargo and the revolution of 1795, Indian pr scnts, negro problems, plans of frotifications and public buildings, edicts, proceedings, sccrct correspondence of the Governor, and many other subjects. The Papeles and the East Florida papers constitute only tio of many such archival deposits. Others are to be found in libraries in France, Great Britain, Rome, Mexico City and elsewhere. At Tallahasseu in the State Archives are found source collections in manuscript form for the period from 1821, such as data upon land grants and other official documents. In the city vaults in St. Augustine are official manuscript records involving various transactions of the city government, particularly since thu beginning of thu American period of occupancy in 1821. These last namud records are fairly complete from the yuar 1840.

Manuscript sources involve thu student in researches in almost ;vcry direction. Tht, St. Augustine Historical Society Library contains photostats and copies of many sources of this type. The library of Fort Marion National Monument also contains valuable photostat material, secured from the ~ar Dtpartment through the historical activities of the National Park Service. Thu Fountain of Youth Library has a collection of photostats of source material some copied from the Lo cry collection in the Library of Congress, including maps, the Buckingham-Smith collection in NUw York, and from thu Library of thl '"isconsin Historical Socioty. Of value also are such records as the field notes of engineers more particularly those relating to the Clcments' survey of 1833-34 and those recorded with de la Rocque's survey in the year 1789.

Of most unusual significance are the early Catholic church parish records of births, marriages and deaths, of ..hi2h there is almost a complete series from the year 1594. Th condition of these records is a matter of great concorn and it is hoped that out of the activity of the proliminery survey there may come some plan for their prcservtion and more general use. At present they arc in such shape as to be practically inacceosible. Dr. J. A. Robrtson, already mentioned, has collected several thousand photostats of manuscript source documents pertaining to Florida history, of wht h many involve especially St. Augustine. There is much material of a similar nature in the collections of Brooks, Mrs. Connor, Buckingham-Smith, and Loxvcry.

It can be stated without fear of contradiction that the









-3


of development. The work of the Historical Survey staff was also to provide a basis for the report of this second sub-committee.

For the purpose of facilitating the activities of the sub-committee on fact finding, the National Committee placed in Dr. Merriam's hands the problem of selecting and organizing the personnel to carry out the work of the historical survey. Verne E. Chatelain, formerly the Chief Historian and Acting Assistant Director in
charge of the Branch of Historic Sites and Buildings of the National Park Service, Washington, D. C,, was selected to direct the historical survey, following his appointment as Research Associate on the staff of Carnegie Institution of Washington. Subsequently, the members of Sub-Committee No. 1 on fact finding were named, as follows: Dr. rialdo G. Leland, Permanent Secretary, American Council of Learned Societies, Washington, D. C.; Dr. Herbert E. Bolton, Profussor of History, University of California; Dr. A. V. Kidder, Chairman, Division of historical Research, Carnegie Institution; Dr. William E. Lingelbach, Professor of History, Univ. of Pennsylvania; Dr. Matthew W. Stirling, Chief, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution; together with Dr. John C. iMerriam and Mr. Chatelain.

It should be added that to finance the historical survey, the city of St. Augustine and other interested persons plodgod two thousand dollars, which sum was supplemented by funds provided through Dr. John C. ierriam from various Carnegie sources, as well as by certain assistance given by the Florida 7I.P.A.

Mr. Chatelain began his work on November 15, starting first i-ith a survey of materials to be found in the
libraries in WIashington. On December 7, he came to St. Augustine, .here, with the cooperation of the layor and other civic leaders, offices ;cre provided for the survey in the First I;ational Bank Building and other personnel selected to assist in carrying out the program, Including thos selected wx;re: ir. Rogers Johnson, Enginoer; Mr. U. J. Winter, Archeologist, Mri Albert Manucy, Historian; M1rs. Blanche Roycs, Typist; Miss Vcra Smith, Typist; and Miss Ruth E. Harris, Secretaryi Also it _ras provided that 1.1iss Frances Benjamin Johnston, under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation, should come to St. Augustine in order to make a photographic record under the direction of Mr. Chatelain for the purposes of this survey. Miss









-4


Johnston arrived on December 15 and continued in St. Augustine until January 24. The nature of her iork will be referred to hereafter and some of her pictures are incorporated in this report.

It should be added that through the cooperation of the
City Manager, Mr. Eugone IMasters, a 'U.P.A. labor crew was provided for the archeological excavation worg, which was inaugurated officially by Dr. Merriam upon his visit to St. Augustine on January 12. This ;-ork has continued
to date under the direction of Mr. UWinter, Archoologist, and Mr4 Johnson, Engineer. On February 1, owing to an interruption in the W.P.A. program, a re-organization of this part of the .uork ias undertaken, and a now arrangement made ith Mr. Masters, whereby the City furnishes directly a crew of six men to be paid out of the funds of the City of St. Augustine. This arrangement will continue at least through the first week in March.

In addition, several members of the staff of Carnegie Institution have paid visits to St. Augustine during the course of the preliminary survey, among them Dr. Merriam himself, Dr. Leland, and Mr. Charles VW. Elict, connected with the National Resources Board. At the time of the October meeting of the National Committee it was decided to hold a second meeting of the committee in St. Augustine during the month of March, 1937. The date of that meeting, March 2, marks the end of the period of the preliminary survey and the report ;hich follows reprusonts a statement covering the general activities of the research program to date and the report of the first sub-committee on fact finding.


OBJECTIVES AND VALUES.

In approaching the problem of research relating to St. Augustinu and its environment, several considerations may be pointedd out which have a definite bearing, it is thought, upon the nature extent, and Justification for such activity. Unlike other problems of historical research, which have sometimes confronted students of history, it need here only be montionod that this program has been set up and conducted for the purpose of shedding definite light insofar as that is feasible upon the life history of this community and with the idea in mind of translating the results of this effort into a plan of physical development, and ;;ise city planning for the








Dr. Merriam 3 Feb. 24, 1937


disengaged as one looks at the town from midway across the bridge.

The other structure is the water tower. Perhaps this can some time be removed, but if that cannot be accomplished at present, I should think it might receive treatment, as by camouflaging, that would make it less unpleasantly conspicuous.

Perhaps the most difficult problem is that of the traffic. 7'ith the streets as they are now, and as probably they must remain if the historic aspect of the town is to be preserved, their use by the pedestrian must be made both safe and agreeable. This is an essential element of any plan, it seems to me, and unless this is done, no plan can be really successful. It must be made an unmitigated pleasure to stroll about the town; to examine it leisurely and without danger to life or limb. Eventually this ought to be excellent for retaining business within the area, for it would encourage patronage which now is wholly lost. But it would also require a good deal of modification of present habits of traffic, and it would drive out of the area the garages, service stations, and other structures that depend upon automotive traffic for their existence.

Especial attention should be given to acquiring park areas near the town. First of all, I would suggest securing control of the shoreline across the Bay, opposite the town, both north and south of the bridge end. This should be a public promenade and drive, and could be made a singularly beautiful area from hich the town could be seen to fine advantage. The old moat could be made into a promenade, and the western line of defense might again be planted with Spanish Bayonets. A section of the moat might be excavated, as a sample. Beaches should also be reserved for recreational purposes.

I think also that the area about the Fort,
north of the toun, to and beyond the Fountain of Youth Park, should be, if not acquired, at least controlled, especially near the shore. To the south of the town, the area that includes the ball park could be improved; indeed, that area sees to me an ideal spot for a general park, if the ball park could be moved to some other site.



These, then, are the immediate measures that I









5


conservation, stabilization, interpretation and gEnoral educational use of the materials and values thus discovered.

The student will note among other things that St. Augustine is the oldest community of the white race having continuous history in the United States, that its racial stock, while basically Spanish, has been influenced by other races, -- Indian, Negro, and other Caucasian stocks. All of these have had their part in creating the physical and cultural environment in St. Augustine. It should also be emphasized that the history of white settlement in this community, which dates from the year 1566, has passed through many successive and distinct phases of development. Each of these has its own peculiar significance in the story as well as a relationship to what existed before andto what was developed afterwards. It would seem, therefore, unwise to settle upon any one particular time level as the point of emphasis, either in the batter of historical interpretation or physical development. Rather, it is thought that the philosophy of research and development should be one having as its purpose the gradual unfolding of the story, considering origins, causes and effects and the various contributions of all natural and human influences to progress as measured in terms of time and change.

In this connection, the fact should be stressed that St. Augustine, far from being a dead and abandoned area, is a living, growing social organism. The object of research should be to single out the individual historical sites, buildings, other structures and remains, to find every possible shred of historical evidence as to the record of these places and the general life story of this community, and to stabilize, preserve and accentuate this physical history and the story which goes with it, insofar as possible consistent with civic progress and social wellbeing. Research should give the student the clue to the fundamental historical values existing here, and then a wise program of development should serve to put these resources in a setting which will unify their physical treatment and presentation under conditions as harmonious and as conducive to public welfare as is possible.

Insofar as the written source materials are concerned, the ideal program of research certainly should be to ascertain fully the nature, extent, location and condition of this material, and to effect the concentration of the original manuscripts, et cetera, or copies thereof, in a central








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B. Fortifications (Cont'd)t

9. City defenses

a. Moosa
b. 2nd line c. 3rd line d. Redoubts

10. Powder House lot south at Lewis Field

C. Roads

1. Spanish Trail 2. Bellamy Trail
3. King's Road 4. Shell Road
5. Anastasia Island Road
6. Tocoi Road
7. Picolata Road

D. Architecture

1. Fort Marion
2. City Gates
3. Old Wooden Schoolhouse
4. Arrivas House 5. 'Watkins House
6. Old Curiosity Shop
7. Spanish Inn 8. Slater House
9. Spanish Treasury 10. U. S. Post Office
11. Trinity Episcopal Church
12. Lindsley House
13. Bigelow House
14. McMillen House
15. St. Joseph's Convent
16. Murat Coffee House
16A House, 46 Bridge
17. Graham House
18. Llambias House
19& Casa de Cannonoso
20, 4ebb Memorial Library
21. Oldest House
22. St. Francis Barracks
23. King's Bakery
24. Archway near Bay and Treasury
25. Worth House
26. Sanchez House
27. Slave Market









6


place of deposit, preferably in the historical museum and library, which it is to be hoped may be developed in connection with the general program hereafter for St. Augustine. This material not only will throw light upon the many problems of proposed development and restoration, none of vhich should be made except in the light of rigid tests of historical accuracy, but also will lead to the time when monographs dealing with particular aspects of history in St. Augustine and evuntually a definitive history, dealing with the entire story, can be written, Undoubtedly, too, much of this source material itself eventually should be published, not only the manuscript records, but rare editions of books novt several centuries old which at present are almost entirely inaccessible. Added to these prospects for research and scholarship will be thc development of studies looking toward thu complete collection of the traditional stories, to be gathered systoriatically from different families in the region, a collection of pictures and the recorded studies involved in the enginecring, photographic and archeological activities, begun under the preliminary survey, and possibly to be continued in a further program of research.

Ruspecting archeological research, it should be noted that the prliminary survey already indicates its great value not only in the field of prehistoric origins, but
as cell in thu historic period. Archtological studies and the writtenn sources -ill go hand in hand in the idual program of research, and in passing it is ;;ell to note that such a method has been used in the preliminary survey with interesting results to be referred to hereafter in this report.

Thu ideal method of research for this program, it is believed, should be pan-scientific, that is to say, very science; and art should be given full consideration
in ordur that all aspects of community life may be fully appreciated. Significant studies for this region may be made in the fields of physical and human geography, climate, foods, medical history, anthropology, agriculture, plant ecology, paleontology and ge.ology.

The ordinary methods and disciplines in history encompass a much more limited field of research, involving often a
consideration only of 1,ritten source materials. Ho;.eovr, the subtleties of human life are rarely to be gleaned and understood as a result of mere written records. Few men ever record a full analysis of themselves, their neiChbors and their environment in writing, and even to the extent











REPORT OF SUB-COMI TTEL NO. 1 DEALING
WITH TiE FACT FINDING SUVELY OF ITiTORICAL
MATERIALS PERTA-IlNG T 3 S. AUGUoTILL, FLORILA


The proposal for some form of development program for the conservation of important features and values in the ancient city of St. Augustine, Florida, is one which has had consideration for many years. It has been noted on numerous occasions by visitors and local inhabitants alike that the physical conditions in St. Augustine have been gradually drifting more and more into a chaotic state, wherein the chief historical assets and much of the charm of the old city is being lost.

Those appreciating the rich historical traditions and assets of this region, where the first white settlement having continuous history in American was established, have watched ancient landmarks disappear time after time through one cause or another. Disastrous fires, the thoughtless action of private property owners as well as city officials, and the general destruction that comes through the operation of natural causes in time and change, all have conspired to bring about a condition in which historic sites have been lost sight of, ancient edifices have passed into oblivion, and the elements making for objective physical evidence in history have been squandered.

For the moment it does not make so much difference how the idea originated of saving what is left, or who contributed to the beginnings of the program which has resulted in the preliminary survey now drawing to a close. Suffice
it to say that it remained for Mayor walter B. Fraser to take the action which led to the organization of a National
Committee for the conservation of this area. Matching Mr. Fraser's deep interest in this program is that of Dr. John C. Merriam and others of the staff of Carnegie
Institution of G1ashington, who, at the psychological moment threw the weight of their influence and support to the carrying out of the survey program, which it is hoped in time may lead to a plan for saving what remains of the physical history of St. Augustine and utilizing a wellarticulated city plan, based upon the development of the natural and historical assets existing here.

After a series of conferences between Mayor Fraser and representatives of Carnegie Institution and the National Park Service during the suer of 1936, a committee was appointed with a membership containing certain of those locally interested as well as a number of persons of nation-wide pretige interested in the possible contri-











Society itself should develop new fields of worthwhile investigation and interest; and Sixth, to develop and prepare a definitive history and publication on St. Augustine which will take account of all phases and all forms of historical evidence uncovered in the exhaustive study of the source materials in this rich historical field.



Attention is called tc the accompanying map and diagram of this plan, as well as to the memorandum-letter from Dr. t. G. Leland to Dr. John C. Merriam, dated February 24, both of which will serve to explain and clarify the various elements involved in the proposed program with which this report is concerned.









10


ing period rooms, each containing dioramas, models, pictures, charts of explanation and artifacts relating to single stages in the history of this area. This museum, furthraor;, would serve as the point of concentration and deposit of the rasses of written historical materials and archeological "finds" discovered in the preliminary survey and to be discovered in the research activities accompanying the general program of development hereafter,



The objects of this program of physical development are:
First, to put the major historical areas in their proper setting, to relate, them to their general environment, and to develop a unity of treatment and interpretation through educational use of the same; Second, to create an atmosphere having clements of basic historical accuracy and a high degree of esthetic harmony and beauty; Third, to facilitate the movement of visitors, to increase their opportunity to enjoy in leisurely contemplation the natural beauty and the historical resources of St. Augustine, and to develop high recreational features in the drives, boulevards, and beaches: Fourth, to stimulate a development in St. Au;ustine aaong civic clubs and other groups and individuals of cooperative activities such as those relating to garden clubs, the devolopment of art colonies and othtr creative work in the. field of art and history, in the staging of pageants, art exhibits, other special exhibits, historical pilgrimages, historical prograe;a, historical pantomines and theatricals, and special exercises and commemorative holidays such as fiestas, days in Old Sp in, Ponce do Leon Celebrations, tourist activities, and many other special events and features which will lend color and drama to the natural setting in St. Augustine, and which through the medium of state and nation-wide publicity will do much to attract the visitor to this region and develop
in him a consciousness of the meaning of this program; Fifth, to encourage creative activity in the development of a consciousness of, and a desire to preserve, the folk traditions, skills, and home manufacturing of handicrafts, such as linen and lace making, the preservation of traditional domestic foods and dishes, and the traditional stories, literature, religious observances, and folk culture generally of various racial groups, in all of which program the local Historical Society can be of much assistance and through participation in which the











the quarterly magazines, have been valuable. Mention
should be made here of works, also published under these auspices, such as Siebert's work on the Loyalists of the Revolutionary period and UhitaKer's, having to do with the commercial trade with the Indians in the British and Spanish periods, notably that of the Panton, Leslie Company.

Inter Tting published works, many of them rare books in Frenc and Spanish now out of print and difficult of acce! give to the student the sources of the earliest SpanJ h and French colonization. For instance, De Bry's
Brevi iarratis preserves the unusual pictures of LeMoyne ealifg with the early Indian life of this region. Probably no single collection of early pictures of Indian
life in A!erica has comparable value, unless it is that of Uhite's collection relating to the Indians of the Virginia region. Fortunately also, there are fairly accurate accounts in published form containing the sources for the Ponce de Leon story, and that of Menendez.

General narrative histories of St. Augustine, such as those of Fairbanks and Reynolds, provide illuminating if
not altogether complete surveys4 Moreover, several important contributions have been made to the church history of St. Augustine such as those of Shea, Kerny and Ugarte, the last published in the Historical Records and Studies of the United States Catholr TistoriE-I SociE- Tre--e-s also published in a recent pamphlet from the Smithsonian Institution a Seventeenth Century letter of the Catholic churchmnan Calderon, describing the Indians and Indian i issions of Florida. Works like that of
Uinsor, in his Narrative and Critical History afford discussion of bT TFiographlci material as weTT as an historical summary especially of the earlier period, in the same way, Parkman has value, and likewise Bourne and Priestley. The published guides of the Carnegie Institution of 7ashington are indices to the masses of archival materials, many of which are to be found in foreign countries.

without exhausting this subjectj it may be indicated that during the preliminary survey a bibliography of printed materials has been made, which, while not complete by any means affords an opportunity of suggesting further researches looking toward the preparation of a completely adequate bibliography. For this purpose the card index and other aids to be found in the Library of Congress, as well as in the libraries in this vicinity have beer, used.








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D. Architecture (Cont'd).

28. Catholic Cathedral
29. Public Library
29A Davis Shores Building
30. Fatio House
30A House, Green & Aviles
31. O'Reilly House
32, Don Toledo House
33. Alcazar Hotel
34. Ponce de Leon Hotel
35i Villa Zorayda
36. Memorial Presbyterian Church
37. Spanish Cemetery
38. Huguenot Ceimetery
39t Shrine of Nuestra Senora de la Leche
40. Fountain of Youth Park
41' Indian Burial Ground
42, Seawall
43. Treasury Street
43A Puerto Berde 44, St. Augustine 45. Fort Matanzas
46. Arcade, Snow Residence
47. Constitucion Monument
48. Cordova Hotel
491 Grace M,. E. Church
50. Bridge of Lions

i, SCENIC

A. Drives

14 St. Johns Piver
21 Moultrie Point
3. Lewis Point
4. Ocean Shore Boulevards
5. .North Beach 6. South Beach 7. Palm Valley







17

as a part of the general historical evidence of this area. For instance, there is an opportunity for anthropological studios concerning both prehistoric and historic stocks in this area. Already extensive skeletal remains have been uncovered v.hich will enable the student to st4dy the size, bony structure and other anthropological features of various racial groups here. As a special feature, a local committee orgrnizcd by the St. Johns County Medical Society is engaged in an affiliated investigation of the history of medicines, surgery and h alth conditions in St. Augustinu. In addition, much attention can be given to the ~inuti2.e of mores and customs for which not only the written records contain mnaterial, but inform tion to be secured from represontative living persons of different racial stocks. A study of names also offers fascinating questions from such standpoints as the consideration of the origin of the name, the transfer from one place to another of n.ames and persons, as well as variations in n:.mos which have boon developed from time to timu. Again the development of folk songs and folk tales in their relationship to the cultural development of St. Augustine, it is submitted, will be of gre-t intGrest and worthy of serious rse arch.

Finally, theru should be considered in connection with the development of historical evidence rul..ting to the life and growth in St. Augustine, certain ecologic-.1 rmaterils. This field of research includes the problem of natural causation in its efffot upon human beings. Aside from general qutstions of clim'cte, soil, rainfall and sunshine, considered in their effect upon the development of certain social forms and activities, there :.re involved such specific considerations as meteorology, zoology, geography, both physical and human, biology and botany. Uiithout taking up
in detail consideration of the special contributions of these fields of scientific activity to the problems in human history, as affecting this region, it should be said that human causation finds many of the well-springs in e-nvrcnental conditions, whether such are realized directI r indirectly. The foliage on the trees, the flowers in the gardens, the humidity in the air, the general esthetic problems affected by plant life, the river, the bay, the ocean; the types of food, the absence of mountains, the presence of various forms of acquatic and land life, the length of seasons, the temperature, -- all these considerations and many others, developed through careful ecological studies, will go far in explaining human existence as it affects St. Augustine and its vicinity. It is believed that such studies should be made a part of the program of research, which is being suggested in this survey report.









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Viewed in its entirety, a progressive research and development program in St. Augustine should result in making this place a great laboratory of history, as well as in the fine arts and social democracy, useful not only in understanding more fully how life progresses, but effective because of its objective realism, far more than the books and the class-rooms can be, in educating all classes of citizens in what may be termed "historical-mindedness".

Finally, it should be pointed out that research respecting St. Augustine should pay careful attention to the relationship of this area to other regions in the United States, Comparisons and contrasts between colonizing efforts here and elsewhere under different auspices, will prove both fascinating and valuable, and will lead to a better comprehension of the entire scope of American history. As in studying history elsewhere, attention must be given to the fact that St. Augustine was, through several centuries, a frontier outpost and conditioned as
such, that it represented the northern-most advance of Spain along the Atlantic seaboard, that much of its story is inextricably interwoven with conflicts involving other nations, first France, then Great Britain, and eventually the Americans themselves. Throughout its history, until the tiLne of the American Civil War, the military theme is very important, as is the relationship of St. Augustine to other centers of Spanish and French culture and to cities such as Savannah and Charleston.


SOURCES OF INFOIM ATIOi AND THEIR TREATLENT IN THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY.

The first consideration involves the problem of printed materials, insofar as they exist for the study of the history of St. Augustine and its environments. The student will not be disappointed in the number and variety of printed books, pamphlets, circulars, newspapers, et oet(ra, for the study of this region. Of course, there is no such thing at present as a definitive history of St. Augustine, and no published work has appeared which considers all possible sources of information for such a study. There are monographs concerned with special aspects of the field, which have been done reasonably well, such as those of Mrs. Connor on the period of 1,enendez and the earliest Spanish period, and Miss Brevard's pertaining to the British, the second Spanish, and the
American periods, in the Florida State Historical Society series. In this connection every volume of the series, edited by Dr. J. A. Robertson, eleven in all, as well as











racial stocks, their lanuag, their ;riting, their health, and cho different aspects of art and cultural and economic back-ground. If i;hc pOn-scientific method of research is used, studies in -griculture, plant ecology, anthropology, geology, and paleontology can be used to advantage in the ine-rpretation of the life of St. Augustine&

It is admitted that the prevailing methods and disciplines in history are much more circuiuscribed than thome suggested in this proposed plan. The point of aeparture of the professional historian is ordinarily written source materials, which ue is prone to regard as the evidence for his record of events; however, the subTiTties of huLan life are never ascertainable from mere written records. Such evi;ience ncvw r fully acco nts for things as they ar because -.; aen ever record formally by written. records complete analyses of themselves or other people and natural conditions within their sphere of activity. Written records are inadequate tc a complete understanding of past events and so ve must find historical eviience "h ere vie can, whether in one body of scientific -rno iodge or another. The disciplines and methods of ..uny sciences hill collectively contri'rnte much to a fuller appreciation of human events am, particularly at-~;ied to the problem of research in t;is fielc, :~ be used in order to gain a better nowled e of the hB ory of t. A ugustine.

A plan of physical develo ::nt in St. Augustine must involve first of all a v:ith r:ecorstruction cf the actual Liie of the city. >oi instance, it will be desiratie to develop, Eas has eern done in other regions, a linguistic atlas, and prhars :;iake electric recordinis of such data as! the vi-es and op:eech of represenatlves of iLfferent iCang:.c e groups in this coammnity. Lihewis, studies in the br tany of this :egion wiill be of" 1t i mp:r ance i he:p ii.n t explain the eniviron:r a i: t- first nir e !c- ii ,: found in co:m.in here and t is ;ich tey m:e :f l:ni t i.i:e. 'ihis region, as wL 1i : .o paI .... of o:. :ri*. ,, has contributed very considerably to the i'_, ,a ins, ind nothingg of th ::1Tld thr u- its Il:i.nt Ji ..

In naLyss if y : a ntl: opology of :-'ciu groups, for ;i0l tl L r. 3 pr's V 1~ c0 vi oence in ar rcheolo i01 0 s :J clteiO :,.' il ::' a h r. ;iJ in-rol' the








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change. To express in a physical plan for St. Augustine this philosophy involves much more extended and elaborate consideration of the problems of history than to arrest a city at a particular level and through the setting-up of controls and force, make impossible the deviation thereafter from that condition.

3. The city of St. Augustine is a living and growing organism, and this condition is of basic consideration in the proposed plan of development. It follows that careful attention must be given to singling out and listing completely the principal historic sites, houses, and remains associated with various stages of history to which reference has already been made. The plan should have as its purpose the stabilization through preservation, repair, and incidental re-creation or restoration of the physical elements of history in St. Augustine, while at the same time permitting the conduct of the normal life of the community. It is thought that emphasis upon the stabilization and control of determined historical features is not at all inconsistent with the orderly processes of community life and growth.

In this connection it should be noted that one of the basic differences between a planned community condition, such as is now being proposed, and the condition obtaining up to this time, is the emphasis to be given hereafter to the fixation and stabilization perpetually of prine historical resources, as represented in houses, other structures, remains, and written sources. These constitute assets which cannot be estimated in value and their future protection in a more or less rigid condition of stabilization is imperative; however, in the proposed plan of development, which leaves the principal historical resources unchanged, many things can be done and should be done to facilitate the normal processes of grovJth and progress. In other words, "social utility" would seem to be a fundamental requisite and the problem of developing a condition whereby the "protection" and "growth" principles can be made to function side by side without either seriously circumscribing and curtailing the well-being of the other, is a matter of first-rate importance to the proposed plan.

4. During the preliminary survey, the fact finding activities have extended to the problem of determining what is of value from a broad historical viewpoint in








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which must be stressed and which must be respected by local citizen and tourist alike, if harmony and success are to attend the inauguration of a planned program in St. Augustine.

Certainly there should be a careful revision of the City Charter with the consent and authority of the Florida State Legislature, as well as expressed declaration by the Legislature involving the principle of eminent domain in its relationship to the conservation of historic houses, sites, and remains, in the interest of the public welfare. Authority for the proper zoning to control the danger of destruction, the alteration or the reconstruction of historic buildings is absolutely imperative. Likewise, zoning should involve features of possible alteration and change of other business houses, residences and various forms of use of private property within the zoned area. In this connection it should be noted that zoning will have as its purpose the simplification of traffic, the removal of congestion and confusion of wbhtever sort it may be, the development of harmony, Lio proper handling of tourists and the intelligent protection of all historical values within the city.

An important feature of the plan, which it is proposed to set up, involves the development of some form of city department or semi-public business corporation having a close relationship to the city government, which can socur'F hrough donation and other amans adequate resources with which to finance certain fbatur s of the plan as well as to operate the business of visitor contact with this historical area. This corporation or department of the city government, depending upon which form of organization is best adapted to these purposes, would have charge of tn- entrance station features, the dissemination of information to the visitor, the conduct of guide service, the handling of parking lots, the devolopment of recreational features and parks, in cooperation with other agencies already established for that purpose, the dealing with the individual owners of historic buildings, where the visitor will Go, and in short,
the general conduct of the business features of the program.

PHYSICAL ELEMTTS OF TIE PLAN.

The physical ele~ients of the plan involve principally the following considerations:









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before an examination of the details of history, such general features as the Motanzas River, Anastasia Island, the peninsula upon ;;hich St. Augustine is built, the San Sebastian Rivur, the ioction of Maria Sanchez Creek and Marsh, as v.oll as the North River and Vilano Beach. Also, their attention should be dra.n to the location of tho previously existing North and South Indian toi.ns in their relationship to the general Indian groups which once existed in this region.

As a possible means of orienting a visitor to the physical geography of the area as coll as to the oxamination of the minutiae of history, it is suggested that relief models, dioramas, pictures, sketches, and charts, faithfully developed and accurate in historical and geographical detail, will contribute to a better understanding of the situation. Their formal presentation in the planned historical museum is a matter of prime importance in the program at St. Augustine, which also will become a concentration point for the mass of historical evidence and other data to be secured in the research program.



THE SUGGESTED PLAN OF DEVELOPIlEUiT.


It is recommended that the suggested plan of development for St. Augustine, Florida, should give consideration to the following objectives: First, civic organization and control, and second, physical elements of the plan.


CIVIC ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL.

It is suggested that the entire program, admitting that some degree of cooperation and assistance will be necessary from the State of Florida, St. Johns County, and certain outside groups and persons, will be handled directly under the auspices of the City of St. Augustine. It is quite clear that no degree of compulsion or persuasion exerted from the outside can accomplish the ends to which this development should point. Every feature of the plan depends upon the willing cooperation of the citizens themselves, upon their ability to see clearly
their own future welfare as a part of the related program, and upon their cheerful compliance with certain features of stabilization, preservation, and conservation









COPY


AMIERICAN COUNCIL OF L:.ARED SOCIETIES Me~blbr of' the
INTERiNi;TIONAL UNION OF ACADEEiMES EXECUTIVE OFFICES
907 FIFTEE=TH STREET
:ASHINGTON, D. 2.


February 24, 1937



EMy dear Dr. Merriam:

Following te telephone conversation of yesterday afternoon, I beg to offer the following reflections on what sees to me to be a suitable programme for the St. Augustire project.

In the first place, I think that we should
assume that it is not proposed to turn the town, or any part of it, into a museum, or to freeze it into any one moment or phase of its history. Any plan must be based upon the recognition of the fact that a town is a living thing, and that its growth cannot be arrested,

We should also assume that any plan to develop the historical values of a toii should have regard to its entire history. This is particularly true, it seems to me, of St. Augustine, whose nistory has had several distinct periods, marked off in an unusual manner by changes in political control and even by changes in populat ion.

I think that our plan must be fairly simple;
it seems to me to involve the following things so far as the physical disposition of the town is concerned:

While there is much in the town of historical
or cultural interest outside the area within the defences, it is the latter that we are chiefly considering. This area extends from the City Gates to St. Francis Street, and from the Bay to the west end of the Plaza, or Cordova Street. The plan of this area, that is, its street plan, seems to me to have been fairly constant from early times. It should not be disturbed.










10


Efforts have been made to discover and estimate the value of special sources of materials such as those in the Buckingham-Smith and Lol:ery collections, some of which are in manuscript as well as in published form. Such work as has been done thus far in this preliminary survey with nevispapers points to the fact that there is probably a great deal of information to be gained from such printed sources of material, although unfortunately newspaper files in St. Augustine are not available locally except for the period from 1889 to the present. It should be said in passing that newspapers vwere published here as far back as the Eighteenth Century and there is a published guide to those beginning with the period of Amercan occupation. Such a private collection of newspapers, as that of Mr. Phillip Yonge of Pensacola, containing St. Augustine newspapers since 1830, can be mentioned as one collection offering considerable possibilities for investigation. The newspaper files in the Library of Congress offers much, as also nvespapers of Jacksonville, Savannah and Charleston, t.horein materials relating to St. Augustine are likely to be found.

Bibliographical studies of this preliminary survey have
dealt in the second place with problems of manuscript material. In consi ring this field it should be noted that in the aggr- ot this form of written sources constitutes by far the largest single field of endeavor for future research. Such guides as those of Carnegie Institution of ;iashington, already mentioned, and Dr. Corse's list of Floridiana to be found in the Library of Congruss, point to the almost appalling masses of manuscript source materials, comparatively little of which has been published. Among the foreign archival deposits certainly the most significant is that of the Papeles Procedentes do la Isla de Cuba, to be found in the Archivo General de Indias at S1villo, Spain. In this collection, approximately 58,000 documents have been calendared by Carnegie Institution of Uashington, covering in general the period from 1761 to 1821 and dealing ~,ith such subjects as Indian problems, colonial finances, military, social and religious matters. While copies of some documents of the Papoles have been made, a great proportion of them are still inaccessible to students of this region and the working of them presents a practically virgin field for investigation.

Another great deposit of manuscript material pertains to the East Florida papers to bu found in the Library of Congress. Thuse contain for the years from 1740 to 1821 a variety of items, such as correspondence %.ith the











In connection with the survey, it should be added that research has been conducted in several special fields, looking toward the development of an orderly plan of
growth and well-being for the future St. Augustine. Questions have been raised and partially answered as to the economic basis of this community, its industries, its trades, its businesses, or in other words the means
by which community life is now sustained and the question of how the proposed development plan may modify such conditions hereafter. Questions have been raised and answers
sought to the problem of why the tourist business, which centered in St. Augustine fifty years ago, has been displaced at least in part and has gone to other parts of Florida or elsewhere. Studies have been made relating to
traffic and traffic control in relationship to a proposed plan of development. All of these problems need further research, as do special legal considerations involving the effective use of zoning, eminent domain, the possible development of easements relating to private property and the question of what is the best form of business organization to carry forward the incidents of tourist trade in the event of a development program. Needless to say, modifications of State law and City Charter along the right lines will be necessary, and the research now being carried forward through such local committees of citizens and the Bar as they have been formed, are very necessary, looking toward ideal civic planning.

This report has not referred specifically to a great deal of historical evidence, the details of which are to be found in the files and special reports of the St. Augustine Historical Survey. An examination of bibliographical records, photostatic copies of maps and other data, studies of the pictures of different periods and subjects, special reports, sketches, and case histories of sites and houses, and studies contributed by certain local historians such as Miss Emily L. Wilson and Mrs. E. W. Lawson, and thu artifacts uncovered thus far in excavation work, as well as other records developed in the course of the Survey, while incomplete in the sensor that no exhaustive research has been made, points to the amazing range of possibilities for future activity in this field,









Dr. Merriam 4 Feb. 24, 1937


would suggest. Their details are still to be carefully studied, and this plan is only a sketch intended to show in a general way what I think might be done with reasonable expenditure of funds and without dislocating the life of the town.

I should like to emphasize, however, the importance of attracting attention and study to the cultural tradition of St. Augustine and to the interest of its history. If one of the buildings in the town, such as the Alcazar, could be made into a sort of Folkmuseum, like those in the Scandinavian countries, I believe that a most attractive exhibit could be set up. I should also like to see attention directed to the study of the population itself: its racial composition, its speech, its oral tradition, etc. A great impetus should be given to the collection of all kinds of historic objects and to the gathering of those epehemeral materials that are so useful to the social historian. Little of this seems to
have been done yet. The establishment of the museum and a sort of archive of cultural history would give great encouragement to such activities.

Of course the question arises as to what effect all this might have upon the industry of the town. I believe that it would encourage industries based on folk
art, especially the various handicrafts, and that the products of such industry would find a sale in the town itself, to the thousands of visitors that are sure to be attracted. But the effort should be made to keep the
industry as uncontaminated as possible by commercialism. The antiques offered for sale should be the genuine antiques of the region, and not the heterogeneous junk that is to be found in every tourist center.

The abcve is Offered as a very superficial
statement of suggestions, but I think that they are fundamentally sound, and that a plan that should take them into account would be practicable.

Very sincerely yours,

Waldo G. Leland

Dr. John C. Merriam,
Carnegie Institution of Washington, ashington, D. C.










2


butions which the story of this area might afford to the American history. Also, it was decided to hold a preliminary meeting of the National Committee in Uashington on October 26, 1916, at which time the organization of an historical survey was discussed and certain tentative conclusions reached. Among other things, the conaittee took cognizance of "the importance to future generations of the history and culture of early Spanish settlement on this continent", and particularly "of the first permanent white settlement in the United States (at St. Augustine)", where the committee believed "that the historic setting should be faithfully preserved and that it should explore every avenue and possibility to the end of proserving, ... restoring and constructing ... such sections of the old part of the city as were once within its fortifications to the extent which documentary evidence and other reliable data and research will permit,".

As a first step in the study of a proposed plan of development it was determined th&t a sub-comarLittee should be formed, to furnish to the full committee information regarding the documentary data, "legendary and factual, bearing on the settlement of the city by the Spanish and subsequent occupations and development relating to the architecture, customs, and means by which early settlers utilized local material to replant old world civilization in the new". This sub-committee furthermore was instructed to begin archeological excavation work im-ediately to unearth and bring to light such evidence as would enable the National Committee to consider fully the culture, customs, and development of St. Augustine. It was thought that
such information would be useful in determining to what extent a development program should be carried out, affecting city planning, the possible preservation, reconstruction and restoration of historic sites and the general treatment of St. Augustine as a part of its immediate environment.

Immediately after the formation of the National Committee and its first meeting in October, Dr. John C. Merriam, who had agreed to serve as temporary chairman, in consultation with Mayor Fraser and other representatives of the city of St. Augustine, agreed upon the setting up of a
staff having as its purpose the conduct of the historical survey to provide data for the report of the sub-committee on fact finding.

In passing, it should be noted that a second sub-committee was decided upon to formulate recommendations on policies





the St. Augustino Historical Society, and at the Public Library, as well as less complete collections of Fort Marion, the Fountain of Youth, and in the files of several local commercial photographers.

One of the principal sources of information developed by the preliminary survey involves the interesting field of archeological investigation. This investigation is giving attention to both the prehistoric and historic periods in this region. The archeologist, as a part of his activity, has made a preliminary study of prehistoric mounds, both sand and shell, and while no systematic effort has been made to compile the full data on the location and nature of these mounds, a tentative bibliography dealing with the work of earlier archeologists in this region has been brought together throwing light upon prehistoric man as well as prehistoric animals. There of course remains very much to be done in this field of investigation in any future research program which will be developed in St. Augustine. In passing, it should be noted that even in excavation work, the primary purpose of which is to determine the nature of historic sites, pottery and their artifacts relating to the aborigines have been discovered, preserved, and photographed. Archeological effort relating to the historic period has involved excavations for the purpose of obtaining the exact location, measurements, and other data on the Moat along Orange Street to Fort Marion and a "sampling" of certain historic house-sites,
such as that at 56 Marine Street, to develop evidence regarding ancient house foundations and artifacts which pertain to the life of the people. This sampling process during the period of preliminary survey, indicates the considerable potentialities of this method of developing historical evidence. Archeological work relating to historic sites is, of course, closely co-ordinated with the research in the written records to determine as fully as possible "the case history" of such sites. Needless to say, n: reconstruction viork could be done in St. Augustine irn a d;vlopment program without the accompaniment of a bacicallv sounu archeological research. The field notes of 'h Archeologist, as in the case of the field notes of the Engineer, and of the photographer accompanying such activities as has been mentioned, constitute important historical evidence developed during the course of the preliminary survey.

Aside from archeological remains developed through excavation below the surface of the ground, there are left in St. Augustine many interesting structural materials in the form of walls, pLortions of walls of ancient buildings, arches, gardens, eLls, chimneys, et cetera. Some of these have been tho subjects of photographs and a










Arredondo 1737, de la Puente 1764, the British tax map for the period 1763-1783, Stork's map for the British Admiralty 1766, the unsigned British map of 1782, de la Rocque 1788, the Clements' Survey 1834, and a sketch map made about 1885, which pictures the streets, houses and
other structures of that period.

The preliminary survey has given much attention to pictorial materials, which of course have peculiar value in research, having as one of its principal objectives the possible re-development of certain physical features
including houses and other structures in St. Augustine. Pictorial materials, to be found in the period prior to the American Civil War, are of course somewhat scanty. Attention has already been called to the work of the
artist LeMoyne, dealing with early Indian life in this region. Noteu.orthy also is the pictorial element upon some of the early maps of St. Augustine, of which a good example is the Drake map of 1586, sho:;ing the Fort, some of the houses, vessels lying in the harbor, and the geographical setting. Mention has like,.ise been made of the map of St. Augustine, dating about 1885, which contains pictorial representations of various houses and streets as they appeared at that time. In the survey thus far there have been accumulated certain sketches, probably antidating the Civil War period, such as one featuring the 1loat and City Gates and the coquina bridge crossing the Moat, and another sketch from the harbor emphasizing the entire shore-line of St. Augustine fronting upon Bay Street, dating possibly before 1861,

With the more general use of photographs in the postbellum period there has come doin to us a fairly complete record of features of the town and region for this period. Old stereotypes, of which the St, Augustine Historical Society has a large collection, cover a range of subjects including exterior and interior house views, street views,, pictures of gardens, and of transportation facilities, such as the ancient ox-cart, and the horsedra,n tra,'i cars.

Of great value from a historical standpoint is the comparative study of the street scenes and houses of earlier
periods in conjunction with recent pictures taken from the same locations. In the survey there has been an attempt, more or less successful, to arrange pictures dealing with the same subjects in different periods of time which sho, the effects of time and change on the physical environment in St. Augustino and vicinity. Very significant was the discovery during the course of the survey of thirty-three 11 x 14 plate negatives taken











shedding light upon the growth and development of St. Augustine from the time of the aborigines and the earliest Spanish settlers to the present. Insofar as written source material is concerned, it can be said in passing that the ideal and comprehensive program certainly points to not only the desirability but also the necessity of such activity and study as will be needed to ascertain fully the nature, extent, location and condition of this material, wherever it is to be found, and to bring about such a condition as will lead to its being concentrated in one central place, preferably in St. Augustine, where it can be studied in order that light may be shed on many problems of physical development of historic sites and to the interpretation and to the educational use of this historical field. Such activity, of course, will lead to the solution of many of the proposed restoration difficulties, determining whether such features of change can safely be made in the light of the rigid tests of historical accuracy. The creation, the concentration and the study of written source materials will require a considerable period of time to carry out, and properly should be considered as a part of the general program of development under the proposed plan.

The same is true of the conduct through progressive stages of the archeological investigation, in this region applicable alike to the prehistoric and historic
periods. This work should go hand in hand tiith the activity for the collection of written source materials and will contribute vitally, it is submitted, likewise to the essential information necessary to accurate physical planning and development.

Finally, it is thought that the approach to the study of historical conditions must give full attention to every element of natural and human causation, which can in any way throw light upon the understanding of the
historical problem. The method of research should be pan-scientific, that is to say, every science and art should be given careful consideration which can in any way contribute to a fuller appreciation of what has happened in St. Augustine. Studies should be made in fields of physical and human geography, climate, foods, medical history, and the relationship of astronomical phenomena to mores or customs such as those affecting religious and social observances. Also indicating the broad scope of the studies, attention should be given to the physical and mental characteristics of the








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partial recorded list has been prepared. Undoubtedly much historical value is to be attached to this form of material.

In addition structural remains include of course the historic house itself, constituting as it does one of the probable historic records of St. Augustine. In connection with the comments regarding photographic activities of Miss Johnston attention was called to the preparation of a list of approximately fifty historic structures, among them the Burt House, the so-called old Spanish Treasury building, which is an outstanding period house both from the standpoint of its exterior, and interior furnishings and having important historical value, contributing to a knowledge of historical architecture and also of many phases of the domestic and cultural life in St. Augustine.

Such historical evidence has, of course, tremendous psychological appeal in the educational program to be associated with the proposed plan of development and provides one of the main features of objective reality linking the present gith the past.

The problem of collecting historical evidence concerns, to be sure, many other possible sciences and arts. Local historians from time to time have made records of oral traditions, recollections and specific unrecorded information, dealing with the home life of the people, spacial events, religious observances, goods including recipes for now almost entirely forgotten Spanish dishes, dress, military events, famous lugal battles and, in fact, an almost unlimited range of information whish is of interest to the community in connection with its political, economic and cultural background. Fortunately, this material has become the subject of papers of the local Historical Society as well as for special feature articles in the ne-uspapors. Needless to say, there is much yet to be donr in this connection and a systematic attempt should bu made in any research program hereafter organized to coarry forz;ard this program.

Furthermore, a study of language elements and the electrical recording of voices of representatives of chief languagc groups in the community offers a range of possibilities which might eventually lead to the production of a linguistic atlas, such as has been worked out in New England under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies,

A point of close connection with the study of language is the consideration of other types of demogrCphical material








REPORT OF SUB--CO\iliITTEE NO. 2 OF THE
NATIONAL COIITTEE FOR THE SURVEY ANIT THE DEVELOP OF THE HISTORICAL RSOrCES 0
ST. AUUSTI!E, FLOkiDA


PRINCIPLES


In considering the :ed plan of development for the city of St. Augustine, Florida, ana its imraediate environment, attention is called to certain fundamental problems which it would seem necessary to keep in mind as a basis for intelligent planning. These are indicated as follows;

1. St. Augustine is the oldest community of the white aceq having c nti..l:ns hist;o. in t-e United States. Its racial stock, ohile basically S1insh, like mrc othe. co:uunities in this country, has receive ... ., been influenced by a variety of rciel contri utionsIndian, ieero, ard other Caucasian socks, Ai of those tsv? ':ad thioir Uart ir r.Otir.re frora th.e nature ysical -,-nir-maent 'ri,-illy obtaining in St. AL ustine the city v;nici exiss -; it: tie year '37. To atterit to force a Ievelopent, prl C as its ,pur, se hoe setting up ft a single type cf arch i tecture ano re:presl;cin6 a sin ,le cultural influence, would bc i. e: f ct a lan whion a:ould ignore the contributions of :.any o rhr peoples and cultures. Stutin; this principle in other words, t1. prevailing ernvironerien tone in St.. usuostine,
uie historicnily, i~ i5anish, hu the efftct of time and change and the c'ntritbtions of pointss of view other nan the Spanish, so:culU be tek;n into account enuu prrserved to whateverr extent is possiblee in an 1ic: a pl an of develooment.

P. It eo. d so: to be :1 stakee in the develo:ent proto 'freeze: Lt r? at any paT i Lr t-i::e v,
... ..... ... ,, 1-740 1785 ,
192, 1 8.., r .7.L Tihese rates are menti noed be-aise t:ey ; Cro sni progpressive ti::e levels and st e(s of history v:hich arU eore or less : ari;d unid distinct in characteristics. It is b(eleved tha the philo sorpiy of develop oment should be one having as its theme the :;adual unfolding of' a story fi l a hs its pec liar significanct- in the fact that there have ben origins, causes and eff cts, distinct contri utions from first
-ne and then itrE: racial stocks and i-naiviuals, and significant rt ltion t ips tkha-t can only o viewed in tr.s o.f precre:,, as wf,1Ji as in terms of ti.n and








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up" its outstanding cultural and historical assets. Rather, they are at present lost in a welter of unsightly distractions. Common sense will dictate a policy of eliminating the confusion that not prevails and replacing it "with a system and unity of approach, into i;hich the elements of harmony and beauty will be introduced. To take such a step is merely to seize upon th natural advantages in climate, tater, sunshine and gorgeous foliage and flowers Lhich manifest themselves at every season of the year even under the most unfavorable conditions. Without much difficulty, and without the introduction of any noticeable degree of artificiality, the wonders of nature can be brought to the assistance of those planning the future wolfare of this region. Such features as the wido-spread reintroduction of semi-tropical gardens, a large variety of trees, shrubs and flowers, as woll as the natural advantages of climate and a magnificent waterfront, all conspire to bring out in high relief and mellow;neas distinctive old historic structures, which for centurics have served to epitomize the color and grandeur of Spanish, French and British efforts at colonization in the NeT World.

The plan vould emphasize the inherent as wrll as the obvious historical features in a unified presentation, surrounding these with the striking beauty of the natural scene, while at the same time thore is developed a systomatic program for handling the tourist and giving to him an intelligent and complete interpretation of all that St. Augustine means in American history, Added to this is the fact that the community will itself, in adopting this program, be surrounding its life and directing it in the conservation of its most fundamental, natural and esthetic as well as historical values.

Finally, in the presentation of the story, prime consideration must be given to psychological factors, such as that of beginning the story in the right historical setting. It is thought that one of the first points of contact, if not the first, for the visitor should be the mouth of the iMatanzas Inlet where attention should be called to the entrance upon the historical scene of intrepid Spanish and French colonizers during the Sixteenth Century. The student of history and the average layman alike should have the opportunity to come into contact with and understand the geographical setting. They should have pointed out to them and be able to identify,









12


work of investigating, classifying, and giving careful study to the manuscript materials relating to Sti Augustine and East Florida, as w;oll as the laying of plans for their copying and eventual concentration in one magnificent deposit is an enterprise -worthy of any resarch institution in this country. It is believed that no more valuable contribution to the study of American history could be made at this time than the massing and
systematic use of all docuacentary materials, ihrever found, on St. Augustino. While in this report no attempt can be made to deal ith all the ramifications of this problem, yet it should be pointed out that it is a task which ';ill take c reful organization and skillful workors, in libraries covering nany prts of the United St: t s and foreign countries to bring this rmtcrial together as a partial basis for a definitive history anrd publication for St. Augustine.

As another consideration of importance, the subject of cartogr-phic material will appeal strongly to the student. During the preliminary survey photostatic oopius have boon made of r.ny important maps applying to this region, involving every period of w:hito occupation. In this connoction, guides to certain map collections and bibliographical references to many published maps have boon notud. To attempt to ovaluato corplutely the importance of cartographic m.turij in this field of c arso .,ould be inpossiblo in this report,

Hol.over, a fu observations should be madc. The best single index to maps is of course th:.t of Lo;wery involving his valuable collection, no:: deposited in the Libra-ry of Congress. Dr. Corse hcad imde a valuable map collection and has brought together as well, materials on the Minorcan colony at New Smyrna. The guides to manuscript materials in the Library of Congress and in foreign archives contain many references to maps, many of them in manuscript form and as yet inaccessible and unused by students of XAiorican history. Publications such as 11insor's, rofcrrod to previously, list and publish interesting maps relating to St. Augustino. The Florida Historical Society publications have also beten the means of publishing importa~nt naps, sketches, and charts.

Sono of those map records, especially those in pictorial form, give much inform tion regarding the extent and degree of the city from time to tie. They cro, of course, the best sources regarding the position of various houses, the location of ancient defense lines, the moats and other militCry fortifications and outposts. Especillly significant in this connection are the maps of Drake 1586,








5

study of the size of individuals in various racial groups, their bony structure and diseases. Questions of insect life such as those pertaining to the mosquitoes and other pests, bringing discomfort if not actually diseases in their vake, gives rise to interesting speculations on what history might have b, n if freed from such influences, as well as a consideration of ;what it was because of these influences.

The plan of development for St. Augustine should, it is thought, give full effect to the completion of a panscientific historical survey, such as has already in a measure been started in the preliminary survey.

5. An essential test of the development and the control of salient physical historical features involves such planning us uill make them entirely obvious and which t:ill relae them to each other in a unified program. In contrast, the present condition, ihich confronts the visitor and even the citizen of St. Augustine is worth noting. Perhaps the best term to use is
"confusing". The visitor, upon his arrival in St. Augustine, is able noThere at present to secure a comprehensive statement of the principal historical features in relationship to each other, much less to secure more than casual assistance, such as would be possibly afforded in a guided tour, in visiting one after another of these sites in some logical fashion. Confronted as he is uith the confusion of badly congested traffic conditions, disconcerting signs, over-head wires and other obstructions to his full appreciation of an historical situation, he is likely to malze a timid attempt to enJoy and to understand old St. Augustine, after uhich he finds relief in driving his car out of the toiin, probably with the unsatisfactory feeling of realizing that he has not gotten ..hat he came here to find. A planned presentation of historical houses and other structures, as Oell as sites -.ihere important happenings have occurred involves, it is thought, tJo things: Firs*, a unified and har..ionious physical condition and, second, its skillful interpretation and educational use.

In this connection, it should be noted that the general effect upon the thoughtful person, although he may be drawn enthusiastically to a contemplation of certain beauty spots or historical features in St. Augustine, is generally one of distaste for the prevailing unesthetic conditions. Certainly St. Au(gustine is not "playing








-7


to which they make such a practice, the subjective coloring of prejudice and attitude necessitates great caution on the part of the student in the use of written sources. Consequently, the practice of using consciously, as a contribution to historical evidence, the collective disciplines of all other sciences and arts, particularly physical records in the realm of natural sciences and archeological evidence, will stimulate interest on the part of the student, all of which will add to the sum total of information and understanding of life in Sts Augustine. The physical environment of a people, when carefully studied, will shed much light upon the reasons for their successes and their failures
respecting their individual and collective enterprises The geography of St. Augustine is very significant, as is its climate, its fauna, and its flora. The study of the domestic equipment of a Spanish kitchen, other furnishings of the house, machines used, and methods of transportation, cannot only be ascribed to certain causes, but in turn are conditioning factors in the mores and culture of the people. For these reasons they constitute proper objectives of historical research and shed light upon the history of a city and a region. It should be noted in passinG that very few people, even students of history, can describe and explain the primitive machinery and the methods of manufacture, froiri sugar cane, of syrup and sugar, the appearance in the growing condition, and
use of, indigo, the processes of spinning and weaving cloth from cotton and wool, the preparation and the character of certain Spanish dishes, the methods of dress and appearance of various social classes which once lived in this community, or the types of schools and teaching which once had vogue here,

A full utilization of the pan-scientific method of research in this historical field will lead, it is submitted, to a much more complete comprehension of the life history of St. Augustine. And when these studies have been made and their full significance has been brought to the attention of scholar and the layman alike, there should be developed in the citizen of this community, as well as in the visitor, a better realization of the charm and historical values of St. Augustine, represented in its climate, its natural scenery, its physical historical resources, and such modifications and artificial elements as have been introduced by man into the natural setting. The preservation of the assets of St. Augustine its natural charm and its historical resources presents a social challenge, which it will be interesting to discover whether the community will meet.