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Combining Bacterial Pathogens with Beauveria Bassiana to Improve House Fly (Musca Domestica) Management

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Title:
Combining Bacterial Pathogens with Beauveria Bassiana to Improve House Fly (Musca Domestica) Management
Creator:
Johnson, Dana M
Place of Publication:
[Gainesville, Fla.]
Florida
Publisher:
University of Florida
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Language:
english
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1 online resource (131 p.)

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Entomology and Nematology
Committee Chair:
GEDEN,CHRISTOPHER J
Committee Co-Chair:
WEEKS,EMMA N I
Committee Members:
KEYHANI,NEMAT OLIVER XAVIER

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
bassiana -- beauveria -- biocontrol -- biological -- control -- domestica -- entomopathogen -- entomopathogenic -- filth -- fly -- fungi -- fungus -- house -- marcescens -- musca -- pathogen -- pathogenic -- pathogens -- photorhabdus -- protegens -- pseudomonas -- serratia -- temperata
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
born-digital ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.

Notes

Abstract:
The common house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), has been a major pest all over the world for centuries. The flies can breed in many different types of substrates, mostly animal manures and decaying organic matter where microorganisms are plentiful. House flies hold a close association with humans and animal posing a large public health and agricultural concern. The primary method of management is the use of insecticides, but house flies have developed resistance to nearly all of the insecticides used in their management. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Cordycipitaceae), has been used successfully against a variety of insect pests. Most studies on house fly management with B. bassiana were carried out by targeting the larval life stage, warranting a closer look on its effects on the adult life stage. Although B. bassiana successfully kills flies, the time to death is long, potentially leaving enough time for female flies to develop and deposit hundreds of eggs before succumbing to mycosis. The main goal of this MS research was to determine the potential for the combination of another pathogen with B. bassiana to enhance its virulence and reduce the time to mortality, specifically at the adult life stage. Three species of gram-negative bacteria were chosen to test in combination with B. bassiana: Pseudomonas protegens, Photorhabdus temperata, and Serratia marcescens. In the first objective (Chapter 2), compatibility studies were performed to observe possible interactions between each bacteria and the growth of B. bassiana. A modified Kirby-Bauer method was implemented to measure a zone of inhibition in B. bassiana growth around a disc treated with bacteria. Serratia marcescens was the only bacteria out of the three tested that did not significantly inhibit B. bassiana growth. Further research was conducted with all three bacteria because it was not certain how the organisms would interact in the hemocoel of the fly. In the second objective (Chapter 3) selection of an appropriate carrier for treatment of the house fly thorax by topical application was completed. Bioassays were conducted by topically applying 1 microliter droplets of five different carriers at variable concentrations to the house fly thorax. A spreadability over the house fly thorax score of 1 through 3 was assigned based on visual observation of the disposition of the droplet; 1 meaning poor, 2 meaning medium, and 3 meaning an ideal uniform spread. Additionally, mortality was observed over a period of three days. CapSil at 1% and 0.1% and Kinetic at 1% scored highest in spreadability but impacted house fly survival. Therefore, after further research, CapSil 0.5% was selected as the appropriate carrier and tested for its effect on each pathogen species. Pathogens were mixed with the carriers and plated at 1 and 24 hours. Storage of the pathogens in the carrier solutions had no significant negative effect on the number of colony forming units (cfu) following plating. In fact in some cases there was greater cfu in the surfactant becteria solution left for 24 hours compared with the 1 hour plates. The third objective (Chapter 4) evaluated application of combined pathogens onto the house fly thorax. Before combined treatments were carried out, the virulence of the three bacterial species for flies was confirmed by injecting the bacteria into the fly, directly into the hemocoel. Next, the appropriate doses for each pathogen were determined for making topical applications. Ranges in dose of each pathogen were tested individually while mortality was observed over a 7-day period. Once the doses were established, topical applications of combinations were implemented. No significant reduction in the time to mortality was recorded in B. bassiana combined with S. marcescens or P. temperata; however, a significant reduction was observed when P. protegens and B. bassiana were combined at all three time points, indicating a complementary action. Pseudomonas protegens was surprisingly virulent by itself when applied topically, and warrants further investigation as a fly management tool. These findings suggest that the addition of P. protegens can enhance effectiveness of B. bassiana in house fly management. Improvements in house fly management can increase animal health and welfare, and improve human comfort in residential areas neighboring animal facilities. ( en )
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2017.
Local:
Adviser: GEDEN,CHRISTOPHER J.
Local:
Co-adviser: WEEKS,EMMA N I.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Dana M Johnson.

Record Information

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UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
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LD1780 2017 ( lcc )

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COMBINING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS WITH Beauveria bassiana TO IMPROVE HOUSE FLY ( Musca domestica ) MANAGEMENT By DANA MICHELLE JOHNSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2017

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2017 Dana Michelle Johnson

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To my boyfriend and committee for their unending support

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Above all, I want to show great gratitude to my major advisor, Dr. Christopher Geden for his eternal patience and support throughout this arduous process. His encouraging words and guidance ha ve been such an inspiration to me to achieve the most I possibly can in al l aspects of He knew that I wanted to incorporate a m icrobiology spin within my research and gladly accommodated his time in learning and providing the instruments needed in his laboratory. I also want to express my utmost appreciati on for the financial support to further my education as well as remaining a full time technician at the USDA. He is simply an outstanding person. His support has really taught me to be humble and to believe in myself when at times it seemed impossible I would also like to show my appreciation to my wonderful co chair, Dr. Emma Weeks, for being consistent in guiding me, and also being a soft place to land when overwhelming times arose. She has shown me how to stay on the right path while keeping an open mind as well as gently pushing me to grow in stepping outside of my comfort zone. For this, I am forever grateful to have had her as a pivotal part of this process, but most importantly as a friend. I would like to extend my thanks to Dr. Nemat Keyhani f or participating in this process. He has been vital in answering my many mycology questions and has lent a helping hand despite his extremely busy schedule in an entirely different department. Dr. Paul Shirk was an advocate from the start, providing feedba ck and pushing me to further my understanding of possible gaps in research, as well as asking questions that would aid in developing better critical thinking skills. Most importantly, providing his entire laboratory for my use in some of the research I co So I thank him immensely, for his gu idance and unending generosity.

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5 Thanks are extended to all but most specifically to Roxie White for her interest and help in setting up bioassays for whichever project I was working on at the time. Listening to me complain when something was not working, meanwhile, carrying their heavy coursework and work schedule s Their time spen t for me is truly appreciated. A m assive thanks to my e ntire family and friends for the aid in my sanity Finally, I like to show my utmost appreciation to my boyfriend, Dr. Eric LoVullo, who has gone above and beyond in every way to help me throughout this entire process. His teachings, love and incredible support exceed well above what anyone has ever done for me. Eric was an extremely busy post work, however, he would make time to show me and teach me the best method and technique to accomp lish my objectives. He would help set up overnight cultures when I was too busy with classes, as well as spending hours of his free time explaining the interworking of microbiology to me. I am forever indebted to his unconditional support and most import antly, his love at my hardest, and trying times.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 12 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPLIMENTARY INTERACTION BETWEEN A BACTER IAL AND A FUNGAL PATHOGEN TO IMPROVE HOUSE FLY ( Musca domestica ) MANAGEMENT ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 Importance to Livestock and Public Health ................................ ................................ ............ 14 Life Cycle ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 15 Adult Morphology ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 16 Current Management Techniques ................................ ................................ ........................... 17 B iological Control of House Flies ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Predators ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 19 Parasitoids ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 20 Pathogens ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 21 Barriers to Fungal Infection ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 24 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 26 2 COMPATIBILITY OF BACTERIA WITH Beauveria bassiana ................................ .......... 27 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 27 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 31 Entomopathogens ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 31 Beauveria bassiana ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 31 Serratia marcescens ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 31 Photorhabdus temperata ................................ ................................ ........................... 31 Pseudomonas protegens ................................ ................................ ........................... 32 Bacterial and Fungal Cultivation ................................ ................................ ..................... 32 Central Disc Test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 33 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 34 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 34 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 34 3 CHOICE OF AN APPROPRIATE CARRIER FOR HOUSE FLY SURVIVAL AND VIABILITY OF ALL PATHOGENS ................................ ................................ .................... 44 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 44 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 46 House Fly Rearing ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 46 Carriers ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 47 Application of Carriers to Flies ................................ ................................ ....................... 47

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7 Bacterial and Fungal Cultivation ................................ ................................ ..................... 48 Viability Bioassay for Pathogens ................................ ................................ .................... 48 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 49 Application of Carriers to Flies ................................ ................................ ....................... 49 Viability Bioassay for Pathogens ................................ ................................ .................... 50 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 50 Application of C arriers to Flies ................................ ................................ ....................... 50 Viability Bioassay for Pathogens. ................................ ................................ ................... 51 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 51 4 EFFECT OF COMBINING THE BACTERIAL PATHOGENS Photorhabdus temeperata Serratia marcescens AND Pseudomonas protegens WITH Beauveria bassiana ON HOUSE FLY MORTALITY ................................ ................................ ............ 66 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 66 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 70 House Fly Rearing and Handling ................................ ................................ .................... 70 Bacterial and Fungal Cultivation ................................ ................................ ..................... 70 Injections ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 71 Dose Response Topical Applications Individual Pathogens ................................ ........... 73 Topical Application of Pathogen Combinations ................................ ............................. 73 Sequential Topical Applications ................................ ................................ ...................... 73 Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 74 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 75 Fly Mortality from Injections ................................ ................................ .......................... 75 Topical Applicat ions of Individual Pathogens ................................ ................................ 75 Topical Applications of Combined Pathogens ................................ ................................ 76 Sequential Applications of Pathogens ................................ ................................ ............. 77 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 79 5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR COMBINING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS WITH Beauveria bassiana FOR HOUSE FLY MANAGEMENT. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 109 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 115 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 131

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Effect of different surfactants (i.e. CapSil DyneAmic Induce Kinetic and Tween 80) on house fly, Musca domestica mortality up to three days post topical application. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 57 3 2 ANOVA results for effects of different surfactants (i.e. Tween 80, CapSil and Kinetic ) on viability of Beauveria bassiana Photorhabdus temperata Pseudomonas protegens and Serratia marc escens 1 and 24 hours after being placed in the surfactants. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 58 4 1 Mortality of female house flies for three days after receiving 1 L injections of 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone, w ith 1x10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli and four doses of Photorhabdus temperata. ................................ .......... 85 4 2 Mortality of female house flies for three days after receiving 1 L injections of 1X p hosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone, with 1x10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli and four doses of Serratia marcescens ................................ ................. 86 4 3 Mortality of female house flies for three days aft er receiving 1 L injections of 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone, with 1x10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli and four doses of Pseudomonas protegens ................................ ........... 87 4 4 Mortality of female house flies for four days after receiving 1 L injections of Tween 0.1% alone, with four doses of Beauveria bassiana or with 1x10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli in 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) ..................... 88

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Zone of inhibition (mm) of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana by various bacteria species using a modified Kirby Bauer method known as the center disc test . ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 38 2 2 A Luria Bertani agar plate with Pseudomonas protegens on the center disc showing zone of inhibition (solid black line) against Beauveria bassiana lawn, as well as a visibly observable bacterial halo that grew past the disc. ................................ .................. 39 2 3 Serratia marcescens on a blank disc showing no zone of inhibition (solid black line) against Beauveria bassiana lawn, an d also a halo of bacteria along the rim of the center disc . ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 40 2 4 Photorhabdus temperata on the center disc showing a zone of inhibition (solid black line) against Beauveria bassiana lawn. ................................ ................................ ............. 41 2 5 Amphotericin B in the center creating a clear zone of inhibition (red dotted line) aga inst a Beauveria bassiana lawn. Black solid line indicates the diameter of the center disc (6 mm) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 42 2 6 Blank disc control with no zone of inhibition against a Beauveria bassiana lawn. Blac k solid line indicates the diameter of the center disc (6mm). ................................ ..... 4 3 3 1 Top view of the apparatus used to anesthetize house flies. Small holes in a 14 cm Petri dish lid that nestles into a halved 2 liter container. ................................ ................... 59 3 2 Side view of container used with a 1 cm diameter hole to insert CO 2 hose. This creates a blanket of CO 2 over house flies to prevent premature waking ........................... 60 3 3 Spreadability scores for surfactants after application to female house fly, Musca domestica, thoraces. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 61 3 4 Colony forming units (cfu ) of Photorhabdus temparata on Luria Bertani (LB) agar plates after being held in surfactant (CapSil or Kinetic ) solutio ns briefly (1 hr) or for 24 hrs ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 62 3 5 Colony forming units (cfu) of Serratia marcescens on Luria Bertani (LB) agar plates after being held in surfactant solutions briefly (1 hr) or for 24 hrs. ................................ ... 63 3 6 Colony forming units (cfu) of Pseudomonas protegens on Luria Bertani (LB) agar plates after being held in surfactant solutions briefly (1 hr) or for 24 hrs. ........................ 64 3 7 Colony forming units (cfu) of Beauveria bassiana on yeast extract (SDY) plates after being held in surfactant (CapSil or Kinetic ) .............. 65

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10 4 1 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for three days following injection into the thoracic mesople uron adjacent to the wing base with 1 L of Photorhabdus temperata at different doses. ................................ ................................ .............................. 89 4 2 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for three days following injection with 1 L of S errati a marcescens at different doses ................................ ........................ 90 4 3 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for three days following injection with 1 L of Pseudomonas protegens at different doses ................................ .................. 91 4 4 Mortality of adult house flies for four days following injection with 1 L of Beauveria bassiana at different doses ... .. ................................ ................................ .......... 92 4 5 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days after topical application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x10 3 through 1x10 6 Photorhabdus tem perata colony forming unit (Pt) ................................ ................................ .................. 93 4 6 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days after topical application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x10 3 through 1x10 6 Serratia marcescens colony forming unit (Sm). ................................ ................................ .............. 94 4 7 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days after topical application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x10 3 through 1x10 6 Pseudomonas protegens colony forming unit (Pp). ................................ ................................ .................. 95 4 8 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days after topical application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x10 3 through 1x10 6 Beauveria bassiana conidia (Bb). ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 96 4 9 Mortality (%) of adult house flies, Musca domestica topical application of 0.5% CapSil containing Photorhabdus temperata (1x10 6 colony forming unit) and Beauveria bassiana (1x10 6 conidia) alone or in combination. ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 97 4 10 Mortality (%) of adult house flies, Musca domestica three, five, and seven days after Photorhabdus temperata (1x10 6 colony forming) and Beauveria bassiana (1x10 6 c onidia) alone or in combination ........ 98 4 11 application of 0.5% CapSil containing Serratia marcescens (1x10 6 colony forming unit) and Beauveria bassiana (1x10 6 conidia) alone or in combination. ........................... 99 4 12 application of 0.5% CapSil containing Serratia mar cescens (1x10 6 colony forming units) and Beauveria bassiana (1x10 6 c onidia) alone or in combination ....................... 100

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11 4 13 f 0.5% CapSil containing Pseudomonas protegens (1x10 6 colony forming units) and Beauveria bassiana (1x10 6 conidia) alone or in combination. ................................ ........ 101 4 14 Mortality (%) of adult house flies, Musca d omestica three, five, and seven days after Pseudomonas protegens (1x10 6 colony forming units) and Beauveria bassiana (1x10 6 conidia) alone or in combination. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 102 4 15 Mean (SE) per c ent mortality of house flies when treated topically with Photorhabdus temperata and Beauveria bassiana alone or sequentially with 48 hrs between applications of the first and second pathogen. ................................ ................................ 103 4 16 Sequential applications for Photorhabdus temperata at three time points: three, five, and seven days. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 104 4 17 Mean (SE) per c ent mortality of house flies when treated topically with Serratia marcescens and Beauveria bassiana alone or sequentially with 48 hrs between applications of the first and second pathogen. ................................ ................................ 105 4 18 Sequential applications for Serratia marcescens at three time points: three, five, and seven days. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 106 4 19 Mean (SE) per c ent mortality of house flies when treated topically with Pseudomonas protegens and Beauveria bassiana alone or sequentially with 48 hrs between applications of the first and second pathogen. ................................ ................................ 107 4 20 Sequential applications for Pseudomonas protegens at three time points: three, five, and seven days. .. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 108

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science COMBINING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS WITH Beauveria bassiana TO IMPROVE HOUSE FLY ( Musca domestica ) MANAGEMENT By Dana Michelle Johnson December 2017 Chair: Christopher Geden Cochair: Emma Weeks Major: Entomology and Nematology The common house fly ( Musca domestica L.) is a widely distributed, non biting pest that poses a public health and agricultural concern. Their high fecundity and short development time can rapidly lead to overwhelming population sizes, especially in animal production units. Unfortunately, house flies are resistant to most insecticides used today, making them a difficult synanthropic pest to control. The use of biological control has been increasingly popular due to low environmental impact and deserves more investigation, especially entomopathogenic fungi like, Beauveria bassiana As B. bassiana can take >7 days to kill house flies, thi s study aimed to reduce the lethal time (LT) by combining gram negative bacteria with B. bassiana to enhance virulence. The three bacterial strains chosen for investigation were Photorhabdus temperata NC19, Serratia marcescens Db11, and Pseudomonas proteg ens pf5. The overall objective of this study was to apply compatible bacteria with B. bassiana to LT 90 in adult house flies. Preliminary compatibility studies were performed, as well as selection of an adequate pathogen surfactant. Topical treatments of combined pathogens were applied to the house fly thorax. No significant reduction in LT 90 was recorded in B. bassiana combined with S. marcescens or P. temperata, however, significant reduction in LT 90 was observed when P. protegens and B.

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13 bassiana were combined, indicating a complementary action. These findings suggest that the addition of P. protegens can enhance effectiveness of B. bassiana Improvements in house fly management can increase animal health and welfare, and improve human comfort in resi dential areas neighboring animal facilities.

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14 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPLIMENTARY INTERACTION BETWEEN A BACTERIAL AND A FUNGAL PATHOGEN TO IMPROVE HOUSE FLY ( Musca domestica ) MANAGEMENT The common house fly, Musca domestica L., is a well known worldwide pest belonging to the order Diptera (Family: Muscidae). Because of the fl close f requent association with animals and humans along with several other filth breeding fly species, and commonly are se en around manure, decaying plant material and other substrates wher e microorganisms are abundant. Importance to Livestock and Public Health Since these flies have a close relationship with humans, domestic animals, and livestock, they pose a public health and agricultural concern (West, 1951). House flies can develop and breed in a variety of substrates associated with animals. Intensive animal production facilities are a prime location for fly breeding because of the large quantities of manure, soiled be dding, decaying feeds, and other substrates common on such facilities. Flies can be managed through an integrated pest management (IPM) system with a focus on sanitation, b ut this is often poorly implemented and so not always successful House flies are prolific breeders and even modes t amounts of breeding material can quickly lead to overwhelming populations. High fly populations can irritate the animals and the people who work with them. Axtell (1986, 1999) examined fly populations o n poultry farms an d discussed the decrease in egg production in hens due to increased stress associated with nuisance fly behaviors. Similarly, a high density of M. domestica on dairy farms has been shown to reduce milk production in dairy cows because of house fly annoya nce (r eviewed by Mal ik et al. 2007).

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15 In addition to being an irritant, M. domestica has been shown to be a mechanical vector for many pathogenic organisms including the causal agents of bacterial, viral, protozoan, and helminthic infections to humans and o ther animals (Sasaki et al. 2000 Shono et al. 2003). Past studies dem on strated that flies could transmit pathogens to mucous membranes (Kieding 1986). One study found an isolated Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni strain being carried by M. domestica fro m porcine and poultry farms to surfaces touched by humans, inferring that Campylobacter, which causes human enteritis, could be transferred from livestock facilities to human food by house flies (Rosef and Kapperud 1983). Graczyk et al. (2001) observed th e transport of a pathogen, Cryptosporidium parvum which causes human gastroenteritis in bovine feces onto surfaces by M. domestica. Macovei et al. (2008) reported that flies from cattle feedlots transmitted antibiotic resistant enterococci to ready to e at human food. In a recent review, Zurek and Ghosh (2014) conclude that flies are important in the movement of antibiotic resistant pathogens of many kinds between animal production units and nearby human populatio ns. Flies have been implicated as carrie rs of Salmonella enter ica and enterohemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli to fresh produce such as spinach and lettuce (Wasala et al. 2013, Pace et al. 2017). A recent special issue of the Annals of the Entomological Society of America summarizes the st atus of the role of filth flies in disease transmission (Nayduch and Burrus 2017). Life Cycle House flies are holometabolous and prolific breeders that can utilize a wide variety of foods to their advantage including human and animal waste. Adults emerge from puparia and begin mating one day after emergence. Mating can be fac ilitated by the pheromone Z 9 tricosene (Carlson et al. 1971) and also involves a detailed courtship

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16 ritual that prevents copulation with other related species (Tobin and Stoffolano 1973a,b). Fletcher et al. (1990) stated that female house flies can produce 75 200 eggs during their lifetime, but est imates of lifelong fecundity have been reported to be as high as ~1000 eggs (LaBrecque et al. 1972). The larvae feed on microorganisms p resent in a wide variety of substrates including manure, silage, wet feed, and decomposing vegetation (Nayduch and Burrus 2017) Mature larvae generally move out of the habitat and seek dry and protected sites to pupate. The life cycle, behavior and dens ity is dependent on environmental resources and temperature. When conditions are favorable and the temperature is around 30 C, house flies can complete their life cycle in approximately ten days, and the cooler the temperature the longer the life cycle t akes to complete (Stafford 2008). Adults can fly a significant distance searching for food and oviposition substrates ( Sacca 1963) which is why it is common for residential areas that are near animal rearing facilities or any other favorable breeding res ources to experience fly problems (Winpisinger et al. 2005). Under field conditions, average longevity is generally 5 10 days, but in the laboratory, females can survive upwards of two months (West 1951). Adult Morphology House flies are roughly 6 8 mm in length with females usually larger than the males, and have four dark stripes on a grey thorax (West 1951, Chapman 1998). The abdomen of the female house fly has nine segments, with the first five segments noticeable and the last four retracted until th e female oviposits (West 1951, Chapman 1998). In contrast, male abdomens contain only eight segments with the eighth segment having a darkened end (West 1951). Adult house flies are non biting and have modified sponging mouthparts that allow them to reg urgitate crop and salivary gland secretions

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17 onto solid food to liquefy it so that it can be ingested (West 1951 Graczyk et al. 2001). The tarsi have setae (i.e. sensory hairs) for assessing food quality and a sack like pad, the pulvillus, which produces a tacky residue that enables house flies to climb o n vertical and smooth surfaces. Current Management Techniques The use of chemical insecticides to control M. domestica has long been the standard management tactic. However house flies have developed ins ecticide resistance over time, a phenomenon that was first documented after extensive use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ( DDT ) for fly control (Varzandeh et al. 1954). During the ensuing years, the house fly has shown a remarkable ability to develop r esistance to new classes of insecticides, often within a few years of their introduction to the market (Boxler & Campbell 1983 Plapp 1984 Scott & Georghiou 1986 Scott et al. 1989 Kaufman et al. 2001 b, Butler et al. 2007 Kozaki et al. 2009 Kaufman et al. 2010 Memmi 2010 Scott et al. 2013, Shah et al. 2015). A neonicotinoid, I midacloprid, was used on a Florida strain of house flies, FDm, to evaluate the level of resistance. After five selections, they observed a 331 fold increased resistance to imid acloprid compared to the parental FDm population (Kaufman et al. 2010). Insecticide resistance can take a variety of forms and result from behavioral resistance, reduced penetration of the cuticle, target site insensitivity, neurotransmitter inhibition, o r a number of metabolic detoxification mechanisms (Hemingway and Ranson 1990). Resistance of house flies to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides has been particularly well studied. When permethrin was first introduced for fly management in ca. 1980 it was w idely welcomed for its efficacy, long residual life, and low toxicity compared to the organophosphates that had previously been the mainstay of fly control (Scott 2017). Widespread use of and reliance

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18 on permethrin products led to the rapid development of resistance throughout the U.S. (Scott et al. 1989, Kaufman et al. 2001b, 2010, Scott et al. 2013). Metabolic resistance to permethrin is complex and involves multiple alleles affecting voltage sensitive sodium channel ( Vssc ) mutations and enhanced oxidat ive detoxification via cytochrome P450 (Scott 2017). Insecticide resistance has driven the search for alternative methods to control persistent populations of house flies. These alternatives include manure management, sticky traps, light traps, ovipositi on traps, baited traps, biological control (discussed below) and other technologies that do not incorporate conventional insecticides. An example of new tools for fly management are are typically hormones or analog s of hormones that when applied prevent the insect from developing successfully to the adult reproducing stage. However, despite being develop resistance. A juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen, was utilized on a poultry farm strain (PYR) of larval M. domestica that were already 25.70 fold resistant to the active ingredient. After 22 genera tions of laboratory selection by repeated exposure to pyriproxyfen resistance in the P YR strain developed 130 fold compared to a susceptible house fly strain (Shah et al. 2015). Similarly, flies developed very high levels of resistance to the IGR cyromazine shortly after it became widely used as a feed through product for fly control on ca ged lager (egg producing) poultry farms in the 1980 s, and there was evidence of cross resistance to another IGR (diflubenzuron) (Sheppard et al. 1989, Shen and Plapp 1990)

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19 Biological Control of House Flies In addition to concerns about low efficacy due to insecticide resistance public concern about food and worker safety because of insecticides has caused controversy and is the driving force behind the growth in the organic segment of modern agriculture. These concerns have spurred interest in the use of biological control methods for some minimize potential harm to the environment and human health. Researchers have investigated many avenues for biological control of ho use flies, although because of the biology of M. domestica most literature focuses on the immature life stages, where predators attack egg and larval stages and parasitoids prey upon pupae. Adult flies are susceptible to microbial infections but this app roach has received comparatively less attention. The use of predators, parasitoids, and botanicals, as well as fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens have all shown efficacy in controlling this pest under certain situations ( r eviewed by Malik et al. 2007) Although all of these agents have shown some promise in controlling M. domestica each has certain limitations that hinder their use for successful management in the field. Overviews of the principal biological control candidates for house flies are pr esented below. Predators The most important natural enemies of eggs and young fly larvae are beetle and mite predators, especially the histerid beetle Car c inops pumilio (Erich son ; Coleoptera: Histeridae ), and the mite Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopol i; Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) Macrocheles muscaedomesticae live in poultry, pig, sheep and cattle manure, which are typical house fly breeding sites, and the female adults prey on fly e ggs and newly emerged larvae (r eviewed by Geden 1990, 2006). This mite has a 2 3 day

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20 development time and population sizes can fluctuate extensively based on environmental conditions and prey availability. At this time, M. muscaedomesticae are not available commercially, perhaps because rearing in the laboratory is diff icult due to the need for nematode prey (reviewed by Geden 2006). Car c inops pumilio is the most important and common coleopteran predator of filth flies ( r eviewed by Geden 1990). They reside mostly in poultry manure, but also commonly are found in calf b edding. Car c inops pumilio prey on fly eggs starting in their second larval instar and continue to do so throughout their motile life stages. Development time is approximately three weeks, with an adult life span of as long as two years. Carninops pumili o can be reared on house flies in laboratory conditions, however, it is difficult and expensive due to cannibalistic behavior and lengthy development time (Geden 1990, 2006). Conservation of natural C. pumilio populations is possible with cultural manure management practices (Geden and Stoffolano 1988 Kaufman et al. 200 2, Hinton and Moon 2003 ). Parasitoids The use of pupal parasitoids, especially those in the Pteromalidae (Order: Hymenoptera) has been considered a viable biological control option since they were used to successfully manage flies under field conditions 40 years ago (Morgan et al. 1975, 1976). The literature on fly parasitoids is voluminous and has been reviewed several times (Patterson et al. 1981, Patterson and Rutz 1986, Rutz and Patte rson 1990, Legner 1995, Geden and Hogsette 2001, Geden 2006, Machtinger et al. 2015 Machtinger and Geden 2017 ). There are about a dozen common parasitoid species, several of which are available to end users through comm ercial insectaries. Parasitoid rel eases have been effective in many instances (Rutz and Axtell 1979, Morgan and Patterson 1990, Geden et al. 1992, Petersen et al. 1992, Petersen and Cawthra 1995, Crespo et al. 1998, Geden and

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21 Hogsette 1996) and unsuccessful in others (Meyer et al. 1990, An dress and Campbell 1994, Weinzierl and Jones 1998, McKay and Galloway 1999, Kaufman et al. 2001 a ). Selection of the appropriate parasitoids species for fly management remains an inexact science. The different parasitoid species differ in their developmen t times, foraging behavior, attack rates, host preferences and distances traveled to locate pupae (Machtinger et al. 2015). The two most commonly used species are Muscidifurax raptor (Girault and Sanders) and Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) Muscidifurax ra ptor is known for its high attack rate, relatively short ( ~14 day ) development time and success with parasitizing pupae at the surface. However, M. raptor struggles with locating buried pupae and is sensitive to insecticides (Geden 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002) In comparison, S. cameroni has a lower attack rate, longer development time, less sensitivity to pesticides, and is capable of locating buried pupae (Geden 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002). Releases of multiple species can expand the niche breadth covered by bi ological control efforts, but competitive interactions among species can limit the effectiveness of releas ing multiple species (Geden et al. 2014). Pathogens Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN s ) in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabdiditiae (Order: Rhabditida) have a broad host range and have been studied extensively for management of a wide variety of arthropod pests (Gaugler and Kaya 1990 Gaugler 2002 Georgis et al. 2006, Poinar and Grewal 2012). An interesting aspect of their biology is that E PN s carry symbiotic bacteria that are largely responsible for the host death (Akhurst and Boemare 1990, Forst et al. 1997, Boemare 2002). EPN s have shown mixed results with M. domestica control. Laboratory studies have revealed that M. domestica larvae had a high susceptibility to most EPN s, but when experiments were

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22 performed on natural fly breeding substrates, such as manure efficacy w as disappointing ( r eviewed in Georgis et al. 2006, Geden 2012). These nematodes survive better in sandy soils, which allow better movement and oxygen quality, and perhaps cannot survive well in poultry and pig manure Unfortunately, manure and moistened substrates are common and favorable for M. domestica oviposition and breeding sites thus making nematodes not an ide al house fly bi ological control method Adult flies are less susceptible to nematodes than larvae, perhaps because of their reluctance to feed on solutions containing motile parasites. For the purpose of this study, we are focusing on the control of the adult house fly, and as commercial nematodes target the larvae they would not be suitable. However, the bacterial symbionts of EPNs could be used against adult flies if a method can be developed to deliver them into the fly hemocoel. One of the objective s of this research is to evaluate delivery methods of entomopathogens into the fly hemocoel. This could be key to the use of EPN symbionts for fly control as the symbiotic bacteria lack the means to gain entry to the fly by themselves. Salivary gland hyp ertrophy virus (SGHV) is a double stranded DNA virus that is commonly found on dairy farms in Florida (Coler et al. 1993). Lietze et al. (201 1 ) discovered that SGHV is detrimental to females by causing hypertrophy of the salivary glands leading to undevel oped ovaries ( r eviewed by Lietze et al. 2011 ). Infected flies release millions of virus particles whenever they feed, suggesting that the most lik ely transmission route is oral (Lietze et al. 2009). However, per os (i.e. by mouth) infection rates are low because of the barrier presented by the peritrophic matrix (PM) (Boucias et al. 2015). This has limited the development of SGHV into a bait for house fly management.

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23 Entomopathogenic fungi research has shown promising results in recent years. Entomophth ora muscae (Cohn) Fresen. (Entomophthoraceae) is known to kill flies in 4 6 days once the flies have been exposed to spores (Pinnock and Mullens 2007, Geden 2012). This fungus spreads due to uninfected fly activity on and around infected c adavers ; flies a re exposed during conidial expulsion (Geden et al. 1993). The success of this fungus is relative to the density of the fly population and the ability to spread conidia to one another (Geden et al. 1993). Entomophthora muscae is difficult to propaga te outside of live M. domestica and currently the conidia cannot be stockpiled under normal storage conditions for use in management. Other options for entomopathogenic fungi are Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (Clavicipitaceae) and Beauveria b assiana (Bals. Criv.) Vuill. (Cordycipitaceae). Both species have a wide host range and have long been the subject of intense research for management of a myriad of pest species (Roberts and Hajek 1992, Shah and Pell 2002, Lacey et al. 2015). Although som e strains of M. anisopliae have been tested with some success against house flies (Renn et al. 1999, Mishra et al. 2011, Acharya et al. 2015) to the field collected house flies, whereas B. bass iana has frequently been found naturally infecting flies (Steinkraus et al. 1990, Geden et al. 1995, Skovg rd and Steenberg 2002). For an entomopathogenic fungus to be effective in the field it needs to have a high germination rate, cause high mortality a nd result in high sporulation to transmit the infection. The possession of these desirable qualities c an vary a lot by species and isolate One study found that B. bassiana strain BNBCRC had the highest germination and caused the highest mortality (80%) on

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24 Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (72%) but the lowest conidia l yield compared to other strains of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae (Petlamul and Prasertsan 2012). Alt hough, in that study, all strains were found to be virulent, the prob lem lies, as with other entomopathogenic fungi, with the time to 100% mortality. The average time to death of S litura larvae was six days for B. bassiana and longer for M. anisopliae (Petlamul and Prasertsan 2012). In the case of adult house flies, the a verage time to death is also ~ six days, although mortal ity rates are affected by isolate and method of delivery (Geden et al. 1995, Lecuona et al. 2005, Mwanburi et al. 2010). B eauveria bassiana is an anamorphic entomopathogenic fungi that is ubiquitous It is commonly found in soil and has been reported to infect hundreds of insect species in nature (Lipa 1963). Similar to conventional insecticides, the mode of action of B. bassiana is first through contact with the insect pest h owever, in the case o f f ungi host contact occurs with spores or conidia (Barbarin et al. 2012). Conidia adhere to the insect cuticle due to their surface hydrophobic proteins (Hyd1 and Hyd2) that contribute to B. bassiana virulence (Ortiz Urquiza and Keyhani 2013). Once att ached, germination occurs, where the appressorium is driven into the cuticle assisted by secreted hydrolytic enzymes, e.g. chitinases, proteases, and lipases (Ortiz Urquiza and Keyhani 2013). Eventually, B. bassiana reaches the hemocoel of the insect caus ing mortality by a combination of actions including invading organs, circulating poisonous metabolites and depletion of vital nutrients (Chamley 1989, Ferron 1981, Inglis et al. 2001). Barriers to Fungal Infection House flies are attracted to putrefying e nvironments, and they have evolved an efficient immune system to ward off the many microbes to which they are constantly exposed (Malik et al. 2007, Nayduch and Joyner 2013). The hard exoskeleton protects

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25 flies from microorganisms penetrating the cuticle and reaching the hemocoel. Insect cuticle contains different components that aid in its strength, e.g. waxes, hydrocarbons, lipids, chitin, and sclerotized proteins (Ortiz Urquiza and Keyhani 2013). The cuticle may also contain antifungal compounds such as benzoquinone oxidoreductase that inhibit germination (Pedrini et al. 201 3 ). Insect fungal metabolic interactions are complex and overcome them (Singh et al. 2016). In a ddition, flies have grooming behaviors to remove foreign substances from their body (Ortiz Urquiza and Keyhani 2013 Jacques et al. 2017 ). If a pathogen enters a fly via ingestion, it must endure the rigors of digestion, the fly immune system as well as physical barriers. When a pathogen is ingested, it is first stored in the cuticle lined crop, then regurgitated before being transferred to the midgut (Nayduch and Joyner 2013). The midgut is lined with a PM that ends at the midgut hindgut juncture, wher e the hindgut is again protected by cuticle. The PM is imperm eable to most ingested bacteria and it secretes lytic digestive enzymes and ant imicrobial agents that limit pathogen entrance (Joyner et al. 2013, Nayduch and Joyner 2013). House flies have a n immune system consisting of cellular and humoral innate factors that contribute to the identification of microorganisms by utilizing pattern recognition receptors (PRR s), as well as killing microorganisms by encapsulation, phagocytosis, and/or the product ion of antimicrobials (Mishra et al. 201 2 Nayduch and Burrus 2017) The immune system of the house fly is the main reason why biological control techniques such as entomopathogenic fungi do not work as desired and the time taken to kill is extended. Gi ven that B. bassiana

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26 reasonable to wonder whether it could be combined with other entomopathogens that are faster in action but without the means to penetrate the fly cuticle, which would be carried into the hemocoel by the fungus potentially causing a shortened time to death. Research Objectives As mentioned above, B. bassiana typically takes approximately six days to kill house fly hosts. However, there is indirect evidence that the time to death is sho rter in microbe rich environments. Kaufman et al (2005) noted that although B. bassiana seemed to cause fly population reductions in poultry houses, very few cadavers from the treated houses produced conidia because fly cadavers were overwhelmed by bacte ria in this highly septic environment. A company that produces a commercial B. bassiana product targeted at fly pests environments, because the fungus provides a point of entry for opportunistic bac terial pathogens in the environment (Jim Arends, personal communication). The objectives of this research explored avenues for a multi dimensional method of M. domestica biological control. These objectives were: 1. To investigate the compatibility of Beauv eria bassiana with three bacteria species (i.e. Serratia marcescens Db11, Photorhabdus temperata NC19, and Pseudomonas protegens Pf 5) 2. To determine a suitable carrier for topical application of both fungi and bacteria to M. domestica 3. To quantify the effect iveness of topical applications of M. domestica with pathogens that are i ndividual, comb ined, and sequentially applied

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27 CHAPTER 2 COMPATIBILITY OF BACTERIA WITH Beauveria bassiana Introduction A study in 2014 discovered that the combination of Bacill us subtilis and B. bassiana reduced fruit borer attack o n tomato plants in an additive manner compared with either pathogen alone ( n ukarthikeyan et al. 2014). Similarly, Lednev et a l. (2008) reported an additive effect of B. bassiana with Pseudomonas sp. against migratory locusts. B eauveria bassiana and Pseudomonas sp. also were observed to act synergistically against leafminers, and the activity was further promoted by incorporating chitin into the formulation (Senthilraja et al. 2010). Wraight and R amo s (2005) observed additive effects of B. bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis against the Colorado potato beetle, and Mwambur i et al. (2009) found evidence for additivity, if not synergy, between B. bassiana and B. thuringiensi s var. israelensis against house fly larvae. They found that combining these two pathogens had an additive effect and significantly reduced adult house fly emergence in a poultry facility. These results suggest that combination products of B. bassiana with bacterial patho gens warrant closer study. B. bassiana with three gram negative entomopathogens with the goal of reduc ing the time to death of treated house flies beyond that which occurs d ue to B. bassiana infection alone In developing a combination product with bacterial entomopathogens, the three bacteria evaluated which were all in the class Gammaproteobacteria, were Serratia marcescens Photorhabdus temperata, and Pseudomonas protege ns.

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28 S erratia marcescens (Bizio) was discovered in 1819 and was originally thought to be a stemless fungus (Mahlen 2011). It is reported to contain flagella and believed to be motile with cells that divide longitudinally by fission (Mahlen 2011). Serratia is a ubiquitous genus o f gram negative bacteri a belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae wit h roughly 14 species including two subspecies (Mahlen 2011). Serratia marcescens is a common laboratory contaminant and has been found to be a natural bioinsec ticide (Pineda Castellanos et al. 2015). This bacterium inhabits soil and water and some strains are pathogenic to insects, whereas others are pathogenic to humans and other mammals. It displays virulence in approximately 70 species of insects including wasp, termite, grasshopper and fl y species (Grimont et al. 1979). In addition, it has been isolated from more than 30 different insect species and is a common contaminant in insect colonies (Grimon t et al. 1979 Flyg et al. 1980). The use of S. marcesce ns has been shown to be a potential alternative to chemical insecticides in some instances (Pineda Castellanos et al. 2015). S erratia marcescens is well known for its mobility and its capacity to secrete a multitude of virulence factors, such as proteases and chitinases, making it a promising pathogen for biological control of targeted insects (Grimont et al. 2006). The bacterium is documented to suppress insect host immunity by manipulating immunosurveill a nce cells (Ishii et al. 2014 Stout 2015). A rec ent study described the protease serralysin as one of the causes of high fatality in larvae of Phyllophaga blanchardi (Arrow; Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) when orally inoculated with S. marcescens (Pineda Castellanos et al. 2015). Similarly, an endochitinas e gene isolated from S. marcescens and expressed in Escherichia coli enhanced the activity of recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin CryIC against

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29 larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by significantly decreasing the l ethal dose to 50% mortality ( LD 50 ) values (Regev et al. 1996 Sampson and Gooday 1998). In preliminary studies, S. marcescens was injected into adult female house flies in a range of doses and the lethal time to 50% ( LT 50 ) was less than 12 hours, a lethal dose to 50% ( L D 50 ) could not be calculated because a single cell appeared to be sufficient to kill the fly (Johnson, unpublished data). Photorhabdus temperata Fischer Le Saux et al., is a gram negative, bioluminescent, motile, entomopathogenic bacterium b elonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae (Wollenberg et al. 2016) This bacterium has a symbiotic relationship with entomopathogenic heterorhabditid nematodes The nematode actively seeks out insect hosts while the bacterium resides in the gut of the ne matode protected from environmental harm (Hurst et al. 2015). Once the EPN releases the bacterium into the hemocoel of the insect host bacterial virulence factors such as proteases, chitinases, and toxins act quickly to cause host death (Duchaud et al. 2 003). This bacterium has two phases, one where it is pathogenic to insects and the other where it is symbiotic with EPNs (Forst et al. 1997). Together the nematode and its symbiotic bacteria are pathogenic to a wide range of insects (Duchaud et al. 2003 ). Although EPNs and their associated symbiotic bacteria have shown success together as a bioinsecticide, the bacteria are the direct cause of insect mortality. It has been documented that Photorhabdus spp cause immunosuppression in Spodoptera exigura H bner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by inhibiting phosp h olipase one of the enzymes responsible for modulating insect immune function ( Jung and Kim 2006 ). O ther studies have found P. temperata in the absence of its host EPN to have potential

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30 for future bioinse cticidal use. For instance, Shrestha and Kim (2010 ) found 100% mortality in larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, Coleoptera: Tenebionidae) 48 hours post injection of P. temperata In addition, some studies have discovered combining P. temperata with an other microbial agent having potential as an alternative biological control method. For example, Jung and Kim (2006) found a synergistic interaction between P. temperata and Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai when the two pathogens were fed to S. exigua larva e, cau sing high mortality. Pseudomonas spp. are gram negative bacteria in the family Pseudomonadaceae with more than 100 species distinguished (Palleroni 2003). They have a highly diverse metabolism and include plant and human pathogens, remediation agent s for chemical pollutant s, and plant protecting species with antifungal properties One member, P protegens Ramette et al. is capable of producing a range of plant defending products such as antibiotic metabolites, chitinases, exoproteases, and an insec t toxin, FitD, that contributes to the deterrence of insect and fungal plant invaders ( Cronin et al. 1997 Ellis et al. 2000 Loper et al. 2016 ). According to Kupferschmied et al. (2014), P. protegens switches between two modalities, one that is virulent to insects and an other that is plant benefiting. Kupferschmied et al. (2014) provided evidence that a sensor, histidine kinase, FitF, regulates the production of insecticidal toxins in P. protegens Inhibition of FitF when P. protegens colonizes plant ro ots prevents the differentiation between an insect host and a plant, thereby explaining how the bacterium knows when to switch modes (Kupferschmied et al. 2014). Another study determined that the components contributing to oral toxicity of P. protegens in Drosophila melanogaster Macquart (Diptea: Drosophilidae) were a macrolide, rhizoxin, and a secreted chitinase, chiC (Loper et al.

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31 2016). The first objective of my study aimed to determine whether the three bacterial species described above have inhibitor y effects on the growth of B. bassiana Materials and Methods Entomopathogen s All strains discussed below are biosafety level one (BSL1) that is, they are well characterized agents that do not cause disease in healthy humans Beauveria bassiana For this study, the B. bassiana strain used was L90, which was isolated from house flies in upstate New York, and is known to be virulent to flies (Geden et al. 1995). Beauveria bassiana was preserved in 10% glycerol at 80 C at the University of Florida Institu te of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Entomology and Nematology Department prior to culturing for use in these experiments. Serratia marcescens The strain Db11 is a streptomycin resistant mutant of strain Db10 that was isolated from a dying Drosop hila melanogaster (Iguchi et al. 2014). This strain was received from the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center (CGC) of the University of Minnesota (Saint Paul, MN) to be used in this study. Photorhabdus temperata The strain NC19 has been genetically sequenced and is predicted to contain many encoded insecticidal toxins (Duchaud et al. 2003). This strain was provided for this research by Byron Adams at Brigham Young University ( Provo, U T)

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32 Pseudomonas protegens The strain Pf 5 was formally classified as P. fluo rescens Pf 5 but was reclassified as P. protegens along with strain CHA0 as it was found to cluster away from the fluorescent pseudomonads (Takeuchi et al. 2014). This strain was purchased through the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; Manassas, VA) for use in this study. Bacterial and Fungal C ultivation Bacterial strains were cultured on Luria Bertani (LB) agar plates (LB broth, Fisher BioReagents, Pittsburgh, PA) and incubated at 28 C, overnight and then placed at 4 C. For preparation of bioassay s, whichever bacteria needed was set up a day prior in L LB broth in a 10 m L conical tube with the respective bacterial colony picked with a sterile loop from the refrigerated agar plates, then incubated in a contro lled environment shaker (New Brunswick Scientific, Edison, NJ) at 28 C, overnight. The following morning, the overnight culture was transferred into a 50 m L glass flask in a 1:20 dilution with LB broth. Initially, each bacterium had to be plated at diff ering concentrations to first establish the colony forming units ( cfu ) at optical density (OD) of 0.5 measured using a spectrophotometer (Biochrom LKB Ultrospec II; Cambridge, UK) at absorbance set to 600 nm. From this, bacterial counts could be estimated for future bioassays. Utilizing knowledge from bacterial enumeration described above I was able to perform simple calculations involving ratios to determine bacterial concentrations once each bacteria was cultured unti l it reached an OD of 0.5 B eauver ia bassiana (SDY) (2% glucose, 1% peptone, 0.5% yeast extract ; pH 7.0) at room temperature (RT) for 7 days to obtain heavily sporulating cultures. After 1 week, the plates were dried in a steril e hood for an additional week. After drying, conidia were scraped from each plate

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33 with a sterile small metal spatula and stored at 4 C in a sterile glass vial. For conidial counts, 10 mg of dried harvested conidia were suspended in 0.1% Tween 20 (Sigm al Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO) and distilled water After mixing well, 10 L of this stock was counted using an Automatic Cell Counter (Cellometer Vision HSL; Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA) to determine the conidial concentration. Central D isc T est A heavily modified Kirby Bauer method was used to determine the compati bility of each bacterial strain and B. bassiana The conidial stock was diluted to 1x10 6 cfu/m L An aliquot of 100 L of this dilution was spread evenly onto an SDY plate to create a fungal lawn. The plate was allowed to dry for 30 minutes under a lamin ar flow hood, then one blank 6 mm filter disc (Becton Dickinson and Company, Washington, DC) was placed in the center of each SDY plate. T he appropriate overnight culture of a bacterial strain was then inoculated onto the center of the blank disc Three separate plates for each bacterial strain w ere carried out in the following combinations: S. marcescens on the disc with a B. bassiana lawn, P. temperata on the disc with a B. bassiana lawn, and P. protegens on the disc with a B. bassiana lawn. To assess inhibition in a positive control amphotericin B (an antifungal) was used on the center disc with a B. bassiana lawn, and the negative control was a blank disc with a B. bassiana lawn. Zone of inhibition diameter was measured with a standard ruler in mill imeters after 72 hours. If there was no inhibition of fungal growth then the measurement is 6 mm, the diameter of the disc. The zone of inhibition is measured from the edge of the clear area on either side of the disc.

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34 Statistical A nalysis Data appeared normal on a plot of quantiles (Q Q plot) and a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out in R 0.99.491 (RStudio, Inc. Boston, MA) as well as tests Results Since S. marcescens and P. p rotegens are motile, the bacteria grew past the center disc creating a halo effect (Figure 2 2 and 2 3). To compensate fo r this motility in the bacteria halo was measured as an extension of the center disc and the data measurements were adjusted by subtra cting the halo from the overall diameter. Comparing each bacterial strain to the blank control (Figure 2 3), P. temperata (p<0.001) and P. protegens (p<0.001) inhibited the growth of B. bassiana while S. marcescens did not (p>0.05). Similarly, when bact eria strains were compared with the positive control, amphotericin B, P. temperata (p = 0.808) and P. protegens (p = 0.808) showed no significant difference, whereas S. marcescens did (p<0.001). If no zone of inhibition was observed, the measurement was t h e same as the blank disc, i.e 6 mm (Figure 2 6). Photorhabdus temperata had a distinct orange color on the disc (Figure 2 4) and also inhibited B. bassiana growth. Amphotericin B, the antifungal control, produced the widest zone of inhibition against B bassiana (Figure 2 5). Discussion Two out of three bacterial pathogens inhibited the growth of B. bassiana in the center disc test using the modified Kirby Bauer method. Because prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms are fundamentally different, combining them can be a delicate task because of possible negative interactions suc h as competition and antagonism The goal

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35 of this objective was to see how these pathogens interacted on simple growth media while recognizing that these interactions could change s ubstantially when the combinations were tested on house fly cuticle. Serratia marcescens was the only bacterial pathogen that showed no inhibition towards the growth of B. bassiana One possible explanation for lack of inhibition is that the strain used in this study lac ks the red pigment prodigiosin, a well studied toxin that has some antifungal properties (Darshan and Manonmani. 2015). The test substrate may have played a role as well. Pathogens can live in a wide range of changing environments; it co uld be that S. marcescens is more inhibitory towards invading fungi at a differ ent pH than occurs in SDY agar. Additionally, SDY contains glucose to aid in fungal growth, however, bacteria media (e.g. LB) typically lack glucose. This indicates that bacte ria do not need the extra carbon source and the addition of it could be changing gene expression, which is difficult to determine if virulent factors are being expressed (Hua et al. 2004). Pseudomonas protegens inhibited B. bassiana growth similarly to th e amphotericin B positive control. This bacterium is known for its antifungal properties while residing in the rhizosphere of plants and for its ability to ward off a variety of plant invaders. My observations were consistent with the plant protecting pr operties that this species is known to possess. However, the inhibition of vegetative fungal growth on agar plates does not necessarily rule out the use of P. protegens in combination with B. bassiana as a means to kill the target insect. If B. bassiana were able to facilitate bacterial entry into the fly hemocoel then the FitD toxin associated with P. protegens would be likely to kill the host rapidly (Ruffner et al. 2015). As stated above, the behavior of these organisms on SDY plates may differ from w hat occurs on/in a living

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36 host. For example, local competition for nutrients on growth media may affect the outcome of the interaction differently than would occur on ins ect cuticle or in the hemocoel. P hotorhabdus temperata also inhibited B. bassiana gro wth similarly to the antifungal positive control Photorhabdus temperata has two phenotypic phases, the primary phase (which has an orange appearance on LB plates) that is symbiotic to the entomopathogenic nematode, and the secondary phase (which grows wh ite) that is conducive to life outside the nematode i.e. inside the insect host (Hurst et al. 2015). Although both phases are virulent to insects, the secondary phase impedes nemat ode reproduction and sustenance, suggesting more pathogenicity in secondar y phase (Hurst et al. 2015). For the duration of this research, P. temperata remained in the primary phas e as indicated by colony color. SDY media was chosen for these assays because it contains minimal nutrients that allowed adequate growth of all four m icroorganisms and thus allowed me to examine interactions under controlled conditions. However, t he environment on and in a living f ly is quite different and this could have an impact on the outcome of the interactions. One way to approximate host condit ions would be to incorporate chitin or fly homogenates into the growth media, as this could affect the growth, metabolism and interactions of all of the test organisms Another concern is that these bioaasays did not allow an evaluation of the effect of t he bacteria on germination of. B. bassiana conidia, as successful germination would be critical to the prospect of using fungal penetration to deliver bacteria to the hemocoel. These topics are addressed in Chapter 4, where species combinations were teste d in vivo by topical applications to the thoraces of living flies.

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37 Overall, more work needs to be done to modify the Kirby Bauer method for this use in order to mimic the biological application more closely Potential entomopathogens are plentiful and wel l deserving of our attention in the study of their efficacy to control the insect pest of choice. Moreover, the more knowledge gained about the combinations of different pathogens will aid in the development of a better biological control tool. The use o f microbial control has been increasingly a target of study due to its variety and appeal of less harmful biological methods of control. Recently, removing certain toxins that these microbial agents acquire has been another realm of research worth mention ing. For instance, Bacillus thuri n giensis contains a protein called Bt toxin that has been isolated and used as a successful bioinsecticide for many years (Roh et al. 2007). More importantly, the use of insecticides has long provided a way to reduce pest numbers rapidly during outbreaks when rapid action is needed. Fast acting microbial biocontrol agents would provide an attractive alternative to both chemical toxicants and the slow response that conventional biological control agents typically deliver.

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38 Figure 2 1. Zone of inhibition (mm) of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana by various bacteria species using a modified Kirby Bauer method known as the center disc test. The three pathogens, Photorhabdus temperat a Pseudomonas protegens and S erratia marcescens were compared to a positive control of amphotericin B and a negative co ntrol, which was a blank disc. Zone of inhibition diameter was measured and 6 mm was equivalent to no inhibition (dotted line). Bars are means standard errors, dif ferent letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05) a a b a b 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 P. temperata P. protegens S. marcescens Amphotericin B Blank Control Zone of Inhibition (mm)

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39 Figure 2 2. A Luria Bertani agar plate with P seudomonas protegens on the center disc showing zone of inhibition ( solid black line) against B eauveria bassiana lawn, as well as a visibly observable b acterial halo that grew past the disc.

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40 Figure 2 3. S erratia marcescens on a blank disc showing no zone of inhibition ( solid black line) against B eauveria bassiana lawn, and also a halo of bacteria along the rim of the center disc

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41 Figure 2 4. Photorh abdus temperata on the center disc showing a zone of inhibition ( solid black line ) against B eauveria bassiana lawn. Note the yellow coloration, as well as a visibly observable bacterial halo that grew past the disc.

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42 Figure 2 5. Amphotericin B in the ce nter creating a clea r zone of inhibition (red dotted line) against a B eauveria bassiana lawn Black solid line indicates the diameter of the center disc (6 mm).

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43 Figure 2 6. Blank disc control with no zone of inhibition against a Beauveria bassiana lawn Black solid line indicates the diameter of the center disc (6mm).

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44 CHAPTER 3 CHOICE OF AN APPROPRIATE CARRIER FOR HOUSE FLY SURVIVAL AND VIABILITY OF ALL PATHOGENS Introduction The overall objective of this research project was to test whether the effic acy of entomopathogenic fungi against house flies can be improved by using a combination product that pairs fungal conidia with bacterial pathogens, as the lat t er would otherwise have difficulty reaching the hemocoel of the fly. In order to develop such a combination product, it was important to find a suitable carrier that was safe for the flies adhered to the fly cuticle, and was not harmful to either the fungal (i.e. Beauveria bassiana ) or bacterial pathogens (i.e. Serratia marcescens Photorhabdus tem perat a and Pseudomonas protegens ) This carrier would be useful both for the topical assays to be conducted in Chapter 4 and for future product formulation. An ideal combination formulation should have the following characteristics: high efficacy, ease of application, safety for organisms involved, and cost effectiveness. The literature on formulation of B. bassiana is voluminous, as conidia can be formulated as dusts, baits, and water and oil suspensions (Wraight et al. 2001). The house fly thorax is r ich in lipopolysaccharides, which are hydrophobic and repel water. Oils adhere well to insect cuticle and are attractive as formulation agents because of their long shelf life potential, but botanical oils vary considerably in the effects that they can ha ve on spore viability (Moslim et al. 2004, Luz and Batagin 2005). In order to create a water based formulation for dry spores, surfactants are needed to suspend the hydrophobic conidia (Jin et al. 2008). One way to achieve suspension is to employ nonioni c surfactants that are often used as wetters and spreader stickers for formulation of agricultural sprays applied to plant foliage. Nonionic surfactants do not contain a

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45 charge, however, they are efficient at breakin g the surface tension of water. These materials are amphiphilic, that is, they include both hydrophobic and hydrophilic components, and include well known surfactants with agricultural, cosmetic, and industrial applications such as Triton X 100, the polysorbates such as Tween 20 and Tween 80, and nonoxynol 9. Although numerous studies have examined the effect of surfactants on B. bassiana viability (Prasad 1993, Polar et al. 2005, Mishra et al. 2013) almost nothing has been published on their direct mortality effects when tested alone on house flies. For this research, a carrier was needed that could be easily and reliably applied in that it would not be repelled by the cuticle or bead up on the cuticle after topical application, but also would not kill the fly directly. Although spreading is desirable, it is also important that the spread is limited. In preliminary studies with horticultural oil, I found that topical thoracic treatments with even small amou nts were lethal because the oil spread too much and blocked the thoracic spiracles of the fly. Even less is known about the compatibility of surfactants with bacteria. Bacterial cell walls are composed primarily of lipopolysaccharides that make up a bilayer to protect the interior of the cell (Costerton et al. 1974). This lipid bilayer is embedded with proteins that help modulate permeability (Costerton et al. 1974). The surfactants that we were considering contain ed both hydropho bic and hydrophilic properties. Although this is helpful for suspending B. bassiana conidia, the surfactant c omponents could be B. bassiana consist mostly of chitin, a sturdier co mpound than lipopolysaccharides. Although there is so me information on the effect of

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46 nonionic surfactants for their cleansing and antibiotic properties and as carriers for pollutant bioremediation agents (Comas and Vives Rego 1997, Tobe et al. 2015 Zh a ng et al. 2017), there is little known about their effec ts on the species under consideration for this project. The objectives of this chapter were to evaluate several widely available agricultural surfactants for 1) spreadability on the house fly thorax; 2) acute mortality effects on the fly and 3) compatibili ty with B. bassiana and the bacteria S marcescens P temperata and P protegens This surfactant will be utilized in Chapter 4 in topical exposure bioassays. The results from this chapter also will provide information for manufacturing of fly pest contr ol products that contain any of these agents. Methods House Fly R earing The Orlando N ormal strain that has been reared at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, U nited S tates D epartment of A griculture, Agricultural Research Service (Gainesville, FL) since 1958 was utilized for these studies. These flies were maintained at 28 C in wire mesh cages (37.5 x 37.5 x 37.5 cm) and fed a diet consisting of dried milk, dried egg, and sugar. Flies used in this bioassay were less than a wee k old. To keep the flies under anesthesia for the duration of the experiment, a CO 2 exposure chamber was fabricated. This consisted of a shallow dish fashioned from a 2 liter container (Instawares, Kennesaw, GA) cut in half (Fig. 3 1), utilizing the bott om only with a 1 cm diameter hole on the side in to which the CO 2 hose fit s (Fig. 3 2). Inside of the dish was a large P etri dish lid (14 cm) with small holes (Fig. 3 1). Wh en the flies are placed on the perforated petri dish the CO 2 is forced through th e perforation and spread s evenly over the anesthetized flies.

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47 Carriers Kinetic (Aquatrols, Paulsboro, NJ) is a non ionic, synthetic surfactant used as a spreader sticker for pesticides and fungicides onto plants. CapSil (Aquatrols, Paulsboro, NJ) is ano ther non ionic surfactant that is an organo silicone. DyneAmic (Helena, Collierville, TN) is a surfactant containing mostly fatty acids that is used to enhance the spread of insecticides on waxy plant surfaces. Induce (Helena, Collierville, TN) is a no nionic blend containing high amounts of fatty acids ; it aids in the adherence of insecticide onto plants and is known for its resistance to wash off. Various dilutions of each carrier were made in distilled water and mixed thoroughly. T hree doses were te sted for each carrier : minimum, medium, and maximum based on the range of recommend ed dilution rates listed on the product labels. Each carrier was diluted in sterile distilled water f ollowing product label instructions to prepare 10 mL of solution For CapSil and Kinetic the minimum, medium and maximum concentrations were 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00%, respectively For DyneAmic the concentrations were 0.04, 0.40 and 4.00%, and for Induce they were 0.03, 0.30 and 3.00% Tween 80 also was included as a sta ndard and was tested at 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00%. Application of C arrier s to F lies Utilizing a P 2 pipette (Gilson PIPETMAN TM Atlanta, GA) 1 L was topically appl ied to the anterior thorax of five female flies individually with each dose of the carriers. Al l topi cal treatments were replicated four times (20 flies) Two measurements were recorded; the spreadability onto the house fly thorax for each carrier and fly mortality. S preadability was determined subjectively by making direct observations of the dis persion of the applied droplet immediately after application. A scale of 1 to 3 was

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48 used where a score of 1 indicate d poor spread ing (i.e. product bubble d or bead ed off ) a score of 2 indicate d a medium spread in that the product spread out but some bubb ling and beading still occu r r ed and a score of 3 indicate d a rapid and even dispersion over the thorax. Once flies were treated, they were placed in a 500 mL (Instawares, Kennesaw, Ga) plastic container with a 30 m L cup (Instawares, Kennesaw, GA ) of diet (described above) and water The water container had a lid with a 2.5 cm dental wick inserted Fl y mortalit y w as observed at one hour after topical applications and then every 24 hours for three days total. Bacterial and Fungal C ulti vation The bacteria and fungal strains were as described in Chapter 2: B. bassiana (strain L90), S. marcescens (strain Db11), P. temperata (strain NC19 ), and P. protegens (strain Pf5). Bacteria were cultured in Luria Bertani (LB) broth shaken at room temperature (RT) as desc ribed in Chapter 2. B eauveria bassiana were grown, h arvested and cou nted as described in Chapter 2. Viability B ioassay fo r P athogens Based on the results from the fly spreadability/mortality bioassay, three surfactant solutions were chosen for viability t esting with bacteria and fungi, CapSil 0.1%, CapSil 0.5% and Kinetic 0.5%. Bacterial strains were grown overnight (see Chapter 2 for methods) and the next day 1 m L of stationary phase culture containing 1x10 8 cfu/m L was moved to a ster ile microcentrifu ge tube. The tube was centrifuged for 1 minute at 13,200 rpm to form a pellet the supernatant was removed, and the pellet was re suspended in the respective surfactant. Once each bacterial strain was suspended in the surfactants mentioned above, the hig h concentration (1x10 8 cfu/m L ) w as diluted in its respective surfactant to 1x10 2 1x10 3 and 1x10 4 cfu/m L inoculated onto an LB plate in

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49 10 L spots, and held at 25 C (time point 0 ). The dilutions were re plated at 24 hours after they were prepared As a control, bacterial strains were suspended in 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cultured using the same plating timeline as the cultures that were held in the surfactants Initial assays with B. bassiana in PBS were problematic because conidia coul d not be kept in suspension to draw 10 L aliquots reliably for spot plating. Therefore, for this species, 0.1% Tween 80 was used instead to compare with the other surfactants. Each LB plate was observed for bacterial viability to determine s urvival in the surfactants On each plate, the number of cfu were counted and recorded from spots that produced 3 to 30 cfu and from this number the antibacterial ac tions of the carrier could be determined. For culturing of B. bassiana, fresh conidia w ere harvested from dried Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDY) plates placed in a sterile container and stored at 4 C. From this stock, 1 mg of dried B. bassiana conidia was weighed and suspended in each surfactant, and the highest concentration (1x10 9 conidia/m L ) was diluted to 1x10 2 1x10 3 and 1x10 4 An aliquot of 10 L of each suspension was plated onto SDY agar (time point 0 equals 1 hour ), and then plated again at 24 hours (time point 1) post suspension. Statistical Analysis Application of C arrier s to F lies Four replications were performed with five individual flies for each surfactant (20 flies per treatment) For the comparison of carrier spreadability scores, a Wilcoxon Mann Whitney test was done using the NPARONEWAY procedure of the Statistica l Analysis System (SAS), version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) F ly mortality at one hour

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50 and 24 hours was assessed using the general linear models procedure (Proc GLM) of SAS, and means were separated using the Means/Tukey statement of Proc GLM. Viabilit y B ioassay fo r P athogens The number of cfu for each pathogen and carrier combination was tested for normality. A linear m ixed model was fitted with the effects of treatment, time and the interaction analyzed using rep eated measures ANOVA using the Mixed P rocedure as implemented in SAS (Proc Mixed), versio n 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). R esidual terms were modelled by considering an autoregressive order one error structure and the degrees of freedom were adjusted using the Kenward Roger method. LSMEANS st atements were used to obtain the adjusted means for the effects of treatment, time and the interaction, which were s ep aration test method at P<0.05. Results Application of C arrier s to F lies Spreadability scores on fly thoraces varied significantly among the products and concentrations tested (Kruskal Walli s Chi Square = 45.9; df = 14; P <0.01). The highest scores (all flies scoring three out of three on the scale) were observed for Kinetic at 1.0% and Cap Sil at 0.1 and 1.0%, although these did not differ significantly from DyneAmic at 4.0% (mean score 2.5 0 ), Induce at 3.0% (2.5 0 ), or Kinetic at 0.01 or 0.10% (2.25 a nd 2.0 0 respectively) (Fig. 3 3 ) Tween 80 had the lowest score (1.75) of the five pr oducts tested at their highest rates of application, and did not differ significantly in spreadability over the range of concentrations examined (0.01 1.00%). A dose response was seen with the other four carriers, with all of them having significantly hig her spreadability scores at the highest rate compared with the lowest.

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51 Initial fly mortality after treatment was significantly higher for CapSil at 1.0% (45%) than any other treatment except Kinetic at 1.0% (35%) and DyneAmic at 4.0% (15%) (Overall ANOV A F = 3.60, df = 14, 45, P <0.01) (Table 3 1). Initial mortality was < 5% for all of the other treatments and was zero for many of the lower doses of each treatment. There was nearly no additional mortality when flies were examined 24 hours after treatment (Table 3 1). No additional mortality was observed o n days two and three after treatment. V iability Bioassay for P athogens Test statistics for the viability assays are presented in Table 3 2, and viability means in the surfactants are shown in Figures 3 4 to 3 7. Viability for all four pathogens was high in all solutions and there were no significant negative viability effects between the initial time point and 24 hour s later. Colony forming units of Photorhabdus temperata increased marginally during th e 24 hour holding period (Table 3 2), and growth was significantly higher in Capsil 0.5% than in Kinetic 0.5% (Fig 3 4). Colony forming unit counts of S marcescens (Fig 3 5) and P. protegens (Fig. 3 6) generally increased two to four fold after being held for 24 hours in the suspensions, and there was no significant surfactant effect on viability for either species. The only instance where substantial growth was not observed with these species was with S. marcescens held in Kinetic 0.5%. In contrast, there were no significant time or surfactant effects for B. bassiana with similar conidia counts at time point 1 and at 24 hours post suspension for all of the surfactants tested (Fig. 3 7). Discussion Entomopathogenic fungi have long been studied for th eir potential as biological control agents for arthropod pests (Butt et al. 2001, Shah and Pell 2003, Lacey et al.

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52 2015). Although at least 700 entomopathogenic species have been identified (Sand h u et al 2012) and they are ubiquitous in essentially all in sect ecosystems (Lacey et al. 2015), several species have received the majority of the attention for development as microbial insecticides. Beauveria bassiana is one of the most widely studied species and accounts for over one third of the 171 commercial myco biocontrol products available globally (Sand h u et al 2012). There are several reasons why B. bassiana is attractive for use as a biocontrol agent. It has a wide host range, is easily and economically produced, and the conidia have a long shelf life and can be formulated in a variety of ways such as food baits, dusts and sprays (Feng et al. 1994) Because of this flexibility, it has been used against a wide array of target pests in their respective habitats (Lacey et al. 2015). Natural B. bassiana i nfections of house flies have been observed ( Steinkraus et al. 1990, Skovg rd and Steenberg 2002 ), and flies are readily infected after exposure to treated surfaces or contaminated food (Geden et al. 1995, Weeks et al. 2016 ). Furthermore, Kaufman et al. (2005) observed satisfactory fly suppression after applying a commercial B. bassiana spray (balEnce ; (Terregena, Inc., Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. ) ) in poultry facilities in New York For this research project the addition of a bacterial agent to B. bassiana was the goal with the ultimate aim of accelerating pathogen induced mortality I hypothesized that B. bassiana could act as a vehicle to deliver a bacterial agent into the house fly hemocoel that would cause rapid death from sep sis Testing this hypothesis required identifying a carrier that would not be inimical to either fungi o r bacteria Despite sensitivity to environmental conditions during germination, Beauveria bassiana conidia can tolerate a wide range of conditions, and there is a great deal of information available

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53 on methods to formulate them for application (Wraight et al. 2001). In contrast, little is known about formulation of bacterial insect pathogens. Other than the spore forming Bacillus thuringiensis and its relatives, the only bacterial pathogen that has been developed as a live microbial insecticide is Serrat ia entomophila which was developed for grass grub control (Jackson 2007). Non spore forming bacteria generally have a narrower range of tolerance for their environment than B. bassiana conidia, and it was unknown whether the bacterial species chosen for study in this project would survive in any carrier This was a particular concern for P hotorhabdus temperata which lives exclusively in host environments provided by its symbiotic relationship with entomopathogenic nematode s of the genus Heterorhabditis (Waterfield et al. 2009) When combining two different pathogens, the minimum requirement was determining a carrier that would ensure viability of both organisms and not be harmful to flies when applied topically. The use of oils would have been the simpl est method for suspension of the pathogens because they can be used as is, i.e. no need for an adjuvant Although oils are useful and promote spreadability (Polar et al. 2005) they vary a great deal in their effects on germination of B. bassiana conidia (Luz and Batagin 2005) My experiments were a proof of concept that required a carrier that was safe for all organisms including the fly Although I recognize that additional mortality caused by the carrier on the pest organism might not be considered a negative aspect of a fly control product, low control mortality was required for comparison with pathogen treatments. Whi le the data are not included here in preliminary test s of horticultural oil indicated that it could not be used safely on flies in th e topical bioassay As little as 1 L applied to the house fly thorax rapidly

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54 caused unacceptably high levels mortality O bserv ations of dead flies indicated that the oils had spread evenly over the anterior thorax and ran down the sides, covering the th oracic spiracles and thus preventing proper gas exchange. Non ionic surfactants include spreader stickers, wetting agents, and detergents. They are composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components that aid in breaking the surface tension of water (van O s et al. 1993). Because of these properties, they have a variety of uses and are currently in many industrial products. However, their chemical nature varies depending on the intended use of the products (van Os et al. 1993). We concentrated on horticul tural wetting agents and spreader stickers because of their known safety profiles and availability (reviewed in Krough et al. 2003). These products allow the preparation of aqueous solutions of otherwise insoluble active ingredients and aid in adherence t o the hydrophobic surfaces of plant foliage. The latter was an attractive trait for the application on the house fly thorax, which is also highly hydrophobic. Moreover, a number of nonionic surfactants are already known to be compatible with B. bassiana conidia (Prasad 1993, Polar et al. 2005, Mishra et al. 2013). In the spreadability bioassay, there were numerous promising candidate surfactants, with all five types scoring well at higher concentrations for their ability to provide even dispersion over th e dorsal thoracic cuticle of the house fly (Fig 3 3). Several of these, however, resulted in >10% mortality immediately after treatment (Table 3 1). It is uncertain whether this mortality was due to toxicity of the solutions or whether, as with the oils, the surfactants interfered with gas exchange through the thoracic spiracles. Spiracle coverage was harder to observe with these materials because, unlike the oils, they did not leave a visible residue on the fly once the water evaporated.

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55 The spreadabil ity scores for Tween 80 were surprisingly low, considering that this surfactant is commonly used in laboratory bioassays with B. bassiana (Mishra et al. 2013, Immediato et al. 2015, Andreadis et al. 2016 ). Perhaps the hydrophobicity of the house fly cuti cle did not interact well with the long chains of polyethylene glycol of Tween, a hydrophilic compound. I chose to move forward with CapSil and Kinetic because of their high spreadability scores. Furthermore, adjustments were made to the concentration s of CapSil and Kinetic to prevent unacceptable fly mortality without compromising high spreadability before conducting the viability assays. All of the carriers tested supported viability of all four pathogens (Figs 3 4 to 3 7). No reduction in cfu cou nts were observed after 24 hours suspension in all surfactants. Indeed, there was an increase in bacterial (but not B. bassiana ) cfu after 24 hours. This was probably due to cell division of the bacteria, which were harvested from stationary phase cultur es and presumably had sufficient reserves to divide. Although the bacteria also could have been utilizing the long chain components of the surfactants as a carbon source for further growth and division, growth in the surfactants was not significantly high er than in the PBS control. The surfactants differed little in their effects on viability, except for P. protegens and CapSil where significantly higher bacterial growth was observed after 24 hours post suspension than in at least one other carrier e.g. Kinetic. Based on these results, CapSil was chosen as the surfactant for the topical applications of pathogens described in the next chapter. In summary, this study demonstrated that a common non ionic surfactant carrier (CapSil) can be used for pre paring viable suspensions of four very different microorganisms, including one that does not exist in nature outside of its hosts ( P.

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56 temperata ). This allows for formulation of combined species products that are safe for use with both pathogens and flies In the next chapter, these combinations with CapSil are tested for efficacy against living flies

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57 Table 3 1 Effect of different surfactants ( i.e. CapSil DyneAmic Induce Kinetic and Tween 80 ) on house fly Musca domestica mortality up to three days post topical application. Mean (SE) % mortal i ty at time after treatment Treatment 1 hour 1 day 2 days 3 days CapSil 0.0 1% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0.1 0 % 5 (2.5) b 5(2.5) b 5(2.5) b 5(2.5) b 1. 00 % 45 (9.7) a 50 (9.7) a 50 (9.7) a 50 (9.7) a D yneAmic 0.04% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0.40% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 4.00% 15 (4.9) ab 25 (4.9) ab 25 (4.9) ab 25 (4.9) ab I nduce 0.03% 0 (0.0) b 0 ( 0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0.30% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 3.00% 5 (2.5) b 5 (2.5) b 5 (2.5) b 5 (2.5) b K inetic 0.01% 5 (2.5) b 5 (2.5) b 5 (2.5) b 5 (2.5) b 0.10% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 1.00% 35 (8.8) a 35 (8.8) a 35 (8.8) a 35 (8.8) a Tween 0.01% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0.10% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 1.00% 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b 0 (0.0) b Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different ( P>0.05, two way ANOVA with repeated measures)

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58 Table 3 2 ANOVA results for effects of different surfactants (i.e. Tween 80 CapSil and Kinetic ) on viability of Beauveria bassiana, Photorha bdus temperata, Pseudomonas protegens, and Serratia marcescens 1 and 24 hours after being placed in the surfactants. _______________________________________________________________________ Model term ANOVA F test value for species (df) B. bassian a P. temperata P. protegens S. marcescens _______________________________________________________________________ Treatment 1.24ns 6.20* 0.10ns 2.63ns (3,6) Time 0.36ns 6.96* 18.02** 15.15** (1,8) Treatment x Time 1.01ns 1.80ns 0.56ns 3.67ns (3,8) ** = P<0 .01; = P<0.05, ns = P >0.05 (two way ANOVA with repeated measures)

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59 Figure 3 1. Top view of the apparatus us ed to anesthetize house flies. Small holes in a 14 cm Petri dish lid that nestles into a halved 2 liter container.

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60 Figure 3 2. Side view of container used with a 1 cm diameter hole to insert CO 2 hose. This creates a blanket of CO 2 over house flies to prevent premature waking

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61 Figure 3 3. Spreadability scores for surfactants after application to female house fly, Musca domestica t horaces. P ossible scores ranged from one (i.e. surfactant beaded up and rolled off the fly) to three (i.e. rapid and ev en dispersion of the droplet). Bars represent mean standard errors; letters above bars indicate significance, means with the same letter are not significantly d <0.05) A A B,C,D A,B C,D D A,B B,C,D D A A,B,C A,B,C,D B,C,D C,D D 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Means Spreadability Score

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62 Figure 3 4. Colony forming units (cfu) of Photorhabdus temparata on Luria Bertani (LB) agar plates after being held in surfactant (CapSil or Kinetic ) solutions briefly (1 h r) or for 24 h rs. Controls were held in 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) Bars represent the mean number of cfu standard error; means with the same letter at t he same time point (1 and 24 h rs) are not Lower case letters denot e significant differences between 1 hr treatments, while upper case letters describe significant differences among 24 hr treatments. a a a a A,B A,B A B 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1XPBS CapSil 0.1% CapSil 0.5% Kinetic 0.5% cfu 1 hr 24 hr

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63 Figure 3 5. Colony forming units (cfu) of Serratia marcescens on Luria Bertani (LB) agar plates after being held in sur f actant solutions briefly (1 hr) or for 24 h rs. Bars represent the mean number of cfu standard errors; means with the same letter at t he same time point (1 and 24 h rs) are not significantly d <0.05) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1XPBS CapSil 0.1% CapSil 0.5% Kinetic 0.5% cfu 1 hr 24 hr P>0.05

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64 Figure 3 6. Colony form ing units (cfu) of Pseudomonas protegens on Luria Bertani (LB) agar plates after being held in su rfactant solutions briefly (1 hr) or for 24 h rs. Bars represent the mean number of cfu standard errors; means with the same letter at t he same time point (1 and 24 h 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1XPBS CapSil 0.1% CapSil 0.5% Kinetic 0.5% cfu 1 hr 24 hr P>0.05

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65 Figure 3 7. Colony forming units (cfu) of Beauveria bassiana on Sabouraud agar with yeast extract (SDY) plates after being held in surfactant (CapSil or Kinetic ) solu tions briefly (1 hr) or for 24 hr s. Controls were held in Tween 80. Bars represent the mean number of cfu standard errors; means with the same letter at t he same time point (1 and 24 h rs) are 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tween 0.1% CapSil 0.1% CapSil 0.5% Kinetic 0.5% cfu 1 hr 24 hr P>0.05

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66 CHAP TER 4 EFFECT OF COMBINING THE BACTERIAL PATHOGENS Photorhabdus temeperata Serratia marcescens AND Pseudomonas protegens WITH Beauveria bassiana ON HOUSE FLY MORTALITY Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica L., is a major nuisance pest and car rier of human and animal pathogens throughout the world (West 1951, Scott et al. 2009). The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has long been suggested as a potential biological control agent for this pest (Dresner 1950). Watson et al. (1995) expo sed flies to B. bassiana treated pl ywood, and the highest dose 1x 10 8 conidia/cm 2 mortality. Similar results were seen when flies were confined with B. bassiana treated plywood by Geden et al. (1995). Lecuona et al. (2004) tested 19 different strains of B. bassiana on house flies and observed 90% mortality after 15 days post fly exposure to conidia. Although these and other studies have provided ample evidence that house flies are susceptible to B. bassiana the chief disadvantage of this pat hogen is the long time required to kill the host after exposure to conidia (St. Leger et al. 1996). High mortality in house fl ies is often not reached until six to seven days after exposure (Geden et al. 1995), and even longer latency times have been obse rved in some studies (Lecuona et al. 2004). This slow kill rate may not be adequate for practical field use because of the rapid development rate and high fecundity of house flies (Lysyk and A xtell 1986, Malik et al. 2007). The long interval between expos ure to B. bassiana and host death has prompted several investigations into combinations of this species with other entomopathogens for potential synergistic effects. Bacteria, other fungi and nematodes have been tested in combination with B. bassiana in e fforts to increase virulence or shorten the time to host

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67 death (Wraight and Ramos 2005, Mwamburi et al. 2009, Senthrilraja et al. 2010, Prabhukarthikeyan et al. 2014). Research into bacterial partners for B. bassiana has concentrated on Bacillus thuringie nsis which must be ingested to cause host mortality. Wraight and Ramos (2005) tested individual and combined treatments of B. bassiana and B thuringiensis var tenebrionis on larval field populations of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and discovered that mortality in the combinations far exceeded mortality caused by either pathogen tested alone. Additionally, Mwamburi et al. (2009) observed larvicidal and adulticidal effects against house flies in poult ry houses when chicken feed was treated with B. bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis In a study with another fungal pathogen, Metarhizium robertsii a synergistic relationship was observed when the fungus was paired with B. thuringiensis var morrisoni against Colorado potato beetle larvae ( Yaroslavtseva et al. 2017). These instances may reflect reduced host immune responses to the fungus caused by infection with B. thuring i en sis ( Yaroslavtseva et al. 2017). Combinations of two entomopatho genic fungi have been tested as well Treating lettuce disks with B. bassiana combined with another fungal entomopathogen, Metarhizium flavorviride resulted in higher grasshopper mortality than when the individual fungi were tested alone (Inglis et al. 19 97). In other cases, combinations of two fungal pathogens resulted in mortality that was at most additive and sometimes only equal to mortality caused by the more virulent pathogen when tested alone ( Devi et al. 2006, Santos et al. 2006 ). Combinations of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae with entomopathogenic nematodes ( Heterorhabditis and/or Steinernema spp.) have been found to work synergistically

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68 against white grubs, Hoplia philanthus Fuessly (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) (Ansari et al. 2006) and black vine we evil (Ansari et al. 2010), but not against cattle fever ticks (Monteiro et al. 2013) or masked wh ite chafer grubs (Wu et al. 2014 ). The efficacy of combinations involving entomopathogenic nematodes is interesting in that the nematodes themselves act as ho st and vector for bacterial symbionts of the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus (Atwa 2014). The role of the nematode is to invade the hemocoel of the host and release the bacteria, which ge nerally results in host death 2 to 3 days later (Kaya and Gaugle r 1993). Combinations of such nematodes with fungi, therefore, involve the net effect of three pathogenic organisms rather than two. Moreover, the mode of action of entomopathogenic nematodes provide an example of one organism that is highly pathogenic i f it can reach the hemocoel ( Photorhabdus or Xenorhabdus spp.) being delivered by another that is capable of gaining entry (the nematode itself). Can B. bassiana with its ability to penetrate the host cuticle, be used to deliver fast killing bacterial pat hogens in an analogous manner? This was the primary question of my MS research, using house flies as a model. To my knowledge, the only precedent in the literature was a study by Ledvev et al. (2008), who examined combinations of a Pseudom ona s spp. with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae against migratory locust nymphs. Pathogen combinations caused substantially higher mortality and greatly shortened the time to death compared with individual pathogens tested alone. The locusts who died from mixed infections showed symptoms of bacteriosis, supporting the idea that the bacteria, delivered into the host hemocoel by B. bassiana were responsible f or the faster kill times (Lednev et al. 2008).

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69 Successful use of combination products in a topical form requires adeq uate penetration of the house fly cuticle by B. bassiana and this involves several steps. Conidia must adhere to the fly cuticle, which depends on the charge, hydrophobicity and other surface properties of both the host and pathogen The next step is to overcome several obstacles to gain entry into the host. First, the conidia must survive the house surface chemistry of the epicuticle must be supportive of conidial ge rmination (Pedrini et al. 2013). Third, the developing fungus must penetrate the heavily sclerotized exoskeleton Once in the hemocoel, fungal survival depends on avoiding the immu ne system (Fleming et al. 2014 Nayduch and Burrus 2017 Sackton et al. 20 17 ) and the ability of the fly to use behavior to raise its body temperature, a phenomenon known as behavioral fever (Anderson et al. 2013). In the previous chapters, I determined the compatibility of bacterial pathogens with B. bassiana (Chapter 2) and i dentified a suitable carrier for both house fly survival and pathogen viability (Chapter 3). The selection of the three bacteria ( Pseudomonas protegens, Photorhabdus temperata, and Serratia marcescens ) for this research was based on expected virulence if they gained access to the host hemocoel. However, no information was available about the virulence of these pathogens to house flies by either injection or when applied topically. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) virulence of B. bassian a and the three bacterial pathogens when injected into flies; 2) virulence of B. bassiana and the bacterial pathogens alone or in combinations when applied topically at the same time; and 3) virulence of B. bassiana and the bacterial

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70 pathogens alone or in combinations when applied topically in sequence, with two days between treatments with the individual pathogens. Methods House F ly R earing and H andling House flies were reared and anesthetized as desc ribed in Chapter 3. F lies ( two four days old) were rem oved from rearing cages using a vacuum and placed at 20 C for 10 minutes to lightly sedate the flies for injecting and topical treatments Each replicate consisted of 20 female flies after treatment this group of flies was placed into a 500 mL plastic container containing 10 mg of diet (1:1 dry milk, sugar granules, and dry egg) and a 30 m L plastic container with water and a lid with a dental wick (to prevent flies from drowning) held at 29 C Bacterial and F ungal C ultivation Before moving forward wit h bioassays, it was necessary to enumerate the bacteria in the media as bacteria per m L of L uria B ertani (LB broth, Fisher BioReagents, Pittsburgh, PA) broth. This was determined for each bacterial species by making 10 fold dilutions of a culture that rea ched an optical density (OD) of 0.5 measured using a spectrophotometer (Biochrom LKB Ultrospec II ; Cambridge, UK ) at an absorbance of 600 nm and plating dilutions onto LB agar. From this, bacterial counts could be estimated for future bioassays. Once bac t erial enumeration was completed, bacteria were grown until an OD of 0.5 was reached, and ratio calculations were used to de termine the concentration (bacteria/mL) for each species. For bioassays, b acterial strains were cultured on LB agar plates and incu bated at 28 C, overnight and then placed at 4 C From these plates, the respective bacterial colony forming unit (cfu) was picked with a sterile loop and placed into a 10 mL conical tube

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71 containing 3 mL overnight culture was then placed in a controlled environment shaker (New Brunswick Scientific, Edison, NJ) at 250 rpm and 28 C, overnight The bacteria would grow overnight and reach a level where the re plication would cease The following morning, the overnight culture was transferred into a 50 mL glass flask in a 1:20 dilution with LB broth and grown to an OD of 0.5 measured using a spectrophotometer (Biochrom LKB Ultrospec II ; Cambridge, UK ) at an absorbance of 600 nm Once OD 0.5 was reached, the ratio (OD 0.5/ OD measurement of culture x ratio of bacterial enumeration = 1x10 8 cfu/mL ) calculation from the bacterial enumeration step was used to prepare known concentrations of each bacterium for topical applications. B eauveria bassiana (SDY ; 2% glucose, 1% peptone, 0.5% yeast extract ; pH 7.0) at room temperature ( 23 C ) for seven days to obtain heavily sporulating cultures. After one week, the plates were dri ed in a sterile hood for an additional week. After drying, conidia were scraped from each plate with a sterile small metal spatula and stored at 4 C in a sterile glass vial. For conidial counts, 10 mg of dried harvested conidia w ere suspended into 0.1% Tween 20 (Sigma Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO) and distilled water. Then 10 aliquots of this suspension were taken and the conidia were counted using an Automatic Cell Counter (Cellometer Vision HSL ; Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA ) to determine th e conidial concentration. Injections A spectrophotometer (Biochrom LKB Ultrospec II ; Cambridge, UK ) was used to measure the op tical density of each bacteria absorbance at 600 nm Bacterial cells were c ultured until OD 600 = 0.5, and appropriate dilutions were made to acquire the

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72 following concentrations: 1x10 4 1x10 5 1x10 6 and 1x10 7 cfu/mL Each dilution was centrifuged for one minute at 13,200 rpm to pellet and resuspended in 1X phosphate buffered saline ( PBS ) D ried B. bassiana conidia (10 mg) were weighed out and placed in a sterile 1.5 m L tube. Conidia were r esuspended in 1 mL of 0.1% Tween 20 and conidial counts were completed with an a utomat ed c ell c ounter (Cellometer Vision HSL ; Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA ) The spectrophotometer w as used to measure the optical density of each bacterial strain absorbance at 600 nm and this was used t o determine the number of cfu/mL as in Chapter 2 D ilutions were made for bacterial (in 1X PBS) and fungal (in 0.1% Tween 20) isolates to inject 1 L of the following doses: 1x10 1 1x10 2 1x10 3 and 1x10 4 cfu/L or conidia/L After removing sedated flies from the freezer, they were placed on a small laboratory chill table (BioQuip P roducts, Inc. Rancho Dominguez, CA) for continuous sedation. Each of the 20 female flies per replicate were injected with a microinjector (Nanomite Harvard Apparatus Holliston, MA ) with a 1 cc syringe and a 28 gauge needle. The microinjector was set to release 1 L into each fly. The injection site was the thoracic mesopleuron adjacent to the wing base. For each trial, there were three replications of each treatment (60 flies per treatment, n = 3) and fly mortality was monitored daily for four days Beauveria bassiana was observed for an additional 24 hours compare d to other pathogens due to its long time to death when applied topically. In each trial there were also two n egative controls The first was 20 female flies (per replicate) injected with 1 L 1X PBS and the second was 20 female flies (per replicate) inj ected with 1 L E coli following dosages: 1x10 1 1x10 2 1x10 3 and 1x10 4 cfu/L This strain of E. coli was

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73 known to be avirulent for house flies (Geden, personal communication) and it was included as a control for injection with bacte ria. Dose Response Topical A pplications I ndividual P athogens Bacteria and fungi were tested by individual topical application on house fly thorax D ilutions were made of each pathogen in 0.5% CapSil (Aquatrols, Paulsboro, NJ) mixed with 1X PBS the chose n carrier in C hapter 3, to prepare suspensions containing 1x10 3 to 1x10 6 cfu/ L One L of each suspension was pipetted onto the anterior thorax of 20 female house flies and replicated three times (60 flies per treatment, n=3) CapSil 0.5% with no micoo rganisms was applied to an equal number of flies as a control. Topical Application of Pathogen C ombinations Results of dose response tests of individual pathogens indicated that 1x 10 6 conidia/L of B. bassiana caused high but less than 100% mortality, and so this dose was selected to be used in combination trials. The same concentration ( 1x 10 6 cfu/ ) of bacteria was used in the combinations. For each trial, 0.5% CapSil was prepared that contained no microorganisms (control), B. bassiana alone ( 1x 10 6 conidia/ ), the bacteria alone ( 1x 10 6 ), and the two pathogens combined so that 1 of the c ombination contained the same number of cells of each as were used in the single pathogen suspensions. Groups of 20 female flies were treated with 1 of the suspensions and mon itored for mortality daily for seven days. The experiment was replicated thre e times (60 flies per treatment, n=3). Sequential Topical A pplications This bioassay was set up the using the same doses that were used in the combination trials. In these tests, flies were first treated with one pathogen and then with

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74 the second one two days after the first application That is, flies were either treated with B. bassiana first and the bacteria two days later or with the bacteria first and the B. bassiana two days later. Three controls were conducted at the time of the initial treatment including B. bassiana alone, bacteria alone, and CapSil 0.5% alone. The experiment was run for seven days as with the previous experiment, but it should be noted that the design meant that the pathogens that were applied second in the sequence had two day s less to manifest their effects than when they were applied first. Twenty female flies were sedated and topically treated on the anterior thorax with 1 L of the suspensions, and mortality was mo nitored Trials w ere replicated three times for each bacteria and B. bassiana combination (60 flies per treatment, n=3) Statistical Analysis For all topical application bioassays (individual, combinations, and sequential), comparisons of fly mortality between time points were analyze d using a linear mixed model fitted with the effects of treatment, t ime and the interaction using repeated measures ANOVA through the Mixed P rocedure as implemented in SAS (Proc Mixe d), version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Residual terms were modelled by considering an autoregressive order 1 error structure and the degrees of freedom were adjusted using the Kenward Roger method. h onest significant d ifference tests at =0.05. For combinations and sequential treatments, tests were o nly done at three time points three, five, and seven days after treatment.

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75 Results Fly Mortality from I njections All pathogens at the higher do ses caused high mortality but at different time points. Photorhabdu s temperata caused around 40% mortality at the lowest dose ( 1x 10 1 cfu) 48 hours post injection, whereas the highest dose ( 1x 10 4 cfu) caused roughly 98% mortality after only 24 hours (Table 4 1, Fig. 4 1). Serratia marcescens caused half (20%) the mortality at the lowest dose compared to P. temperata and about 90% mortality at the highest dose at 24 hours (Table 4 2, Fig. 4 2). In contrast, P protegens at the lowest dose caused <10% mort ality initially (24 hours), but mortality increased to 78% after 48 hours. Mortality at the highest dose was 100% at 24 hours post injection (Table 4 3, Fig. 4 3). Mortality from B. bassiana at the lowest dose was <5% after 24 hours and only reached ca. 15% after 96 hours (Fig. 4 4). At the highest dose of B. bassiana a sudden increase in fly mortality was observed (82%) at 72 hours post injection when compared to 48 hours (<15%). Mortality at 96 hours was similar to 72 hour mortality at the high dose (Table 4 4, Fig. 4 4). Topical Applications of Individual P athogen s A dose response relationship for mortality was observed for all four pathogens when applied topically, although the relationship was stronger with some pathogens than with others (Figures 4.5 4.8 ). Mortality due to P temperata was low at all doses throughout the test and only reached 17 and 22% mortality on day 7 at the high doses of 10 5 and 10 6 cfu, respectively (Figure 4 5). Results with P. temperata were variable, and mortality was s imilar at the two high doses (10 5 and 10 6 cfu). Similarly, Serratia marcescens at the higher doses ( 1x 10 5 and 1x 10 6 cfu ) killed more flies (13%) on day two compared to lower doses (ca. 7%) (Fig. 4 6). Fly mortality

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76 increased to 18 and 22% at 10 5 and 10 6 cfu respecti vely, on day five and increased little on subsequent days (Fig. 4 6). Pseudomonas protegens had the highest topical virulence of the three bacterial pathogens (Fig. 4 7). Mortality at 1x 10 6 cfu was 49% two days after application and reached 6 0% by day seven Mortality at the two lower doses ( 1x 10 3 and 1x 10 4 cfu ) never reached 35% throughout the test (Fig. 4 7). All doses of B. bassiana killed <20% of the flies until day five, when mortality at 1x 10 5 and 1x 10 6 conidia increased to 40 and 68% respectively. Mortality increased until day seven, reaching 70% at 10 5 conidia and 90% at 10 6 conidia (Fig. 4 8). Topical Applications of C ombined P athogens Results of topical applications with single versus combine d pathog ens are presented in Figures 4 9 through 4 14 Data for each B. bassiana bacteria pairing are presented in two figures. The first figure shows daily mortality with standard errors for the duration of the seven day trial (Fig. 4 9, 4 11 and 4 13) The second figure shows a snapshot comparing treatment mean s at the three select ed time points of days three, five, and seven after treatment (Fig. 4 10, 4 12 and 4 14) Topical applications of B. bassiana and P temperata did not result in substantial mortality, either alon e or in combina tion, until day five and there was no indication that the two pathogen combinations caused higher mortality than B. bassiana alone throughout the experiment (Fig. 4 9). Significant differences were seen with treatment over time (F 21, 64 = 6.84, P<0.001). There was no signi ficant treatment effect on day three ( P>0.05) (Fig 4 10). On day five mortality in the B. bassiana alone and combination treatments (40 53%) did not differ significantly from each other but both treatments caused significantly higher mortality than the control (P<0.05). On day seven, mortality

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77 in the B. bassiana alone and combination treatments (65 85%) did not differ significantly from each other but both treatments caused significantly higher mortality than the control or P. tempera ta alone ( P<0.001). Results with S. marcescens combinations (Figs. 4 11 and 4 12) were somewhat similar to those with P. temperata with low mortality until day five and no evidence of higher mortality in the two pathogen combination compared to the treatm ent with B. bassiana alone. A significant interaction was observed between treatment and time (F 21, 64 = 4.31, P<0.001). There was no signif icant treatment effect on day three (P>0.05) (Fig. 4 12). On day five, mortality in the B. bassiana alone and com bination treatments (38 54%) did not differ significantly from each other and the only treatment that was significantly different from the control was B. bassiana alone (P<0.05). On day seven mortality in the B. bassiana alone and combination treatments ( 65 85%) did not differ significantly from each other but both treatments caused significantly higher mortality than the control (P<0.001). In contrast, P. protegens combined with B. bassiana caused 50% mortality after 48 hours, and continued in an upward t rend throughout the seven day observation time (Fig. 4 13). There was a significant difference with treatment over time (F 21, 64 = 10.52, P<0.0001). On day three the two treatments with P protegens caused significantly higher mortality (53 60%) than th e control or B. bassiana alone ( P<0.01 ) (Fig 4 14). Mortality in the three pathogen treatments was similar but significantly h igher than the control on days five (P<0.0 0 1) and seven (P<0.0 0 1). Sequential A pplications of P athogens Results of topical appli cations of pathogens in a sequential manner are presented in Figures 4 15 through 4 20 As in the previous section, d ata for each B. bassiana

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78 bacteria pairing are presented in two figures, one sh owing the daily mortality over seven days (Figures 4 15 4 1 7, and 4 19) and the other a sna pshot of the results on days three, five, and seven for means comparison (Figures 4 16, 4 18, and 4 20). Mortality due to P. temperata or B. bassiana applied alone were similar to the previous tests, with maximum mortality o n day seven of 21 % and 85%, respectively (Fig. 4 15). Treating flies with B. bassiana followed two days later with P. temperata resulted in an apparent increase in mortality on day four compared with B. bas s iana alone (37 % and 20%, respectively), but not on days five through seven Treatment with P. temperata followed by B. bassiana resulted in mortality on day seven (five days after B. bassiana application) that was similar to mortality due to B. bassiana alone on day five (ca. 60% in both cases). A sig nificant difference was observed with treatment over time (F 28, 80 = 8.94, P<0.0001). When data were examined at set time points there were no signif icant treatment effects on day three (Figure 4 16) ( P>0.05). On day five mortality in the two treatments that included initial B. bassiana applications were similar to each other and significantly higher than the other three treatments ( P<0.01). On day seven mortality in the three treatments that included B. bassiana were similar to each other and significa ntly higher than the controls and P. temperata alone ( P<0.01). Similar results were observed in sequential treatments of S. marcescens and B. bassiana with no evidence of accelerated mortality in species combinations compared with B. bassiana alone (Figur es 4 17 and 4 18). There was a significant difference with treatment over time (F 28, 80 = 2.7, P<0.0001). No significant treatment effects were observed on days 3 (P>0.05) or 5 ( P>0.05) (Figure 4 18). On day seven, mortality in the

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79 three treatments that included B. bassiana were similar to each other and significantly higher than the controls and S. marcescens alone ( P<0.01). Mortality in the treatments that included initial application of P. protegens were noticeably higher ( 35%) than the others (<17%) at two days post treatment, with c onsiderable convergence on day four onwards (Figure 4 19). Similarly, like all other treatments, there was a significant difference with treatment over time (F 28, 80 = 2.19, P<0.0001). When data were examined at set tim e points there were no signif icant treatment effects on day three (Figure 4 20) ( P>0.05). O n day five mortality was highest when P. protegens was followed by B. bassiana but this was only significantly different from the control ( P<0.00 1). Mortality on day seven was highest in the three treatments that included B. bassiana ( P<0.05). Discussion Entomopathogens occur in every ecosystem on all continents and are a highly diverse group that includes fungi, bacteria, viruses, microsporid ia, entomopathogenic nematodes, and protists (Vega and Kaya 2012). Many of them have been studied and developed for their potential as biological control agents against insect pests (Ravensberg 2011, Sundh and Goettel 2013). The concept of combining two distinctly different emtomopathogens to improve efficacy against target pests has been considered and tested (Inglis et al. 1997, Koppenhfer and Kaya 1997, Ansari et al. 2006, Kwak et al. 2015, Wakil et al. 2017 Yaroslavtseva et al. 2017), but such combinations can be a com plicated due to some important factors. Perhaps the most important consideration is whether the organisms will be antagonistic or competitive with each other to an extent that one or the other cannot sustain life. For example, associations in nature bet ween fungi and bacteria are complex

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80 antifungal compounds, antibiotics, and toxins (Frey Klett et al. 2011). Compatibility between B. bassiana and the three bacteria s pecies used here was addressed in Chapter 2, where I observed that P protegens and P. temperata inhibited B. bassiana growth on Sabouraud agar with yeast extract (SDY ) plates whereas S. marcescens did not inhibit B. bassiana Another factor i n combining two entomopathogens is that they may require different nutrients, and finding media that suits both without compromising their pathogenicity can be a challenge. For instance, carbon sources serve fungal and bacterial pathogens differently (Zho u et al. 2016) and changing the carbon source can change genetic expression of necessary virulence factors (Grke and Stlke 2008, Ene et al. 2014). Another factor is the identification of surfactant solutions that can be used with both organisms without affecting viability. Application of pesticides and biopesticides typically involve spray application with a water carrier. Because many pesticides do not mix well with water, an adjuvant is usually added to ease mixing and application. There are many ty pes of adjuvants that can be added to a water carrier to create formulations. A type of adjuvant known as a surfactant/wetting agent/spreader physically alters the surface tension of droplets improving pesticide application. These surfactants differ in si ze of lipid and charge, and are mostly used for application in agricultural pest management. Because of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components of water carriers with surfactants, they are a useful resource for applying microorganisms directly onto i ns ects (addressed in Chapter 3) Lastly, when combining different pathogens, the mechanism and timing of their individual modes of infection may affect whether simultaneous or sequential treatments would result in higher or faster host mortality.

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81 The bacte ria chosen for this study were selected because all were expected to have high virulence when injected but little virulence when applied topically. As predicted, all caused nearly 100% mortality within 24 hours of injection at higher concentrations. Resu lts with topical applications were more variable. Mortality was low when P. temperata and S. marcescens were applied topically and remained <26% even after treatment with 1x 10 6 cfu In contrast, topical application of P. protegens resulted in surprisingl y high (ca. 50%) house fly mortality after only 48 hours (Fig. 4 7). Because P. protegens are motile (Song et al. 2016), topical mortality may have been partially due to bacteria entering the fly through natural openings such as the spiracles, anus, or mou thparts. Another factor could be the toxins associated with this species, especially FitD (for P f luorescens i nsecticidal t oxin) ( Pchy Tarr et al. 2008 ), which might have been responsible for high fly mortality. Rangel et al. (2016) observed that P. pr otegens strain pf 5 exhibited significant oral toxicity against D melanogaster and attributed the mortality to FitD. In preliminary experiments, that are not presented herein, I observed very high initial fly mortality after topical treatment with P. pro tegens In many cases the treated flies never recovered from the anesthetic after application (controls recovered). I suspected that exotoxins present in the P. protegens growth media were responsible and began rinsing the bacterial pellets during proces sing with 1X PBS before adding the surfactant ( CapSil ) used for the suspensions. This greatly reduced immediate fly mortality to acceptable levels, but toxins may still have played a role in the topical mortality seen with this species. At this point I d o not know whether P. protegens or its toxins entered the fly at/near the point of application or whether they were transferred to the mouthparts, and possibly the gut, by grooming. To my knowledge this

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82 is the first report of P. protegens affecting house flies. Further research with this species and associated toxins could lead to its development as a biocontrol agent for the house fly. Combinations of P. protegens with B. bassiana suggested a complementary effect on house fly mortality. These combinatio ns resulted in much higher mortality than B. bassiana alone through four days after topical application, with B. bassiana accounting for additional mortality on subsequent days (Fig. 4 12, and Fig. 4 13). In contrast, no such complimentary effect was obse rved in combinations of B. bassiana with P. temperata or S marcescens Fly mortality after exposure to combinations with the latter two species never differed significantly from treatment with B. bassiana alone. The overall hypothesis of my project was t hat germinating conidia of B. bassiana on the fly cuticle would create wounds that would allow other pathogens to reach the fly hemocoel, and that these secondary pathogens would result in faster host death than when B. bassiana was used alone. As noted ab ove, the experiments with simultaneous pathogen treatment did not support that hypothesis. One possible reason for this lack of synergy was timing. Conidia of B. bassiana generally take 14 to 24 hours to germinate (Hywel Jones and Gillespie 1990, Luz and Farques 1997, Iskandarov et al 2006 ), and it was uncertain whether the bacteria would survive long enough to exploit the cuticular insult caused by fungal penetration Moreover, normal grooming behavior can result in substantial removal of bacteria from the cuticle (Zukovskaya et al 2013). In subsequent tests with sequential treatments I gave the B. bassiana the cuticle before applying the bacteria. Once again, I saw no evidence for higher or faster mortality than when B bassiana was used alone. It is possible that 48 hours was

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83 too long, and that any breach in the cuticle caused by B. bassiana penetration had already been repaired by the fly before application of the second pathogen. House flies can recover from mechan ical wounds very rapidly, as evidenced by their low mortality after being injected with a 28 gauge syringe in the first experiment of this chapter (control mortality <3%). Rapid wound healing is critical for flies under field conditions such as poultry ho uses, where they are constantly exposed to injury and potentially harmful bacteria ( Nayduch and Burrus 2017). Such septic conditions may be more favorable to bacterial invasion after fungal treatment than those used in our bioassay, which involved discret e bacterial challenges at fixed times. It would be interesting to observe the effects of adding the bacteria at shorter intervals of two to four hours after B. bassiana conidia treatment to determine whether there is a narrow window after fungal applicati on when the fly is vulnerable to invasion by a secondary pathogen Another factor that may have influenced my results was the application method of the pathogens. I chose an assay that involved placement of a small volume of inoculum (1 L ) on the dorsal thorax of the fly, which allowed precise control of the timing, dose, and location of the treatment. The epicuticle of the fly thorax is particularly well sclerotized and presumably more resistant to fungal penetration than other body regions such as inte rsegmental membranes, the ventral side of the abdomen, or the soft portions of the labellum (Ortiz Urquiza and Keyhani. 2013). Grooming could involve another potential route of infection via contamination of the mouthparts by tarsi and possible entry into the alimentary tract. Whole body treatments such as sprays or dips might be more permissive of secondary infection by the bacteria because of the opportunities for more vulnerable body regions to be exposed to the pathogens, but this method prevents

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84 the application of precise doses, results in unnatural exposure and causes spurious mortality in controls. Another experimental approach that would be useful would be to treat flies with B. bassiana and then place the treated flies in septic field habitats su ch as poultry, dairy, or pig housing where they would be exposed to natural bacteria in the environment. In summary, I found that P. temperata S. marcescens and P. protegens were all highly virulent when injected into the fly Unfortunately, there was l ittle evidence to support the hypothesis that B. bassiana bacteria into the host hemocoel of the fly in a manner analogous to the way in which entomopathogenic nematodes naturally deliver Photorhabdus spp. and X enorhabdus spp. into the host (Atwa 2014). Further studies using other pathogens and alterations in the timing and method of application may yet uncover vulnerabilities to species combinations that we re not observe d in this study. Perhaps the most ex citi ng discovery of this research was the high virulence of P. protegens and its toxins for house flies, both alone and in concert with B. bassiana Future work should elaborate on this observation and include assays for oral toxicity in adult flies, potentia l use as a larvicide, and impact on beneficial arthropods in livestock and poultry systems. Development of P. protegens as a biological control agent for house flies could result in a welcome and needed additional tool for management of this difficult pes t.

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85 Table 4 1. Mortality of female house flies f or three days after receiving 1 L injections of 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone, with 1x 10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli and four doses of Photorhabdus temperata. Dose (cfu) Mean (SE) % m ortality at day post injection 1 day 2 days 3 days 1x 10 1 0.0 ( 0.0 ) a 38.3 (6.7 ) a 46.7 (9.0 ) a 1x 10 2 1.7 ( 0.6 ) a 88.3 ( 2.8 ) b 90.0 ( 2.2 ) b 1x 10 3 15.0 ( 4.0 ) a 85.0 ( 4.0 ) b,c 100.0 (0.0) b 1x 10 4 97.0 (1.2 ) b 97.0 ( 1.2 ) c 97.0 ( 1.2 ) b Control (PBS) 0.0 (0.0) a 0.0 (0.0) a 1.7 (1.6) a Control (10 4 cfu E. coli ) 3.0 (2.3) a 5.0 (3.5) a 5.0 (3.5) a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P>0.05, Tukeys HSD )

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86 Table 4 2. Mortality of female house flies f or three days after receiving 1 L injections of 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone, with 1x 10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli and four doses o f Serratia marcescens Dose (cfu) Mean (SE) % mortality at day post injection* 1 2 3 1x 10 1 1.7 (1.6) a 13.9 (4.0) a 13.9 (0.0) a 1x 10 2 17.2 (5.4) a 62.2 (2.8) b 74. 4 (5.7) b 1x 10 3 52.2 (1.5) b 95.6 (1.2) b 100.0 (4.4) b 1x 10 4 90.0 (0.0) b 93.3 (0.0) b 93.3 (0.0) b Control (PBS) 0.0 (0.0) a 0.0 (0.0) a 1.7 (1.6) a Control (10 4 cfu E. coli ) 3.0 (2.3) a 5.0 (3.5) a 5.0 (3.5) a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P>0.05, Tukeys HSD )

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87 Table 4 3. Mortality of female house flies f or three days after receiving 1 L injections of 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone, with 1x 10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli and four doses of Pseudomonas protegens Dose (cfu) Mean (SE) % m ortality at day post injection 1 day 2 days 3 days 1x 10 1 8.3 (6.0) a 77.8 (6.1) b 95. 0 (2.8) b 1x 10 2 7.8 (4.0) a 90.0 (10.0) b 93.3 (6.6) b 1x 10 3 94.4 (2.9) b 100.0 (0.0) b 100.0 (0.0) b 1x 10 4 100.0 (0.0) b 100.0 (0.0) b 100.0 (0.0) b Control (PBS) 0.0 (0.0) a 0.0 (0.0) a 1.7 (1.6) a Control (10 4 cfu E. coli ) 3.0 (2.3) a 5.0 (3.5) a 5 .0 (3.5) a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P>0.05, Tukeys HSD )

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88 T able 4 4. Mortality of female house flies for four days after receiving 1 L injections of Tween 0.1% alone, with four doses of Beauveria b assiana or with 1x 10 4 cfu of an avirulent strain of Escherichia coli in 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) Dose (cfu) Mean (SE) % mortality at day post injection* 1 2 3 4 1x 10 1 2.5 (2.5) a 10.0 (5.0) a 10.0 (5.0) a 15.0 (5.0) a 1x 10 2 2.5 (2.5) a 2.5 (2.5) a 2.5 (2.5) a 17.5 (12.5) a 1x 10 3 0.0 (0.0) a 10.0 (0.0) a 22.5 (2.5) a 45.0 (10.0) a 1x 10 4 5.0 (0.0) a 12.5 (2.5) a 82.5 (12.5) b 90.0 (5.0) b Control (Tween 0.1%) 2.5 (0.0) a 5.0 (2.5) a 5.0 (2.5) a 5.0 (2.5) a Control (10 4 cfu E. coli ) 3.5 (2.3) a 5.0 (3.5) a 5.0 (3.5) a 5.0 (3.5) a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P>0.05, Tukeys HSD )

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89 Figu re 4 1 Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for three days following injection into the thoracic mesopleuron adjacent to the wing base with 1 L of Photorhabdus temperata at different doses. Controls were 1X PBS (phosphate buffered saline) and Escherichia coli Bars represent the mean percent cumulative mortality standard errors. Asterix denotes P<0.05 compared to 1x PBS control within a time point. * * * * 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% 10 100 1000 10000 1X PBS Control E. coli Control Mortality Dose (cfu) 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day

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90 Figure 4 2. Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for three days following in jection with 1 L of Serratia marcescens at different doses. Controls were 1X PBS (phosphate buffered saline) and Escherichia coli Bars represent the mean percent cumulative mortality standard errors. Asterix denotes P<0.05 compared to 1x PBS control within a time point. * * * * 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10 100 1000 10000 1X PBS Control E. coli Control Mortality Dose (cfu) 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day

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91 Figure 4 3. Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for three days following injection with 1 L of Pseudomonas protegens at different doses. Controls were 1X PBS (phosphate buffered saline) and Escherichia coli Bars repre sent the mean percent cumulative mortality standard errors. Asterix denotes P<0.05 compared to 1x PBS control within a time point. * * * * * 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10 100 1000 10000 1X PBS Control E. coli Control Mortality Dose (cfu) 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day

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92 Figure 4 4. Mortality of adult house flies for four days following injection with 1 L of Beauveria bassiana at diffe rent doses. Controls were 0.1% Tween 20 and Escherichia coli Bars represent the mean percent cumulative mortality standard errors. Asterix denotes P<0.05 compared to 1x PBS control within a time point. * 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10 100 1000 10000 Tween 0.1% Control E. coli Control Mortality Dose (conidia) 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day

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93 Figure 4 5. Mortality of adult house flies Musca domestica for seven days after topic al application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x 10 3 through 1x 10 6 Photorhabdus temperata colony forming unit (Pt). Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. Points on the line represent mean percentage mortality standar d errors. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) Pt 10e3 Pt 10e4 Pt 10e5 Pt 10e6 Control

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94 Figure 4 6. Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days a fter topical application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x 10 3 through 1x 10 6 Serratia marcescens colony forming unit (Sm). Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. Points on the line represent mean percentage mortality standard errors 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) Sm 10e3 Sm 10e4 Sm 10e5 Sm 10e6 Control

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95 Figure 4 7. Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days a fter topical application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x 10 3 through 1x 10 6 Pseudomonas protegens colony forming unit (Pp). Control = CapSil 0.5% a lone. Points on the line represent mean percentage mortality standard errors. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) Pp 10e3 Pp 10e4 Pp 10e5 Pp 10e6 Control

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96 Figure 4 8. Mortality of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days a fter topical application of 1 L of 0.5% CapSil containing 1x 10 3 through 1x 10 6 Beauveria bassiana conidia (Bb). Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. Points on the line represent mean percentage mortality standard errors. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) Bb 10e3 Bb 10e4 Bb 10e5 Bb 10e6 Control

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97 Figure 4 9. Mortality (%) of adult house flies, Musca domestica for seven days after 1 topical ap plication of 0.5% CapSil containing Photorhabdus temperata ( 1x 10 6 colony forming unit ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia) alone or i n combination Points on the line represent mean percenta ge mortality standard errors. P.t = Photorhabus temperata alo ne, B.b = Beauveria bassiana alone, P.t + B.b = two pathogen combination, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) P.t P.t + B.b B.b Control

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98 Figure 4 10. Mortality (%) of adult house flies, Musca domestica three, five, and seven days after 1 topical application of 0.5% CapSil containing Photorhabdus temperata ( 1x 10 6 colony forming ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia ) alone or i n combination Bars represent mean percentage mortality standard errors, and different letters within a time p oint denote significant differences (Tukeys HSD P< 0.05) among treatments. P.t = Photorhabus temperata alone, B.b = Beauveria bassiana alone, P.t + B.b = two pathogen combination, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. a a,b a a b b a b b a a a 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 3 5 7 Mortality Time (Days) P.t P.t + B.b B.b Control

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99 Figure 4 11. Mortality (% ) percent mort topical application of 0.5% CapSil containing Serratia marcescens ( 1x 10 6 colony forming unit ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia) alone or i n combination S.m = Serratia marcescens alone, B.b = Beauve ria bassiana alone, S.m + B.b = two pathogen combination, an d Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. Bars represent mean percentage mortality standard errors. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) S.m S.m + B.b B.b Control

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100 Figure 4 12. Mortality (%) of adult house flies three, five, and seven days after 1 L topical applic ation of 0.5% CapSil containing Serratia marcescens ( 1x 10 6 colony forming units ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia) alone or i n combination Bars represent mean percent mortality standard errors, and different letters within a time point denote signi ficant differences (Tukeys HSD P< 0.05) among treatments. S.m = Serratia marcescens alone, B.b = Beauveria bassiana alone, S.m + B.b = two pathogen combination, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. a a,b a,b a a,b b a b b a a a 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 3 5 7 Mortality Time (Days) S.m S.m + B.b B.b Control

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101 Figure 4 13. Mortality (%) of adult house fli es for seven topical application of 0.5% CapSil containing Pseudomonas protegens ( 1x 10 6 colony forming units ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia) alone or i n combination P.p = Pseudomonas protegens alone, B.b = Beauveria bassiana alone, P.p + B.b = two pathogen combination, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. Bars represent mean percentage mortality standard errors. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) P.p P.p + B.b B.b Control

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102 Figure 4 14. Mortality (%) of adult house flies, Musca domestica topical application of 0.5% C apSil containing Pseudomonas protegens ( 1x 10 6 colony forming units ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia) alone or i n combination Bars represent mean percentage mortality standard errors, and different letters within a time point denote significant dif ferences (Tukeys HSD P< 0.05) among treatments. P.p = Pseudomonas protegens alone, B.b = Beauveria bassiana alone, P.p + B.b = two pathogen combination, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. a a a a a a b a a b b b 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 3 5 7 Mortality Time (Days) P.p P.p + B.b B.b Control

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103 Figure 4 15. Mean (SE) per c ent mortality of house flies when treated topically with Photorhabdus temperata and Beauveria bassiana alone or sequentially with 48 hrs between applications of the first and second pathogen Flies were treated individually with of 0.5% CapSil containing no microorganisms (controls) or 1x10 6 colony forming units ( P. temperata ) or conidia ( B. bassiana ). Bars represent mean percentag e mortality standard errors. P.t = P temperata alone, B.b = B bassiana alone, B.b P.t = B. bassiana first with P. temperata two days later, P.t B.b = P. temperat a first with B. bassiana two days later, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) B.b B.b-P.t P.t P.t-B.b Control

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104 Figure 4 16. Sequential applications for Photorhabdus temperata at three time points: three, five, and seven days. Topical application of 0.5% CapSil containing Photorhabdus temperata ( 1x 10 6 colony forming units ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia) alone or i n or in sequence wi th 48 hours between treatments. Bars represent mean percentage mortality standard errors, and differ ent letters within a time point denote significant differences (Tukeys HSD P< 0.05) among treatments. P.t = P temperata alone, B.b = B bassiana alone, B.b Pt = B. bassiana first with P. temperata two days later, P.t B.b = P. temperata first with B. ba ssiana two days later, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. a a a a b b a b b a a b a a a 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 3 5 7 Mortality Time (Days) Pt B.b Pt B.b Pt B.b Control

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105 Figure 4 17. Mean (SE) per c ent mortality of house flies when treated topically with Serratia m a rcescens and Beauveria bassiana alone or sequentially with 48 hrs between applications of the first and second pathogen. Flies were treated individually 6 colony forming units ( S. marcescens ) or conidia ( B. bassiana ). Bars represent mean percentage mortality standard errors. S.m = S. marcescens alone, B.b = B bassiana alone, B.b S.m = B. bassiana first with S. marcescens two days later, S.m B.b = S. marcescens with B. bassiana two days later, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) B.b B.b-S.m S.m S.m-B.b Control

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106 Figure 4 18. Sequential applications for Serratia mar cescens at three time points: three, five, and seven days. Topical application of 1 of 0.5% CapSil containing Serratia marcescens ( 1x 10 6 colony forming units ) and Beauveria bassiana ( 1x 10 6 conidia) alone or i n or in sequence wi th 48 hours between treatments. Bars represent mean percentage mortality standard e rrors, and different letters within a time point denote significant differences (Tukeys HSD P< 0.05) among treatments. S.m = S. marcescens alone, B.b = B bassiana alone, B.b S.m = B. bassiana first with S. marcescens two days later, S.m B.b = S. marces cens with B. bassiana two days later, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. a a a a a b a a b a a b a a a 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 3 5 7 Mortality Time (Days) S.m B.b S.m B.b S.m B.b Control

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107 Figure 4 19. Mean (SE) per c ent mortality of house flies when treated topically with Pseudomonas protegens and Beauveria bassiana alone or sequentially with 48 hrs between application s of the first and second pathogen. Flies were treated individually 6 colony forming units ( P. protegens ) or conidia ( B. bassiana ). Bars represent mean percentag e mortality standard errors. P.p = P. protegens alone, B.b = B bassiana alone, B.b P.p = B. bassiana first with P. protegens two days later, P.p B.b = P. protegens with B. bassiana two days later, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mortality Time (Days) B.b B.b-P.p P.p P.p-B.b Control

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108 Figure 4 20. Sequential applications for P seudomonas protegens at three time points: three, five, and seven days. Topical application Pseudomonas protegens (1x10 6 colony forming units) and Beauveria bassiana (1x10 6 conidia) alone or i n or in sequence with 48 hours between treatments P.p = P. protegens alone, B.b = B bassiana alone, B.b P.p = B. bassiana first with P. protegens two days later, P.p B.b = P. protegens with B. bassiana two days later, and Control = CapSil 0.5% alone. Bars represent the mean percentage mortality standard errors and lower case letters denote signific ant differences (Tukeys HSD P< 0.05) among treatments within a time point a a,b a,b a a,b b a a,b b a b b a a a 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 3 5 7 Mortality Time (Days) P.p B.b P.p B.b P.p B.b Control

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109 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS FOR COMBINING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS WITH Beauveria bassiana FOR HOUSE FLY MANAGEMENT. The house fly, Musca domestica L. i s a major synanthropic pest that is of public health and agricultural concern (West 1951, Scott et al. 2009). Fly larvae typically develop in the manure of livestock and poultry facilities, and the resulting adults can invade surrounding areas, potentiall y carrying animal and human pathogens to nearby farms and neighborhoods. To make matters worse, house flies are increasingly resistant to most of the conventional insecticides commercially avaialable, making them a difficult pest to control. Biological c ontrol methods offer an alternative to insecticides, and house flies have many natural enemies to choose from that can be explored and enhanced. With few exceptions such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Tabashnik et al. 1990) resistance to biological control agents develops slowly and does not lead to outright failure, as is often the case with insecticides. All biological control agents have some advantages and liabilities, and a better understanding of their limitations is critical to their successful use. Entomopathogenic fungi, especially Beauveria bassiana are among the most promising biological control agents for house flies. House fly susceptibility to B. bassiana has been demonstrated in numerous studies. This pathogen can be easily mass produced, h as a good storage stability, and can be applied in a variety of ways that include sprays, dusts and baits. Once conidia have made contact with the host cuticle, they germinate, penetrate the exoskeleton, and proliferate within the hemocoel. The main draw back to B. bassiana is the long time that it takes to kill the host. This latency time varies among hosts but is typically 5 to 7 days for house flies. Long latency times are more acceptable with pests that are long lived or slow to develop such as ticks or litter

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110 beetles. House flies, however, have a relatively short development time and adult lifespan, and lay most of their eggs within seven to ten days after emergence. Managing this pest requires control agents that can act quickly to kill female fli es before they can lay most of their eggs, and B. bassiana is generally too slow acting to accomplish this. Other pathogens, especially bacteria, have the ability to cause fast mortality once they reach the hemocoel but have challenges gaining entry throug h the exoskeleton or Beauveria bassiana has the ability to penetrate the cuticle but kills the fly slowly whereas bacteria can kill the fly rapidly but cannot breach the outer d efenses of the host. The ultimate goal of my MS research was to test whether opportunistic bacterial pathogens could trail behind through entry wounds made by B. bassiana and kill the fly quickly. The concept of synergizing B. bassiana with a second bioc ontrol agent has been explored with other pathogens. Other fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes have been combined with B. bassiana in efforts to increase virulence or shorten the time to host death (Wraight and Ramos 2005, Mwamburi et al. 2009, Senthrilr aja et al. 2010, Prabhukarthikeyan et al. 2014). Work with bacterial pathogens as synergists has largely been limited to Bacillus thuringiensis (Wraight and Ramos 2005, Mwamburi et al. 2009). Spores of B. thuringiensis must be ingested to kill the host an d their mode of action involves release of toxins within the midgut of the insect (Bravo et al. 2007). Synergy with B. bassiana in these cases is thought to be related to the combined effects of pathogens with two different host entry mechanisms affecting system. In contrast, my research concentrated on three pathogens that, like B. bassiana p roliferate in the host hemocoel: Photorhabdus temperata, Serratia marcescens and

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111 Pesudomonas protegens The goal was to combine these pathogen s with B. bassiana and apply them to the cuticle in the hope that fungal penet r ation This work required several steps and will be summarized in the next paragraphs. In C hapter 2, I e xamined potential negative interactions between B. bassiana and the bacteria. Each of the bacteria ( P. temperata S. marcescens and P. protegens) were B. bassiana cultures to ob serve potential inhibition of fungal growth. Photorhabdus temperata and P. protegens inhibited B. bassiana growth whereas Serratia marcescens did not. These observations were consistent with the known activity of the first two species. Photorhabdus tempe rata is a symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar, 1975) and one of its roles is to prevent the host cadaver from being overwhelmed by saprophytic fungi and bacteria before the nematode and associated bacteria have c ompleted their life cycle (Boemare 2002). Pseudomonas protegens is known as a plant protecting species because of its ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites (Ramette et al. 2011). In spite of this observed inhibition I moved forward with all three bacterial species because it was uncertain how the pathogens would interact on the cuticle of a live host insect, which is a very different environment than artificial media in a Petri dish. My prior knowledge of microbes lead to the concern of carefully strategizing a technique of topically applying pathogen combinations without impeding the ability of pathogens to adher e to the house fly thorax. In C hapter 3 I discuss the differences between B. bassiana (eukaryote) and the three bacterial strains (pro karyotes)

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112 in terms of nutritional needs and mechanisms of infecting insect pests. An appropriate surfactant was needed for aqueous suspensions of pathogens that would not be harmful to either of the pathogens or the fly. Five nonionic surfactants (CapSil DyneAmic Induce Kinetic and Tween 80) wer e evaluated for house fly and pathogen survival Pathogen viability remained high after 24 hours of being held in surfactant solutions, and cell counts of the bacteria species actually increased during th at time. Additionally, each surfa ctant was graded on a scale of one to three (one = poor, two= medium, and three = ideal spreadability) on its spreadability capabilities onto the house fly thorax. Both CapSil and Kinetic had performed the highest in sprea dability scores but caused higher initial mortality in house flies compared to the rest of surfactants. CapSil at 0.5% ended up being chosen for subsequent topical applications of combined pathogens because this was the dose that caused the least amount o f initial fly mortality with no hindrance of spreadability once the pathogens were added. In C hapter 4, I first examined the virulence of all four pathogens if they were to gain entry into the house fly hemoco el. This was by injecting flies with 1 L dos e response of each of the pathogens, and all of the bacterial species caused high and rapid mortality, with P. protegens killing the fastest at <24 hours. Having established that the pathogens were virulent when injected, the next phase was to determine w hether they would penetrate through the exoskeleton after being applied topically to the thorax. Each pathogen wa s then applied topically in 1 L drops containing 1x 10 3 through 1x 10 6 cfu or conidia, and mortality was observed for seven days after treatmen t. Topical mortality was generally low with P. temperata and S. marcescens but was surprisingly high with P. protegens When bacteria were combined with B. bassiana and applied simultaneously,

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113 only P. protegens showed a complementary effect, with higher initial mortality in the combination than with B. bassiana alone Taking time into consideration, sequential topical applications were performed and higher mortality was observed in treatments that were first treated with P. protegens and then with B. bas siana 48 hours later. Overall, the results did not support the hypothesis that bacterial pathogens could be driven in the fly hemocoel via the cuticular insult caused by B. bassiana penetration. As discussed in Chapter 4, this could be related to method of testing used here, where pathogens were applied as singular events, either simultaneously or 48 hours apart. Because B. bassiana conidia do not germinate unti l 14 24 hours after adhering to the host cuticle it is possible that the bacteria were no lon ger viable by the time the damage to the cuticle was occurring when the two pathogens were applied at t he same time. Timing also could have been problematic with tests involving 48 hour intervals between B. bassiana and bacterial treatments because the cu ticular wound caused by the fungus may have already been repaired by the time the bacteria were applied. Under septic field conditions where flies are constantly exposed to bacteria, there would be greater opportunities for secondary infection after funga l exposure. Future research could evaluate this by narrowing the window between sequential pathogen treatments or housing B. bassiana treated flies under field conditions where they would be exposed to challenge from natural opportunistic bacteria. Althou gh the original hypothesis was not confirmed in the final experiments, this research resulted in a number of useful findings. The compatibility of the pathogens was established when they were grown together in media that was suitable to both bacterial and fungal pathogens (Chapter 2). A number of potential carriers were evaluated for

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114 their effects on the fly and the pathogens, which resulted in the selection of CapSil at 0.5% for further testing (Chapter 3), and this could prove helpful for future researc h with these pathogens. Although we found little evidence for synergistic effects, results in Chapter 4 suggest that combinations of P. protegens and B. bassiana have a complimentary effect, with an initial jump in mortality caused by P. protegens and a s econd jump several days later caused by B. bassiana Future research could build on these findings by evaluating other doses and treatment schedules that could improve the effectiveness of such combinations. Finally, the discovery that P. protegens was v irulent to the flies when used alone raises intriguing possibilities for developing this species as a bacterial biocontrol agent. Future research on this species and its associated toxins are needed to determine its potential uses, especially as a larvici de and in bait form for adult flies.

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131 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dana Johnson was born and raised in a small, rural town called Eustis, Florida. She spent the majority of her childhood outside, exploring the nearby woods and playing in the orange groves adjacent to her house. In 2003, she finished high school and spent many years as a cosmetologist until her mid twenties. At 25, she enrolled at Daytona State College in Daytona Beach, Fl discovered her passion for science. In 2011, she transferred to the University of Florida in Gainesville, Fl. to complete her undergrad. During her transition, Dana fell very ill and was diagnosed with mul tiple tick borne diseases. During her rigorous 2 year treatment plan, her interest in vector borne diseases and public health peaked and she started participating in research at the microbiology department at UF. Around the same time, she began working par t time at the USDA under Dr. Christopher Geden, performing entomological research 2014. Dana worked up a full time position at the USDA as a research technician where she performed experiment s with biological control methods for house fly management. Her passion for vector borne diseases and public health led her to enroll in graduate school under Dr. Christopher Geden to further her knowledg e in medical entomology in 2015. She finished her M aster of Science in December 2017 from the University of Florida and continues to work at the USDA in hopes to expand her research career.