FACTORS INFLUENC ING WOMEN FACULTY TRANSITIONING INTO TENURED ACADEMIC ROLES AT LAND GRANT INSTITUTIONS WITHIN COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE By CAROLYNN SUE NATH KOMANSKI A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIV ERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2017
2017 Carolynn Sue Nath Komanski
To the women who supported me in conducti ng this study : your collegiality and willful support was not in vain and is much appreciated. I hope to continue the cycle and pay it forward. To the women who participated in this study : thank you for sharing your time, energy, and experiences so others m ay learn from your journey. Each one of you is an inspiration. To the men who supported me in the conducting this study; your affirmations and encouragement cannot be overlooked, and I am forever grateful as you helped me move forward. To my husband, child ren, and family : your patience and grace afforded me the opportunity to fulfill a dream that so many thought was impossible. Together we made my dream possible.
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Being a mother, I understand that it takes a village to raise a child. I believe this holds true to graduate a Ph.D student. Without my village of supporters and nay sayers I would not have had the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to accomplish this labor of love. Prioritizing a family, raising two children (having birthed one around the time of my qualifying exams), being a wife to my selfless husband in addition to working full time and lastly being a doctoral student is not for the faint of hea rt. There is no perfect balance; there is no secret to making this work. It is only what you make of the experience and who you surround yourself with. I was afforded the opportunity to make it through this labyrinth, my way and in my time line To the people who I surrounded myself with, it is because of you that I have accomplis hed this feat. Without the support and friendship of my advisor and chair Dr. Nicole Stedman who saw my drive and potential when others did not. My committee which Barrick, D r. Lisa Lundy, and Dr. Angel Kwolek Folland My former supervisor TJ Logan, who listened, encouraged, and never batted an eye when I shared what may have been lofty or overly ambitious goals. To my employer s at the University of Florida : Division of Stude nt Affairs and Department of Housing and Residence Education, without you as my vehicle I do not know if I could have become a Gator grad. To the wonderful women in my life ; this dream wou ld have never become a reality The time, mental support and encouragement, and financial investment in me are someth ing I am eternally grateful.
5 My family and children, you may never understand why I woul d have ever chosen to go down this road. I learned how to read, write and spell late in life ( thanks to the dilapidated education system in the state of Maryland ) I was a part of an experiment par ticularly in m iddle school Later on, t hey neve r thought I would attend a four year college, let alone graduate. Little did they know t hese barriers only kept me going; I wanted to prove them wrong and most importantly, I wanted to prove to myself that I c ould be triumphant. Just as I have done throughout my life, I can do anything. I can learn anything. A chieve anything I set my mind to. I will hit roadblocks and fall, but I will ALWAYS get up. I will brush myself off, and I will succeed. You and every oth er perso n in this world can do the same This I was raised with. I hope anyone reading this will stay after their dream and accomplish it, just as I have. But this is not my final dr eam. This is only the beginning ; I look forward to what is next.
6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLED GMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF DEFINITIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 16 Context and Background of t he Study ................................ ................................ .... 16 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 18 Role of Land Grant Universities ................................ ................................ ....... 18 Land G rant Institutions and Higher Education ................................ .................. 20 Faculty Tenure Pipeline at Institutions of Higher Education ............................. 23 Increase in female enroll ment ................................ ................................ .... 24 Barriers to access positions ................................ ................................ ....... 24 The decline of women ................................ ................................ ................ 25 Wes tern culture factors ................................ ................................ .............. 26 Self esteem impacts ................................ ................................ .................. 27 Faculty Tenure Processes and Influences ................................ ........................ 28 Process of promotion ................................ ................................ ................. 29 Support for promotion ................................ ................................ ................ 30 Compensation for promotion ................................ ................................ ...... 31 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 Purpose and Objectives ................................ ................................ .......................... 32 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 33 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 36 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 36 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 37 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 39 Critical Feminist Theory ................................ ................................ .......................... 39 Intersection of Critical and Feminist Theories ................................ ......................... 42 Career Models ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 43 Boundaryless Careers ................................ ................................ ...................... 44 Kaleidoscope Careers ................................ ................................ ...................... 46 Women in the Workplace ................................ ................................ ........................ 50 Microaggressions in the Workplace ................................ ................................ ........ 51
7 Wo ................................ ................................ .............................. 52 Metaphorical Illustrations for Women in Leadership ................................ ......... 53 Leadership Advocacy and Charisma ................................ ................................ 56 Higher Education and Leadership ................................ ................................ ........... 59 Women in Higher Education ................................ ................................ ............. 60 Pathway to Leadership i n Higher Education ................................ ..................... 62 Women Faculty in Higher Education ................................ ................................ 63 Theoretical Foundation for this Study ................................ ................................ ..... 66 Theoretical Support ................................ ................................ ................................ 66 Conceptual Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 67 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 68 3 RESEARCH METHODS ................................ ................................ ......................... 69 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ............................... 70 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 70 Qualitative Inquiry ................................ ................................ ............................. 70 Interview Method ................................ ................................ .............................. 71 Dynamics and Concerns of Women Interviewing Women ................................ 71 Interview Schedule and Pilot Test ................................ ................................ .... 72 Sample Selection ................................ ................................ ............................. 73 Data Collection Methods ................................ ................................ ......................... 75 Critical Incident Technique ................................ ................................ ............... 75 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 75 Validity through M ember Checking ................................ ................................ ... 77 Document Collection ................................ ................................ ........................ 78 Data Collection Plan ................................ ................................ ......................... 78 Da ta Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 79 Data Analysis Method ................................ ................................ ...................... 79 Constant Comparative Method ................................ ................................ ......... 79 Data Storage ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 81 Alternative Methods ................................ ................................ .......................... 81 Bias Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 82 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 83 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 87 Introduction to Results ................................ ................................ ............................ 87 Participant In formation ................................ ................................ ............................ 87 Demographic Information ................................ ................................ ................. 88 Participant Sex and Achievement of Tenure ................................ .................... 88 Age and Ethnicity ................................ ................................ ............................. 88 Education and Work Credentials ................................ ................................ ...... 89 Institutional Representation ................................ ................................ .............. 90 Years Employed ................................ ................................ ............................... 91 Factors that Helped ................................ ................................ ................................ 92 Work Ethic ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 93
8 Opportunities ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 96 Support Systems ................................ ................................ .............................. 99 Factors that Hindered ................................ ................................ ........................... 105 Children and Family. ................................ ................................ ...................... 107 Politics of the Environment ................................ ................................ ............. 109 Request for Summary of Findings ................................ ................................ ........ 116 Document Reference ................................ ................................ ............................ 116 Further Comments ................................ ................................ ................................ 117 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ 119 5 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ......................... 121 Summary of the Study ................................ ................................ .......................... 121 Overview of the Problem ................................ ................................ ................ 122 Purpose Statement and Research Questions ................................ ................ 123 Review of the Methodology ................................ ................................ ............ 124 Major Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 125 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ 125 Factors that Helped ................................ ................................ ........................ 125 Factors that Hindered ................................ ................................ ..................... 126 Request for Findings ................................ ................................ ...................... 127 Document Reference ................................ ................................ ..................... 127 Further Comments ................................ ................................ ......................... 127 Findings Related to Literature ................................ ................................ ............... 128 Power ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 129 Interruptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 129 Leadership and Advocacy ................................ ................................ .............. 132 Vulnerability ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 133 Mentorship ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 133 Mentorship Helped. ................................ ................................ ........................ 134 Mentorship Hindered. ................................ ................................ ..................... 135 Mosaic Mentoring. ................................ ................................ .......................... 135 Culture ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 136 Tenure Standards ................................ ................................ ................................ 136 Profiles for Success. ................................ ................................ ....................... 137 Career Models ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 137 Boundaryless Careers ................................ ................................ .................... 138 Kaleid oscope Careers ................................ ................................ .................... 138 Surprises ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 139 Recommendations for further Research ................................ ............................... 141 Recommendations for Practice ................................ ................................ ............. 142 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 144 APPENDIX A DEPARTMENT ADMIN CONTACT INFORMATION REQUEST E MAIL ............. 151
9 B FACULTY CONTACT REQUEST ................................ ................................ ......... 152 C INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE/INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ..... 154 D INTERVIEW SURVEY QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ .... 156 E E MAIL CONFIRMATIONS FOR STUDY REPLICATION ................................ .... 165 F IRB APPROVAL LETTER ................................ ................................ ..................... 167 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 168 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 195
10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Interview Questions for Women Faculty. ................................ ............................ 85 3 2 Pseudonym Code Reference. ................................ ................................ ............. 86 4 1 Reported Demograph ics for Age and Ethnicity ................................ ................... 89 4 2 Reported Demographics for Education and Work Credentials ........................... 90 4 3 Reported Demographics for Employm ent at Universities ................................ ... 91 4 4 Reported Demographics for Employment at Land Grant Universities ................ 92 4 5 Factors that Helped Women Facult y ................................ ................................ 93 4 6 Factors that Hindered Women Faculty ................................ ............................ 107 5 1 Reported Demographics Summary ................................ ................................ .. 145 5 2 Factors that Helped Women Faculty ................................ ................................ 146 5 3 Factors that Hindered Women Faculty ................................ ............................. 147 5 4 Interview Question s for Women Faculty. ................................ .......................... 147
11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 i n Women Faculty Achieving Tenure ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 67 3 1 Gantt Chart for Research Timeline. ................................ ................................ .... 84 3 2 Interview Process Map for Women Faculty Participants. ................................ .... 84 4 1 Administrative Snowball Responses ................................ ................................ ... 87 4 2 Regional Participation within Continental United States ................................ ... 119 4 3 Regional participation by Land Grant Institutions beyond saturation ................ 120 5 1 Tenure ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 149 5 2 Regional Participation by Land Grant Institutions Beyond Saturation .............. 149 5 3 Interview Process Map for Women Faculty Participants. ................................ .. 150
12 LIST OF DEFINITIONS Academic Pipeline The academic pipeline refers to people entering academia as an transitioning into faculty roles ( Van Anders, 2004). Administration A branch of uni versity or college employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the faculty or academics, although some personnel may have joint responsibilities (Administration, 2006). Administrative Heads Those individu als in positions recognized by the National Association of State Universities and Land grant Colleges (NASULGC) as Administrative Heads of agriculture. According to NASULGC, these individuals are the chief administrators of the member universities agricult ural programs (Moore, 2003). NASULGC is now the Association of Public and Land Grant Universities (APLU). Authentic Leadership A leadership theory that focuses closely on the leader and what goes on within the leader. Authentic leadership incorporates the knowledge, self regulation, as well as self concept (Northhouse, 2013). Authentic leaders exhibit genuine leadership, lead with conviction, are originals, not copies and emphasize life experiences and the meaning he or she attaches to those life experiences as being critical to their authentic leadership development (Shamir & Eilam, 2005). Career goal mechanisms Career plans, aspirations, decisions, and expressed choices (Lent et al., 1994). Decision making A process that involves problem identification, solution generation, evaluation, and implementation (Delbecq & Mills, 1985). Department A university division, unit or other organizational entity in which an employee is primarily employed. (Tucker, 1999). Faculty The academic staff of a university such as se nior teachers, lecturers, and researchers. The term also includes professors of various ranks, usually tenured or tenure track (Blackburn, Lawrence, 1995). Gender The term used for perceived or projected ( self identified ) masculini ty or femininity of a person (Lindsey, 2015).
13 Glass Ceiling Metaphor that describes the invisible barriers or deficiencies that women in leadership can face that could keep them from attaining their ultimate career goals (Morrison & Von Glinow, 1990). Gl ass Cliff Metaphor to describe women who have made it through the glass ceiling to obtain a position of power but are set up to fail becaus e of the lack of resources and support from the organization (Ryan & Haslam, 2005). Informal and Incidental Learning Learning outside of formally structured, institutionally sponsored, classroom based activities (Marsick et al., 2010). Goal The determination to engage in a particular activity or to affect a particular future outcome (Bandura, 1986, p. 468). Land grant institution needs of a broad citizenry, public state sponsored sites of higher learning have a three fold mission of teaching, research and service (Herren & Edwards, 2002). Leadership The p rocess by which influence is exerted over individuals and groups to achieve goals (Yukl, 2002; Northouse, 2006). Resilience The p rocess of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress (American Psycholo gical Association, 2017) Self awareness The ability to recognize and understand one's moods, emotions and drives (Flanagan, 2013). Self efficacy action required to produce given attain ments (Bandura, 1997, p. 3). Shared governance A dynamic set of processes which provide a critical foundation that actively supports the uni versity's two primary functions, the creation and dissemination of knowledge. P rocesses openly receive input from all campus constituencies and students to provide advice, direction, and perspective to the institution's administrative leadership. Advice pertains to issues, policies, and procedures that impact the direction and quality of the university's instruction, research/creative activity, and service programs (Montana State University, 2003). Sponsorship Sponsorship is focused on advancement and predicated on power Sponsorship is active support by someone appropriately placed in or about an organization w hich h as a significant influence on decision making processes or structures The sponsor is advocating
14 for, protecting, and fighting for the career advancement of an individual (Ibarra et al. 2010).
15 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy FACTORS INFLUENC ING WOMEN FACULTY TRANSITIONING INTO TENURED ACADEMIC ROLES AT LAND GRANT INSTITUTIONS WITHIN COLLEGES OF AGRICU LTURE By Carolynn Sue Nath Komanski December 2017 Chair: Nicole Stedman Major: Agricultural Education and Communication T he purpose of this study was a critical i nquiry of tenured women faculty to identify factors that helped or hindered their transi tion into tenured academic roles. The study was conducted at land grant institutions specifically within colleges of agriculture. A qualitative approach was used in this study to capture narrative interviews to understand the participants learning throug h critical incidents. Document analysis was also a part of this study with the collection of participant vit ae Participants were obtained through a snowball method with a total of 87 participants and 50 responses are the level of saturatio n. Data were analyzed to identify words, themes, and examples in the critical incident narratives to identify what helped or hindered these tenured women faculty. Findings from this study should encourage associations, institutions, academic departments a nd faculty to evaluate and examine what systems and resources they have in place for faculty who will be going through the tenure and promotion process.
16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Context a nd Background o f t h e Study While women have advanced into universit y leadership roles, gender imbalance among senior university academics is an acknowledged problem globally, with slow progress being made towards equity ( Ai ston & Jung, 2015; Blackmore et al. 2015; Lee, & Won, 2014; Hult et al., 2005; Davidson & Burke, 200 4 ). The American Association of University Professors ( 2005; 2003; n.d ) reported that in 2003 2004, among full time faculty, women were disproportionately represented in lower ranks and poorly represented among full professors. Only 23% of full professors were women, but women made up over half of instructor and unranked positions (Curtis, 2004). Beintema (2006) found that at the professional level, women comprised only about 20% of agricultural researchers in developing countries. The National Science Fou ndation (NSF) and Burelli (2008) reported that women comprise 35% of faculty positions within biological/agricultural/environmental life sciences and related fields at four year institutions across the United States (NSF, 2008) Comparat ively, only 3.7% of women serve in senior administrative roles as dean of the college of agriculture at their institution s (NSF, 2008 ; Burelli, 2008 ). More recent publications from the NSF (2016 a, b ) rep ort a slight increase approximately 7 %, for women achieving tenure role s between 2003 (22.8%) to 2012 (29.5%). However, the NSF (201 6b) also report also shows there is a n overall decline in doctoral graduates securing full time faculty positions from 62% in 1997 to 58% in 2013. NCSE (2017) most recent report from 2016 2017 in dicated that only 33% of all full professors are women, and only 44% of
17 women represent all levels of academic positions, at federally foundered institutions (p.7). Despite the increasing representation of women in senior academic positions, especially in English speaking countries ( Crab b & Ekberg 2014; Baker, 2010 ), the current state of women representation is not at a level that could be expected to mirror student enrollment ratios (Lee & Won, 2014; Lockwood, 2006). Large numbers of women who entered sen ior academic roles in previous decades were promoted at the same rate as their male counterparts ( Crabb & Ekberg, 2014; Dever et al., 2008; Doherty & Manfredi, 2006; Bailyn, 2003; Benschop & Brouns, 2003 ; Krefting, 2003). Yet, women have remained under rep resented in senior university level administrative positions at universities ( Blackmore, et al., 2015; Blackmore, 2014; Davidson & Burke, 2004; Hyer, 1985; Reinert, 1946). Griffeth (2013) remarked: T he glass ceiling may seem shattered from the perspective of some, but research continues to demonstrate that there are key issues that afford dialogue and discourse as it relates to leadership in the workplace, especially in male dominated settings such as the agricultural sciences at land grant institut ions of higher education (p.1) Some of the key issues shared throughout the body of literature have included the growing number of female students enrolling in higher education and how they have been served through the visual presence of women faculty me mbers (Johnson, 2014; Lee & Won, 2014). In reference to the demonstrated statistics, female perspectives should be included in decision making at the institutions of higher education, and support mechanisms are needed to retain women leaders through the ac ademic tenure process ( Beddoes, 2016; Hannun et al., 2015; MacPhee & Canetto, 2015; Corbette, & St. Rose, 2010).
18 Background Role of Land G rant Universities In the late 1700s and early 1800s, higher education was considered a privilege for the social elite (National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges [NASULGC], 1995). Univer sities such as Harvard and Yale offered study in philosophy and literature, along with other majors within fields of humanities and fine arts. However, there was a continued need for educating the common person who could not afford these elite institutions. Justin Smith Morrill was instrumental in passing the Morrill Act of 1862 in response to the S tates (NASULGC, 1995). Signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln, land grant institutions were established with the mission to the mechanic arts as well as classical studies so that members of the working class es could obtain a liberal, practical e Women did not enroll at land grant institutions until 1870, but it is more wi dely documented that enrollment of women increased starting in 1890 (Thorne, 1985). Colleges of A griculture h istor ically included Home Economics where women enrolled; these programs were often a s c hool within the c ollege (Silverberg, 1998; Stage & Vinventi, 1997; Herren & Hillison, 1996; Newland, 1990 ) The leader within these departments (often referred to as a Dean) was historically documented as a male while the school d irector was traditionally a woman ( Schwartz, 1997; Bowman, 1962 ) Historical analysis of employment records s how s that women were not in leade rship positions at land gran t colleges ( Enns & Marti n, 2015; Christy & Williamson, 1992; Bowman, 1962).
19 The Second Morrill Act (1890) extended access to higher education at universities that made no distinction in race admissions. However, states that provided a separate institution for blacks were still el igible to receive funds (NASULGC, 1995, p.3). As a result of this legislation, in mostly southern states where desegregation had not occurred, 1 7 historically black colleges (for example, Tuskegee University, Florida A&M University, and West Virginia State University), often referred to as 1890 land grants, were formed (NASULGC, 1995). In subsequent years, the land grant system expanded to inclu de United States jurisdictions beginning in 1967 and, most recently, tribal colleges in 1994 as a provision of t he Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act (NASULGC, 1995). The agenda of the land grant university, its management and its political base have grown far more complex ( Perkins, 2015; Posner, 2009 ) In states with little or no commercial agr iculture, the colleges have evolved away from agriculture toward a broad natural r esource and environmental focus, or have become the university's life science colleges (Kellogg, 1999; Bonner 1996). The land grant colleges of agriculture, which previously had common culture s and mission s have evolved into a far more diverse educational curriculum. They were no longer just colleges of agriculture. These colleges included diverse majors of study, and in very few cases agriculture remained the sole focus (Ke llogg, 1999; Bok, 1990; Bonner 1996). As graduate programs evolved at land gran t institutions, Bonner (1998) shared that graduate research programs collaborate in the U.S. and abroad with communities or societal organizations. These collaborations act as a laboratory for problem solving, research and education. The collaboration s foster a global intersection for the land
20 grant. As our world has gotten smaller, and more interconnected through technology, there is a continued need to adapt and serve the miss ion of land grant universities ( Woodward, 2009; Stukel, 1998). Land G rant Institutions and Higher Education Characteristics of the faculty at land grant colleges have been fundamental to an Paulsen, 2013; National Research Council, 1996). Demographic characteristics of agricultural scientists holding doctorate degrees suggest that these facult ies are slightly older on average than their peers in life and natural sciences which has been attributed to the ranks of agricultural scientists being replenished at a slower rate ( Kulis, et al., 2002; National Research Council, 1996 p. 56 ). Women, although increasingly well represented, have remained a substantial minority on the faculties of many agricultural colleges, and members of ethnic minorities remain uncommon ( ASHE, 2011; University Leadership Council, 2008; NASULGC, 1995 p.56 ). The public has been particularly concerned about the land commitment to teaching ( DeZure et al., 2014; Greenwood, 1995). The Center for Instructional Development at Syracuse University found that university faculty and university administrators share d the view that their institution favors research over teaching However, each of these two groups thought that members of the other group also favors research over teaching (National Research Council, 1996 p.58 ). In the result s 1995 survey of the general public reported a majority of respondents thought that undergraduate teaching, gradu ate teaching, off campus extension, continuing education, and research were all "very grant university (Greenwood, 1995). Yet, the results showed that a significantly higher percentage of respondents ranked
21 teaching "very important," about the percent of respondents that ranked the other activities "very important" ( National Research Council, 1996, p.58; Greenwood, 1995). Most land grant colleges of agriculture have had a unique advantage beyond other colle ges and departments of the university concerning their capacity to devote faculty resources to students. Planned funding has allowed many colleges of agriculture to maintain a relatively low faculty student ratio. In fact, the National Research Council (19 95a p. 61 ) showed that USDA administered grants accounted for slightly less than five percent of all federal research and development dollars allocated to extramural researc h at universities and colleges (p. 58). The NSF (2016b) and report shows that teac hing is becomi ng less of a priority th an research. Duderstadt (2000) also provides context as to why there has been a growing demand for research at the land grant institutions, which is in due to funding. The land grant faculty in colleges of agriculture su pport recruitment of student that results in an enroll ment of approximately one to two percent of all undergraduate and graduate students at these institutions nationwide (Collins, 2008; Dyer et al., 2002 ; National Research Council, 1996 ) This suggested that on average, faculty focus more on making connections with students rather than on seeking grants, although not all faculty have had defined responsibilities for student advising or teaching (Matter, 2015; Collins, 2008; Dyer et al., 2002 ; National R esearch Council, 1996) Therefore, colleges of agriculture have been in a particularly strong position to commit to student learning (Collins, 2008; Dryer et al., 2002 ; National Research Council, 1996 ) In some parts of the country, students continue to b e drawn to colleges of agriculture through their contacts with Cooperative Extension Programs (CEP) in their
22 communities (Niewolny & Lilard, 2016; National Research Council, 1996) Colleges' tied t o t hese programs have a relationship with their students an d their families, especially those from farm and rural backgrounds. These relationships lend opportunities to create a nurturing environment for this group of students ( Condon et al., 2 106; Leeuwis, 2013; Irlbeck, et al ; 2014; National Research Council, 1 996). Connections have been made by men and women, but fewer women are making these connections, as noted in research previously cited (Irlbeck et al., 2014) Colleges of agriculture should connect with communities in rural, urban, and suburban settings t o recruit students and diversify their student bodies (Henry et al., 2014; Lichter & Brown, 2014; National Research Council, 1996) Participating in K 12 science education projects and involving more college faculty in urban based extension programs are wa ys to build the needed bridges within all agriculture communities ( Ahmed et al., 2017; AAAE, 2011). Although colleges of agriculture may have had opportunities to devote relatively more faculty resources to students, agriculture faculty, like their counter parts in other colleges, perceive that the rewards are in research, where federal funding is concentrated ( Stevens & Gebre Medhin, 2016; Bok, 2015; Jaeger et al., 2015; National Research Council, 1996 p.61 ). Some college of agriculture faculty feel s disadv antaged in the tenure and reward process at the university level because of their explicit responsibilities for extension in addition to their responsibilities with teaching and research ( Childress, 2015; Bisbee, 2005 ; National Research Council, 1996 ). Th e tenure and reward system transcend s colleges of agriculture and land grant universities and has captured the attention of all higher education nationally ( Geiger et al., 2015; Helms, 2014; Bonner, 1995; 1996). Since no recent research has been
23 conducted regarding this process colle ges of agriculture at land grant institutions and their faculty have had a special interest in and the potential to shape the future. The need for additional research has been noted in the p ublication collaboratively produced by The American Council on Education, The American Association of University Professors, and United Educators Insurance Risk Retention Group (2000). Recent lite rature produced today identified gaps between men and women academics salaries and retention and share recommendations for evaluating what occurs to academics during the tenure process (Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; Ceci et al., 2014; Duetsch & Yao, 2014 ) Faculty Tenure Pipeline a t Institutions o f Higher Education The faculty tenure process that starts for higher education with undergraduate students and leads all the way through academia to tenured professorships is referred to as the pipeline ( Almer et al., 2016; v an Anders, 2004). Reductions in grouped representations at various stages in academic rank are referred to as leaks in the pipeline. Statistics show there are fewer women than men in tenured or tenure track positions, as has traditionally been the case across the world ( Allen & French, 2016; De utsch & Yao, 2014; van Anders, 2004; Canadian Association of University Teachers [CAUT], 2003; European Technology Assessment Network [ETAN], 2002; National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2008, 2004, 2002). Historically, these differences were att ributed to the smaller number of women who pursued undergraduate degrees, and even fewer who obtain ed graduate degree s (NCES, 2008, 2004, 2002). Since the 1970s, however, increasing numbers of women have entered the academic pipeline The academic pipeline refers to people entering academia as an undergraduate stu dent, achieving advanced degree s, and then transitioning into faculty
24 roles. In recent years women have outnumber ed men at the undergraduate level ( NSF, 2016b; Almer et al., 2016; CAUT, 2003; NCES, 2008, 2004, 2002), which has led many to assume the inevitability of more women in tenured academic roles in the near future Increase in female e nrollment A dramatic enrollment increase of women at the undergraduate level occurred between 1960 (35%) and 2000 (57%) The most recent NSF (2016b) report shows that between 2004 and 2014 there are over a million more women than men enrolled in undergraduate 4 year institutions. Even with this dramatic increase of enrollment women still, makeup approximately 40 % of the professoriate in the United States ( NSF, 2016b; NCES, 2002), Women have been predominant figures in lecture/instructor positions but these positions have little opportunity for advancement ( van Anders, 2004, Fouad et al., 2000) Additionally, women comprise a c onsiderable minority of assistant professors compared to the number of women who attend graduate school ( NSF 2016b; CAUT, 2003; NCES, 2002). The underrepresentation of women on faculty and the issu es academic women have faced have been noted as an area i n need of more research ( Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; Ceci et al., 2014 ; Duetsch & Yao, 2014; Fouad et al., 2000; Aisenberg & Harrington, 1988; Caplan, 1993; Collins, Chrisler, & Quina, 1998; Simeone, 1987 ; ). Since no recent research has been condu cted regarding the decline of women faculty in a broad sense, there continues to be a demonstrated need (Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; Ceci, et al., 2014; Duetsch & Yao, 2014) Barriers to access p ositions Reasons for the scarcity of women in tenure d positions focus on exper ienced and percei ved covert or systemic barriers (Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; Ceci et
25 al., 2014; Duetsch & Yao, 2014) Self selection has not been supported by previous research as women made up 36% of the Ph D graduate pool (CAUT, 2002), but comprised only 2 9% of the applicant pool for academic jobs ( van Anders, 2004; Kimura, 2002). NCUE (2016 ) report shows the growing number of women earning doctoral degrees. The 2009 2010 figures demonstrate 1% more women than men ear ned a doctoral degree, and 2014 2015 there were 1.1% more women than men who earned a doctoral degree. The NCUE (201 6 ) report shows that there are more women than men in lower level academic positions (instructors: 55% women and 44% men; assistant professo rs: 52% women and 48% men) the percentages for associate and full professors are substantially lower (full professor: 33% women and 67% men; associate professor: 44% women and 55% men). The decline of percentages between assistant and associate professor and then again to full professor demonstrates a leaky pipe. Despite some claims that men have been discouraged from applyin g for tenure track positions ( Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; van Anders, 2004, Kimura, 1997), it is women who are in fact dis couraged ( Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; van Anders, 2004, Kimura, 2002) and not achieving these positions. The decline of w omen Indeed, the proportion of women has declined at the teach ing stage along the pipeline a student moved from undergraduates (59 %), to m aster s programs (52 %) to doctoral programs (36 %), and then to academic job applications (20%) (CAUT, 2002; Kimura, 1997). The most recent NSF (2016b) report shows that number of graduates from continues to increase respectively but the yield o f these doctoral graduates into faculty positions (39%) has only slightly increased in 2014. Figures for job applicants
26 frequently included applicants for lecturer/instructor positions, so the proporti on of women applying for tenure track positions may hav e been c onsiderably lower (NSF, 2016b ; van Anders, 2004 ) S ev eral types of systemic barriers have led to female graduate students to downgrade academia as a career choice as reported by the most recent NSF (2016b ; van Anders, 2004 ) report, but there is fur ther need for research as to why this is occurring (Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; Ceci et al., 2014) Research has been conducted within niche populations to explore this phenomenon. Those disciplines include medica l (Vilablanca et al, 2017;Girod e t al., 2017) STEM fie lds (Rodriguez, 2017; Nogaij et al., 2017; Highes et al., 2017) as well as women of color ( Corner, et al., 2017; Han & Leonard, 2017; Carter et al, 2016; Yun et al., 2016) but there still remains a significant void within colleges of agriculture. Western culture f actors Western cultures women have engaged in a much larger proportion of childrearing responsibilities throughout history ( Harding, 2016; van Anders, 2004; Pittman, Teng, Kerpelman, & Solheim, 1999), even when the culture has evolved to both parents being professionally employed ( Harding, 2016; van Anders, 2004; Biernat & Wortman, 1991; Wilkie, Ferree, & Ratcliff, 1998). E volution is far removed from supporting the past biological disposition toward childrearing. Evidence s how s that this difference in responsibilities only occurred for mundane tasks; men and women spent equal amounts of time playing with their children ( Sennett, 2017 ; Hanna et al., 2016; Biernat & Wortman, 1991 ; Kotila, S choppe Sullivan, & Dush, 2013) and wo men were reported to be disco ntent with unequal distribution of household labor ( Sennett, 2017 ; Hanna et al., 2016; Ruble, Fleming, Hackel, & Stangor, 1988 ; Kotila et al., 2013 ). Valian (1998) and Kotila et al. (2013) detailed how gender schemas (masculini ty and
27 femininity) le a d to expect ations of different behaviors and roles from men and women. Women have internalize d the feminine gender role concerning expectations of being a primary caregiver and have come to see this role is incompatible with the long work hours required or associated with academia ( Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; Ceci, et al., 2014; Duetsch & Yao, 2014; Jaschik, 2008; Martin & Barnard, 2013 ; Mayor, 2015 ; van Anders, 2004 ). Self esteem i mpacts Self esteem research has shown that w omen generally score lower than men on ratings of self esteem, though the difference is small ( Brown, 2014; van Anders, 2004; Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999), indicating rigors of academic roles. Additionally, st udies have shown that women, particularly those with higher level degrees, have been more likely to prefer men who are highly educated for long term relationships ( Slaughter, 2015; Pedulla & Thebaud, 2015; van Anders, 2004; Blackwell & Lichter, 2000; Buunk Dijkstra, Fetchenhauer, & Kenrick, 2002). Conceivably career or dual academic couple. While mobility has generally been required to pursue an academic career it has particularly been discouraging for women. For example married women in postdoct oral position s reported more uncertainty than men about remaining in academia ( Damaske et al., 2014; Mason & Goulden, 2002 ) due in part due to mobility concerns. Golde and Dore (2001) survey ed doctoral students to examine their education and career expect ations. The study f ound that fewer women than men planned on a faculty career (van Anders, 2004) An article by Cook (2001) presented additional results by Golde and Dore indicating that for women, family balance and geography were negatively associated w ith planning for a facul ty career. Cook (2001)
28 also suggested that other variables that may affect pursue academic careers have remain ed unexplored. Faculty Tenure Processes a nd Influences AAUP ( 2017; 2008; 1 940) defined a tenured appointment as an indefinite appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency and program discontinuation. The purpose of a tenured appointment is to safeguard academic freedom, whic h is viewed as necessary for all who have taught and conducted research in higher education (AAUP, 2017) Tenure has been valued since faculty members have been known to lose their positions due to their speech, views, or published research findings (AAUP, 2017) Without tenure, the AAUP ( 2017; 2008; 1 940) believes that faculty cannot properly fulfill their core responsibilities to advance and transmit knowledge. Although tenure processes have not protected individual faculty members, tenure has historicall y served society as a common good by protecting the quality of teaching, research, and the integrity of institutions of higher education (AAUP, 2017; 2008; 1940) If faculty members have the opportunity to lose their positions for what they say or write, they are unlikely to risk addressing controversial issues (AAUP, 2017; 1940). The AAUP ( 2017; 1940) states that common people are not served when business, political, or other entities can threaten the livelihood of researchers and instructors, and thereby suppress the results of their work or modify their judgments. Education and research benefit s society, but society does not benefit when teachers and researchers are controlled by corporations, religious groups, special interest groups, or the government (AAUP, 2017; 1940). Free inquiry, expression, and open dissent are essential for student learning and the advancement of knowledge in
29 society. This is why the tenure process is important, and why sys tems have had to be in place to protect academic freedom (Levinson, 2007). Tenure serves that purpose within the confines of higher education. Process of p romotion The past four decades have been called a failu re of the social contract as it relates to faculty employment (AAUP, 2014; 2015 ; 2016 ). The tenure syst em was designed as a big tent which focused on uniting faculty of tremendously diverse interests within a system of common professional values, standards, and mutual responsibilities ( Watkins & Marsick, 2016; Shaker & Plater, 2016; Carney, 2013; AAUP, 194 0). Tenure processes aim to secure reasonable compensation and to protect academic freedom through continuous employment for academics (Watkins & Marsick, 2016; Shaker & Plater, 2016; Carney, 2013) Financial and intellectual security has enabled faculty t o carry out the public trust in teaching and research, which sustain a rigorous system of professional peer scrutiny in hiring, evaluation, and promotion. Today, the tenure system has all but collapsed (AAUP, 2015 ; AAUP 2016 ; Watkins & Marsick, 2016; Shake r & Plater, 2016; Carney, 2013 ). Institutions and their academic bodies seek to sustain a systematic structure for tenure and promotion processes ( Fitzgerald et al., 2016; Smith et al., 2016; Jones et al., 2015; Lawrence et al., 2014) Hiring, selection an d promotion processes in academic institutions are guided by overarching national or international organizations ( Smith et al., 2016; Lawrence et al., 2014; Euben, 2000). Individual institutions and then the academic disciplines have been required to docum ent and outline these respective processes and have them well documented for employees, most often within a handbook (OECD, 2012). From hiring to promotion, groups or committees are involved with such processes to establish
30 recommendations for moving forwa rd ( Smith et al., 2016; Lawrence et al., 2014; Euben, 2000; USOPM, 2011; OECD, 2012). Such processes and committees review candidate materials and information through an evaluative process. These processes provide a benchmark for qualifications and based upon the candidate s performance measures and determinations are made ( Smith et al., 2016; Lawrence et al., 2014; OECD, 2012; USOPM, 2011 ; and Euben, 2000 ). When it comes to hiring and promotion, tenured positions can be achieved in a sequential time fra me with a scaffolding leadership progression based on time and contributions of research ( Smith et al., 2016; Lawrence et al., 2014; OECD, 2012) Such decisions are also influenced by professional work experience (van der Velde, 2003) For example someon e who has worked professionally in the industry for over twenty years may negotiate a tenured rank based on the progression of their experience and contributions compared to a true academic researcher who may not have worked in business or industry. Suppo rt for p romotion Researchers have shown that tenure promotion processes particularly for minorities (such as women) necessitate support for the candidate Books about negotiating faculty life tend to fall into two general categories. The first category in clude research about faculty and the tenure process ( Yun, Baldi, & Sorcinelli, 2016; Campell Bensimon, 1996; Boice, 1992) while the second include s guides or handbooks that o ffe r practical advice about navigating some of the nuances of faculty life (Sanders, 2017 ; Virick & Strange, 2016; Gonzales & Terosky, 2016; Boice, 2000; DeNeef & Goodwin, 1995; Garcia, 2000; Lucas & Perry, 2002 ). Across various academic disciplines and
31 natio nal organizations there are pockets of query as to what the tenure process should be and that more research is needed. However, this in formation has substantial gap s of over ten years in many cases. The types of support factors that help or hinder women i n the tenure process have not been well researched ; in these processes though there are assumptions as to what these factors are. Compensation for p romotion Part of the promotion process includes both an increase in monetary compensation and an academic t itle or rank within the scaffolding leadership. Aspects of the salary gap in academia, as well as society, ha ve been viewe d as a form of discrimination. Although percentages vary, rese arch has proven that women are con sistently paid less compared to their male counterparts regardless of the institutional type and faculty rank ( Guarino & Borden, 2017; Torres Bernal et al., 2017; Lee & Won, 2014; AAPU, 2010, Barbezat, 2002, Barbezat & Hughes, 2005). For example the average salary for fe male faculty members on 9 or 10 month contracts has been approximately 81% of the salary for their male counterparts in 2001 2002 ; in 2010 20 11 and again in 2014 2015 this gap remained unclosed (Clery, 2016 2012 ; Lee & Won, 2014). Some researchers noted that the salary gap for assistant level profes sors has been even greater with women earning 91 97% less than male associate professors ( Leslie et al., 2017; Slaughter, 2015; Lee & Won, 2014; Shen, 2013; West & Curtis, 2006). While the initial gap has put women at a career lon g disadvantage there are women in the pipeline who can influence or advocate for themselves to help change this gap ( Cavanaugh; 2017; Almer et al., 2016; Ceci et al., 2014; Duetsch & Yao, 2014; Lee & Won, 2014).
32 Problem Statement The purpose of this study was to discover the factors that help ed or hinder ed women academ ics to advance to tenured roles within colleges of agriculture at land grant institutions. What enables or blocks access to tenured faculty roles at land grant institutions was not clearly un derstood from the perspective of women. Specifically, research is limited on how this phenomenon affects women faculty within agriculture related fields at land grant institutions (Bisbee, 2007 2005 ). Without further kno wledge factors that help or hinder female faculty in the tenure process cannot be determined. This will be important to the academy, as female enrollment continues to rise within agricultural ly related fields of study ( Sachs et al., 2016; Lockwood, 2006). Women are underrepresented in agri culture (Johnson et al., 2017; Bielby et al., 2014) A need exists to have women faculty in agriculture related fields to continue in academic leadership positions, which include tenure track positions (Lockwood, 2006). Research can uncover the complex fac tors that both help and hinder the development of women as faculty at land grant institutions and to identify both the deficits and credits that exist personally, professionally and organizationally so women may be proactively advanced or supported These f actors can be utilized to create support programs to promote, recruit, and retain junior and tenured women faculty within the academy. Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine factors that helped and hindered women academics through the tenure process in colleges of agriculture at land grant universities. Examining data through a critical feminist lens, this study analyzed self disclosed narratives from a representative sample of women in agricultural academic leadership positions, sp ecifically tenured women faculty at 1862 land grant institutions
33 of higher education. This information will hopefully be ut ilized to provide context and platform to advocate for the creation of programs and resources for women academics working to achieve a tenure d position within a college of agriculture. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1. Discover factors that help women at land grant institutions advance to tenured positions, as reported by currently tenured women faculty mem bers in agricultur e disciplines. 2. Discover factors that hinder the advancement of women at land grant institutions to advance to tenured positions, as reported by women in agriculture disciples. 3. Discover the changes needed to enable women to advance to tenured positions at l and grant institutions in agriculture disciplines, as reported by women faculty who have participated in this study Significance o f t he Study This study is significant in a number of ways ; however, the following reasons were most directly related to this research and the subsequent results, which can aid aspiring women who hope to achieve tenure, and that can help colleges of agriculture who want to increase support measures for women academics through the tenure process, and universities who seek to reta in women in academia. By utilizing study replication of a pre existing instrument in addition to researching a population which has been noted as an area of need within national and international association agendas, this study provides advancement for the se knowledge bases. Airini, Collings, Conner, McPherson, Midson, and Wilson (2011) identified factors that helped or hindered women attaining leadership positions at higher education institutions in New Zealand. They analyzed a targeted female population w ithin higher educatio n at some institutions to identify factors which help ed or hindered goal attainment within higher educatio n fields This study provided a foundation to build and
34 expand this research to the western world. Replication of this pre existi ng instrument is utilized for this study. Analysis of the data, from training to coding and analysis, were also replicated from the prior study. The American Association for Agricultural Education (AAAE) published its National Research Agenda for 2016 202 0 which has two priorities that alig n with this research. Priority Three recruiting agricultural leadership education, and communication practitioners (teachers, (American Association for Agriculture Education [AAAE], 2015, p.31). Priority Six dership, education, and communication teaching, Agriculture Education [AAAE], 2015, p.51). Factors that help or hinder women faculty in agriculturally related fields withi n land grant institutions direct ly aspirations. The Association for Public and Land G rant universities (APLU) Commission on Access, Diversity, and Excellence (CADE) identified two priorities that support the need f or this research. Priority Two sought to develop initiatives for increasing diversity of the United States teaching workforce, and P rio rity Three sought to develop initiatives toward enhanced recruitment and retention of a diverse and qualified profe ssoriate at public four year universities (CADE Executive Committee, 2011). The Association for Leadership Educators (ALE) published i ts research agenda in Fall 2015 The research agenda includes overarching areas and priorities within each
35 area. Area two is supportive of this research, which is content based considerations the applied what and who of leadership education. The priorities within this area which com plement this research include: Priority Three, the psychological development of the leader, le arner and follower; Priority Four, the sociological development of the leader, learner, and follower; Priority Five, the influen ces on social identity; Priority Six, social change and community de velopment; and Priority Seven, global and intercultural capa city. Lastly, the International Leadership Association (ILA) (2015) published its declaration and call to action on women and leadership. In this declaration, five areas are supported by this research: increasing equality in power and decision making; hel ping girls and young women become leaders; expanding leadership education and development worldwide; advancing women in leadership and identifying critical areas for future research. Each of these five areas has been supported by this study. The findings o f my study have filled the significant gap in the literature on the positive and negative factors which affect women faculty on their journey to tenured roles within agriculturally related fields. Groups that may benefit from my research project include as piring women faculty, leadership educators, national and international associations supporting faculty, faculty training and development programs or resources, associations which support women academics, faculty who are supporting graduate students who asp ire to be a tenured faculty member, human resources departments, colleges and departments which have junior faculty that are women, colleges or departments who wish to recruit and retain women faculty.
36 Assumptions Assumption s of th is study are as follows: 4. That tenured women faculty have achieved tenure in a traditional process of application or through negation, based on prior profe ssional work experiences that were not related to academic positions 5. That leadership power has to be positional, by holding te nured title within academia 6. Women had similar work and non work experiences which either helped or hindered their tenure process 7. That women faculties can be better supported by work and non work related entities as they navigate the journey of becoming a tenured faculty member 8. That women will respond openly and honestly to the research questions by sharing their personal experiences and views of what has helped and hindered them through the tenure process. Limitations This qualitative study aimed to gain in riences in the tenure process. Limitations of this study included the narrowed focus of the population to land grant institutions, academic affiliation within the field of agriculture, and tenured women faculty member s G aining access to these tenured women included challenges with gate keeping by college deans or department heads who chose to protect their women faculty eith er by not sharing contact information for their tenured women or share the information regarding th is study so they could decide whether or not they wanted to participate in this study. Finally, as a qualitative study it is limitedly generalizable to the whole academic population of the t enured female faculty The population was estimated to be less t han 500, for all tenured women identified in colleges of agriculture at land grant universities in this study, but the sample size met saturation. This study provide d an in depth but limited view of experiences,
37 due to the small number of tenured women fac ulty, which may not be a true representation of the larger population. The means of obtaining narrative interviews from these women electronically or on paper provide d a barrier to personal connection and trust. However these barriers outweigh ed the assoc iated expenses and time to conduct the interviews in another format including in pers on or phone interviews. These require d additional time for transcription and expenses for travel. Replication of a pre existing instrument for this research provided a se t number of questions and format design; however, additional questions would have been beneficial for the researcher and results. Analysis of the data, from training to coding and analysis, were also replicated from the prior study. This can constrain the needs for this different population culturally or geographically, as the initial study was designed and conducted in New Zealand. Chapter Summary Hi storically women were not an initial part of the land grant culture as students or academics. As time progr essed women became a part of the land grant institution. Today, tenured women faculty at land grant institutions have had a unique academic leadership position of inherent power by interacting with students and through the research that they conduct. Unde rstanding the factors which have helped or hindered their growth, development, and retention within academia has unlocked areas in which institutions of higher learning can better support women academics. Colleges of agriculture have differed greatly with in their academic offerings of both social and behavioral sciences. The challenges of the range of offerings of these colleges provided a unique per spective. As the gender gap still exists, it has been imperative for our educational vessels of higher educa tion, at land grant institutions, to
38 be aware of the population we serv e and how we serve them through faculty representation.
39 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This literature will first examine Critical Feminist Theory the macro level theory informing this study T hen, the mid level theoretical framework of career models will be discussed. Finally this section will explore the literature surrounding women in the workplace, higher education, and leadership The research surrou nding these topics is expa nsive. H owever, there is limited literature that explores experiences and factors of women faculty within the co ntext of higher education and even less literature on women faculty in agriculture related disciplines which is the focus of this study. Critic al Feminis t Theory The grand level theory that guide d the work of this research is Critical Feminist Theory have equal respect and opportunities in all spheres of life personal, so cial, work, and Evetts, 2014 ; Griffith, 2014; Wood, 2008, p.324 ). In feminist theories, the concept of sex is different from that of gender where sex is a biological category that is determine d genetically: male or female sex (Bergvall, 2014; Grif fith, 2014; Connell, 2014; McNay, 2013). at specific historical moments and in specific cultural Bergvall, 2014; Connell, 2014; Griffith, 2014; McNay, 2013 ; Wood, 2008, p. 324). Gender is known as the social construction of women as women, reinforced through socialization that occurs in everyday life Butler (1990) and Carter (2014) suggest ed the notion that gender is not merely learned beha vior, it is a learned behavior through socialization The learned behavior is then repeated daily through interactions.
40 Examples include conversational patterns, presentation of self, listening and speaking behaviors, or even observing others. As a result, w omen find themselves creating and recreating the fem ale gender (Carte r, 2014; Griffith, 2014; Butler, 1990) Rosemary Tong is a leader in feminist thought Tong (2009) discussed feminist theorists who could identify their approach as liberal, Marxist, radi cal, psychoanalytic, socialist, existentialist or postmodern Each feminist theorists ha ve a methodological lens through which to answer questions about feminine lived experiences. Tong (2009) stated I n any type of feminist theory we lament the ways in which women have been oppressed, repressed and suppressed and...celebrate the ways in which so many women have beaten the system, taken charge of their own destinies, and encouraged each other to live, love, laugh, and to be happy as women (p.2) Understan ding the female experience is a part of making meaning of power relationships and leadership dynamics in work settings. Critical viewpoints have focused on power, control, competing sets of ideologies, and group dominance ( Heywood, 2017 ; Haraway, 2013 ; Gri ffith, 2014; Stead & Elliott, 2009). Discovering how power has been created, destroyed, resisted, and reproduced are all focuses of critique in critical theory ( Heywood, 2017 ; Haraway, 2013 ; Griffith, 2014) Astin and Leland (1991) defined power as erment treating power as an exp e ndable resource that is provided and shared through interaction by leaders a nd [act as] power as energy that tive leader as one who relations, capacities, and communication informed feminist work around this area. These notions of power have expanded and have been tested within crit ical feminist
41 theory (Creswell & Poth, 2017). Foucault (1982) further acknowledged that power relations are often interwoven with other types of relations and these overlaps have since been proven to be true ( Heywood, 2017 ; Haraway, 2013 ) In some cases, critical theorists wanted to understand how minority groups become empowered and how to change dominant patterns and perhaps the ideologies that underlie them (Wood, 2008, p. 326). Historical patterns, absent voices, and group beliefs among other indicat ors were analyzed to discover th at power dynamics (Foucault, 1982). It has since been prove n that these power dynamics could be changed to provide freedom to individuals to find philosophical perspectives ( Creswell & Poth, 2017; Griffith, 2014 ; Morris, 201 4 ; Foucault, 1982 ). created or upheld disadvantages, inequity, or oppression, and to point the way toward alternatives which promoted more egalitarian possibilities for individu als, relationships, ; Kirton & Greene, 2015 ; Cho et al., 2013). In critical theory, scholars were not appeased by the explanation of power and control in relationships, but rather they wanted to move towards findin g ways to affect solutions for social change ( Santamara, 2014 ; Griffith, 2014) looked for practical application strategies and ways to advocate for equality in societal and cultural systems (Creswell & Poth, 2017; Morris, 2014; Santamara, 2014 ; Griffith, 2014) This research provided an opportunity to study women leaders who
42 o pportunity to enhance knowledge and behavior which involved transformational 1 991, p.1). Intersection of Critical a nd Feminist Theories Critical Feminist Theory is a body of thoughts which have enabled research ers to deconstruct power relationships life events ( Harding, 2016; Tyson, 2014 ; Griffith, 2014; St ead & Elliott, 2009). Critical f eminism combine d research and reflection, but it also has called for recognition and action for issues related to empowering women (Creswell & Poth, 2017; Griffith, 2014) Through macro level theoretical perspectives, the researcher effectively engaged in understanding more about women leaders in male dominated fields such as colleges of agriculture and how career models and decision making have guided them in the workplace. Critical Feminist Theory created a n opportunity for informed questions and communication surrounding important issues in the lives of women. It has empowered each gender to dis cover opportunities unde rstanding, and behavior Using a c ritical f eminist lens to analyze career models and leadership i n the workplace, we understand more about the power relationships which influence women and their learning through critical incidents, otherwise known as lived experiences. Antonio Gramsci, a Marxist contributed concepts to Critical Feminist T heory through cultural hegemony (Ledwith, 2009; Crotty, 2006) Hegemony is when a dominant power group maintains its common sense ideologies at th e expense of other non power groups (Rowbotham, 2015 ; Ledwith, 2009; Kitzinger & Wilkinson, 1996). An example of this includes white male leadership as a dominant power gr oup in higher education faculty ( Charbeneau, 2015 ; Griffith, 2014; Ledwith, 2009; Kit zinger & Wilkinson, 1996). Instances can include the o ppressed group maintained its oppression
43 through a sense of false consciousness reinforced by the dominant power group ultimately supporting the cycle of oppression ( Charbeneau, 2015 ; Griffith, 2014; Cr otty, 2006; Ledwith, 2009). Feminist thought lead s us to the notion that personal experiences are also simultaneously generalizable, as are political experiences ; women should be allowed and expected to critically evaluate their lives, realiz ing that poli tical implications happen around them ( Young, 2014; Griffith, 2014; Butler & Scott 2013; Farmer, 2008). At places of employment this provides opportunit ies for wome n to look at their environments providing an opportunity to ask questions, gain insight a nd understanding about their role s as well as the roles of others. C ritical f eminism has been a large part of the theoretical frame for analyzing the factors which inform the leadership of tenured women faculty ( Detweiler et al. 2017 ; Sprague, 2016; Blackm ore 2014; Sul, 2014; Stead & Elliott, 2009) in colleges of agriculture at land grant institutions of higher education. Career Models Understanding that c ritical f eminism has implications for women and their environments we can now seek to understand how this impacts careers. Traditional career models are often categorized into the following constructs: continuous, linear, and developmental (Rowley 2013; Sullivan 1999 ). These constructs are less useful for women as female labor patterns a re often non traditional, non linear and discontinuous and are better captured by boundaryless (Sullivan, 1999) and kaleidoscope models (Rowley, 2013). Rowley (2013) note d there are five considerations that usually shape anizational culture, mentorship, the pr ofile for success, and culture and location. More recent literature examines what
44 impedes the success of careers. When it comes to faculty, it has become critically important to examine the factors faculty mem bers report being motivations for leaving their academic positions in search of new positions at other institutions or outside of academia altogether ( Aleman, 2017; Martienez et al., 2017; Philipsen & Bostic 2008) e framed to business and industry, they apply to any organization. The factors most commonly examined for women faculty are: harassment/discrimination, family related issues, and recruitment/retention (Matienez et al., 2017 ; Philipsen & Bostic, 2008) which connect to the five considerations while not considering specific institutional factors. Boundaryless Careers Boundaryless career model s have a preference for organizations that have a female friendly organizational culture and provide more work family b alance programs ( Rowley, 2015; & Bilimoria, 2008). Boundaryless careers are not a through a vertical coordination, mostly in large and stable organizations (Arthur & Rousseau, 2001). Academic positions within higher education are often time restricted especially when it comes to the tenure clock but the clock can restart if you change institutions while the clock is stick ticking (Philipsen & Bostic, 2008 ) Tenure often is which makes boundaryless careers challenging (Alemn, 2017 ; Rosser, 2017; Martinez et al., 2017 ; Winslow & Davis, 2016; Sullivan et al. 2004; Bhattacharjee, 2004 ). The theoretical significance of this model provides empirical support for a gender specific model and explains the differential impact of specific variables for female career
45 success (Rowley, 2013, p. 460 ) While this may provide some flexibility to women, it does not serve all women faculty member well. Sullivan (1999) related to boundaryless careers (p.460) Gerli Bonesso and Pizzi (2015) share within their research that, Even though over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary form an agi ng across boundary career is still incomplete. (p. 1) Gerli Bonesso and Pizzi (2015) conducted a longitudinal study over the course of eight years which f ound evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an i ndividual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. (p.1) The Gerli et al. (2015) study also provide d evaluation of the emotion al and social competencies of individual s and the measurement of boundaryless career paths by c onsidering physical mobility construct s: organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries. Flexibility, self con trol, and consciousness cont ribute to build ing e motional competenc e wh ich in turn has a relation with the variable boundaryless career. In other words, people can modify behavior and adapt Self control makes it possible to face stressful situations and to avoid the sacrifice of giving up and walking away instead of improving performance and persevere ( Rowley et al., 2015; de Boer et al., 2015 ; Kuijpers et al., 2006; Boyatzis & McKee, 2005 ). Consciousness is the capability to meet commitments while being accurate, helps maintain fo cus on the qualitative level of results and details of actions, without reducing
46 performance, even in different environments ( Gerli et al., 2015; Rajadhyaksha, 2005). les s inclined to invest i p. 289) which do es not help them expand their career beyond the traditional boundaries (Gerli et al., 2015) Beyond this research there has been limited resea r ch published on women and boundaryless car eers. Kaleidoscope Careers This development occurs through individuals own sense m aking through shifting entangled elements of personal, family, work and community lives and three key dynamics: external events; gradual d (R owley, 2013 p 322 ). Key features of kaleidoscope careers are that like a kaleidoscope, which produces changing patterns when the tube is rotated and its glass chips fall into new arrangements, workers shift the pattern of their careers by rotating differe nt aspects of their lives to arrange their roles and relationships in new ways ( Mainiero, 2008; Mainiero & Sullivan, 2006 ). Employees evaluate the choices and options available through the lens of the kaleidoscope to determine the best fit among their ma ny relationships and work constraints as well as their opportunities ( Mainiero & Sullivan, 2006 p.4 ). This result s in a sequence of events where as one decision is made, it affects the outcome of the kaleidoscope pattern ) The pattern encompasses an individual need for challenge, career advancement, and self worth juxtaposed ted by the ow can I be authentic, tr ue to myself and make genuine decisions for myself in my life? Early tests of kaleidoscope careers showed why females leave the workplace ( Mainiero & Sullivan 2005). C a reer motives changing over time, and career barriers
47 across organizations (Cabrera, 2007). Cab r era (2007) argued that the kaleidoscope model offers a more comprehensive understanding of how careers shift over time as needs and interests change. Rowley (2013) expand ed by noting early tests of female protean m odels with career decisions guided by kaleidoscopical values These values supporte D escribing differences in careers between men and women begins with similar preferences regarding careers, these preferences change over ti me due to different experiences ( Slaughter, 2015; Cabrera, 2007). Concepts and theories highlight the importance of gender differences in careers by way of understanding female careers as kaleidoscopic and recognizing careers are evolutionary, unfolding o ver lived experiences by displaying the impact of personal, family, work and commu nity factors (Lee, 2011 ; Cabrera, 2007 ). Rowley (2013) and Evetts suggest ed consideration that women have different career patterns Interruptions Women experience more care er interruptions than males ( Cebrian & Moreno, 2015 ; Rowley 2013 ; Hayter, 2014; Kearns, 2010; Spivey, 2005 ). Interruptions can be categorized into parental leave, unemployment, and other types of i nterruptions (Gerst & Grund, 2017; Cebrian & Moreno, 2015; Grund, 2015; Hayter, 2014; Meures, 2010; Judiesch & Lyness, 1999). Examples of interruptions may include physical mobility or l imits to moving for work due to family demands Women reject career opportunities for personal or family reasons more often than males, whose career interruptions are more likely due to job loss (Pew Research Center, 2013; Rowley 2013; Kerns, 2010; Spivey, 2005; Kirchmeyer, 2002). Serving as a caretaker is another interruption (Kerns, 2010; Spivey, 2005 ). Caretaking can include bear ing a child, adopti n g a child fostering a child, or caring for a family member such as an
48 elderly parent. Interruptions disrupt an employment cycle and impact career progression and salary (Gerst & Grund, 2017; Cebrian & Moreno, 2015; Grund, 2015; Hayter, 2014; Pew Research Center, 2013; Rowley 2013; Kerns, 2010; Meures, 2010; & Spivey, 2005 ). Organizational culture In male dominated work environments organizational cultures must shift to allow space for the differences of female careers, otherwise femal e careers will continue to be hindered (Rowley 2013 ; Baranik, Rling, & Ebly, 2010; Holton & Dent, 2002; Wajcman, 1998 ). If the workforce move s away from male dominated cultures it is easier for females to assume highe r ranking positions and utilize divers e employees for upcoming shortages of labor and talent (Ferraro & Briody, 2017; Morley, 2014; Rowley, 2013; Rutherford, 2011 ; Reskin, 1994 ). Talent management and recruitment ha ve become a way in which organizations intentionally diversi f y their workforce and impact their culture ( Groysberg & Connolly, 2013; Washington, 2010; Williams,1992). Mentorship Organizational and management support for females through mentoring is needed (Rowley, 2013; Washington, 2010; Management Mentors, 2006; Inzer & Crawford, 2 005). Since females are noted to suffer from lack of mentoring, it is necessary to develop improved and more structured mentoring programs as unstructured mentoring has b een shown to provide l ess positive outcomes ( Sandberg, 2013; Baranik et al., 2010; Be ehr & Raabe 2003). Through unstructured mentoring, male mentors are likely to choose male mentees and as a result, female mentees have no choice but to relate with female mentors (Beehr & Raabe 2003; Noe, 1996; Cox, 1994). In comparison, f emale mentors
49 t end to possess less influence in their organizations than those of males (Washington, 2010; Inzer & Crawford, 2005) F emales with mentoring relationships may experience less career enhancing outcomes than their male counterparts (Hoobler et al. 2014; Ragi ns & Scandura, 1994). Situations such as this explain why mentoring was not found to have a direct effect on training and deve lopment opportunities for women which proved to be the most important predictor of female career s uccess (Inzer & Crawford, 2005 ; Beehr & Raabe 2003). A growing number of companies in the workforce have implemented structured mentoring programs ( Rowley et al., 2015; Allen et al. 2006). Since structured programs are designed to benefit females, it is possible that they may have equ al access to mentoring programs in the future ( Rowley et al., 2015; Rowley, 2013; Finkelstein & Poteet, 2007). Mosaic mentoring The mosaic mentoring model embraces the idea that faculty feel empowered to get their needs met by a team of mentors who work w ell together and have complementary skill sets (Jackson & Arnold, 2010). While it may be optimal to have at least one mentor with a deeper understanding of junior faculty working towards tenure in the end, it is the responsibility of the junior faculty to manage their career after weighing the guidance provided by others This means multiple people and perspectives area required to support and help faculty move forward in the tenure and promotion process. P rofile for success The successful managerial prof ile is high on dominance, achievement orientation and self assurance, all of which are seen as masculi ne characteristics (Rowley et al., 2015 ; Melamed, 1995 1996; House & Howell, 1 992 ).
50 Women are perceived to be unsuitable for managerial roles due to a l ack of such masculine characteristics in asserting authority (Kloot, 2004; Ruddman & Glic, 1999; Morrow, 1990). Women try to prove personal characteristics being in line with the job of a manager ; asserting authority, direct communication, strong time mana gement, fiscal responsibility, serving in leadership roles, and following through with goals or objectives. W hile there are drawbacks in be coming higher in such masculine traits, encouraging resistance among ma les utilizing traditional attitudes or behavio rs can interfere with the leadership performance of women (Harman & Sealy, 2017; Ibara & Petriglieri, 2016; Caleo & Heilman, 2014). Place and l ocation Perspectives on the culture of an institution and cultural influence impact employees. Institutions diff er from one another, even within a singular stat e or province. Institutions may utilize differing human resource management practices when it comes to human resource offices and utilize fiscal resources when determining promotions (Rowley, 2013). The othe r side of the coin organizations that operate outside the United States consider s very different operational contexts and environments when it comes to managing diversity and gender equity (Rowley et al. 2010). Women i n t he Workplace Career models and in terruptions that women face in establish ing a career provide the context to understand ing women in the workplace. Astin and Leland (1991) noted that prior studies have focused on traits and leadership styles, and stereotypes that impose on leadership abili ty within the workplace Brown (1979 the popular reasons given for the differential treatment of women in management stems
51 supported the traditional attitud e that women lack adequ ate leadership characteristics ( p. 595 ). Most studies have focused on the stereotyped beliefs of women and leadership and not what caused th e results. Powell & Butterfield (1984) wrote about the tha t provided the notion that masculine Nieve & Gutek (1981) indicated that are s een as not possessing the necessary attributes for leadership. They are believed to be compliant, submissive, emotion (p.83). The leadership debate between sexes continues today ( Fur n ham, 2016; Taylor et al., 2014). Microag g ressions in the Workplace 014) to refer to indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or se microaggressions is sexist microaggressions. Sexist microaggressions are often so common that women often do not even notice them and they can be so subtle that men do not notice them happening to the women around them (Weiss, 2015). These microaggressi ons are normalized and are a pervasive part of being a woman in society, and it has taken constant awareness and toughness to remind women that they are not what the media or other people make them out to be (Basford, Offermann, & Behrend, 2013; Weiss, 201 5). Remembering ones worth require s women to actively resist the labels imposed upon them from the time they were born to the day they die. That effort : a gender based
52 disadvantage in o f itself (Sen,1987; Folbre, 1994; Risman, 2004; Chhachhi & Truong, 2009) g ressions which women face in the workplace include the following: language, harassment, shaming, blaming, policing, sizeism, objectification, stereotypes, the wage gap, imp Jaffer, 2003; Weiss, 2015). Within the general context of women in the workplace a deeper view leadership provides an understanding of how women can be su ccessful in their work studies are the direct result s of awareness of anomalies in traditional disciplines and their theories. One of these is Structure of Scientif ic Revolutions (1970) which cited fundamental change models arguing that they are only confronting anomaly in the study of leadership, particularly an interdisciplinary approach to the nature of leadership. Astin and Leland (1991) assert that the early research on g ender (women) and leadership were driven by two main questions: (1) Why were so few women in positions of leadership? and (2) What were the personal or institutional roots of gender differences in access to leadership roles? Factors vancement into leadership often relate to a disconnection between the values of many women and the rewards structures and
53 goals that shape the culture of most organizations (Helg e sen & Johnson, 20 10). As a result, women may be reluctant sen & Johnson, 2010) to their professional advancement opportunities. Fels ies are oriented around giving rather than drawing attention to themselves; that behavior ion to pursue leadership. Cultural norms have traditionally contributed to young girls aspiring to be one thing and young boys another (Longman & Madsen, 2015). Highly visible roles which require risk taking have offered a platform for individualistic acco lades. The implications of those risks could be challe nging for women leaders (Ibarra et al., 2013; Sandberg, 2013; Morley, 2014; Rhode, 2016). More recently, evidence of the paucity of women in leadership has been increasingly documented. For example, Th e White House Project: Benchmarking (2009) report concluded that on average, women held only 18% of the chief executive positions across ten College of the University of Denver released Benc in the United States in 2013; this report expanded on the Benchmarking study to also include senior leaders (vice presidents, etc ). The conclusions of this study mirror the results of the White House Project (2009) Metaphorica l Ill ustrations for Women in Leadership used to examine the dialectical tensions between mundane micro level social practices. This includes when verbal imagery was used in forms of metaphors and stereotypes discussion of women and leadership (Ashcraft & Mumby, 2004, p. 115). Eagly and Carli
54 (2007 a ) asked What is to blame for the pronounced lack of women in positions of power and authority? (p.1) The answer was that there is still a double standard in most work environments (Eagly & Carli 2007a). In 1986, Hymowitz and Schellhardt from the Wall Street Journal remarked rose steadily through the ranks eventually crashed into an invisible barrier. The executive suite seemed within (Eagly & Carli, 2007a). In the 80s and early 90s the United States was stil l stuck in a culture where such opinions [of women in leadership roles and the household] were widely held, women had virtually no chance of attaining influential leadership roles (E agly & Carli 2007b). However, the culture in the United States has evo lved. The glass ceiling metaphor, in today s culture, has become more wrong than right as it has described an absolute barrier at a specific level in organizations (Eagly & Carl i 2007b p.6 ). The culture has evolved in which we now have female executive s, college presidents, governors, and presidents of nations. This metaphor suggested that women, along with men, have equal access to entry and midlevel positions. The appearance of a transparent barrier suggested that women are m isled about their chances because the obstruct ion is not easy for them to see S ome obstructions are not subtle, even up close. Worst of all, by portraying a single unvarying obstacle, the glass ceiling failed to incorporate complexity for the variety of challenges that women have faced along their leadership journeys (Eagly & Carl i 2007b). In reality, women have turned away only as they reach the pinnacle stage of a notable career.
55 Women, unfortunately, have disappeared in countless numbers at many points leading up to that stage (Brehm & Buchholz, 2014; Swann, 2014). Stead and Elliott (2009) believe d that metaphors matter because they have been a part of storytelling which may have induce d change for women and leadership. Believing in the presence of a glass ceiling, people often emphasize certain kinds of responses to intervene These interventions included : top to top networking, mentoring to increase memberships, requirements for diverse candidates in high profile positions and litigation aimed at p unishing discrimination in t suite (E agly & Carl i 2007b). To date, n one of these interventions have been counterproductive; all have had a role to play H owever the danger has risen when the interventions have drawn attention and resources away from other kinds of int erventions that tackle problems in an intentional way ( Eagly & Carl i 2007b). Eagly and Carl i (2007b) strived to make better progress by renaming the challenge. They believed renaming the metaphor for what confronts women in their professional endeavors t o the labyrinth would better illustrate the challenges (Kattula, 2011) Eagly and Carl i (2007a) found that the labyrinth was an image with a long and varied history from: Greece, India, Nepal, native North and South America, medieval Europe, and elsewhere. As a contemporary symbol, it conveys the idea of a complex journey toward a goal worth striving for. Passage through a labyrinth is not simple or analysis of the puzzles that lie ahead. It is this meaning that we intend to convey. For women who aspire to top leadership, routes exist but are full of twists and turns, both unexpected and expected. Because all labyrinths have a viable route to the center, it is understood that goals are attainable. (p.9)
56 Carli and Eagly (2016) believe d the labyrinth metaphor is both optimistic in its acknowled gment that women do succeed as l eaders and realistic in its reflection of the uncertainty of success The labyrinth neither blames wom en for their lack of pro gress nor blames the situation; i nstead it resides in an interaction between the motivation and skill as it relates to the challenges of the situation (Carli & Eagly, 2016). The metaphor acknowledged obstacles but has ultimately no t been discouraging as an 2009). The labyrinth metaphor suggests that advancement is difficult but not impossible Leadership Advocacy and Charisma Women must exhibi t various leadership characteristics to achieve higher level positions. Two of these characteristics are self advocacy and charisma. Advocating in a feminist way implied weaving advocacy strategies with feminist values (Association for velopment, 2003). Antobus (2003) supported this by stating advocacy must be based on an analysis of what needs to be changed and why... this analysis must be feminist because only feminism gives an analysis of patriarchy and how it is linked to the struc tures and relationships of power between men and women that perpetuate violence, poverty the crises that confront us. (p.1) House (1977) stated that charismatic leadership has also been considered to be a part of leadership advocacy. In his later works he has noted its evolution as a change based theory. This theory has an inspiring quality that promotes an emotional connection with its followers. Advocates have so ught changes in policy as way s to achieve the impact that differs from what can be accompl ished through direct services or programs alone. Advocates and change makers come to work with a set of beliefs and assumptions
57 about how the change will happen (Stachowiak, 2013) Those beliefs shaped their thoughts about what conditions are necessary for success, which tactics to undertake in which situations, and what changes need to be achieved along the way (Stachowiak, 2013). Worldviews are theories of change regardless of them being explicitly stated or documented. When worldviews are articulated as theories o f change, strategies and beliefs may clarify expectations internally and externally. Views may also facilitate effective planning and evaluation from a leader The American Counseling Association (ACA) Advocacy Competencies model organize d adv ocacy into two dimensions (Ratts, Toporek & Lewis, 2010). The first dimension identified the extent of involvement of client or co mmunity in the advocacy process is advocacy taken with the client or on behalf of the client while the second dimension addres ses the level of intervention: individual, systems, and societal level (Ratts, Toporek, & Lewis, 2010, p.8). The resulting domains describe six different forms of advocacy that counselors may be involved in, depending on the needs of the situation. Numerou s forms of advocacy are needed, while cult ural competence and awareness are vital regardless of the type of advocacy. Charismatic leadership is when leaders display self confidence, hav e strength in their convictions and communicate high expectations for t heir confidence in others (Northouse, 2016; Conger & Kanungo, 1987). Conger and Kanungo (1987) have discussed a behavioral approach to charismatic leadership, or the way they interact with roles to accomplish their goals is a means of studying charismatic leadership. Shamir et al. (1993) believe charismatic leadership emphasizes attributes of charisma that are enhanced when leaders craft a compelling vision that raises a
58 col lective identity and efficacy for a group and links the mission to values so the gro up can succeed. Ito and Bligh (2016 ) argue that when leaders encounter adversity, hit rock bottom, or acknowledge failures either by themselves or with the help of others, they have an opportunity to build resilience From that experience they can share v ulnerability with followers and t hrough sharing vulnerability, followers are likely to see the situation from the leader's point of view and relate on an emotional level ( Ito & Bligh, 2016 ) W hen leaders step down fr om their pedestals, followers can see t he leader as humane and trustworthy. Followers may be willing to approach him / her directly, forming a foundation f or a mutually beneficial leader follower relationship ( Ito & Bligh, 2016 ) Moreover, when the leader's speech has what Hollander (2013) labele likely to perceive the story about vulnerability as authen epeated use of these communication tools will reinforce the authenticity of a s tory, even if the story is not fully true. By sharing vulnerability, leaders have an opportunity to create more egalitarian, less hierarchical relationships based on mutual growth and disclosure ( Wheatley, 2006; Fletcher, 2004; Fletcher, 1994; and Follett, 1924 ) Ito and Bligh ( 2016 ) note s haring vulnerability is one foundation of the charismatic leadership relationship, it does not suggest that every leader is good at admitting and sharing v ulnerability, nor that followers will always respond positively ( I to & Bligh, 2016 ). Sharing vulnerability is an exercise of retrospection and self awareness that requires individuals to turn an objective eye on their own behaviors (Ito & Bligh, 2016). Sharing vulnerability can also have a positive long term effect becau se such leaders can provide a voice for a social movement or represent a group of mino rities by
59 implicit leadership theories (Schyns & Meindl, 2005). As such, a personal cause or experience into a collective cause for the organization or society (Ito & Bligh, 2016) An example of this is how Sheryl Sandberg became a representative of women's empowerment. The result is social construction of leadership, as follo wers instill the leader with the characteristics and values of the movement as a whole (Meindl, 1995 ). Higher Education and Leadership Higher education plays a major role in shaping the quality of leadership in today's society as it is rapidly changing and we have become an even more divers e global society (Chin, 2011). Contemporary institutions of higher education have posed challenges to how we prepare and educate students to be the leaders of tomorrow. Transformational leadership adaptive leadership and authentic leadership are theories and model s consistent with the goals of higher education. The purpose of enabling and encouraging faculty, students, administrators, and other staff to change and transform institutions to more effectively enhance student learning, generate new knowledge, and to empower students to become their true selves as agents of positive social c hange in the larger society is congruent with these theor ies (Chin, 2011). However, higher education institutions have hierarchical adminis tration s Budgets at the chair level, within these institutions, often have limited discretionary spending with personn el and are administration (Chin, 2011). S imultaneously, faculty who form the bottom rungs of this hierarchy wit h less or little power also have great power because of their tenure, unions, and principles of academ ic freedom (Chin, 2011). Faculties operate within this structure through a great deal of autonomy in their primary work of teaching and research.
60 Tenure and professional statuses within higher education institutions have been structured to be individualistic (Chin, 2011). Astin and Astin (2000) further noted that contrary to egalitarian and collective systems, current organizational structures in higher e ducation institutions breed competitiveness for attracting funding, the brightest students, and top faculty. The concept of a peer review, as a potential mechanism for collegial and collaborative leadership, could be derailed by faculty who see themselves exclusively as critics to judge rather than as colleagues to offer constructive feedback or by those with personal agendas viewing potential promotions as threats or competitors (Chin, 2011). A hierarchical approach to higher education assembles alongside the faculty committee structure, which has been noted to be more collegial (Astin & Astin 2011 ; Chin, 2011). The typical committee structure is ofte n advisory with little leadership responsibility while products and recommendations need to be vetted up t he line (Astin & Astin, 2011). While committees offer prospects for faculty collegial or collaborative leadership, those leadership opportunities may not always be realized (Chin, 2011). Women in Higher Education Higher education was historically not acces sible to women. It is documented that as ear ly as 1958 in the United States, the first efforts for supporting women with continuing education programs, or re entry programs, appeared within Higher Education (Astin & Leleand, 1991, p. 87). One of these prog ra ms, at the University of Michigan, stated that their mission was to higher education and professional preparation and to help the university respond to their special needs, that is, to attend to issu es of equality and to lower the institutional
61 during this time forced institutions to offer broader services and resources to address different female consistencies, an d these affected faculty, staff, and student cohorts without family responsibilities, counseling and career resources, health and childcare. In many cases they developed as policy committees or commissions on the status of women. In other instances they became stand alone structures of women resource centers. Title IX, part of the Educational Amendments of 1972, was created with the purpose of eliminating sex discrimination in education including higher education. The hope was it would creat e equity to participation throughout society while 2014). However, the goal s of increased presence, achievement, and influence of women across all sectors still leave much to be desired. Solomon (1985) wrote, 20 years later, Glazer Raymo (2008) similarly r eported that women are disproporti onately concentrated in areas and institutions with the lowest levels of research funding. By 1972, the number of regional and national associations, in academic disciples and professions, were more sup portive of women (Astin & Leland, 1991). One umbrella organization was the Federation of Organizations for Professional Women. In 1973, the American Council on Education (ACE) opened its office for Women in Higher Education with the mandate univ initiative which has supported the larger academic community is the Higher Education Resource Services (HERS). HERS
62 has evolved to provide vision and strategies for women to advance within higher education, p articularly for women who possessed credentials for faculty and administrative po sitions (Astin & Leland, 1991). After two decades HERS still supports women in higher education in their path to leadership and e xcellence. HERS, along with ACE, also works t o address national issues affecting women and to suggest approaches, and solutions, as well as policy statements. Other organizations and institutes exist to support women in higher education through National and international associations such as the Amer ican Associations of University Women (AAUW), Association of Black Women in Higher Education (ABWHE), Women in Higher Profession which is within the AAUP, among many others. Pathway to Leadership in Higher Education evolved. Eagly (2007b) described the pat hway to leadership for women as, glass ceiling where there is no access; rather it is a la byrinth through which must navigate and find their way lea dership, and recognition that woman leaders within higher education may lead and need support differently. Navigating the labyrinth, of highe r education could be easier if women examine their strengths and the advantages they bring to their work environment (Eagly, 2007b). The progressive research on women within higher education shows there impacts which inhibit opportunities for growth and re tention ( Martinez et al., 2017). Ward and Wolf Wendel (2017) provide examples of how places to work and succeed as a woman. Their research provides how changes made have allowed women the fle xibility
63 or resources needed to be successful. These incl ude flexible schedules in course schedules, research, hours, committee work, childcare, leave time, and community relationships within the institution. By investigating experiences of women leaders in higher education (Astin & Astin, 2000; Wolverton, Bower & Hyle, 2008; and Madsen, 2008), a collective of researchers have made suggestions for navigating the labyrinth: Articulate your vision -align your statement of personal values with those of the institution toward a common purpose to make a difference B e a uthentic -in being true to yourself and anchored in who you are, you transmit such values to the institution; ethics, honesty and openness are essential. Be able to adapt -in maintaining cognitive flexibility, you can to lead from multiple perspective s and adapt your leadership behaviors appropriately to the context Have a supportive network -to discuss the obstacles and challenges along the way Draw on your strengths and be resilient Identify change issues and create a leadership group toward a col laborative process. (Chin, 2011, p. 11). Women Faculty in Higher Education Women leaders in higher education assume many roles, including that of a faculty member. 017 p.7). The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) reported that in 2005 2006 only 31 % of tenured positions in American institutions of higher education were held by women and that the gap would not close without substantial modifications i n hiring and tenure practices (West and Curtis, 2006). In the 2001 report by AAUP, women were noted to be more likely than
64 men to have entry level faculty positions such as lecturers or instructors. Women comprised 50% of instructors and lectures with a sl ight increase of 2.7 % from the prior year s report (AAUP, 2011). In 2016 2017, male full professors represented 67% and earned an average of $ 11,522 more in salary compared to female full professors. The AAUP (2017) report continues with female associate professors represented 44% and earning an average of $ 5600 less in salary than their male counterparts, and female assistant professors represented 52% yet earned an average of $ 5900 less in salary than their male counterparts (p 16 ). While this increase o f percentages over the years represent ed progress, women are still underrepresented among the more prestigious faculty ranks, and there is a steady decline in moving up the ranks (Gangone & Lennon, 2014). Data have con sistently shown that non tenure track positions held by women exc lude them from attaining senior level roles in academia, as universities draw from tenur ed faculty to fill those senior level administrative roles in academia (Gangone & Lennon, 2014). NCES (2017) most recent report validates the se statements through its statistic al by r eport, of federally funded institutions, showing male full professors make up 67% of positions while their female counterparts make up 33%, male associate professors make up 55% of positions while their female coun terparts represent 44%, and of overall positions (full professor, associate professors, assistant professor, instructor, and lecturer) males represent 53% of all positions while females make up 44% of those positions (p.2). Universities have supported rese arch agendas and professional development for their
65 tenured faculty. Inquiry is needed for how they support those who are striving to achieve these roles. Challenges of the Faculty Career for Women have presented how outmoded and patriarchal policies have created obstacles in both the personal and profe ssional lives of women faculty and offer creative solutions for reform (Philipsen & Bostic, 2008). Philipsen & Bostic (2008) noted that one overarching challenge for women in all of their career stages is the lack of a clear understanding of standards for success within academe. Philipsen & Bostic (2008) acknowledged that prescribing specific benchmarks of a and thus could eliminate professional discretion. Instea d of setting clear objectives for success, single departments could create a personal plan by setting milestone dates or a timeline for personal success The exemplar model could allow faculty members whose professional portfolios have been deemed successf ul to serve as guides for early career faculty. Philipsen & Bostic (2008) noted that a model like this would allow tenure according to institutional mission, departments to show multiple avenues for success within academi c fields, and would present realistic examples of professional (p 24 ) Utilizing an exemplar model could alter the traditional t enure clock by permitting faculty, at any career stage, to set personal and professional goals w ithout limitations of the historical timeline for success in academia in the United States (Philipsen & Bostic, 2008).
66 Theoretical Foundation for this Study The theoretical framework for this research layers Critical Feminist Theory, Leadership Advocacy, a nd theories re garding women in the workplace and women in Theoretical Support Critical Feminist Theory is the grand theory which provides a framework to take a critical perspective. Critical F eminist T heory p rovides for post structuralism questions regarding hierarchical relationships between knowledge and power, thus enabling us to understand leadership in differently defined terms. Post structuralism questions for this study examine lived experienced by women in their career and non career environments which helped or hindered their career path. Feminist theory suggests that policy and practices may be problematic and have long been wrongly conceptualized as disengagement with leadership due to the characteris tics of the academic workforce. It argues that corporatism of the academy, or the hierarchical structure, impact s university leadership and the labor force creating a lack of diversity in leadership, and discouraging women from aspiring to achieve leaders hip. Leadership Advocacy provides a framework to look a t self, power, competency and confidence to lead effectively and attain aspired goals. The theory of Informal and Incidental learning is how learning occurs outside of formally structured, institution ally sponsored, or classroom based activities (Marsick et al., 2010). Learning occurs outside of physical space or in pre planned ways and learning occurs through lived experiences. Lived experiences have a variety of factors which impact learning. Factor s can include internal and external. Factors influence path and perception within decision making and goal attainment Learning occurs through self advocacy.
67 Lastly, theories regarding women in the workplace, women in higher education ip will be utilized to support the macro level issues concerning women in academic leadership roles within higher education. Conceptual Framework This study focuses on identifying the factors which have helped or hindered women in achieving tenure at land grant institutions within colleges of agriculture Figure 2 1 shows the conceptual model of how critical feminist theory advocacy, charisma, and leadership theory m ay be used in understanding what factors help or hinder women faculty through the use of cr itical incidents Figure 2 1. Conceptual M i n Women Faculty Achieving Tenure Th e conceptual model begins with critical f eminism at the core focusing on the population, women, and the lens of critical situations of influence Critical f eminism is m a is the next
68 supporting layer which is focused on the singular person. Leadership is the action of the singular person and how they present themselves in various situations. The career model illustrates factors which impact the leader. The situations vary and can be influenced by the individual circumstance. T o navigate the situations and circumstances, cyclical understanding of the decisions, incident and influe nces must be taken into account. This combination will result in something that has either helped or hindered the woman to understand the factors of influence on their career Chapter Summary T he theories grounding this research are the C ritical F eminist T heory in partnership with leadership theories which focus on advocacy and charisma. These theories support the components that interweave the existing literature focused on women, leadership, and higher education. Without understanding these layers we can not fully understand the complexity of factors which have helped or hindered in their achievement of becoming a tenured faculty member.
69 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODS This study was a critical inquiry into the factors which help or hinde r women faculty i n agr icultural sciences achieve tenure by seeking to understand their learning through critical inciden ts. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods offer different types of assumptions, purposes, approaches, and researcher roles (Glesne, 2006). A qu alitative approach was used in this study to capture narratives of the s The Critical Incident Technique (CIT) is a form of interview research where participants provide descriptive accounts of events that helped or hindered a part icular goal ( Hughes et al., 2007 ; Chell, 1998 ; Flanagan 1954) A critical incident is one that makes a significant contribution to an activity or phenomenon ( Hughes et al., 2007 ; Chell, 1998; Flanagan, 1954). It is a significant occurrence with outcomes. T he CIT research technique facilitates the identification of these in cidents by a respondent. stories are then grouped by similarity into categories that can encompass the events, which can guide the construction of professional development initiati ves (Griffith, 2014) To obtain the qualitative responses a snowball method was used. The interview instrument was adopted from Airini, Col lings, Conner, McPherson, Midson, and Wilson (2011). The survey instrument had three parts: i) completion of biogr aphical information, ii) description of job description, and iii) writing about incidents that have helped or hindered advancement in the tenure process. The structured written interview had eighteen total questions. Additionally the women were asked to supply their curriculum vita for a document analysis.
70 Data were analyzed to identify words, themes, and examples in the shared stories. This information was then used to create training and educational workshops, mentorship oppor tunities, and other programs to support women leaders in the tenure process. Research Objectives The objectives of this study were as follows: 1. Discover factors that help women at land grant institutions advance to tenured positions, as reported by current ly tenured women faculty members in agriculture disciplines; 2. Discover factors that hinder the advancement of women at land grant institutions to advance to tenured positions, as reported by women in agriculture disciples; and 3. Discover the changes needed to enable women to advance to tenured positions at land grant institutions in agriculture disciplines, as reported by women faculty who have participated in this study. Methods This section describes the met hodology that was used to analyze these research qu estions as laid out in the following sections: design of study, sample selection, data collection methods, data analysis methods, trustworthiness, reflexivity statement, and chapter summary. Qualitative Inquiry Due to the in depth nature of the data sought through this research, qualitative methods we re most appropriate. Merriam et al. (2002) state d that qualitative research is a powerful tool for learning more about our lives and the socio hist orical context in which we live (p. xv). Qualitative researche rs seek to understand and interpret how the various participants in a social setting construct the world around them (Gle sne, 2006, p.4). Since women faculty in agricultural sciences have not been studied and descriptive data is sought after to inform th e research questions, qualitative data
71 collection with focused interview methodology was the most appropriate tool for this study. Interview Method In an interview situation, both the narrator and researcher can be caught in a crossroads of interaction. Do asking appropriate questions, laughing at the right moment, and displaying empathy are not enough (Anderson & Jack, 1991, p.9). Each interview is a linguistic, social, and psychological event (Anderso n & Jack, 1991; Glesne, 200 6). Every experience can be different depending on the contextual factors that come into play. This is why blind interviews were conducted through electronic format and then by paper. Interviewing each woman was an opportunity for th em to share their perso nal stories thoughts or feelings that inform ed our understanding of their lives (Gluck & Patai, 1991; Kitzinger & Wilkinson, 1996). There are many potential errors throughout an interview process that could affect data collection (Cotterill, 1992; Glesne 2006). In contrast, interviewing when engaged in thoughtfully by both parties can have the opportunity to provide thick, rich data to inform discourse and dialogue surrounding Dynamics and C oncerns of W o men I nterviewing W omen In the interview, language is a tool used to relay messages portrayed by the narrator and received by the researcher. Scholars have drawn attention to the fact that language is androcentric (Spender, 1980). Understanding language is a form of expression, as lives that are often ignored ( Coates, 2015; Loevinger, 2014; Cotterill, 1992). Women often feel guilty for sharing personal feelings that are inconsistent with tha t of men and
72 therefore are reluctant to share those thoughts ( Loevinger, 2014 ; Anderson & Jack, 1991). Women tend to use language to establish relationships and understand other women which can lead to a sense of natural collegiality in an interview situ ation when both researcher and narrator are women ( Coates, 2015 ; Routledge. Minister, 1991). Interview Schedule and Pilot Test Utilizing interview questions from another geographic region in the world, it was important to make sure the language and context of the interview questions translate d to the population being interview ed A pilot test was used to refine interview questions and to address the line s of questioning, and any data collection issues (Yin, 2003; Creswell, 2013). The pilot test occurred as an interview. An additional graduate student served as a moderator and the researcher was available to interject and clarify questions. There were eleven participants from a land grant institution. Several changes were made based on the pilot test: Word and language choice s were changed to be inclusive of W e stern higher educational terms. This was done because the degree attainment terms which were utilized for validating education level were not understood in the pilot test. Simpler language replaced th e more advanced words in the questions. The ordering of the questions was changed so that decision making, relationships, and behavior questions were asked before self awareness and self esteem questions The ability to upload documents for each question w as updated. The ability to add an additional response for each question was added to encourage the inclusion of multiple examples per question. A q uestion regarding any additional thoughts or feedback was added A q uestion if the participant wanted to hav e a summary of the findings was added, as was a way that they could share their email address.
73 Sample Selection To obtain the responses, a snowball method was used to collect the sample. The committee for this research assisted in identifying the initial p ool of current female deans, vice presidents, and d epartment chairs within departments of agriculture at 1862 land grant institutions. These stakeholders were contacted by letter and by e mail to nominate tenured women working in agricultural disciplines a t the 1862 land grant institutions. A personal thank you note was sent to each person for nominating a woman faculty member. These administrators, often prior or current faculty, were knowledgeable about who the tenured women faculty members are at their i nstitutions as well as other women faculty who may have left th eir institutions. These women nominate d other women and the snowball gr e w. Figure 3 1 provides the timeline, which notes the snowball method and how participants were contacted Figure 3 2 show s the process map for contacting prospective participants and inviting them to participate in the interviews. The women in the sample were vetted through qualifying factors. They were tenured as of July 2016, work ed at one of the 1862 land grant institutio ns and served as a faculty member within a college of agriculture, or related discipline. A total of 300 tenured women faculty within agriculture related fields were contacted for the interview process with the goal of 47 women completing the written int erview and document submission. Saturation would be deemed be achieved with 50 completed interviews. The tenured women faculty members were contacted by e mail, phone and formal written letter sent to their university office address es The letter was pers onalized with their name and a hand signature on university letterhead to introduce the research
74 and t he researcher s committee. A two dollar bill was sent to each woman faculty member as an offering of appreciation for them taking the time to participate in this research. Lesser et al (1999) and Dillman et al. (2014) report ed that a two dollar incentive was an effective tool for increasing response rate. A personal phone call was made to each faculty member to answer any preliminary questions and to creat e a level of trust and buy in. A follow up e mail was sent to the women with similar information and an online interview questionnaire was ad wo e mail reminders were sent to the women faculty who had not completed the inter view questionnaire within two weeks, as a reminder. The next layer of contact was to mail a printed copy of the interview questionnaire to each woman faculty who had not completed it by that time. The deadline for data collection to close was scheduled for May 26, 2017. A p ersonal hand written thank you note was sent to each participant to thank them for their participation in this research. The women were able to note if they wanted to receive the results of the research. If they requested this information a copy of the dissertation will be e mailed to them This method of sampling was chosen as it provides the broadest reach and most current and accurate information as compared to other methods. Utilizing search engines or reviewing websites would not have been the most effective use of time and energy. These information systems are often not accurate as they rely on someone to update them. This unreliability dismissed this option as a choice for sample collection.
75 Data Collection Methods For this study, w ritten interview questions were supported by document analysis as the best method to capture the factors through the critical incidents of the women faculty. Critical Incident Technique This study used critical incident technique (CIT) as a method of data collection as developed by Flanagan (1954). Historically, CIT utilized empirical data collection to document critical incidents for job a nalysis. Created for Worl d War II pilots, CIT has a five step technique: creating a general statement of aims/objecti ves ; outlining specific plans regarding data collection ; collecting data ; analyzing data ; interpreting and reporting the findings. An incident is defined as an observable activity that is complete enough to permit inferences and predictions about the perso n performing the act (Flanagan, 1954). When CIT is used for qualitative analysis such as in this study, participants are asked to determine which incidents are critical. The strength of critical incident methodology is that it solicits thick, information r ich data. Participants were able to share a number of critical incidents during an hour long interview which was helpful when studying an undocumented area such as women administrators in ag riculture. Corbally (1956) noted that recommendations could be ut ilized by practitioners perspective can prove to be a more vivid lens that those of experts (Gremler, 2004). CIT is also noted to be successful across a variety of disc iplines and fields of study. Interviews Unlike other methods, the narrative interview allows the researcher and narrator to gain the opportunity to interact and explore different caverns of emotion (Gluck &
76 Patai, 1991). Historically, anthropologists have observed that many times in an interview situation women tend to mute their own perspectives, especially when their interests and experiences are different than those of men (Anderson & Jack, 1991). To hear we have to lea rn to listen in stereo, receiving both the dominant and muted channels clearly and tuning into them carefully to understand the relationship between them (Anderson & Jack, 1991, p.11). Spending time reaching out to women to set up the (online) interview s etting allowed me to gain a greater understanding of the informal/incidental learning t hat occurred in the workplace. Through utilizing a semi struct ur ed interview format (Patton, 2002 ), eight open ended questions were asked and pre established follow up questions probe d to elicit greater r esponses from the participants. Just as each woman is different, so are her critical incidents and the opportunity to explore different facets of knowing and comprehension during and after the situation. F lexibility in d esign and protocol was necessary and anticipated changes due to factors such as time constraints, participant apprehension, uncertainty, or lack of understanding (Kvale, 1996). The interview format was simple and straight forward with leading questions ab out the background and educati onal experiences of the women. Then, the questions were more specific, asking the wo men to describe factors and critical incidents that occurred during their career. Then the women laid the foundation for events that happened before the incident, during the incident, and after the incident. Next the women were asked to describe wh at they learned. After the incidents were shared, I asked the women about their plans for the future and if this learning had
77 impacted their current leadership practices. Included in this chapter is Table 3 1 which provided the questions asked in the interview. Validity t hrough Member Checking Member checking occurs when data, analytic categories, interpretations and conclusions are tested with memb ers of those groups from whom the data were originally obtained (Cohen & Crabtree, 2006). Member checking can be done formally or informally since member checks may arise during the normal course of observation and conversation in a qualitative process. M ember checking is viewed as a technique for establishing the validity of an account within qualitative research (Bowen, 2005). Lincoln and Guba (1985) claim ed member checking is the most crucial technique for establ ishing credibility. It provides an oppor tunity for participants to verify, validate, add, and review what has been interpreted and drafted as preliminary results (Cohen & Crabtree, 2006). However, this technique is deemed controversial. Morse (1994), Angen (2000) and Sandelowski (1993) offer ed a comprehensive critique of the use of member checks for establishing the validity of qualitative research. Member checking relies on the assumption that there is a fixed truth of reality that can be accounted for by a researcher and confirmed by a resp ondent. In this study, member checking occurred during the online interview in which participants transcribed their personal lived a ccounts. When conducting follow up communication through e mail, phone or written correspondence member checking was includ ed. Participants had the opportunity to respond with clarification, questions, or recommendations in this process (Glesne, 2006).
78 Document Collection The next form of supporting data collected were documents. These were collected to gain a broader understa nding of the context and experiences of the women Documents can be written, oral, visual (such as photographs), or cultural artifacts (Merriam & Associates, 2002, p. 13). Althei de (1996) defined any symbolic representation that can be recorded or retrieved for analysis (p.2). These materials are important identifiers that give depth and insight into data analysis. Patton (2002) suggests the notion that collecting documents can stimulate new avenues of inquiry that can be pu rsued through observation and interview. The were requested for review. Additionally, they were encouraged to submit any other documents that they felt were relevant. These documents were layered with the data to compare and r eview to support the themes and information discovered. Data Collection Plan The structured written online interview comprised of 24 questions was There was an upload section where the wome n were able load their curricula vita e or other documents. If the women did not respond, they were mailed the structured written interview. Inside the envelope was a paper version of the interview with a pre stamped and addressed envelope to simplify the return process. Written responses were entered into The documents were deleted from the scanned system after they were uploaded.
79 Responses were reviewed for transcription errors and coded by participant utili zing a random numbering s ystem. Once one participant was transcribed and coded the next participant was be transcribed and coded so there was no overlap. Data Analysis Data Analysis Method A critical feminist paradigm critiques the historical and struc tural conditions of oppression, which seeks a transformation of those conditions, and is often used as the lens to analyze data in interview s where women interview women. Rich data produced through qualitative research needs to be analyzed in a strategic a nd logical fas hion (Miles & Huberman, 1984). Utilizing the constant comparative method, the analysis took place concurrently with data collection (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The r esearchers who developed the initial instrument, which was replicated in this study offered assistance in training and analysis of the data. This provided continuity between the studies and provide d expertise in data analysis which was provided through training, examples and other resources for this study. Constant Comparative Meth od The constant comparative method was designed with the researcher in mind. The steps include: 1) b egin collecting data; 2) look for key issues, recurrent events, or activities in the data that become categories of focus; 3) collect data that provides inc idents of the categories of focus; 4) write about the categories being explored; 5) work with the data to discover the basic social processes and relationships; and 6) engage in sampling, coding, and writing as the analysis focuses o n the key categories (G laser, 1978).
80 Phenomena were recorded, classified, and compared ac ross categories in this study. Throughout data collection the process went through constant refinement following the co llection and analysis of data. The process continually fed back into i tself with each step of additional participants reaching out. The flow and logic of the communication and follow up became systematic during this timeframe. After interview collection was complete, I completed participant member checks ( Glesne, 2006). If there were no response s or updates provided by the women, formal dat a analysis was ready to begin. To begin the analysis process, I downloaded the data E and r emoved all personal ly identifying information I provide d each woman with a pseudonym. The pseudonym was a randomized number. I was able to assign randomized numbers for each participant when uploading the profiles of responses. I then imported the file in Once the data were imported I established means of cross analyzing the data. I was able to establish individual folders noted by free coding utilizing the CIT analysis methods I began free coding the questions for critical incidents and categorically by themes. Using MAXQDA I color coded words and phrases to identify critical incidents. I themed the incidents by helping, hindering, or both helping and hindering. I ran a tex t analysis on words used in each question to derive themes and factors of influence within the critical incidents. The d ata and vitae were then double coded by providing each numerical code l significance from
81 1862. An additional code was also tied to the name code which provides a general field within agriculture that is representative of the participant population. See Table 3 2 Pseudonym code reference. Data Storage Electronic files of eac h interview were stored on my personal laptop computer which is password protected. There were numerical pseudonyms assigned to each of the participating women and all their file s were kept under those numbers. As the curricula vitae were collect ed, the same numerical pseudonyms were assigned to each document. The data and vita were double coded by providing each numerical code with a w significance from 1862, as a quotable pseudonym. An additional code was also tied to the name code which provides a general field within agriculture that is representative of the participant population. Files were backed up through a personal external hard drive th at was also password protected. Precautions were taken to ensure that th e safety of the data was upheld. Alternative Methods Several alternative methods could have be en utilized for this study. In person interviews, S kype interviews, or phone interviews were considered. Additionally, focus groups could have been used The reso urces needed to transcribe audio files and to travel to 6 or more locations across the United States would have be en costly and time consuming. Obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval at each site location to conduct on site interviews would ha ve further delayed the collection process. Overall, the alternative formats and methods were not conducive to the pre determined timeline or budget to complete this study.
82 Bias Statement As a researcher, I acknowledge that I entered into this research pro ject with a particular view of the world which could have led to som e form of bias and assumptions. Born in a rural town in Maryland, I was raised being exposed to the discipline of agriculture from an early age. I have always had an appreciation for the work that is done to edu cate others about agriculture. As a university administrator and a woman in an executive leadership role at a land grant institution I have a personal understanding of how the political environments impact employee progression with in higher education. Being a doctoral student and having a woman faculty advisor and committee member s participating in the tenure process, I have witnessed the challenges that come with that as a woman, mother, researcher, and professional. I have experie nced working with pheno menal faculty of both genders. Serving in the role as the researcher has allowed me to understand in greater detail the work that the administrators at each college are doing during the data c ollection and analysis process. I also ac knowledge that I likely have preconceived notions or ideas of how colleges of agriculture operate and how tenure processes work, based on my experiences a s a student and as an employee. I feel that these previous understandings allow for an enhanced founda tion on which to begin the research process. I understand the sensitivity of this information and recognize that some women who are currently in faculty positions may not be able to share certain incidents for researchers within this study. I also recogniz e that administrators may not share information for fear of misrepresentation of themselves or others involved wit hin a situation. I built rapport with the women and was very careful in the member check
83 process to assure that each woman felt as if her uniq ue experience was captured accurately in the data. Chapter Summary Through qualitative methods, specifically CIT, I interview ed a target sample of tenured women faculty in colleges of agriculture at land grant universities across the United States. During an hou r long online interview, I ask ed questions about past factors and critical incidents that occurred in the course of their work and how they have learned from these incidents and have in turn modified their leadership progression. Lastly, a document pages allowed for further insight into the nature of the past experiences of the women and current culture of the ir college s After the data was transcribed, member checks allow ed for the interviewees to verify the accuracy of the data. Additionally, data were stored on a personal laptop computer that is password protected. The data and all conversations with the women were kept confidential. The data were analyzed utilizing a constant com parative method and categorized according to themes, and patterns that were identified and noted in reporting. To complement the interview, document analysis included studying the written descriptions of program records, official publications, reports, off ice memos, correspondence, and/or even written responses to questionnaires and surveys (Patton, 2002). Combining interview and document analysis, allowed for an enhanced
84 Figure 3 1 Gantt Chart f or Research T imeline. Fig ure 3 2. Interview Process Map f or Women Faculty Participants.
85 Table 3 1. Interview Q uestions for W omen F aculty. Number Question asked to participant(s) Demographic Information 1 I agree to take part in this pr oject. Yes/No 2 How old are you (years of age)? 20 29, 30 39, 40 49,50 59,60+ 3 This research is examining Women Faculty. Which sex do you identify as? Female, Male 4 What is your ethnicity? African, Asian, European/ Pakeha/Caucasia n, Latin American, Mao ri, Middle Eastern, Pasif i ka peoples, Other 5 Where have you come from and how long have you lived in the United States? a. Country of Birth? b. Nationality? c. How long have you lived in the United States? What do you do? 6 What is your University job description? *Choose as many options as appropriate Manager, General Manager, Lecturer, Faculty, Professor, Researcher, Head of Department/School/Institute, Director/Dean, Associate Dean, Pro Vice Chancellor, Chancellor, Other 7 Are you an academic or ge neral staff member? General, Academic 8 If you are an academic staff member what is your title? Professor, Associate Professor, Senior Lecturer, Lecturer, Other, Not Applicable 9 What is your highest qualification? Bachelors, Honours, Dip Grad, PG Dip, M asters, Ph D MD, JD, Dr. of Science, Other, Not Applicable 10 arrangement whereby faculty member, after successful completion of a period of probationary service can be dismissed only for the adequate cause of possible circumstances and only after a hearing before a faculty committee (American Association of University Professors, (AAUP, n.d.)). How many years have you worked at a University? 11 How many years have you worked at a University? Scale: 0, 1 5, 6 10, 11 15, 16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40, 41+ 12 Years in paid employment at a university anywhere in the world? Scale: 0, 1 5, 6 10, 11 15, 16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40, 41+ 13 Years in paid e mployment at a Land grant university? Scale: 0, 1 5, 6 10, 11 15, 16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40, 41+ Incidents that have helped or hindered your advancement 14 Please describe a WORK related incident that has HELPED you advance your career. Please al so describe what stage you were at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land Grant University at the time. 15 If you wish, please describe a second incident. Something else that happened to you in a WORK context that HELPED you in your career advancement. 16 Please describe a WORK related incident that has HINDERED you advance your career. Please also describe what stage you were at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land Grant University at the time. 17 If you wish, please describe a second incident. Something else that happened to you in a WORK context that HINDERED you in your career advancement.
86 Table 3 1. Continued Number Question asked to participant(s) 18 Please describe an incident that happe ned to you outside of the workplace and which HELPED you advance your career. Please also describe what stage you were at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land Grant University at the time. 19 If you wish, please describe a sec ond incident. Something else that happened to you outside of the workplace that HELPED you in your career advancement. 20 Please describe an incident that happened to you outside of the workplace and which HINDERED you advance your career. Please also des cribe what stage you were at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land Grant University at the time. 21 If you wish, please describe a second incident. Something else that happened to you outside of the workplace that HINDERED you in your career advancement. 22 Would you like to receive a summary of the findings? Yes, No *Yes, Please enter your email address which you would like the summary emailed to 23 To cross analyz e responses to your experiences please link your current publi c CV from a website or in a pdf, word doc, or docx file. 24 Do you have any further comments that you would like to make? Table 3 2. Pseudonym Code Reference Number Name Field of Agriculture 1001 Sarah Y outh and educator extension 1002 Dorethea P l ant pathology 1022 Molly P lant and soil 1025 Phillis Youth family and global extension efforts 1038 Elizabeth Y outh and educator extension 1038 Clara Y outh and educator development 1058 Julia P lant and natural sciences 1058 Mary P lant and environment al sciences 1068 Sojourner F ood and animals sciences 1069 Susan F ood science 1075 Lucy S ustainable ag 1076 Phobe P lant and soil 1082 Harriet C rop management 1111 Kate P lant and food sciences 1113 Lydia Bi o systems 1113 Martha B io science 1117 Bidd y A nimal sciences 1121 Rose C rop management 1126 Lucretia H uman development 1139 Frances P l ant pathology and bio systems 1143 Louisa A gricultural engineering 1171 Jane A gricultural engineering 1174 Rebecca C rop management 1184 Judith Y outh and educa tor development 1217 Ann F ood and animals sciences 1232 Eleanore A gro business 1234 Hellen E nvironmental management 1247 Nellie A nimal sciences 1275 Antoniette A gro business 1288 Alice A nimal sciences 1289 Margaret human development 1308 Josie P lan t and soil 1312 Cynthia Bi ological and genetic science 1321 Amelia B io systems 1322 Celia P lant and soil 1353 Eilley E nvironmental management 1356 Charlotte H orticulture science 1372 Ida P lant and soil 1264 Delia B iological and genetic science
87 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Introduction to Results This study utilized CIT qualitative methods to collect electronic interviews. Participants were tenured women faculty at land grant institutions, specifically within college s of agriculture. Participants typed t heir own interview responses which were then examined for critical incidents to identify factors which helped or hindered them Th is chapter reports the factors that women noted to be helpful or that hindered, and changes women noted to help others advance into tenured positions. Forty seven institutions were contacted. 14 institutions participated in the study while eight requested no further contact. Four additional institutions requested additional time with no follow through during the study and 21 had no response. Figure 4 1 provides a visual representation of the institutional snowball sample response from all land grant institutions in this study. Figure 4 1 Administrative Snowball R esponses Participant Information Three hundred participants were contacted for this study, 87 women participated and three men participated. 67 participants fully comp l eted the study. Saturation was 14 8 21 4 Snowball Responses from Land grant Insitutions Participated (n=14) Opted out (n=8) No Reponse (n=21) Additional Time (n=4)
88 established at 50 participants. 50 participants were randomly selected from the pool of 67 to establish the participant population fo r this study. Demographic Information Participant demographics were obtained in this study. Demographic information was captured in the first part of the interview including: Sex Achievement of tenure Age Ethnicity Education credentials Posi tional classification at current institution Institutional affiliation Years working in higher education Participant Sex and Achievement of Tenure P articipants who identified their sex as female were eligible f or participation. Of the 87 participants onl y three participants self identified as male. All 87 participants confirmed achieving tenure by July 1, 2016. Age and Ethnicity Of the participants within the sample, 42 % reported being 50 59 years of age ( n=21 ), 26% reported being 60+ year of age ( n= 14) and 24 % reported being 40 49 years of age ( n= 13 ). Ethnic classification options included: African, Asian, European/Pak eha/Caucasian, Latin American, Maori, Middle Eastern, Pasif i ka peoples, and Other Not all of these terms are commonly ut ilized at Ameri can institutions; however, it is possible participants could identify as one of these ethnicities so they were included. Of the women faculty, 50 % reported European/Pak eha/Caucasian ( n=
89 ( n= 28). Additionally, 12% reported as Asian ( n= 6), and Latin was reported by 8% ( n= 4). Table 4 1 reports the participant demographics. Ta ble 4 1. Reported D emographics for A ge a nd E thnicity. ( n= 50) Demographics total p ercentage Category Number Pe rcentage Age 30 39 2 4% 40 49 13 26% 50 59 21 42% 60+ 14 28% Ethnicity Asian 6 12% European/Pak eha/Caucasian 25 50% Latin American 4 8% Middle Eastern 1 2% Other 14 28% Education and Work Credentials The category of highest education options i ncluded : Bachelors, Honours, Dip Grad, PG Dip, Masters, Ph D MD, JD, Dr. of Science, Other and Not Applicable. Not all of these credentials are offered at American institutions, however, it is possible participants could have been awarded one of these c redentials so they were included. Honours, Dip Grad, PG Dip are forms of a graduate diploma also known as GradD, GDip, GrDip, GradDip These terms are generally a qualification taken after completion of a first degree, although the level of study varies i n different countries from being at the same level as the final year of a bachelor's degree to being at a level between a master's degree and a doctorate ( Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Educatio n 2014). Of the respondents within the sample, 92 % repo rted Ph D ( n= 46), and 4% reported having a Doctor of Science or Masters degree. As noted in Chapter 2 some tenured faculty may have industry experience which qualif ied them for a tenured position.
90 Position and ti t le were categorized as: Professor, Associ ate Professor, S enior Lecturer, Lecturer, Other, and Not Applicable. 54% of participants reporte d having a positional title of p rofessor ( n= 27), 36% reported o ther by n= 18), and 8% wrote in that they were either a department head or d ean. For purposes of anonymity department head and d ean categories were joined. Table 4 2 provides the findings for the reported education and work demographics. Table 4 2 Reported D emographics f or E ducation a nd W ork C redentials ( n= 50) Demographics t ota l p ercentage Category Number Percentage Highest Degree Masters 2 4% Ph D 46 92% Dr. of Science 2 2% Position Title Professor 27 54% Associate Professor 1 2% (Other) Department Head/Dean 4 8% (Other) Faculty 18 36% Institutional Representation Fourty seven institutions were contacted for participation in this study. Of these institutions, eight institutional leaders within the snowball sample shared that their institution would not participate in the study as they were choosing to protect thei r faculty or they were already assessing their faculty satisfaction process and would not recommend or share the study information. 20 participants from three institutions organically reached out as to why they had not been contacted. This provided for an interesting conversation with these women. These conversations were requested by the seeker, to occur over the phone and not via e mail due to concerns for anonymity and the relay of information.
91 T utional representation s are not identified. There were 14 institutions represented in this stu dy Institutional representation covered all six regions of the continental Unit ed States: northwest (1), north central (2), nort heast (3), southwest (4), south c entra l (5), southeast (6). Figure 4 2 provides visual representation of this map. Without compromising the anonymity of the particip ants and institutions the north central and southeastern regions were the most represented r egions in this study. Figure 4 3 shows the number of participants by region. Four additional institutions requested additional time with no follow through during the study and 21 had no response. Years Employed Participants first reported the number of years that they have been employed at a university. 12% reported to have worked at any university for 12 25 years ( n= 14) and 22% worked 26 30 years ( n= 11). 12% worked 21 25 years ( n= 6) and 10% reported working both 6 10 and 11 15 years ( n= 5). Table 4 3 shows reported demographics for emp loyment at any higher education institution Table 4 3. Reported D emographics f or E mployment at U niversities ( n= 50) The number of years participants were employed at any land grant university was also reported. 38% reported working 16 20 years ( n= 19) while 14% worked both Demographics t otal p ercentage Category Number Percentage Employed at a University 1 5 1 2% 6 10 5 10% 11 15 5 10% 16 20 14 28% 21 25 6 12% 26 30 11 22% 31 35 3 6% 36 40 3 6% 41+ 2 4%
92 11 15 and 26 30 years ( n= 7), and 12% w orked 6 10 and 21 25 years ( n= 6). Table 4 4 documents the reported participation for employment at land grant institutions. Table 4 4 Reported D em ographics f or E mployment a t L and G rant U niversities ( n= 50) Demographics t otal p ercentage Category Number Percentage Employed at a Land grant University 6 10 6 12% 11 15 7 14% 16 20 19 38% 21 25 6 12% 26 30 7 14% 31 35 3 6% 36 40 2 4% demographic information provides us a profile of who the participants were for this study. To un derstand their experiences we utilized critical incident technique (CIT) to identify factors that helped participants through the tenure and promotion process. Factors that Helped P articipants of this study were asked to describe at least one if not more work related incident and a non work related incident that helped them advance in their career. T hey were also asked to describe the career stage they were in and if they were working at a land grant university at that time. Chapter 3 explained the CIT a nd the methods of analysis to identify critical incidents. Of the 50 participants for this study there were 218 work related and non work related critical incidents identified that helped these tenured women faculty in their careers. Work related critica l incidents that h elped, ranged from incidents that occurred during their undergraduate experiences to their professional capacity as a faculty member. Non work related incident ranged from personal and familial experiences to community related situations. While many incidents themselves were positive and
93 resulted in helpful situations there were incidents which were negative yet resulted in helpful situations. The categories below include work ethic, opportunities, and support systems. Within these categ ories are subcategories which tie into these three categories. Table 4 5 summarizes the factor themes from the critical incidents which helped them in the tenure and promotion process T he incidents in t hese themes were quantified by how many participants had at least one, if not more, incident that fell within the theme category. Table 4 5 Factors t hat H elped W omen F aculty ( n= 50) Helped total p ercentage Category Number Percentage Work Ethic Reaching Beyond 26 52% Collaboration 42 84% Solving Problems 36 72% Opportunities Promotion 13 26% Correcting Mistakes 18 36% Responsibilities 35 70% Feedback 42 84% Coursework 16 32% Being the First 18 38% Opportunities Advice 41 82% Family 23 46% Coaching 29 58% Mentorship 36 72% Sp onsorship 24 48% Association Involvement 38 76% Personal Wellness 22 44% Work Ethic One theme that emerged centered around work ethic. Participants noted how their personal work ethic and drive helped their career. Reaching b eyond As a junior faculty member working in plant pathology Dorethea wrote that s he
94 proposals, had [her] own graduate students, [her] own research program, attended faculty and professional meetings, served on dep artmental and Participants also spoke of motivations when someone discouraged them. A woman who works in the plant and soil sciences, Phobe who works with plant and soil research, shared when she was a masters student that a mentor advocacy first mentor dismissed it because it was unfamiliar. In another incident Phobe discussed how she , claimed that these experiences are what helped her to be promoted several years after. Harriet, another participant who works with crop management and production turned a negative situation which hindered her into one that helped her when she felt forced to leave [a] positions which ultimately brought much greater career advancement through understanding opportunities in lead ership, research, and teaching. Docum ent analysis provided support for this category by connecting activities, involveme nt and productivity of d uring their careers. Vit a e provided examples of this through committee involvement with national associations, projects in progress as well as grants which had been awarded or applied for. The vitae also shared the bridge of commun ity involvement. Examples of this included extension work, non profit affiliations, volunteerism, and stewardship to the surrounding community beyon d what could be implied as work related functions.
95 Collaboration Participants repeatedly noted collaboratio n helped them in their career. Elizabeth works with youth and educators in extension programs. She shared how even though she was advised to not collaborate with an additional faculty member she did and they submitted several grant proposals and began dev combination of unique strengths [they received] funding and created a program which demonstrated statistically significant results. The collaboration resulted in , claimed th is Lucy works with sustainable agriculture practices. She discussed when she involved in writ disciplinary roles] and got the grant on the first try that she felt the the wo Solving p roblems Several women noted sol ving problems and having the perseverance to achieve, which ultimately advanced their careers. Julia works with plant and natural sciences at they relate to agriculture. She shared that she , believes this experience without the contacts and
96 collaboration she impacts almost every human. Susan who works with agriculture and food related sciences shared when an entrepreneur needed help improving newly deve liked it. She closed this incident by sharing that she Bidd y, who works with animal sciences shared how a training program impacted her work ethic, since makin say even though she was eight years into her position she had motivation to change to help her succeed in her career. Opportunities Participants noted how opportunities creat ed incidents for advancement in their careers. These opport unities were predominantly work relate d but did include some non work related incidents. Promotion Dorethea, who works in the plant pathology field shared that although a raise was not possible she was asked if she would I consider a tenure Assistant Professor Phillis works with youth, family and global extension efforts, noted t hat she had not been selected for an internal position which had motivated her to seek other opportunities. Two years after applying for the internal position
97 department head position at another land ed but with some sadness Promotion was also evident through the document analysis. Positional changes and appointments were noted or documents within the vitae. Positional promotions or additions of additional responsibilities or interim roles were also evident through the document analysis. Correcting m istakes. Several participants shared how correcting others mistakes provide d helpful results. For example, Molly works with plant and soil sciences. Molly shared that she took over a research project which had serious documentation issues. Ultimately, she was able to future success fully funded research projects. Responsibilitie s. Work related responsibilities were noted in many incide nts that helped these women. Sarah works with youth and educators extension programs. Sarah shared when she wide promotion and tenure committee [as it] gave me the confide nce that I really was competitive with other faculty Molly who works with plant and soil sciences, shared she was able to refocus and advance when some she needed to. Lucretia works with hum an development sciences. Lucretia talked about renegotiating responsibilities and that she had a feeling to with the dean. Lucretia shared that [it]
98 This re [she goes] further in to the world Feedback. Participants shared how feedback from colleagues, students, associations, editors and reviewers helped them in their careers. Clara works within agricultural related fields through youth and educator development. Clara shared tha t from feedback provided, she made some Clara furthered this by stating she was Grateful that [she] received feedback after [her] first year and not [her] late to change and reco ver in time to obtain tenure. She too shared advice based on ceive tenure Coursework Several parti cipants discussed situations they experienced when they were still students. Elizabeth, whose work focuses on youth and extension, shared when she was in graduate school in a research course, she was required to search Elizabeth commented how , Ann works in food and animal sciences. Ann shared that sustaining contact with past fac ulty Ann continued that [her] major professor provided insight into being successful in the few of [her] colleagues are in contact with their major professors and h elp them to navigate academia
99 Being the f irst Several women shared experiences about being the first at something. Mary works with plant and environmental sciences. Mary noted that she was the first woman years in the promotion and evaluation system and only the second one in a 65 Soujourner works with food and animals sciences. Soujourner reported that she was recommended by a department h ead to represent her institution on a committee and meeting [she] learn ed that [she] was the first woma n to serve on that committee for that Support Systems Participants shared how they were provided support by c olleagues, mentors, friends, and sponsors. An example of this was shared by Dorethea her to do this) Dorethea works in the plant pathology field A dvice Participants also noted advice regarding self advocacy. Merriam Webster defines advice as recommendation regarding a decision or course of conduct. Harriet works with crop management. Harriet shared that a person within her departmen t said it was ne cessary for her career enhancement to obtain awards She acknowledged that she has, proactive at seeking nominations and have more d istinguished record of Honors. Harriet went on to explain an action plan to improve her award record. Dorethea noted
100 confidence, bo Dorethea also noted how research partners could provide support, when she had a conversation with a Co PI told [her] to follow [her] instincts and that [they] tru sted [her] decision. This gave me confidence. Phillis works with youth, family and global extension. Phillis noted that during an interview a woman [she] need not fret about th e pregnancy negatively impacting [her] track position and still be a mother Family Several participants spoke about family situations which helped their careers. Participants descri bed family as departmental units with whom they worked as well as marital or immediate affiliations. Dorethea noted how a partner quit their job to become the caregiver of their c hildren which, stability outside of [her work] w Rose works with crop management. Rose shared how even though she felt her Louisa works with agricultural engineering. Louisa shared how a negative incident actually helped her career when she This actually freed up time and took away negative distractions in [her] life and this helped [her] university career Elizabeth works with youth and educator extension programs. Elizabeth shared an incident of when she was Asked to apply for an interim position until a new [person] could be see that [she] could be successful in that position.
101 This interim position led to her applying for the permanent position in which she was the first permanent female to hold thi s position within her college. Lucretia works with human development. Lucretia explained how the support of her work family, which included her d epartmental chair and other faculty members, h elped [her] not only during her [she] could not have been s uccessful without their support. S he then added that her spouse s willingness to was the focus on taking care of her self and her work rather than being burdened with lots of household and childcare responsibiliti es which often fall upon women. Frances works with plant pathology and bio systems. Frances talked about her work family supporting her in a family medical cri sis and the convergence of faculty members across the university who each offered to colleagues kept [her] and [her] family afloat This incident occurred near her tenure decision and she proceeded successfully. Coaching Participants often spoke of coaching provided by others to present their best self. Merriam Webster defines a coach as someone who teaches or training someone in something. An example of this was shared by Julia. Julia w orks with plant and natural sciences. W hen professor [her] the session chair before the meeting so he knew who [she] was made her stand out, which she found out later on in her career whe n this chair reacted as if he
102 was very surprised...and at the break rushed up to [her] absolutely delighted that [she] had stopped him. He had been working on the same question but a different approach Her reaction was humbling was delighted and inquired why This interaction resulted in a collab oration and mentorship. He also, Julia now career by being a good collaborator and refus ing to feel threatened Rebecca works with crop management. Rebecca shared that she had a coach who provided a micro level approach when a department leader ed her anxiousness even when Rebecca later learned that this e xperience was not unique, but the response from [the leader] was posit ion in the college, thus helping [her] career Mentorship Mentorship was noted by participants as a way in which they were either assigned or identified someone as a mentor. In turn they felt these mentorship relationships helped them in their careers. Mo lly works in the plant and soil sciences. Molly had ping me when compared with others Sojourner works in food and animal sciences. Soujourner shared that she h ad a colleague who involved [her] in a variety of significant projects [after starting at the university] from co authoring fact sheets to grant p to day questions was very beneficial Lydia works with bio systems. Lydia shared that she was
103 fortunate enough to have an assigned faculty mentor when starting as an t once a month to discuss general issues and offered to read and provide feedback on grant proposals Lydia said that it was only because she took the mentor up on this offer [her] gran After ex periencing negative mentoring, Jane shared since seeing excellent examples of how new faculty can be mentored g ood mentoring can really help, and is especially useful in the confusing and bumpy beginning. Jane, who works in bio engineering continue s that she tries to be useful in that process: by stopping by to ask them how things are going, introduce them to oth er colleagues with whom they might collaborate, actively referencing them to others when potential connections arise, explaining backstory/context and university c ulture when it s relevant, etc Jane shared that she serves as a formal mentor at her institu it better than what [she] got Sponsorship Many participants noted how sponsors helped them throughout their careers. Sponsors are people who recommend you for things and you may or may not know it d irectly. Sponsors choose you, at the moment, to support your goal attainment through opportunities or interactions (Sandberg, 2013). Phillis works with global extension efforts. Phillis was r ecommended urned with much better understanding of [her] own leadership strengths and challenges and armed wit h tools to improve. as promoted to full professor Soujourner works in food and animal sciences. She was nominated by a department head to serve on a regional committee, where she
104 d eveloped great working relationships and went on to serve [as a leader] and grants Soujourner Lucy works in sustainable agriculture. Lucy e who did not have the time recommended me. It was an excellent way to network and develop was the results of this work as ators at Association involvement. Professional association involvement was noted by several participants as something that helped them in their work advancement. Phillis works in youth, family and global extension. Phillis shared that s he eld several office s rganize, [her] growth Susan works in food sciences. Susan sha red that association involvement on a local level with the Rotary club provided here the opportunity to Susan r faculty members is an important part of Harriet works in crop management. Harriet noted how a professional organization provided her the opportunity to well
105 valued career mentor and [they were] instrumental in helping [her] through that without [their] advice and mentorship, [she] would not have navigated the T&P process as successful or as quickly as [she] did Personal w ellness Numerous women shared that personal wellness was essential helping them in their careers. Participants s poke about faith, meditati on, exercise, and counsel ing. Kate works in plant and food sciences. Kate shared an example of how counsel ing has been a very important source of support for [her] through p, has helped [her] a lot to stay centered, build [her] sel f confidence, and move forward. Kate has persisted focusing more on the aspects of the job that are important t Biddy an animal scientist shared how counsel ing Judith works in human development. Judith shared that faculty based fait h communities have been a Wellness was evident through the document analysis by awards, achievements, volunteer involvement. This was evident through physical athletic ach ievements as well as spiritual or religious involvements. Factors that Hindered Women participants in this study were asked to describe at least one, if not more, work related in cident and a separate non work r elated incident that hindered advancement in their career. They were also asked to describe the stage they were in regarding their career and if they were working at a land grant university at that time. Chapter 3 explained the CIT and the methods of analysis to identify critical incidents.
106 Of the 5 0 participants for this study there were 141 work related and non work related critical incidents identified that hinder ed these tenured women faculty in their careers. Work related critical incidents that hindered ranged from incidents in that occurred d uring their undergraduate experiences to their professional capacity as a faculty member. Non work related incident s ranged from personal and familial experiences to community related situati ons. While many of these hindering incidents themselves were nega tive and resulted in positive outcomes there were incidents which were hindered but resulted in negative outcomes which still loom over the participants. The two categories below include personal and politics of the environment. Within these categories ar e subcategories which tie into these two categories. Non work rela ted incidents blended into work related incidents or impacts to the participants careers. These incidents involved children, family, health, and wellness. Table 4 6 summarizes the factor the that hindered them in the tenure and promotion process. The incidents in these themes were quantified by how man y participants had at least one if not more, incident that fell within the theme category.
107 Table 4 6 Factors that H indered Women F aculty ( n= 50) Hindered t otal p ercentage Category Number Percentage Personal Children and Family 28 56% Health and Wellness 31 62% Politics of the Environment Accountability 41 82% Mentorship Programs 28 56 % Ambi tion 32 64 % Salaries 22 44% Advocacy 42 84% Inclusivity 23 4 6% Leaders Actions 35 70% Children and Fa mily Participants noted on several occasions that children or experiences with their children were a hindra nce to their career. Others noted that s tarting a family while being an academic pose d challenges about time, support, and scheduling. Family members of direct or indirect relationship with a household were also noted by participants. These incidents, although outside of work impacted work by h indering their careers. Ida is a plant and soil scientist. Ida shared an incident in which couple months where the childcare fell apart. The new nanny did not work out, and we were left with nothing To work through this situa tion a family member and spouse assisted. Ida stated definitely a stressful time, especially since I was pre tenured at the time participant said that this event hindered her n her work related
108 Others noted that family planning was a hindrance Celia is also a plant and soil scientist. Celia shared tarting a family... academic career demands focus and challenging even when someone is not adding a human being to their life. research is in bio systems. Amelia shared that that during her next annual re [her] taking serious because [she] would not s t ay for regular meetings scheduled later than 6 p m Amelia had to inform her supervisor that childcare closed at 6 p m working day nd [she] did not Margaret researches human d evelopment science. Margaret spoke about a family situation which Going through time in being able to work as quickly and effectively as [she] could Margaret shared that it was not until she by working longer and harder to get ahead, that [she] overcame the obstacles presented by this event to academia it was not easy to and follow [her] non academic spouse was a factor. Tenure or tenure have a lot of flexibility in that regard Margaret continued to speak to how she from her strength and resili
109 Health and w ellness Several women noted personal and familial health situations ranging from injuries, addiction, terminal illness, death, addiction and other incidents. The personal nature of these inci dents could identify participants and therefore cannot be shared as they compromise anonymity. Although these incidents were shared bei ng a hindrance to their careers, each woman noted a point which self advocacy, support or resilience was a factor in working through this situation. If they were not able to work through the situation there was an acknowledgment that they were trying to do so. Politics of t he Environment Participants shared that they had many incidents involving political and environmen tal factors which ultimately hindered them at some point in their careers. Many spoke to how they overcame these hindrances or how they are still being impacted by these incidents. Accountability rs accountable to their personal and professional responsibilities. Accountability includes integrity for laws and ethics related to policies, procedures and behavior. Professional integrity Eilley has a research focus on environmental management and pre servation. Eilley shared that she had attended a professional conference and witnessed another colleague present information that she had previously presented on many times and did not reference her prior work Eilley and oth She was encouraged to communicate with this presenter about the concerns. Eilley antagonistic, nasty, demean sent the reply to every person who worked for [this area ].
110 She stated [this incident] caused partners to pull out of collaborative research and has causes stakeholders w ho support [ her and the research teams] impacts this professional, her colleagues, and graduate students. Behavior and personal integrity Celia is a plant and soil scientist. Celia spoke about her graduate stu dent experience which almost made her leave academia. She Celia noted she was the only female in the program and it was a new resea rch program. Th ough she was doin Was called into the advisor s office and was asked w here [she] was on the [she] did not mind being the only one working in the lab and studying in the office Celia shared that this not studying/working for [herself] Laws and policies Incidents involving sexual harassment were noted by nine participants. Participants incidents occurred in work and non work environments. Antoniette works with agro business. Antoniette shared that curtailed through discussions among the women and subsequently confrontation with academic department. Another participant noted being harasse d on multiple occasions at male do minated professional conferences which made her, networking and social events S he provi ded recommendations to the conference but continued to attend to advance her portfolio.
111 Mentorship p rograms. Several participants noted that they were involved in mentorship programs but were paired with mentors who were forced into the role or who were disengaged which hindered their success. Jane works in agricultural engineering. Jane shared that she was assistant professor, and that assigned mentor was never comfortable around [her] shared her experi ence with that mentor and that they no more than a few sentences at a time. In this incident the mentors were awarded a monetary amount for being a me ntor with the institution. Jane continued that she spoke to the [mentor] and they felt badly about the experience which negatively impacted her so the mentor ould have preferred mentoring. experiences about being assigned mentors who were not motivated or willing to mentor them. Ambition Several women participants noted that they did thing s to streng then their portfolio to a pply for tenure early. Some were supported, while others had changes of leadership or colleagues and those incidents hindered them. Kate is a plant and food scientist. Kate noted that she had applied for her tenure early and that the tenure committee chose to deny her tenure and promotion. Her unit within the college stood up for her and the decision was reversed. Kate Kate noted the personal impacts which discouraged [her] from providing service and damage[d] the efforts to
112 were hindered by the process and may have prevented [her ] from additional achievements. Phobe research focuses on plant and soil sciences. Phobe shared that she had the This provided her the opportunity to be promoted in position, however department would scowl at [her ] or simply not acknowledge [her] presence made part of this team. Phobe later found out meeting credentials an d going through all the steps th at tenure track faculty hires Salaries Several women participants noted that salary distribution with in their departments was a hindrance to their career s For some it resu lted in them changing institutions and for others they have chosen to advocate for change in the evaluation processes. Nellie is an animal scientist. Nellie shared that her salary is below the average salary of faculty in the same rank in [her] departm salary Nellie efforts for women faculty Advocacy. Several women discussed incidents where they had to self advocate in a situation that still hindered them. Martha is a biological scientist. Martha shared that she had to e ducate the chair and other faculty that it was possible to stop the tenure
113 undergraduate course and one [she] was co teaching at the graduate level. Although Martha was given the relea se by the university, not the department, she was still heavily pressured by the department to return and co teach the graduate course six weeks after giving birth (although required). Martha continued that she Martha noted she still release [she] requested for the quarter after [she] had [her] child and in [her] faculty Martha concluded by stating t his incident very progressive policies, but if departments do not buy into t hose policies, they are wasted. Charlotte is a plant and soil scientist. Charlotte shared that she has b een hired into a leadership position and replacing a person who had long been eadership role was compromised. To change the situation she spoke with h im privately explaining the situation from [her] perspective and asked [person] not to attend additional meetings. [Person] did not attend and the group dynamics improved significantly Inclusivity Access, roles, expectations, and responsibilities not equ itably shared came up in dif ferent forms. Amelia works with bio systems. Amelia shared how she was unable to change classrooms for ADA accommodations which were not accessible to anyone who had a need. A suitable r oom was not available so she moved the cla ss herself so it could be assessable to the individual who needed it and was informed that was not acceptable. She emotionally reacted to the situation and believed the outburst compromised her credibility to some people within the department.
114 s research focus is on agro business. Eleanore shared that she was the only tenure track woman and was , and she noticed that none of her male colleagues were being asked to do this. Eleanore also noted that she also does ible things to make the department run better like reminding [leader] to do stuff, for which they always take credit to focus on Josie is a plant and soil scientist. Josie noted that she was remote location and meetings were not offered in an accessible format (e g. p hone or video chat). S he shared that these incidents were hindering her. Hellen works with environmental management. Hellen shared that upon hire she was problems of students, or being responsible for a [sic] program Hellen explained that she believes every one benefits Leaders a ctions. A dominant response about hindering incidents were leaders with presumed or positional power who exhibited behaviors and actions which impacted them. The descriptions of the incidents could be identifying so the examples p rovided have been cleaned to protect anonymity. Margaret works in human development. Margaret shared an incident which a high positional leader was though [leader] had a long list of illness an d a history of extensive absences Margaret was
115 had to give [her] job up for the many weeks of sick lea faithful attendance Margaret concluded with her [her] because [she] was inaccurately being perceived as someone who could not do the ir job due to this medical problem Even though the leader left, she stated she help us when we need them Amelia works with bio sys tems. Amelia shared that a high positional leader with w hom she worked closely would his wrath s actions she is aints were confirmed. Amelia was was aware of the incident interactions with this p erson and even shared her interest to leave with others. The result of this situation was that this person was soon removed from their role and she still chose to leave her position. sha red that a higher ranking educator was n ot paying for services [within her unit] and [they] ten ded to pull paid projects time on [educator] research project than any other project in the last [num ber of] years Cynthia explained that this educa tor was still not satisfied and, a graduate student and expressed [educator] anger and frustration inform of [herself]
116 and the student in an unprofessional manner Cynthia concluded by stating that this incident 4 months Several examples noted discriminatory incidents toward women by male leaders. One example provided by Alice who is a n animal scientist. Alice involved a leader being supportive of women faculty I n several instances research funding was only given to , promoted ... while [she] was in that department and resulted in an extremely stressf ul work environment Alice was that she p one. Alice shared that she what you should look for in a [leader] and how much power a [leader] can have over your academic success Request for Summary of Findings The participants were asked if they would like to receive a summary of the findings. Of the 50 participants all noted they were interested in receiving a summary of the findings. Document Reference The 50 participants were informed that they could show support for their experiences by sharing a version of their cur riculum vita e through a website link, a PDF, Word document, or DocX file. 24 p articipants shared a web link, DocX or PDS vers ion of thei r resume or vita e These documents provided info rmation on the 24 participants, such as: awards, honors, grants/funding, publications, presentations, courses taught, collaborations, and position and career path. The documents provided added validity to sev eral themes which emerged from the CIT process. Areas validated included association involvement, reaching beyond,
117 personal wellness, collaboration, inclusivity, then children and family. Association or committee involvement was noted in various sections o f the vitae. Reaching beyond was demonstrated by the amount of work published, presented, or other involvements reported in the vitae by year. Personal wellness was noted primarily through award or other accomplishments which included physical, personal or spiritual wellness. Collaboration was clearly demonstrated through publications, presentations, instruction, and panel involvement. Inclusivity was visibly seen on vitae through committee or other involvements supporting minority, at risk, or under repres ented populations. Lastly, children and family support or contributions were noted by familial activities through positional involvements. These included words such as PTA, youth leader, athletic booster, primary school name, and so on. Further Comments Participants had the opportunity to include any additional comments that they wanted to sha re. Of the p articipants 13 gave additional comments in thi s sec tion and seven provided encouraging comments to the researcher. Examples included , and O ther comments shared personal notations about their career paths and that those paths were non traditional. Eleanore who works with agricultural business, reported that she ked in between her M S and Ph D Delia is a biological and gen e tic scientist within agricultural related fields. Delia shared her view about the tenure process s tating ke tenure the combination of academic freedom and benefits protection, went away, just when women were taking foothold Ida is a plant and soil scientis t Ida recommended that
118 while this was a worthy study mic research is maternal guilt and the perception of extreme competition that is implied in the research world Eilley a researcher within environmental management, shared that she had been Eilley has a part of gender bias at both u niversities, however [she] did not let that impact her career a nd continued that she has taken a win attitude that has been proven effective. treated differently because [she is] female but [she does] expect to be treated equally Eilley shared that she has to do in her position is always quietly and effectively won tho se battles stating there is still a glass ceiling A final participant Margaret who researches human development provided feedback to the researcher it is important for stu dies like this to be done although [she believes the personal stories that are kept quiet for the most part because people may feel threated by revealing the difficulties that come with a challenging work situation and personal lives that are stressed by it and outside factors Margaret continued to note t hat, women have too many conflicting roles to play at once. More flexibility in the workplace is needed for women to be able to maintain a healthy [family life], care for [family/parents/children], and raise their [children/family] while trying to advance their careers Margaret concluded her comments by stating challenge
119 While the additional comme nts were minimal there were several which shared philosophical views of tenured women in colleges of agriculture. Chapter Summary Participant responses included demographic data, work and non work related incidents which helped their careers, work relate d and non work related incidents which hindered their careers, and changes noted for the fut ure. There were 50 participants All participants self identified as female and had achieved tenure status by July 1, 2016. 14 land grant institutions were represen ted in this study and represented all six regions of the United States. The uniqueness of land grant institutions and their affiliation to colleges of agricultur e provides inclusivity to multi disciplinary focuses. These multi disciplinary focuses are roo ted in the land grant mission. Having the purpose and intent of research to be connected to the needs of the state and the surrounding community which can then support the needs for solving global problems. Figure 4 2 Regional Participation within Conti nental United States
120 Figure 4 3 Regional participation by L and Grant I nstitutions beyond saturation
121 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND RE COM M ENDATIONS Chapter 5 provides a s ummary of the study, discussion, and implications of the findings, conclusions, and reco mmendations for researc h and practice from the study. The summary includes the purpose and objectives, methods, and findings in Chapter 4 and the discussion is organized according to the components of what helped or hindered participants while incorporat in g the literature and previous research highlighted in Chapter 2 of this study. The discussion section includes conclusions from the findings and reflection on the researcher s experience. Finally, recommendations for additional research and practice conclu de Chapter 5 and this study. S ummary o f t he Study This study examined what helped or hindered tenured women faculty at land grant institutions within colleges of agriculture during their tenure and promotion process. The conceptual model of this study dem onstrate s how critical feminism, advocacy, charisma, and leadership may be used in understanding what factors help or hinder women faculty through the use of critical incidents. The conceptual model is sharing in Figure 5 1 Conceptual Model: Critical Femin Achieving Tenure C ritical incident technique (CIT) was utilized to capture participants lived experiences. Participants were identified utilizing a snowball sample method yielding in 87 participants completing t he electronic in terviews. Participants wrote their personal incidents that helped or hindered them in work related and non work r elated environments. Saturation was established at 50 participants and 14 institutions covering the six regions of the continental United Stat es were represented i n this study
122 Overview of the P roblem The purpose of this study was to discover the factors that help ed or hinder ed women academ ics to advance to tenured roles within colleges of agriculture at land grant institutions. What enabled or block ed access to tenured faculty roles at land grant institutions was previously not understood from the perspective of women. Specifically, research is limited on how this phenomenon affects women faculty within agriculture related fields at land grant institutions (Bisbee, 2005, 2007). Without further kno wledge, factors that help or hinder female faculty in the tenure process cannot be determined. This is important to the academy, as female enrollment conti nues to rise within agriculture r elated fields of study (Lockwood, 2006). Women are underrepresented in agriculture. A need exists to have women faculty in agriculture related fields to continue in academic leadership p ositions, which include tenure track positions (Lockwood, 2006). Research can uncove r the complex factors that both help and hinder the development of women as faculty at land grant institutions and to identify both the deficits and credits that exist personally, professionally, and organizationally so women may be proactively advanced o r supported These f actors can be utilized to create support programs to promote, recruit, and retain junior and tenured women faculty within the academy. This study is significant in a number of ways; however, the following reasons were most directly rela ted to this research and the subsequent results, which can aid aspiring women who hope to achieve tenure, and that can help colleges of agriculture who want to increase support measures for women academics through the tenure process, and universities who s eek to retain women in academia.
123 N ational and international objectives were addressed in this study The American Association for Agricultural Education (AAAE) published its National Research Agenda for 2016 2020 which has two priorities that align with t his research Priority Three and Priority S ix. The Association for Public and Land Grant U niversities (APLU) Commission on Access, Diversity, and Excellence (CADE) identified two priorities that support the need for this research ; P riority T wo and P riorit y T hree. The Association for Leadership Educators (ALE) published its research agenda in Fall 2015 where Area Two, Three, Five, S ix, and S even are supportive of this research Lastly, the Intern ational Leadership Association ( ILA, 2015) published its decla ration and call to action on women and leadership; five areas are supported by this research Groups that may benefit from this research include aspiring women faculty, leadership educators, national and international associations supporting faculty, facul ty training and development programs or resources, associations which support women academics, faculty who are supporting grad uate students who aspire to be tenured faculty, human resources departments, colleges and departments which have junior faculty th at are women, colleges or departments who wish to recruit and retain women faculty. Purpose S tatement and Research Q uestions The purpose of this study was to examine factors that helped and hindered women academics through the tenure process in colleges of agriculture at land grant universities. Examining data through a critical feminist lens, this study analyzed self disclosed narratives from a representative sample of women in agricultural academic leadership positions, specifically tenured women faculty at 1862 land grant institutions of higher education. This information will hopefully be utilized to provide context and
124 platform to advocate for the creation of programs and resources for women academics working to achieve a tenure position within a colleg e of agriculture. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1. Discover factors that help women at land grant institutions advance to tenured positions, as reported by currently tenured women faculty members in agriculture disciplines; 1. Discover factors t hat hinder the advancement of women at land grant institutions to advance to tenured positions, as reported by women in agriculture disciples; and 2. Discover the changes needed to enable women to advance to tenured positions at land grant institutions in agr iculture disciplines, as reported by women faculty who have participated in this study. Review of the M ethodology Qualitative methods were used in this study specifically t he Cri tical Incident Technique (CIT). CIT is a form of interview research where pa rticipants provide descriptive accounts of events that enabled or hindered a particular goal. A critical incident is one that makes a significant contribution to an activity or phenomenon (Flanagan, 1954). It is a significant occurrence with outcomes. The CIT research technique facilitates the identification of these in cidents by a respondent. These stories are then grouped by similarity into categories that can encompass the events, which can guide the construction of professional development initiatives A snowball sample method was utilized to identify 300 potential participants who were tenured women faculty in colleges of agriculture at land grant universities across the United States. During an hour long online interview, participants typed personal responses to questions about past factors and critical incidents that occurred in the course of their work and non work environments. Participants were asked to describe how they have learned from these incidents and have, in turn, modified their leadersh ip
125 university web pages allowed for further insight into the nature of the past experiences of the women and current culture of their colleges. After the data were transcr ibed, member checks allowed for the interviewees to verify the accuracy of the data. The data were analyzed in MAXQDA utilizing a constant comparative method and categorized according to themes, and patterns that were identified and noted in reporting. To complement the interview, document analysis included studying the written descriptions of program records, official publications, reports, office memos, correspondence, and/or even written responses to questionnaires and surveys (Patton, 2002). Combining i nterview s and document experiences in this study Major F indings Major findings from this study are segmented into the following groups: demographics, incidents which helped, i ncidents which hindered, feedback. Demographics The study was comprised of 50 participants who were employed at 14 different land grant institutions within colleges of agriculture. All 50 participants identified their sex as female and having achieved ten ure status by July 1, 2016. The land grant institutions represented in this study represented all six regions of the United States. status, and years working in higher educ ation were reported in Chapter 4. Factors that Helped Two hundred and eighteen work related and non work related critical incidents were identified that helped the 50 tenured women faculty in their careers. Critical
126 incidents which helped ranged from inci dents that occurred during their undergraduate experiences to their professiona l capacities as faculty. Non work related incident s ranged from personal life and familial experiences to community related situations. While many incidents themselves were posi tive and resulted in helpful situations there were incidents which were negative but resulted in helpful situations. The categories of these incidents were clustered to include work ethic, opportunities, and support systems. Within these categories are sub categories which tie into th ese three categories. These sub categories include reaching beyond; collaboration; solving problems; promotion; correcting mistakes; responsibilities; feedback; coursework; being the first; advice; family; coaching; mentorship; s ponsorship; association involvement; and personal wellness. Factors that Hindered One hundred and fourteen work related and non work related critical incidents identified that hinde red the participants were identified. Work related critical incidents whi ch hindered ranged from incidents that occurred during their undergraduate experiences to their professional capacities as faculty. Non work related incident s ranged from personal life and familial experiences to community related situations. While many of these hindering incidents themselves were negative and resulted in positive outcomes there were incidents which hindered but resulted in negative outcomes and are still looming over participants. The two categories below include personal and politics of the environment. Within these categories are subcategories whic h tie into these two categories includ ing : children and family; health and wellness; accountability; mentorship programs; ambition; salaries; advocacy; inclusivity; and actions.
127 Reque st for F indings Of the participants all 50 noted they were interested in receiving a summary of the findings. Document R eference Twenty four p articipants shared a web link, D oc X or PDF vers ion of their resume or curriculum vita e These docume nts provided information on the participants including : awards, honors, grants/funding, publications, presentations, courses taught, collaborations, and position and career path. Further C omments Thirteen participants provided additional comments. Of the p articipants in this section seven provided encouraging comments to the researcher. Other comments shared personal notations about their career paths. One participant shared their view about the tenure process stating the combination of academic freedom and benefits protection, went away, just when women were taking foothold influencing women in academic research is maternal guilt and the perception of extreme competitio n that is implied in the research world witnessed and been a part of gender bias at both Universities, however equal pay and [she has] always quiet ly and effectively won those battles She concluded her comments by stating there is still a glass ceiling it is important for studies like this to be done although [she b elieves the personal stories that are kept quiet for the most part because people may feel threated by revealing the difficulties that come with a challenging
128 work situation and personal l ives that are stressed by it and outside factors She continued to note that women have too many conflicting roles to play at once. More flexibility in the workplace is needed for women to be able to maintain a healthy [family life], care for [family/par ents/children], and raise their [children/family] while trying to advance their careers Findings R elated to Literature The conceptual model for this study provided support to the personal processing and learning that occurred from the critical incidents s hared by in Critical Feminist Theory coupled with the fact that participants of this study identified as female, there was an overwhelming response, men and women are equal and should have equal respect and opportunities in al l spheres of life personal, social, However, the critical incidents proved that the R eported incidents that helped or hindered participants were true to Woods ( 2008) latter part of the statement about the need for opportunity. Participants shared that in many cases they were provided opportunities ; however the same participants also shared how they struggled at times obtaining equal opportunities to their male counterparts. There was a desire and need to be expressed by participants that equity should exist within their experiences ; however the reality is there were underlying cultural implications to departments, organizations, or committees which inhibited be cause there were not clear processes or protocols which made opportunities appear to be equitable. Tong (2009) stated, i n any type of feminist theory we lament the ways in which women have been oppressed, repressed and suppressed and...celebrate the ways in which so many women have beaten the system, taken charge of their
129 own destinies, and encouraged each other to live, love, laugh, and to be happy as women. (p.2) This statement held true for participants. Participants expressed knowledge of the barriers within their pursuits to achieve tenure that was specific to women but they worked to achieve it anyway. Barrier s included power relationships, interruptions, mentorship, culture, and profiles for success. Power Respondents shared how they experience d p ower relationships. Relationships were noted to be with colleagues, mentors, supervisors, students, their institution, and family, among others. Astin and Leland (1991) defined power treating power as an expandable resource that is provide d and shared through effective leader as one who empowers others to act in their own i Interruptions Participants shared both work related and non work related critical incidents that caused interruptions within their career path. These interruptions both helped and hindered their career s Some participants were able to rebound qu ickly from interruptions that may have initially hindered their careers, while others noted they are still dealing with repercussions of interruptions and have not recovered or are struggling to move forward Interruptions included family, children, perso nal health and wellness, promotions, leadership positions, and work assignments, a mong many other examples. Women experienced more career interruptions than males (Cebrian & Moreno, 2015; Rowley 2013; Hayter, 2014; Kearns, 2010; Spivey, 2005). Interruption s
130 can be categorized into parental leave, unemployment, and other types of interruptions (Gerst & Grund, 2017; Cebrian & Moreno, 2015; Grund, 2015; Hayter, 2014; Meures, 2010; Judiesch & Lyness, 1999). Examples of interruptions may include physical mobilit y, limits to moving for work due to family demands. Women were noted to reject career opportunities for personal or family reasons more often than males, whose career interruptions were more likely due to job loss (Pew Research Center, 2013; Rowley 2013; K erns, 2010; Spivey, 2005; Kirchmeyer, 2002 ) Participants in this study did note rejection of career opportunities within their shared critical incidents. The rejection s occurred fo r personal, family, and partner related reasons. Those interruptions were o ften because of competing priorities. Interruptions within the participant s careers may be seen as a factor of W estern culture and the responsibilities women take on. Evidence shows that this difference in responsibilities only occurred for mundane tasks ; men and women spent equal amounts of time playing with their children (Biernat &Wortman, 1991; Kotila, Schoppe Sullivan, & Dush, 2013) and women were reported to be discontent with unequal distributions of household labor (Ruble, Fleming, Hackel, & Stang or, 1988; Kotila et al., 2013). This was true for the participants in this study. Participants shared critical incidents where children both helped and hindered their careers at various t imes. Helpful aspects of children shared by the women included a bet ter balance and prioritization of their work by focusing on what was most important to them, their family life and experiences. Participants shared how their work provided their family, specifically their children, opportunities to see or experience places they may otherwise not have been (e.g. traveling abroad). Having children also
131 provided opportunities to create changes in work culture, as family events within departments were helpful in seeing lives outside of the traditional work environment. However, having children was reported more highly as a hindrance when there was not a strong support system to help counter balance responsibilities within the household or with family. Several participants noted that they chose to intentionally wait to expand thei r family due to the feedback of mentors, colleagues, and their career. While others noted that having children during their tenure and promotion process provided them an opportunity to self advocate beyond their department chair, that policies in place be that they could be with their family. Valian (1998) and Kotila et al. (2013) detailed how gender schemas (masculinity and femininity) lead to expectations of different b ehaviors and roles from men and women. Several participants noted that they often felt compelled to serve in more feminine roles, and some were even assigned these roles, of event planners or recognition chairs for their departmental units. Participants no ted that they felt these communal connections for the organizational culture would not exist if it were not for them, even if they were not interested in serving in this role. Women have internalized the feminine gender role with regard to expectations of being a primary caregiver and have come to see this role is incompatible with the long work hours required or associated with academia (Jaschik, 2008; Martin & Barnard, 2013; Mayor, 2015). Participants noted that these responsibilities were often a burden and took away from their research and teaching roles and that their time could have been better utilized within other committees that would have supported their
132 tenure and promotion process. However, two participants challenged this idea by claiming that serving in the morale booster role of their department provided an opportunity to foster connections that ultimately assisted them in collaborative research and publications. Leadership and A dvocacy Participants shared that they had to self advocate to ac hieve or get what they needed in work and non work environments. This advocacy was helpful for some and hindered others th e difference is how and for what they advocated. These factors, decisions, and the actual incident s were eadership, advocacy and critical f eminism. Antobus (2003) supported this by stating, advocacy must be based on an analysis of what needs to be changed and why... this analysis must be feminist because only feminism gives an analysis of patriarchy and how it is linked to the structures and relationships of power between men and women that perpetuate violence, poverty the crises that confront us. (p.1) Advocates have sought changes in policy as a ways to achieve impact that differs from what can be achieve d through direct services or programs alone. repetitively noted in their critical incidents that they had to advocate for themselves in both work and non work related situations. Stachowiak, (2013) wrote that a dvocates and change makers come to work with a set of beliefs and assumptions about how the change will happe n, and this was often true for the critical incidents that helped the participants. Those beliefs shaped their thoughts about what conditions were necessary for success, which tac tics to undertake in which situations, and what changes need ed to be achieved along the way (Stachowiak, 2013). For the participants who experienced an incident that hindered them they often utilized advocacy to be
133 resilient and move forward from the inci dent and turn it into a helpful learning experience. Vulnerability Sharing vulnerability can also have a positive long term effect because such leaders can provide voice for a social movement or represent a group of minorities by implicit leadership theories (Schyns & Meindl, 2005). Several participants specifically noted that they did not want to be vulnerable and choose not be vulnerable in their careers. I f they showed vulnerability, it was rare and with a trusted mentor or coll eague. Participant s critical incidents had connections to vulnerability and power relationship. Those participants who chose to be vulnerable and exhibited statements of resilience were able to rebound from situations that initially hindered them and the situation turned into a learnin g opportunity which helped them in the long run. Mentorship Mentorship both helped and hindered participants of this study. Mentorship has been broadly researched and has generally been proven to be a process which helps l ead to improved outcomes. However, this study provided there was contradiction to this logic by sharing that it hindered participants. Mentoring programs for junior faculty need further research to identify what factors which lead to improved outcomes. Fac tors of consideration may include the pairing of mentor/mentee, incentive, structure, planning, and intentionality of mentorship programs for faculty populations.
134 Mentorship H elped Organizational and management support for females through mentoring is n eeded (Rowley, 2013; Washington, 2010; Management Mentors, 2006; Inzer & Crawford, 2005). Participants noted that mentorship is needed to navigate the culture, build relationships, and foster collaborative experiences. Participants explained that mentorshi p was helpful when it was executed well. The helpful examples noted that there was training, preparation and personal investment in both the mentor and mentee. Since females suffer from a lack of mentoring, it is necessary to develop better formal mentori ng programs, as informal mentoring has been shown to provide less positive outcomes (Baranik, Roling, Eby, 2010; Beehr & Raabe 2003 ). Participants also shared that mentoring was helpful in creating their professional plan s Both male and female mentors wer e helpful in moving them forward. It was often noted that this was a challenge for the participants as they were encouraged to challenge themselve s outside of their comfort areas and take risks often while being the only, or one of the very few women in t hat challenge. S uccessful managerial profile s are high on dominance, achievement orientation and self assurance, which are seen as masculine characteristics (Rowley, 2013; Melamed, 1995, 1996; House & Howell, 1992). Females are perceived to be unsuitabl e for managerial roles, due to a lack of such characteristics (Kloot, 2004; Ruddman & Glic, 1999; Morrow, 1990). Females try to prove personal characteristics being congruent with the job of a manager. While there are drawbacks in becoming higher in such m asculinity traits, inducing resistance among males with traditional attitudes can interfere with the leadership performance of females (Harman & Sealy, 2017; Ibara & Petriglieri, 2016; Caleo & Heilman, 2014).
135 Mentorship H indered Where mentorship hindered participants is when organized programs, with financial incentives, and there was not genuine personal interest or connection with the mentor and mentee. The literature notes f emales with mentoring relationships may experience less career enhancing outcom es than their male counterparts (Hoobler, Lemmon, & Wayne, 2014; Ragins & Scandura, 1994). Participants noted that they had to often self advocate with their mentor to obtain information or to steer the relationship in a fruitful direction If there was no t a strong mutual relationship, participants noted that the relationship and mentorship experience was hindered. Foucault (1982) further acknowledged that power relations are often interwoven with other types of relations. In some cases, critical theorists wanted to understand how minority groups become empowered and how to change dominant patterns and perhaps the ideologies that underlie them (Wood, 2008, p. 32). Critical Feminism enabled researchers to deconstruct power relationships in the context of wom life events (Stead & Elliott, 2009). Mosaic M entoring. The mosaic mentoring model embraces the idea that faculty feels empowered to get their needs met by a team of mentors who work well together and have complementary skill sets (Jackson & Arno ld, 2010). While it may be optimal to have at least one mentor with a deeper understanding of junior faculty working towards tenure, in the end, it is the responsibility of the junior faculty to manage their career after weighing the guidance provided by o thers. This means multiple people and perspectives are required to support and help faculty move forward in the tenure and promotion process
136 Culture Title IX, part of the Educational Amendments of 1972, was created with the purpose of eliminating sex disc rimination in education, including higher education. The part icipation 2014). However, the goals of incre ased presence, achievement, and influence of women across all sectors still leave much to be desired. Solomon (1985) wrote, men still have not achieved equal status with men either within or 20 years later, Glazer Raymo (2008) similarly reported that women are disproportionately concentrated in areas and institutions with the lowest levels of research funding. Tenure S tandards The exemplar model could allow faculty members whose professional portfolios have been deemed successful to serve as guides for early career faculty. Philipsen & for tenure according to institutional mission, for departments to sho w multiple avenues for success within academic fields, and presents realistic examples of professional 24 ). ared that they were often under prepared by th eir department and had to seek to u nderstand elsewhe re about how to create a strong tenure and promotion packet. Participants shared incidents in which they applied for tenure early. Some participants were successful, and others were not, and cited l ack of communication and expectations from their departmen t as the cornerstone of these incidents. Utilizing an exemplar model could alter the
137 traditional tenure clock by permitting faculty, at any career stage, to set personal and professional goals without limitations of the historical timeline for success in a cademia in the United States (Philipsen & Bostic, 2008). Profiles for S uccess. Challenges of the Faculty Career for Women presented how old and patriarchal policies created obstacles in both the personal and professional lives of women faculty, and offer ed creative solutions for reform (Philipsen & Bostic, 2008). Countless participants of this study shared that they were not often equipped to navigate political environments without the assistance of others. Philipsen & Bostic (2008) noted that one overarc hing challenge for women in all of their career stages is the lack of a clear understanding of standards for success within academe. Participants shared that they were helped the most when a there was a plan and strategy made for their tenure and promotion process. Participants who shared critical incidents about this often noted benchmark measures that were clear and communicated effectively. Philipsen & Bostic (2008) acknowledged that prescribing specific benchmarks of a tenure process could counting H owever they did share incidents that helped in their tenure and promotion process W hen objectives for success w ere established, departments assisted in creating a personal plan by setting milestone dates or a timeline for personal success Career M odels Traditional career models are often categorized into the following constructs: continuous, linear, and developme ntal (Rowley 2013; Sullivan 1999). These constructs are less useful in this context as female labor patterns are often non traditional, non
138 linear and discontinuous and are better captured by boundaryless (Sullivan, 1999) and kaleidoscope models (Rowley 2013). Participants explained that the external factors of their non work lives influenced their careers more than their male interruptions often halted their careers Navigating th ese interruptions was not clear c ut, and they often had to self advocate to interruptions, organizational culture, mentorship, a profile for success, and culture and derations are framed to business and industry, they apply to any organization and were true for the participants in this study Boundaryless C areers lexibility, self control, and consciousness contribute to build ing emotional competence whi ch in turn has a relation with the variable boundaryless career. In other words, people can modify behavior and adapt to move forward elf control made it possible to face stressful situations and to avoid the sacrif ice syndro me of giving up and walking away; rather they improve d performance (de Boer et al., 2015; Kuijpers et al., 2006; and Boyatzis & McKee, 2005). onsciousness was the capability to meet commitments while being accurate, help ing to mai ntain focus on the qualitative level of results and details of actions, without reducing performance, even in different environments (Rajadhyaksha, 2005). Kaleidoscope C areers The kaleidoscope careers model encompasses the parameters of challenge, balanc e and authenticity (Sullivan & Baruch, 2009; Sullivan & Mainiero, 2008). Lee et al. (2011) developed a theoretical framework for careers as an evolutionary model and
139 constr uct careers develop over time critical incidents often provided an evolutionary flow to how their incidents impacted their careers which fit the kaleidoscope career model. The literature while limited provided both challenge and support t o the effectiveness of programs and processes for the tenure and promotion process for women academics. Surprises There were three surprising outcomes in this study: 1. Relu ctance to support or share information for potential participants 2. Willingn ess to participate. 3. Candid sharing of critical incidents. First, one of the surprises was the feedback from various institutions who noted that they wanted to women f aculty Institutions were contacted by email, phone and letter in the snowball sample. Several institutions responded that they did not want faculty to participate with the words women faculty for protection varied. T hey did not want their faculty to feel they were being forced to be a participant through a nomination, or that they may be over s urveyed by their own institution, or that there were limited tenured women faculty members and did not want them to feel obligated to part icipate by even sharing the opportunity. Many institutions however chose to confirm that anyone in the directory with listed titles (which they provided) would qualify and that the researcher could make contact This occurred mo re often than not. F rom th e institutions 20
140 partici pants organically reached out as to why they had not been contacted to participate in this study. This provided for an interesting conversation with these women. These conversations were requ ested, by the seeker, to occur over the phone and not via e mail due to concerns for anonymity and the relay of information. As an aspiring academic this provided unique opportunity to connect with these women. Second, the willingne ss to participate was ov erwhelmingly a surprise. This could be a factor of the time of year in which the participants were contacted but also knowing that there was an eagerness to share stories. Research tells us that women academics are more reluctant to share information witho ut knowing who the researcher is (Kendall, 1999; Winter & Huff, 1996; Cushing, 1996; Kramer & Taylor, 1993) However, the success is likely attributed to two things: the introduction and outreach methods executed by the researcher which fostered personal c onnections through related interests ( Newington & Metcalfe, 2014) and the security of utilizing online formats for research (Antonella, 2016) The researcher explained her status as a docto ral student, working full time, and being a new mother of two, who was also aspiring to become a faculty member post graduation. This storytelling provided an opportunity to connect with the potential participants. Explaining the reasoning to participants as to why the researcher was utilizing online interviews rather tha n in person or video conferencing to capture interviews due to having a new infant was potentially another reason for connection and understanding that the researcher was finding a way to accomplish the goal at hand. Lastly, the candid sharing of critical incidents was surprising Knowing there are proven factors that reduce participants willingness to share personal stories, these
141 participants shared critical incidents that were incredibly personal and impactful in their lives. The participants noted thes e stories were not previously shared with others along their academic journey. The participants noted they felt this study was an opportunity in which they felt compelled to sha re their critical incidents to help others, or influence change. This level of trust and vulnerability by participants in this study was hu mbling, energizing, and emotionally painful at times. The raw nature of the incidents shared was truly an experience for which this researcher is grateful. Recommendations for f urther R esearch Th ere are four main areas suggested for further research based on the findings of this study: 1. Broadening the scope to other academic colleges and institution type. 2. Inclusion of junior faculty perspectives. 3. Investigating departmental and i nstitutional expecta tions and communication of tenure and promotion process. 4. Studying the e ffectiveness of mentor programs for junior faculty First, t his study is limited ly generalizable to all tenured women faculty members. Assessing tenured women faculty within additiona l colleges is an area for further research This coupled with an understanding of experiences at other types of institutions, other than land grant, are opportunities for further research Second, n umerous junior faculty members reached out inquiring if t hey could participate in this study. Due to various factors they were not include d in this study. However, there is an opportunity for further research with junior faculty that is going through the tenure and promotion process. Their lived experiences dur ing the process would be valuable to add to this body of research
142 Third, r esearch and evaluation are needed for departmental and institutional leadership about t enure and promotion processes. Participants shared incidents that helped and hindered them de pending on how their department and institution set them up for their tenure and promotion process. Understanding expectations timeline, and what it means to be successful is varied within disciplines and further varied within established research agendas Lastly, m entor ing programs within academic departments and institutions for academics is an area for evaluation and research. Participants noted incidents in which these programs helped and hindered them in their careers. Identifying what works and what does not can be a determining factor for junior faculty success in a tenure track position. By having a stronger understanding of these recommended areas, there is an opportunity to create stronger support systems for women and junior faculty to know and understand the expectations for the tenure and promotion process. Also, there is an opportunity to understand the gaps of why there are still far fewer women than men in tenured positions at higher education institutions across the United States. Recommen dations for Practice There are three main areas suggested for further improvements for practice based on the findings of this study: 1. Creation of intentional and meaningful mentorsh ip programs that support tenure track faculty members 2. Support of personal wellness initiatives 3. Support of children and family First, mentoring was noted to help and hinder women faculty in this study. Having needs and expectation based mentoring programs which are structured and
143 evalua ted could be helpful for tenure track fa culty. Strategically pairing faculty mentor/mentee relationships should be a consideration. Providing time for junior faculty and senior faculty to get to know one another should be considered before pairing within the same department. Cross discipline men toring should be a consideration as it relates to the importance of collaboration and understanding working relationships. Personal investment, expectations for time commitments should be a consideration with mentoring programs. Mentoring does not have to be one on one, it can be collaborative. Structured on boarding process es at an institution for tenure track faculty can provide mentoring o pportunities where these faculties get to know other faculty and what resources are available at the institution. Sec ond, personal wellness was noted in this study to help and hinder women faculty. Personal wellness is inclusive to physical, emotional and mental health. Having work expectations, self discipline for time management, self awareness, and communication skill s are part of personal wellness. When support reso urces at an institutional level are offered and known to faculty they should be encouraged to advantage of physical recreational facilities to work out and alleviate stress maintain physical health, medita te, or regain focus. When health benefits are provided they can choose options to take care of themselves or their families. This supports efforts so they can be present in and out of work environments. Providing personal wellness as a department through a ctivities, communication, and relationships cultivates opportunities to have a fruitful environment to work at. When people enjoy where they work they are more likely to invest in the community and culture.
144 Lastly, children and familial support or underst anding of legal processes related to human resource benefits need to be a priority of practice for departmental chairs and all employees. Having basic knowledge of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as it relates to the tenure and promotion process ca n impact how colleagues decide on a vote of confidence. If these are not known, shared, or supported by departments or departmental leaders then this can negatively impact culture and retention. Culture and retention can also be impacted by the relationshi ps of a department. If a department is not inclusive of family (partners, spouses, children, and other members) at events or gathers this can exclude members of the community. This is not limited to faculty, but should also be a consideration for inclusive student events. Demonstrating by example what departmental relationships can and should be like, when they are inclusive of family, can have a positive ripple effect. Summary Chapter 5 provided a complete review of the study and included the significance of the study, its purpose and objectives, the methodology and participants and a summary of the findings. Chapter 5 also included a discussion of the findings, their meaning for future research, and recommendations for leadership development practice and research regarding the tenure and promotion process The remainder of the document includes the appendices and references.
145 Table 5 1. Reported D emographics S ummary ( n= 50) Demographics total p ercentage Category Number Percentage Age 30 39 2 4% 40 4 9 13 26% 50 59 21 42% 60+ 14 28% Ethnicity Asian 6 12% European/Pak eha/Caucasian 25 50% Latin American 4 8% Middle Eastern 1 2% Other 14 28% Highest Degree Masters 2 4% Ph D 46 92% Dr. of Science 2 2% Position Title Professor 27 54% Associa te Professor 1 2% (Other) Department Head/Dean 4 8% (Other) Faculty 18 36%
146 Table 5 2. Factors that Helped Women F aculty (n=50) Helped total p ercentage Category Number Percentage Work Ethic Reaching Beyond 26 52% Collaboration 42 84% Solving Problems 36 72% Opportunities Promotion 13 26% Correcting Mistakes 18 36% Responsibilities 35 70% Feedback 42 84% Coursework 16 32% Being the First 18 38% Opportunities Advice 41 82% Family 23 46% Coaching 29 58% Mentorship 36 72% Sponsorship 24 48% Association Involvement 38 76% Personal Wellness 22 44% Table 5 1. Continued Demographics total percentage Category Number Percentage Employed at a University 1 5 1 2% 6 10 5 1 0 % 11 15 5 10 % 16 20 14 28 % 21 25 6 12% 2 6 30 11 22% 31 35 3 6% 36 40 3 6% 41+ 2 4% Employed at a Land grant University 6 10 6 12% 11 15 7 14% 16 20 19 38% 21 25 6 12% 26 30 7 14% 31 35 3 6% 36 40 2 4%
147 Table 5 3 Factors t hat Hindered Women F aculty ( n= 50) Hindered t otal p ercentage Category Number Percentage Personal Children and Family 28 56% Health and Wellness 31 62% Politics of the Environment Accountability 41 82% Mentorship Programs 28 56% Ambition 32 64% Salaries 22 44% Advocacy 42 84% Inclusivity 23 46% Leaders Actions 35 70% Table 5 4. Interview Questions for Women F aculty. Number Question asked to participant(s) Demographic Information 1 I agree to take part in this project. Yes/No 2 How old are you (years of age)? 20 29, 30 39, 40 49,50 59,60+ 3 This research is e xamining Women Faculty. Which sex do you identify as? Female, Male 4 What is your ethnicity? African, Asian, European/Pakeha/Caucasia n, Latin American, Maori, Middle Eastern, Pasif i ka peoples, Other 5 Where have you come from and how long have you lived in the United States? a. Country of Birth? b. Nationality? c. How long have you lived in the United States? What do you do? 6 What is your University job description? *Choose as many options as appropriate Manager, General Manager, Lecturer, Faculty, Pr ofessor, Researcher, Head of Department/School/Institute, Director/Dean, Associate Dean, Pro Vice Chancellor, Chancellor, Other 7 Are you an academic or general staff member? General, Academic 8 If you are an academic staff member what is your title? Pro fessor, Associate Professor, Senior Lecturer, Lecturer, Other, Not Applicable 9 What is your highest qualification? Bachelors, Honours, Dip Grad, PG Dip, Masters, Ph D MD, JD, Dr. of Science, Other, Not Applicable 10 minal appointment by July 1, 2016? Yes, No *Tenure is an arrangement wher e by faculty member, after successful completion of a period of probationary service, can be dismissed only for the adequate cause of possible circumstances and only after a hearing be fore a faculty committee (American Association of University Professors, (AAUP, n.d.)).
148 Table 5 4 Continued Number Question asked to participant(s) How many years have you worked at a University? 11 How many years have you worked at a Universi ty? Scale: 0, 1 5, 6 10, 11 15, 16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40, 41+ 12 Years in paid employment at a university anywhere in the world? Scale: 0, 1 5, 6 10, 11 15, 16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40, 41+ 13 Years in paid employment at a Land grant univ ersity? Scale: 0, 1 5, 6 10, 11 15, 16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40, 41+ Incidents that have helped or hindered your advancement 14 Please describe a WORK related incident that has HELPED you advance your career. Please also describe what stage you wer e at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land Grant University at the time. 15 If you wish, please describe a second incident. Something else that happened to you in a WORK context that HELPED you in your career advancement. 16 P lease describe a WORK related incident that has HINDERED you advance your career. Please also describe what stage you were at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land Grant University at the time. 17 If you wish, please describe a second incident. Something else that happened to you in a WORK context that HINDERED you in your career advancement. 18 Please describe an incident that happened to you outside of the workplace and which HELPED you advance your career. Please also descri be what stage you were at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land Grant University at the time. 19 If you wish, please describe a second incident. Something else that happened to you outside of the workplace that HELPED you in yo ur career advancement. 20 Please describe an incident that happened to you outside of the workplace and which HINDERED you advance your career. Please also describe what stage you were at in your career at the time and whether you were working at a Land G rant University at the time. 21 If you wish, please describe a second incident. Something else that happened to you outside of the workplace that HINDERED you in your career advancement. 22 Would you like to receive a summary of the findings? Yes, No *Ye s, Please enter your email address which you would like the summary emailed to 23 To cross analyz e responses to your experiences please link your current public CV from a website or in a pdf, word doc, or docx file. 24 Do you have any further comments t hat you would like to make?
149 Figure 5 1. Conceptual m odel: Critical F R ole in W omen F aculty A chieving T enure Figure 5 2. Regional Participation by Land Grant I nst itutions Beyond S aturation
150 Figure 5 3. Interview P rocess M ap f or W omen F acu lty P articipants.
151 APPENDIX A DEPARTMENT ADMIN CONTACT INFORMATION REQUEST E MAIL Initial Admin Contact Information Request Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Department of Agricultural Education and Communications DATE DAY YEAR Dear [prefix ] [LastName], I am writing to request you r assistance in the information gathering process of a nationwide study of tenured women in 1862 Land grant Universities and Colleges of Agricultural and Life Sciences. This study will help determine the factors co ntributing to female faculty tenure You have been identified as a valuable contact person to obtain the contact information (name, address, and e mail) of all tenured women faculty in your college across all departments. Tenured women faculty for this st udy are being identified as any assuming a tenured woman faculty member on or before Ju ly 1, 2016 Women in the tenure review process will not be included in this study at this time. Unfortunately, if you do not have any tenured women faculty as o f July 1 20 16 than your institution will not be eligible to participate in this study. However, I would really appreciate your response so that your institution can be removed from my contact list. If you are aware of other tenured women faculty in 1862 Land gr ant Universities and Colleges of A gricultural and Life Sciences, we would appreciate contact information being shared. While the sharing of tenured women faculty contact information is completely voluntary, I would greatly appreciate your assistance with this important study. If you are not the correct person to provide such information, please accept my apologies and I ask that you please forward this letter to the correct colleague Thank you in advance for your assistance! Sincerely, Carolynn Nath Ko manski Doctoral Student Agricultural Education and Communication Department University of Florida PO Box xxxxx Gainesville FL xxxxx xxxxx T: xxx xxx xxxx Ext. xxxx F: xxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxx @ufl.edu
152 APPENDIX B FACULTY CONTACT REQUEST Initial Faculty Con tact Request Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Department of Agricultural Education and Communications DATE DAY YEAR Dear [prefix] [LastName], I am writing to request you r assistance in the information gathering process of a nationwide stud y of tenured women in 1862 Land grant Universities and Colleges of Agricultural and Life Sciences. This study will help determine the factors contributing to faculty member experience in of achieving a tenured academic position You have been identified a s valuable contact and possible participant for this study. You were recommended by the following individual (name, address, and e mail) when seeking tenured women faculty in your college across all departments. Tenured women faculty for this study are bei ng identified as any woman faculty member achieving tenure on or before Ju ly 1, 2016 Women in the tenure review process will not be included in this study at this time. This qualitative study will examine factors which helps or hindered your tenure proce ss. A interview questionnaire will be emailed to you on (XX/XX/XXX) from xxxxxxxxx @ufl.edu There will be eighteen question on the interview. We are seeking stories about both work and non work related experiences since life changing events outside work of ten impact on career development. a trigger: something starts off an incident, an action: some action or actions happen, an outcome: there is some kind of conclusion, perhaps a change, as a result of the experience. The questions ask about work and non work situations so you can nominate up to two incidents related to each question. This means you can contribute up to 8 stories in total. You can also choose whether or not to complete all sections by simply pushing the 'Next' button when you are ready to go on. Information you enter is saved whenever you push 'next'. You can exit and re enter the survey as often as you like. However, entry to the survey is closed after you submit your entries by pushing the 'Done' button on the final page. Here is an example of a 'complete' story...
153 conference and suggested that I should write a paper and pres ent at it. It had never occurred to me that I could do such a thing before that. I was just thinking about teaching my classes and focusing on the day to day tasks. But I write because I had to work out what tone and content was right and I didn't know what to expect when presenting. But I kept at it. And the outcome? Well, now I have an extensive conference publication record and am part of an international network. Prese nting at conferences has helped me get up the academic ladder. I believe it all by the Your own stories can be as long or short, descriptive or otherwise as you wish. The stories will be examined using th e 'critical incident technique', and information will be grouped into categories which help inform professional development practices. A reminder: You will not be personally identified in the outcomes from this project. We are interested in: stories abou t what has helped in your university career development, stories about what has hampered your university career development, and other issues you want the research group to know about. If you are not interested in participating in this study I would real ly appreciate your response so that your institution can be removed from my contact list. If you are aware of other tenured women faculty in 1862 Land grant Universities and Colleges of A gricultural and Life Sciences, we would appreciate contact informat ion being shared. While the sharing of tenured women faculty contact information is completely voluntary, I would greatly appreciate your assistance with this important study. If you are not the correct person to provide such information, please accept my apologies and I ask that you please forward this letter to the correct colleague Thank you in advance for your assistance! Sincerely, Carolynn Komanski Doctoral Student Agricultural Education and Communication Department University of Florida PO Box xxxxxx Gainesville FL xxxxx xxxx T: xxx xxx xxxx Ext. xxxxx F: xxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxx @ufl.edu
154 APPENDIX C INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE/INFORMED CONSENT E mail invitation to participate in study with informed consent Sender: Carolynn Nath Komanski Subject l ine: Research Study on Female Faculty at a Land Grant Institution Dear Esteemed Colleague, In an effort to support female academic leaders within higher education, the researcher (Carolynn Nath Komanski) would like for you to take a few minutes of your t ime to respond to this survey. This survey will look at your support system and the experiences you have had in academia at a land grant institution It is our goal to take this information and build on the research to further develop leadership programs for female faculty at land grant institutions. The survey should take approximately 10 minutes to complete. You may access the survey by clicking on the link below: [UNIQUE HYPERLINK] Or you can cut and paste the following link into your web browser: [UNIQUE HYPERLINK] P articipants may withdraw their consent to participate at anytime without penalty There are no direct benefits, risks, or compensation to you for partici pating in the study. Please be assured that your answers are anonymous There is a minimal risk that security of any online data may be breached, but our survey host QUALTRICS uses strong enc ryption and other data security methods to protect your information. Only the researchers will have access to your information on the Qualtrics server. No identifying information will be collected or connected with your responses, which will be anonymous. In addition, your partic ipation is voluntary, though we hope you will respond. By clicking on the link you are indicating your willingness to participate in this survey. Should you have any questions about the project or our interest in using the resu lts, I encourage you to contact me for answers. Thank you for your participation! Sincerely, Carolynn Nath Komanski Department of Agricultural Education and Communication
155 University of Florida xxx xxx xxxx Ext xxxxx xxxxxxxxx @ufl.edu Dr. Nicole Stedm an Associate Professor Department of Agricultural Education and Communication University of Florida xxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxx @ufl.edu Who to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office Box xxxxxx University of Florida Gain esville, FL xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx
156 APPENDIX D INTERVIEW SURVEY QUESTIONS Qualtrics Survey interview questionnaire for tenured women faculty
165 APPENDIX E E MAIL CONFIRMATIONS FOR STUDY REPLICATION
167 APPENDIX F IRB APPROVAL LETTER
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195 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Carolynn Sue Nath grew up in Baltimore, Maryland and attended elementary school in Joppa, Maryland. Joppa was a transforming rural farming community. This community lture. Carolynn soon moved with her family to Jacksonville, Florida where she completed the remainder of her elementary education along with middle and high school. Throughout her youth Carolynn was highly engaged in extracurricular activities. family purchased a small farm in Georgia were they would frequently visit on the weekends. In high school Carolynn was the first seven sport s letterm an at her high school. She comp eted in each sporting event at the district and regional levels. Carolynn served as the editor of her yearbook, as varsity cheerleading captain, and was awarded other scholastic accolades during high school. She received an academic scholarship through the state of Florida and attended the University of South Florida in 2001 At the University of South Florida Carolynn continued her high level of academic and extracurricular involvement. She competed as an athlete studied abroad, was hired as a resident assistant and later as a graduate assistant while still an undergraduate st udent. Carolynn began instructing courses as a teaching assistant within different academic departments. She volunteered within the Tampa Bay community serving high risk communities. Carolynn be gan working full time her senior year in preparation for gradu ate school. She was selected as an Ambassador for the un iversity and alumni association and was voted among the student body as a finalist within the universities Homecoming Court during her senior year. In 2005 Carolynn attend ed graduate school at India na University Bloomington where she studied h igher e ducation and s tudent a ffairs a dministration. She volunteered
196 within the greate r Bloomington area serving high risk populations. Carolynn worked within residence life, alcohol and drug counseling, alumni a ffairs, athletics, and other areas within the campus community. She was hired by Southern Methodist University for the summer to assi st with a bridge program for at risk students transitioning to the university. During her time at Indiana University Carolynn was invited to lead and develop leadership training programs for student leaders across campus and within residence life. She began teaching coursework to undergr aduate students and developed training programs for graduate students. She presented at regional and international conferences as a graduate student. Upon graduation in 2007 she was hired by the University of Central Florida and relocated. From 2007 2010 Carolynn worked at the University of Central Florida, Remington College, CTB McGraw Hill and then was hired by the University of Florida. During this transition Carolynn married Ryan Komanski and became Carolynn Sue Nath Komanski. She continued her workin g with her farm and wanted to learn more about agriculture and environmental efforts impacting communities. In 2010 Carolynn began working at the University of Florida. It was here that she discovered her love for all that a land grant universit y had to offer its community and the state which is supported. In June 2014 Carolynn had her daughter Brie and in Fall 2014 She began taking coursework and was later accepted as a doctoral student in the Agricultural Education and Communication program in Summer 2015. Carolynn continued working full time throughout her academic program Gaining approval from her supervisors, s he volunteered her professional development hours to be a n unpaid teaching assistant for
197 in p erson and online courses. Carolynn wa s later invited to be a v olunteer lead instructor. In October 2016 she had a second child, a son named Bligh Komanski. During this time she continued her coursework, volunteering presenting at regional, national and internati onal conferences. She serves o n the board of director s for a local non profit and the board of her neighborhood association. Carolynn continued to published, teaching courses, and worked full time. The support o f her husband and family are un paralleled. Carolynn is an Adjunct Lecturer for the Agricultural Education and Communication Department in Fall 2017 instructing the introductory l eadership development course in an online format w hile continuing her full time employment at the University of Florida. Sh e received her d egree of Doct or of Philosophy in a gricultural e ducation and c ommunication s from t he University of Florida in December 2017 She and her husband look forward to the possibilities ahead which include purchasing land to cultivate their own farm and sustaining her farm.