Excavating Silvae 1.1 of Statius

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Title:
Excavating Silvae 1.1 of Statius
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1 online resource (68 p.)
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english
Creator:
Houseman, Justin C
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Degree:
Master's ( M.A.)
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University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Classical Studies, Classics
Committee Chair:
PAGAN-WOLPERT,VICTORIA EMMA
Committee Co-Chair:
EAVERLY,MARY ANN

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Subjects / Keywords:
equestrian -- panegyric -- sculpture -- silvae -- statius -- topography
Classics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Classical Studies thesis, M.A.
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theses   ( marcgt )
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Abstract:
Silvae 1.1 introduces what scholars generally call Statius' sycophantic collection of occasional poems. Because Statius wrote Silvae 1.1 as an ekphrastic representation of Domitian's equestrian statue, crafted by a sculptor and commissioned by the Senate and people of Rome, the poem is unique. Yet, how the poem and its subject affect Roman viewers is unclear. Statius initially seems to praise Domitian excessively, but upon a closer examination Statius praises only the statue. Moreover, this praise does not flatter Domitian clearly. Ambiguous allusions throughout the poem evoke questionable mythological scenes, recent history, and topographical features within and beyond the Forum Romanum. Examining these allusions combined with the archaeological background of equestrian sculpture and how Statius presents Domitian's work in the Forum is a fruitful line of inquiry. We then see that Statius explores the limits of panegyric and subverts Domitian's public image with his careful poetics in Silvae 1.1.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Statement of Responsibility:
by Justin C Houseman.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: PAGAN-WOLPERT,VICTORIA EMMA.
Local:
Co-adviser: EAVERLY,MARY ANN.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 7 2 IT'S JUST SILVAE 1.1 AFTER AHL ................................ ................................ ....... 18 Approaches to Silvae 1.1 ................................ ................................ ........................ 18 Preface to Silvae 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 19 Proem (1 10) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 20 The Horse Statue (11 21) ................................ ................................ ....................... 23 Domitian's Statue (22 45) ................................ ................................ ....................... 24 The Horse Revisited (45 63) ................................ ................................ ................... 26 Curtius (63 83) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 28 3 DOMITIAN'S HORSE OF COURSE, OF COURSE ................................ ................ 31 Roman Equestrian Sculpture ................................ ................................ .................. 34 Physical Evidence for Domitian's Equestrian Portraiture ................................ ........ 36 The Equestrian Sculpture of Silvae 1.1 ................................ ................................ ... 38 4 A HORSE OFF COURSE IN THE FORUM ................................ ............................ 41 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 41 Topographical Allusions ................................ ................................ .......................... 43 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 59 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 63 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 68

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6 of Florida in

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7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In 1 Viewers see only half of a car riding person's body, but horse riding people are in full view. The medium for one's representation also creates different impressions for different audiences. Modern people traveling in public can represent themselves and their political views through vehicle choice, for example by cho osing the environmentally conscious options of hybrids or carpools. Leaders can commission statues of themselves in a certain style, or the public can commemorate leaders in a certain manner by choosing a particular monument type or statue pose. This moder n phenomenon is not much different from practices of the ancient Romans. Poets in a ntiquity represented their views through their poetry. When leaders and poets deal with the same subject, the emphases or modes of representation contrast. The audience then must interpret the competing messages conveyed by the competing representations. Because Statius wrote Silvae 1.1 as an ekphrastic representation of Domitian's equestrian statue, crafted by a sculptor and commissioned by the Senate and people of Rome, the poem is unique. 2 Regarding equestrian sculpture, if a culture associates the horse with grandeur, honor, and power, then the horse's rider maintains a positive image. Yet, the positive associations with a mode of representation go only so far in flatterin g the subject. The rider possesses these valued traits through his association with the horse. Upon first 1 See Mannes (1958) 38 39. 2 For an analysis of the poem as ekphrasis see Newlands (2002), Marshall (2011), and Duffalo (2013) 206 219.

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8 consideration Domitian on horseback appears honorable and respectable. Indeed, Roman equestrian sculpture is a grand and expensive work of honorary ar t with respectable military associations; however, Domitian's representation is problematic because his campaigns against the Dacians and Chatti were neither entirely successful nor popular at least among the senators. 3 The confusing depiction detracts fro m any perceivable honor provided by the statue type. 4 How accurately the representation mimics reality draws attention to and away from the subject. Romans discontented by Domitian's reign might have spotted the emperor's equestrian sculpture and then coul d have made observations and judgments similar to those of Mannes. Silvae 1.1 praises Domitian on a surface level; however, this flattery does not align with the image of Domitian handed down elsewhere. 5 At times, allusions bearing negative associations in the poem contradict this praise. Is the poem merely praise, or does it register discontent among its audience? If Silvae 1.1 registers discontent with Domitian's rule, then how does the mediu m of equestrian sculpture and its surroundings as described by S tatius contribute to a politicized reading of the poem? Silvae 1.1 is the first poem in the collection of poetry published perhaps in 93 CE. 6 Statius ( ca. 45 ca. 96) first composed Silvae 1.1, however, around the year 90 on the day after the statue's ded ication in the Forum Romanum. This event, Statius admits, is the inspiration for the poem ( Silv. 1. Praef. ): centum hos versus quos in ecum maximum feci indulgentissimo imperatori postero die quam dedicaverat opus tradere 3 Suet. Dom. 6. 4 See for instance Tacitus' account of Domitian's mocked triumphs at Agr. 39. 5 Domitian's reputation commonly seen in Roman literature derives primarily from senatorial ranked authors. Because Statius was not in this biased class of writers, an analysis of his work offers a different perspective with which we may contrast the typical image we have of the emperor. 6 For discussion of the d ates regarding the life and publications of Statius, see Coleman (1988). Silvae will hereafter be abbreviated Silv. I follow standard abbreviations from the third edition revised of the Oxford Classical Dictionary See Coleman (1988) for a summary of the c areer of Statius.

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9 iussus sum nd down these hundred verses, which I composed on 'the largest horse,' for (our) very kind emperor on the day after he had dedicated the 7 Domitian as subject of dedicaverat however, is striking when contrasted with the statue being described as pop uli magnique senatus munere authority is divided between the emperor, people, and Senate ( Silv. 1.1.99 100). Interpretation of the poem is further complicated by ambiguity in the manuscript reading. Throughout this thesis, I follow the text of Courtney, except for ausus sum for which I read iussus sum 8 Ahl accepted the earlier manuscript reading of iussus sum and made it the foundation of his subv ersive interpretation of the text; I agree with Ahl. 9 I n poetry written under Domitian, we may recognize a particular severity of expression with the verb iubeo With this manuscript reading and interpretation of the verb in mind, we can focus more on the meaning of the poem and its relevance to Domitian's public image The reading of iussus sum in the context of the poem as subversive to Domitian's portrayal is consistent with other surviving accounts of Domitian in Suetonius and Tacitus. Interpretation of Silvae 1.1 must begin with discussion of panegyric and ekphrasis because the poem first appears full of praise, ekphrastic language, and honorary art. Panegyric developed from formal public speeches that praised politicians, and so Silvae 1.1 does not see m too different from earlier Greek encomia upon first 7 All translations are mine; I follow Courtney's Latin text (1990) except for the preface to Silv. 1 where I read iussus sum instead of ausus sum I cite Silv 1.1 by line numbers only, unless the citation seems ambiguous. 8 See Geyssen ( 1996) 27 30 for further discussion of manuscript readings, although I disagree with his overall approach to allusions and his final interpretation of ausus sum as the correct reading. 9 See White (1993) 64 99. In his study of the verb iubeo in Augustan poe try, White found that poets were not ordered to write poetry so much as requested without fear of death. They then exaggerated the emperor or patron's request by describing it in terms of an order.

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10 consideration. Yet, Romans of the imperial age lived in a different political climate from the Greeks. For example, fear of Domitian's strict control of literature permeates Tacitus' Agricola in which T acitus recounts the dangers of panegyric in particular at the beginning of the text. 10 Because of Domitian's politics and reputation, scholars take one of three stances on this poem and usually direct primary attention to panegyric. First, Ahl interprets th e poem as subverting praise of Domitian, but his analysis meets much criticism. 11 No one since Ahl's interpretation has argued in print that the poem is primarily subversive. Subversive poetry is thought to undercut an authority figure or a political struct ure while avoiding detection. Subversion is the act of transforming an opinion, idea, ideology, or a group influenced by these subjects against itself. Under Domitian's reign, subversive literature criticized his abilities, policies, habits, and public rep resentation; however, a subversive interpretation of the Silvae has fallen out of favor among scholars. Second, Geyssen argues that Statius sincerely praises 12 This proposed style of panegyric, Gey ssen asserts, is less political in its aims, less formulaic, and more open to innovation than other prose and poetic panegyrics; he contends that the innovative technique of Statius leads scholars to misread the text. Third, Newlands presses for a more bal anced reading between the two extreme sides of the debate. 13 Her notion of the poetics of empire explains how the use of ekphrasis 10 Tac. Agr. 1 3. See Coleman (1986) for discussion of Domi tian's relationship with literature and authors writing under his rule. See Sailor (2008) Chapter 1 and 2 for an exploration of the dangers expressed in Agr icola 11 Ahl (1984) 78 102. For Ahl's critics, see Geyssen (1996), Nauta (2002), and Newlands (2002) Coleman (2003a) summarizes the status of scholarship on the Silvae 12 See Geyssen (1995). 13 See Newlands (2002).

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11 and thereby disp lays the politicized nature of the poem. 14 This mode of social commentary captures an aspect of subversion whereby Statius indirectly challenges Domitian's characterization. In reviewing the scholarship, Coleman maintains that the Silvae reflect Domitian's autocratic rule. 15 Along this spectrum of critical interpretation, this thesis first reevaluates Silvae 1.1 with consideration for Ahl's argument and then incorporates later readings into an updated evaluation. This approach will help reconcile the poem's e kphrastic and archaeological aspects. 16 schema Inst. 9.1.14), Silvae 1.1. 17 Moreover, when discussing rhetorical training for autho rs writing under tyrants, Quintilian writes ( Inst. 9.2.67): quamlibet enim apertum quod modo et aliter intelligi possit in illos tyrannos bene dixeris quia periculum tantum non etiam offensa vitatur. Quod si ambiguitate sententiae possit eludi nemo non ill i furto favet. 18 Indeed, against those tyrants you can safely say as publicly as pleases what should be able to be understood in one way or another since such danger is avoided without even having caused offense; if such danger can be evaded by ambiguity of expression, anyone would be in favor of that trick 14 Newlands (2002) 87. 15 Coleman (1986); (2003a) 12. 16 Scholarship on Silv. 1.1 avoids the details of equestrian sculpture scholarship, which remains primarily in German. Newlands (2002), for example, defers to North (1985) on poetry's connection with modern sculpture as a comparison to equestrian sculpture rather than exploring Roman equestrian portraiture. 17 Ahl (1984) 82 83. See Roche (2009) 373 374 for full discussion of Quintilian's writing on figured speech under Domitian. 18 I follow the Loeb text edited by Goold (1976) 416 417.

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12 19 20 21 22 19 I single out Silv 1.1 as one of the few poems which we have evidence for Domitian as the recipient ( Stat. Silv 1. Praef. ), although Domitian either is a subject of or also allegedly received Silv. 1.6 and 4.1 3. See Newlands (2002) for further discussion on Domitian throughout the Silvae 20 See McNelis (2002). 21 anum under Domitian's rule. Evidence suggests that Domitian planned and implemented much of the foundational work for what Nerva gained credit after Domitian's memory sanctions; much of this work appears in what is called Nerva's Forum and the Forum Transi torium, but the Chronographer of 356 and Eusebius, as translated into Latin by St. Jerome, attribute to Domitian a great amount of construction and monuments. For further discussion, see Anderson (1983). 22 See Rutledge (2001) 9 19, 129 136.

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13 23 23 See Eaverly ( 1995) for Archaic Greek equestrian sculpture and Bergemann (1990) for Roman equestrian sculpture.

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15 24 25 26 24 I follow the Loeb text with a translation by J. C. Rolfe (1965). 25 See West (1949), Jones (1971), Carradice (1983), Zanker (1988), and Vasta (2007). 26 I do not propose a specific l ocation for the statue. I choose to settle on a relative location based on studies of equestrian statue bases and scholarship suggesting where Domitian's equestrian statue stood.

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16 27 See Thomas (2004) for a recent survey of the presumed location of While I maintain an ambiguou s central location I agree with Thomas (2004) 30, fig.7, 33, fig. 8, and 38, fig. 14, on the potential location near the Column of Phocos and the Rostra. 27 See Seaman and Matzke (1972) 12 for th e Forum of the Republic. In contrast, see Richardson (1992) 171, fig. 40 and Claridge (2010) 89, fig. 27, for imperial maps of the Forum which focus on the framed image Statius creates in Silv. 1.1. See Coarelli (2007) 48, fig. 14 for a three dimensional r econstruction of the Forum, although it includes post Domitianic constructions.

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18 CHAPTER 2 IT'S JUST S ILVAE 1.1 AFTER AHL Approaches to Silvae 1.1 1 2 1 See Geyssen (1996), Nauta (2002), and Newlands (2002). 2 Courtney (1990) accepts Sandstrm's reading for the Oxford text, which critics of Ahl follow.

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19 Preface to Silvae 1 3 3 Oxford Latin Dictiona ry

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20 4 5 Proem (1 10) 6 4 Stat. Silv. 3.3.168; Jones (1992) 150 151. 5 Quint. Inst. 8.6.74. See Roche (2009) 370 374. 6 Although I disagree with the conclusions, see Geyssen (1996) for elaboration on the immensity of the statue in the crowded Forum.

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22 7 8 9 10 7 Vollmer (1898, 1971). 8 See Carradice (1983) 142. 9 Suet. Dom. 6 attributes to luck Domitian's success in Germany. 10 See Geyssen (1996) for further discussion and bibliography on Domitian's worship of Minerva; I agree with his conclus ions regarding the significance of the palladium and allusion to it in Silv. 1.1.

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23 The Horse Statue (11 21) 11 12 11 Ahl (1984) 93. 12 Geyssen (1996) 35 56; Duffalo (2013) 211 219.

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24 13 14 Domitian's Statue (22 45) 15 13 Ahl (1984) 93. The Latin can indicate nearly the same expression, but an idiomatic combination of words wit h the participle of gerere and the opposite of bellum presents the opportunity for a pointed reading. 14 See also Marshall (2008). 15 Suet. Dom 6.

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25 ipse autem puro celsum caput aere saeptus templa superfulges et prospectare videris an nova contemptis surgant Palatia flammis pulchrius an tacita vigilet face Troicus ignis atque exploratas iam laudet Vesta ministras. Moreover t he head itself surrounded by pure air shines high over the temples, and you seem to be looking out for whether the new Palatine arises more beautiful from the despised flames or whethe r the Trojan fire keeps watch with its silent torch and already Vesta praises her investigated attendants. 16 16 Robathan (1942) 132 roughly dates this fire to 80 CE. Therefore, th e construction would have taken place between 80 and the composition of Silv 1.1 around 92 CE.

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26 17 18 The Horse Revisited (45 63) 17 Suet. Dom 8. 18 Suet. Dom 45.

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27 19 20 Vix sola sufficiunt insessaque pondere tanto subter anhelat humus; nec ferro aut aere, laborat sub genio, teneat quamvis aeterna crepido quae superingesti portaret c ulmina montis. The foundations are scarcely sufficient, set down by such weight; the ground underneath exhales, neither with its iron nor bronze does the 19 Ahl (1984) 95 96 establishes this connection between Domitian's horse and the horses of the funeral games in the Thebaid 20 C oleman (2003b) 2 3 gives the Thebaid primacy of composition over the Silv ae

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28 eternal foundation, which would carry the peaks of a heaped up mountain, work under your genius, thou gh it should hold. 21 22 Curtius (63 83) 23 21 Geyssen (1996); Marshall (2008). 22 Il .5.385; Od 11.305; Apollod. Bibl .1.7.4; Gantz (1993) 170 171. 23 Livy 1.12.10.

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29 24 25 26 24 Suet. Dom. 13. 25 Carradice (1983) 144 finds consistently re peated images of Domitian on coins that insist upon his post mortem deification. 26 See for example Tac. Agr. 39, Plin. Pan war, and Suet. Dom. 2, 6, and 12. Carradice (1983) 144 does note the frequ ent phrase IOVI VICTORI on Domitian's coins following the German campaigns. The bella Iovis ( Silv 1.1.79) then seems to reflect Domitian's propaganda at least from numismatic evidence

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31 CHAPTER 3 DOMITIAN'S HORSE OF COURSE, OF COURSE Constat igitur artificio sa memoria locis et imaginibus. Locos appellamus eos, qui breviter, perfecte, insignite aut natura aut manu sunt absoluti, ut eos facile naturali memoria conprehendere et amplecti queamus: < ut > aedes, intercolumnium, angulum, fornicem et alia, quae his similia sunt. Imagines sunt formae quaedam et notae et simula cra eius rei, quam meminisse volumus: quod genus equi, leones, aquilae; si volemus habere imagines eorum, locis certis conlocare oportebit. 1 Therefore it is agreed that there is an artificial memory for places and images. We call those places the things w hich were quickly, completely, and conspicuously recalled by nature or by hand so that we may express them easily by natural memory and so that we may be able to embrace them: such as temples, a space between columns, a corner, arch vaults, and others whi ch are similar to these. Images are particular 1 I use the Loeb text edited by G. P. Goold (1999).

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32 forms, both notes and imitations of its subject which we want to remember: Because if what we wish to remember is a kind of horse, lion, and eagle, we have to consider images of them; we have to set them in a certain scenario. 2 2 See for example Winkes (1985) and Zanker (1988).

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33 3 4 5 6 7 3 Stewart (2008) 108. 4 See Vasta (2007). 5 See Scott (1975) for discussion of the Flavians' cultivation of the imperial cult. 6 See Dewar (2008), especially 74 77, concerning the equestrian statue's location and its functi on within the Flavian building program. 7 Compare the placement of Maecenas in the works of Horace. See Bright (1980) and Hardie (1983) for Silvae

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34 Roman Equestrian Sculpture 8 9 10 11 8 Kleiner (1992) 390. 9 See Bergemann (1990) and Kleiner (1992) 390. 10 See Eave rly (1995) and (2010) 95 97. 11

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35 12 13 14 15 12 See Bergemann (1990) for a full explanation and survey of Roman equestrian statues and the iconography that defines the portrait type. 13 Geyssen (1996) 32, n. 10, incorrectly identifies the number of equestrian statues known to be in the 14 Cic. Phil denotes the statue of Alexander which was la ter changed into Caesar, as referenced in Stat. Silv .1.1.85 87. 15 Claridge (2010) 87.The original location of Marcus Aurelius' equestrian statue is undocumented because of its separation from its base in the Italian Renaissance.

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36 Physical Evidence for Domitian's Equestrian Portraiture 16 17 18 16 See Plin. Pan. 52.4 5 for destruction of his statuary. 17 Most of these sculptures are either anonymous or local officials; see Bergemann (1990) Tafeln 59 65 for the most prominent example from Herculaneum, the statue of Marcus Nonius Balbus. 18 The best images of the coin are found in Bergemann (1990) Tafel 92, fig. C, and Thomas (2004) 28, fig. 5, and the best images of the Misenum statue are found in Bergemann (1990) Tafeln 56 58. Regarding the term damnati o memoriae see Varner (2001) and (2004). For an overview of ancient memory sanctions see Flower (2011) Chapters 1, 3, and 9 for elaboration.

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37 19 20 21 19 See Bergemann (1990) 6 for the cloak and 6 8 for the gesture of the raised right hand. For further discussion of the ambiguity of Domitian's raised right hand in Silv. 1.1, see Ahl (1984) 94. 20 Flower (2006) 234 275. 21 Suet. Dom .18.

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38 The Equestrian Sculpture of Silvae 1.1 22 22 Plin HN 7.125; Plin. Ep. 2.1.240; Cic. Fam 5.12 13.

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39 23 23 Luc. 1.53 57; Geyssen (1996) 100 102.

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40 24 25 24 25 Carradice (1983) 157.

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41 CHAPTER 4 A HORSE OFF COURSE IN THE FORUM Methodology

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42 1 2 1 Anderson (1983) 93 discusses the account of the Chronographer of 356 a list of monuments on which Domitian had begun construction 2 Edwards (1996) 4.

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43 3 Topographical Allusions 4 5 3 Claridge (2010) 63. 4 5 Claridge (2010) 69.

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44 6 7 8 6 App. Bell Civ. 2.102; Anderson (1984) 39 63. 7 Cass. Dio 43.22.2. 8 Degrassi (1963) 514.

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45 9 10 11 9 App. Bell. Civ. 10 Coarelli (2007) 67. 11 Grant (1970) 217; Co arelli (2007) 67 68.

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46 12 13 12 Claridge (2010) 80 81. 13 Coarelli (2007) 66.

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47 14 15 16 17 14 Plin. Ep 5.9.1, 6.33.3; Quint. Inst 12.5.6; Mart. 6.38.5 6. 15 CIL 6.9709= ILS 7509; CIL 6.9711. 16 17 Coarelli (2007) 45, 75.

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48 18 19 20 confidentes garrulique et malevoli supera lacum, qui alteri de nihilo audacter dicunt contumeliam et qui ipsi sat habent quod in se possit vere dici er. 21 There are those undaunted, chatty, and spite ful men around the lake, who boldly trash talk about nothing to one another and those who they adequately consider what really can be talked about regarding themselves. 22 18 Coarelli (2007) 45. 19 See Eaverly (1995) 59 61. 20 See Claridge (2010) 90, fig. 28, for an image of the bronze relief portrait. 21 I follow the Loeb text edited by G. P. Goold and translated by (2011). 22 See Moore (1991) 351 and n.26 for discussion of the lines, their amb iguity, and the people mentioned.

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49 23 24 23 24 See Mart. 9.3.18 19, 9.34 and Silv 4.3.19, 5.1.240 241 for evidence of the painting. See also Mart. 9.1.8, Silv 4.3.19, and 5.1.240 241 for the temple and painting as a symbo l for Rome's eternity.

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50 25 26 27 28 25 Suet. Dom 8.4. 26 Claridge (2010) 85 87. 27 Coarelli (2007) 68. 28 Grant (1970) 212.

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51 29 30 31 29 Tac. Ann 30 Coarelli (2007) 54 55. 31 Grant (1970) 135.

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52 32 33 34 35 36 37 32 Grant (1970) 136. 33 Coarelli (2007) 38. 34 Coarel li (2007) 38. 35 Although the Tabularium is largely absent from the surviving literary record, Grant (1970) 136 notes an allusion to the monument with the appearance of tabularia given by Vergil ( G. 2 502). 36 Statius might also have wanted to avoid recallin g Sulla in the same way that he avoided the Tullianum. 37 Ling 5.183. Plin. Ep 10.3.1;

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53 38 39 40 38 Coarelli (2007) 45, 83 84; Claridge (2010) 109. 39 Clar idge (2010) 110 111. 40 See Rea (2007) for a study of the cultural significance of the Palatine and Capitoline through the age of Augustus in Latin literature. For the topography of the Palatine, see also Coarelli (2007) 130 157 and Claridge (2010) 124 159.

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54 Optassetque novo simile te ponere templo Atticus Elei senior Iovis, et tua mitis ora Tarans, tua sidereas imitantia flammas lumina contempto mallet Rhodos aspera Phoebo. The elder Athenian would have wished to put you similar in a new temple of Elean Jove, and gentle Tarentum would prefer your face; Rhodes would prefer your stern eyes, imitating starry flames, to a disregarded Phoebus. 41 41 See Pollitt (1986) 49 and Duffalo (2013) 219.

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55 42 42 Geyssen (1996) 132 133 agrees that the ending to Silv. 1.1 is notably different from other panegyrics employing this topos

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57 43 43

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59 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

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60 1 1 Jones (199 2) 73 74. See 75 76 for Domitian's rapid response to economic changes.

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61 2 2 See Newlands (2002), particularly 87.

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62

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63 LIST OF REFERENCES Mainz. Coleman, K. 2003 a e

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64 ANRW 2.32.5: 3087 3115. Statius' Ecus Maximus Domitiani Imperatoris and the Flavian For um. The Poetry of Statius edited by J. J. L. Smolenaars, H. van Dam, and R. R. Nauta, pp. 65 83. Leiden. Oxford. edited by pp. 95 97 Cambridge. Chapel Hill, NC. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources Baltimore. New York. Edited and translated by A. T. Murray. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA. 1919. Odyssey, Volume I: Books 1 12 Edited and translated by A. T. Murray. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA.

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65 Philadelphia. Marshall, A. R 2011. 206. Leiden. 1969.

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66 London. iting Politics in Imperial Rome ed ited by W. J. Dominik, J. Garthwaite, and P. A. Roche, pp. Oxford, OH. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 49: 21 46.

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67 8.1: 107 138.

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68 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH