Strategies and Recommendations Based on ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide 50 Percent Savings to Achieve Net Zero Energ...

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Title:
Strategies and Recommendations Based on ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide 50 Percent Savings to Achieve Net Zero Energy for K 12 School Buildings in the State of Florida
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1 online resource (71 p.)
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english
Creator:
Pasunuru, Ruthwik Reddy
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Civil Engineering, Civil and Coastal Engineering
Committee Chair:
GLAGOLA,CHARLES ROBERT
Committee Co-Chair:
KIBERT,CHARLES JOSEPH
Committee Members:
INGLEY,HERBERT A,III

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Subjects / Keywords:
netzero
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Civil Engineering thesis, M.S.
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theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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Abstract:
Net Zero energy is a topic that is trending in the construction industry. A sector of this Net Zero movement garnering attention is K 12 public school construction. Compared to other buildings, schools can achieve Net Zero Energy status more readily. Few governments have established initiatives to incorporate and implement Net Zero strategies in school design and construction. There are already 20 Net Zero schools in the US and the number is increasing rapidly. The state of Florida has many energy efficient schools but a Net Zero energy school has not been achieved in this part of the country. In this study, we discuss energy efficient design strategies for the schools and areas to be targeted in order to reduce the energy consumption based on ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide (Achieving 50 percent energy savings). Three case studies of popular Net Zero Schools in the country is also included. Energy performance of Alachua Countys Meadowbrook Elementary School (K 5), which can achieve Net Zero Energy status with some proven and effective practices, is also discussed. Further recommendations could eliminate the gap between design and use with the help of 11 energy modelling and simulation. Renewable energy production is provided by taking advantage of the Florida climate zone. The suggestions reviewed and applied in this paper will establish guidelines to all the prospective Net Zero energy schools in general and the Florida based schools in particular.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ruthwik Reddy Pasunuru.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: GLAGOLA,CHARLES ROBERT.
Local:
Co-adviser: KIBERT,CHARLES JOSEPH.

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ENERGY DESIGN GUIDE 50% SAVINGS TO ACHIEVE NET ZERO ENERGY FOR K 12 SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA By RUTHWIK PASUNURU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TH E DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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2014 Ruthwik Pasunuru

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To my family and friends

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4 ACKNOW LEDGMENTS I take this opportunity to thank my committee chair Dr. Charles R.Glagola for his continuous support and patience throughout this work. And I sincerely thank Dr. Charles J. Kibert, without whom this study would not have been possible. The trust a nd confidence he put on me was the motivating force behind this journey. I once again like to thank Dr. Kibert for his constant guidance and encouragement not only in completion of this study but during my stay at Powell center for Construction and Environ ment. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Herbert A. Ingley who accepted my request to be my Committee member without any second thought and supporting me all the time. guidance who pointed me to right direction whenever i n doubt. I express my gratitude to my friend Hamed Hakim who travelled with me all along in this journey. Finally I would like to appreciate all those who directly or indirectly supported me in making this stud y happen. Last but not the least, I thank my family for backing me all the time and believing in whatever decisions I take.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 12 Research Objectives ................................ ................................ ............................... 13 Significance and Limitations ................................ ................................ ................... 13 Organization of Study ................................ ................................ ............................. 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 15 Definition of Net Zero Energy Building ................................ ................................ .... 16 American Societ y of Heating Refrigerating and Air conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 16 National Renewable Energy laboratory (NREL) ................................ ............... 16 Department of Energy (DOE) ................................ ................................ ........... 16 European Commission (EU) ................................ ................................ ............. 17 Net Zero Energy Building (NZE B): ................................ ................................ ... 17 Other Definitions of Net Zero ................................ ................................ ............ 17 Net Zero Site Energy ................................ ................................ ................. 17 Net Zero Source Energy ................................ ................................ ............ 18 Net Zero Energy Cost ................................ ................................ ................ 18 Net Zero Carbon Emissions ................................ ................................ ....... 18 Benefits of having Net Zero School ................................ ................................ ........ 19 Net Zero Energy Schools in USA ................................ ................................ ............ 20 y Design Guide for K 12 Schools ............................... 21 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 22 Case Studies of Net Zero Energy Schools ................................ .............................. 22 Energy Modelling ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 22 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23

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6 4 DESIGNING A NET ZERO SCHOOL ................................ ................................ ..... 24 Integrated Design Approach ................................ ................................ ................... 24 Performance Targets by Adopting Energy Efficient Design ................................ .... 25 Installation of Renewable Energy Technologies ................................ ..................... 26 Solar photovoltaic panels ................................ ................................ ................. 26 Geo exchange systems ................................ ................................ .................... 27 Wind turbines: ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 28 Operations and Maintenance ................................ ................................ .................. 28 5 CASE STUDIES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 30 Lady Bird Johnson Middle School, Irving, Texas ................................ .................... 30 Richardsville Elementary school, Bowling green, Kentucky ................................ .... 32 The P.S.62 School, Staten Island, New York ................................ .......................... 34 6 STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES FOR NET ZERO ENERGY SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 37 Energy Strategies for Educational F acilities in Florida ................................ ............ 37 Orientation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 37 Envelope ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 38 Massing ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 38 Lighting ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 39 HVAC System ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 40 Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHP) ................................ ............. 41 Fan Coil System ................................ ................................ ........................ 41 Variable air Volume air handlers ................................ ................................ 42 Dedicated Outdoor air systems (DOAS) ................................ .................... 42 Plug Loads ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Kitchen Equipment ................................ ................................ ........................... 44 Using Energy Efficient Kitchen Equipment ................................ ................. 44 Exhaust and ventilation design systems ................................ .................... 44 Reducing hot wa ter usage ................................ ................................ ......... 44 Highly efficient refrigeration systems ................................ ......................... 45 Operation and Maintenance ................................ ................................ ....... 45 Commissioning ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 Teaching tool ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 46 Renewable Energy Technologies ................................ ................................ ........... 47 7 ANALYSIS OF MEADOWBROOK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENERGY PERFORMANCE ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 49 Trane Trace 700 Software ................................ ................................ ...................... 51 Actual Energy Usage vs Simula tion Model ................................ ............................. 51 Actual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 54 Model Inputs and Assumptions ................................ ................................ ............... 55

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7 Envelope ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 55 HVAC ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 56 Lighting ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 56 Plug Loads ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 57 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 60 Scope of Photovoltaic Panels to Offset the Energy Consumption .......................... 60 Potential Roof Area for PV array Installation ................................ .................... 61 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ............ 64 APPENDIX A ...................... 65 B NET Z ERO ENERGY SCHOOLS ................................ ................................ ........... 68 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 71

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 List of Net Zero Energy Schools in USA ................................ ............................. 20 5 1 Lady Bird Johnson Middle School ................................ ................................ ...... 31 5 2 Richardsville Elementary School ................................ ................................ ........ 33 5 3 The P.S.62 School data ................................ ................................ ...................... 36 7 1 Meadowbrook Elementary School data ................................ .............................. 50 7 2 Actual and Simulated Monthly energy consumption and CV (RMSE) for Meadowbrook Elementary School ................................ ................................ ...... 53 7 3 Recommendations applied to existing baseline model in comparison with AEDG Guide and Proposed Model ................................ ................................ ..... 58 7 4 ................................ ................................ ............... 60 7 5 Potential PV array installation area ................................ ................................ ..... 62

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Integrated Design Approach ................................ ................................ ............... 25 4 2 Renewable Ene rgy Technologies ................................ ................................ ....... 27 4 3 Operation and Maintenance cycle ................................ ................................ ...... 29 5 1 Lady Bird Johnson Middle School is the largest Net Zero School in US .. 30 5 2 Richardsville Elementary School (Source: Sherman Carter Barnhart) ............... 32 5 3 The P.S.62 School (Source: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill) ................................ .. 35 6 1 Interior Daylighting (S ource: CMTA Consulting Engineers) ................................ 39 6 2 Photovoltaic Solar Resources of US (Sources: NREL) ................................ ....... 47 7 1 Meadowbrook Elementary School (Parrish McCall Constructors) ...................... 49 7 2 Summary of Achievement from Green Globes ................................ ................... 51 7 3 Actual data vs Simulation data of the school ................................ ...................... 53 7 4 Energy End use in Baseline or Existing Model ................................ ................... 54 7 5 ................................ ................................ ..................... 60 7 6 Design Builder model showing area suitable for PV array installation ................ 61 7 7 Existing state of Solar panels (Source: Solar Impact) ................................ ......... 63 7 8 Model showing increas ed roof areas suitable for PV array installation ............... 63 A 1 Recommendations by ASHRAE;s AEDG ................................ ........................... 65 A 2 ................................ ................. 66 A 3 Window glazing properties ................................ ................................ ................. 66 A 4 Climate Zones in USA ................................ ................................ ........................ 67 A 5 Wind Energy resources in USA ................................ ................................ .......... 67 B 1 Net Zero School Projects in USA ................................ ................................ ........ 68 B 2 Net Zero Energy: Energy use and solar impact ................................ .................. 68

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10 Abstract of The sis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requir ements for the Degree of Master of Sci ence ENERGY DESIGN GUIDE 50% SAVINGS TO ACHIEVE NET ZERO ENERGY FOR K 12 SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA By Ruthwik Pasunuru M ay 2014 Chair: Charles R. Glagola Co chair: Charles J. Kibe rt Major: Civil Engineering Net Zero energy is a topic that is trending in the construction industry. A sector of this Net Zero movement garnering attention is K 12 public school construction. Compared to other buildings, schools can achieve Net Zero Ener gy status more readily. Few governments have established initiatives to incorporate and implement Net Zero strategies in school design and construction. There are already 20 Net Zero schools in the US and the number is increasing rapidly. The state of Flor ida has many energy efficient schools but a Net Zero energy school has not been achieved in this part of the country. In this study, we discuss energy efficient design strategies for the schools and areas to be targeted in order to reduce the energy consu Advanced Energy Design Guide (Achieving 50% energy savings). Three case studies of popular Net Zero Schools in the country is also included. Energy performance of 5), which can achi eve Net Zero Energy status with some proven and effective practices is also discussed. Further recommendations could eliminate the gap between design and use with the help of

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11 energy modelling and simulation. Renewable energy production is provided by taki ng advantage of the Florida climate zone. The suggestions reviewed and applied in this paper will establish guidelines to all the prospective Net Zero energy schools in general and the Florida based schools in particular.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Problem St atement The planet E arth will have to encounter major challenges i n near f uture. If you think it might be due to some e xtra terrestrial reasons you are wrong. As the population of human beings increased by 7 times in the last 200 years, it is high time for us to conserve and put a stop to exhaustion of limited natural resources on this planet. World commission on environment and development in its report Our Common F uture (1987) ing the If the consumption of resources continue to grow at same pace, s to support our needs. In the statistical summary on Buildings and their impacts (2009), the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presented some key statistics on buildings and their significant impact on environment in United States. Below are some of the important observations: In the year 2005, Buildings consumed approximately 39% of the tot al US energy consumption. Buildings accounted for 72% of the total electricity consumption and is expected to reach 75% by 2025. 2 emissions Construction industry has a key role to play in mitigating the ener gy consumption and thereby reducing the environmental impacts by adopting energy efficient strategies The future of any civilization is predicted by the way their schools function. There are nearly 124,110 Colleges, Universities, primary and secondary sc hools where 84 million

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13 Americans spend part of their weekday s The design and operation of the school building s and their value for sustainability will be reflect ed in day to day work of its occupants. Schools deserve a healthy environment and quality ambi ence to enable information exchange Researches consistently showed that the students under good daylighting facilities score high on the tests compared to their peers. Improved environmental quality, low operating costs, faster payback period, enhanced le arning curriculum are some of the many advantages of Net Zero Schools Research Objectives The p rimary m otivation for this study arose from the fact that NZE School s are not a reality in the state of Florida. The m ain objective of this work is to analyze the energy efficient strategies implemented in the NZE schools across the country and recommending them to other schools which are near Net Zero or Net Zero ready schools in general and the schools in Florida in particular In this process, three prominent Net Zero Schools in United States were chosen and their energy efficient strategies were discussed in detail. The efficient technologies suitable for Florida 12 Schools were also discus sed. Another important goal of the study is to achieve Net Zero Energy Status to (K 5) by discussing and comparing the baseline EUI of the school since its completion and target opportunities to reduce energy usage. Significance and Limitations As this study intended to assist any school board, owner or partner of the schools planning to achieve

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14 Net Zero Energy status for the schools. The sc hools may not onl y conserve energy easily but have an opportunity to go Net Positive by 2030. Net Positive building is a building which exceeds its energy utilization and works as a source of energy for nearby buildings. Reasons supporting this statement a re discussed in the later chapters. All Guide for K 12 Schools. This work discusses the energy efficient policies in design, technology and operations of the school but the cos t analysis of the projects are not carried out. The study is restricted only to School buildings but some strategies may also be very efficient when applied to commercial and residential buildings. Organization of Study The Chapter 2 reviews the literature on the Net Zero Schools ranging from definition to benefits of having them. Current trend s f or schools in United States and De sign Guide for K 12 Schools are also discussed in this chapter. The Chapter 3 deals with various phases involved in designing a Net Zero Energy School. C ase stu dies of three prominent NZE Schools in USA namely Lady Bird Johnso n Middle School, Richardsville Elementary S chool and Richmond P.S.12 School ar e discussed in Chapter 4. In C hapter 5, strategies and resources for Net Zero Energy Schools in Florida and its advantag es are discussed. Chapter 6 will explore all the possible strategies and recommendations involved in achieving Net Zero Status for Meadowbrook elementary school, Gainesville, Florida. Finally C hapter 7 concludes this study

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Background Government and non government organizations are dictating and supporting the rapid implementation of net zero energy strategies in the US Net zero movement has gained momentum in th e last five years as the economic recession moved out of the way. According to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 all new construction in the United States should be net zero energy by the year 2030. As President Obama said on June 200 demand As schools are serving as test platforms for measu ring the technical and economic success of Net Zero Concept, they are leading the way by implementing of energy efficient strategies. Experts predict that there are at least 35 to 50 Net Zero or Net Zero Ready schools in USA and the number is expected to g row in the near future. Several government and Non profit organizations like the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), National Renewable energy Laboratory (NREL), Florida Solar Research Center (FSEC), and Department of Energy (DOE) are playing key role in catalyzing the Net Zero Schools movement across the country. Importing huge amounts of foreign energy sources and plummeting energy prices are some significant factors which contributed to this movement. The commercial and residential buildings use 40% of the total primary energy and almost 70% of the electricity in United States. Schools consume 17% of the total non residential energy consumption. By the improving the energy efficiency in the K 12

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16 Schoo ls an amount of $2 billion can be saved (U.S. EPA, 20 04b; U.S. DOE, 2006). The utility costs are only next to employee salaries thus taking huge toll on the schools exchequer. The average EUI of the schools in US is approximately 68.7 KBtu/sf/yr (U.S.EPA, 2008). Energy consumption should be reduced as much a s possible to make a school Net Zero R enewable energy technolog ies should be installed to offset that energy usage based on respective climatic advantages Definition of Net Zero Energy Building There is no universal def inition for a Net Zero School but v arious organizations across the world have defined NZEB. The framework of NZEB is still vaguely defined which is one of the reasons for it not having a generalized definition. Consideration of including embodied energy and the transportation energy in to t he Net Zero framework is still not properly formulated. (Pless, et al 2010) Below are some of the definitions by various organizations American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) A building which, on an annual basis, uses no more energy than is provided by site renewable energy sources. National Renewable Energy laboratory (NREL) A residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of e nergy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies. Department of Energy (DOE) A building that produces and exports at least as much emissions free renewable energy as it imports and uses from emission producing energy sources annually.

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17 European Commi ssion (EU) The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on site or nearby. Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB): Our defi nition: A building achieves the Energy status, if the energy regenerated by the building with the help of renewable technologies compensate for its ene rgy consumption in a year. NZEB are categorized into 4 types based on the ir source of the r enewable energy. ZEB A : The generated renewable energy is sourced within the building footprint. ZEB B : The generated renewable energy is sourced on site ZEB C : The energy is generated on site with the help of off site resources ZEB D : Renewable energy is purchased from off site sources O ther D efinitions of Net Zero Net Zero Site Energy The energy generated by the renewable technologies installed on site should compensate for the total energy used by the building in a year. (2 1) r = renewable energy produced onsite

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18 Net Zero Source Energy The energy generated by the On site renewable technologies should not only off set the energy utilization of the building but also losses at the utility grid due to conversion and transmission. (2 2) g = energy losses within the utility grid from the conversion and transmission losses r = renewable energy produced onsite Net Zero Energy Cost The total amount paid by the owner to the util ity grid for using the energy produ ced at the grid should be equal to the amount the utility grid pays to the owner for the importing the energy produced by the site or building. (2 3) Where, $m = cost of purchased grid based energy $r = income from renewable energy produced onsite Net Zero Carbon Emissions The on site carbon neutral energy sources should off set or avoid the a mount of carbon emissions occurring at the utility source grid thereby making the sum total of carbon usage Zero. (2 4)

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19 Where, Cm = amount of carbon emitted from grid based energy sources Cr = amount of car bon avoided by on site carbon neutral sources Benefits of having Net Zero School C reating Net Zero Energy Schools will result in numerous benefits. As all the renewable technologies are purchased locally, they contrib ute a lot to the local economy and ther eby creating employment in the neighborhood. According to American Solar Energy Society (ASES 2008), Energy efficient technologies created around 8 mil lion jobs in the year 2006. The schools spend a lot on utility costs but having efficient operations and maintenance plan will reduce those expenses drastically and t he huge amount saved can be spent on other purposes like books and study technology Education under healthy conditions keeps mind active and improves the performance of the students in the tests Providing clean Indoor air quality for students is essential. Many studies suggest that students having good learning environment enhance their academic skills and score higher on tests compared to others. Comparatively, schools can achieve NetZero easil y than other commercial and residential buildings. (Hutton, P. C. 2011) Some of the main reasons are: Less operation hours Long holiday break periods Minimal process loads Long term benefit oriented Owners O n th e financial aspect, the Net Zero Energy Scho ols perform very well and are profitable in the long run. On contrast to general perception, the initial investment cost of an energy efficient school is on par with the conventional school building But the savings on operations and maintenance are quite impressive. As average age of school

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20 buildings is 42 years, it is beneficial for the owners in long run. Life cycle cost of the buildings suggests very fast payback periods and more return on investment. Schools like Lady Bird Johnson Middle School in Texa s saves $250,000 through its NetZero initiatives. More about the School is discussed in later chapters. Net Zero Energy Schools in USA The rapid increase i n the growth of number of Net Zero Energy buildings in US suggests that the market trend is towards t he NetZero Concept. Net Zero energy schools create win win situation to all the parties involved on the projects, ranging from owners to occupants. ( Doo Co nsulting, October 1, 2013) Below table lists some of the Net Zero Schools in the Country. Table 2 1 List of Net Zero Energy Schools in USA Name Location Prairie Hill Learning Center Roca Nebraska Putney School Field House Putney, Vermont Marin Country Day School Learning Resources Center Corte Madera, CA Hayes Freedom High School Camas, Washingto n Evie Garrett Dennis PK 12 School Denver, Colorado Centennial PK 12 School Centennial, Colorado Richardsville Elementary School Bowling Green, KY Kiowa County K 12 School Greensburg, K ansas Sangre de Cristo PK 12 School Mosca, Colorado Lady Bird Joh nson Middle School Irving, Texas Colonel Smith Middle School Fort Huachuca, Arizona George LeyVa Middle School Administration Building San Jose, California Hood River Middle School Hood River, Oregon Locust Trace AgriScience Farm Lexington, Kentucky Apart from the above mentioned schools there are m any NetZero ready schools which are about to achieve Net Zero Energy status. Refer to Appendix B for more information regarding Net Zero Schools.

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21 A 12 Schools Th e A dvanced E nergy D esign G uide for k 12 schools is developed to help the schools in achieving 50% energy savin gs if the building already complies with ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 2004 standard The AEDG K12 school buildings guide is second 50% energy savings guide d eveloped by ASHRAE along with AEDG for small to medium office buildings. This guide was developed by collaboration of ASHRAE, American Instit ute of Architects (AIA), Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES NA ) and the USGBC with the support f rom Department of Energy (DOE).It provides design guidance and recommendations for elementary, middle and high school buildings. It also provides detailed recommendations based on the 8 primary climate zones of the country. These climate zones are categori zed based on the seasonal metrics. Diligent study and thorough implementation of this guide would reduce the energy usage by 50% if the building already complies with ASHRAE/IESNA standard 90.1 2004. This can be applied not only to the new schools but also to those which are undergoing partial or major renovations. The guide has various recommendations and detailed explanation for the ways to implement them. The recommendations applicable to envelope, daylighting, electric lighting, plug loads, kitchen equi pment, service water heating, HVAC, quality assurance were made along with additional bonus savings. Whole building approach or integrated design process is the first and foremost step to be implemented in order to achieve energy savings as all the benefit s of possible synergies can be taken into consideration. Refer to Appendix A for more information on ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide.

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22 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Case Studies of Net Zero Energy Schools From the existing Net Zero Schools, three schools were studied and analyzed in this study. Lady Bird Johnson Middle School, Richardsville Elementary School, and The P.S.62 School are the three schools considered in this study. Various energy efficient design strategies adopted by these schools have been discu ssed. Above mentioned schools are considered based on their location (climate zone), total area and the start year of operation. Lady Bird Johnson Middle School which is located in Irving, Texas is the largest Net Zero School in the country whereas Richard sville Elementary School located in Bowling green, Kentucky is t he First Net Zero Energy School. The third school, the P.S.62 is located in New York and expected to start its operation in fall 2015. Various components of energy efficient designs ranging fr om envelope to HVAC system were detailed in the Chapter 4. Financial costs for installing renewable energy technologies were also mentioned. Considering the scarcity of data on Net Zero Schools at this point of time detailed study on economics of the schoo ls were not evaluated. Energy Modelling In the later part of this study, energy performance of Meadowbrook Elementary School located in Gainesville has been an alyzed. Energy modelling was done with the help of Trane Trace 700 software. Original energy usag e of the school is compared to simulated data for its authenticity. Summer data of the school was not considered while checking the reliability as the data is inconsistent due to construction operations. The actual model was the taken as basis and three mo dels are developed based on energy

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23 efficient design strategies recommended by various guides. ASHRAE 90.1 2007, ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide and finally proposed model which consists of best practices from state of the art were compared. As the scho ol is already performing very efficiently some of the components whose impact is high on energy usage were targeted. Finally, possibility of offsetting the energy consumption with P hotovoltaic system was evaluated Recommendations All the recommendation s mentioned in this study are based on ASHRAE Advanced energy design guide for K 12 Schools. The proposed model developed for Meadowbrook elementary school was based on existing best practices already implemented in the schools. Data regarding existing sta te and amount of PV array installed on the Meadowbrook Elementary School was obtained from Solar Impact. Suggestions were made by considering not only the roof area but also parking lot near school building. the amount of array required to offset the energy consumption.

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24 CHAPTER 4 DESIGNING A NET ZERO SCHOOL The re are several phases involved in designing a Net Zero School that are recommended in AEDG K in of Net Zero School But Net Zero Schools like Lady Bird Johnson Middle School had only 10 to 20 percent more upfront costs. The additional investments are only due to installation o f renewab le energy technologies The cost of these technologies can be reduced by mitigating the EUI of the building and thereby increasing the efficiency of the building. Integrated Design A pproach The first step in this process is integrated design proce ss or whole building approach. Design of NZE School is very challenging and demands highly dedicated team. Collaboration is involved in all the layers of the design, construction and operations phases of the building is known as integrated design approach. It takes skilled team and committed administration to reach the target of achieving Net Zero Status to the school. Charrette which is an intensive workshop to discuss all the issues regarding the building, should be conducted at the beginning of the desig n process. The participants can range from architects, owners, stakeholders, facility managers, construction engineers, cost consultants, contractors, sub contractors and the end users. The benefits of conducting the Charrette are very encouraging. It hel ps to understand the project inside out and various methods adopted to achieve Net Zero by all the people work ing on it. The advantages of energy synergies due to impact of one strategy on another can also be evaluated in this process.

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25 Figure 4 1 Inte grated Design Approach Performance Targets by Adopting Energy Efficient D esign After thorough brain storming sessions, the target performance of the building should be reviewed. The design strategies mentioned in the ASHRAE AEGD K 12 should be implemented, which wo uld decrease the EUI by 50% when compared to the ASHRAE 90.1 2004 standard. Based on case studies, the schools which restrict their EUI below 2 0KBtu/sf/yr can be a Net Zero energy school easily Coordination in implementing the energy efficient st rategies in well designed building is critical. Important aspects like orientation, building envelop e, HVAC system, day lighting, electric lighting plug loads, fenestration should be addressed wi th at most c are. Using ENERG Y STAR rated products, especiall y in the Kitchen, would reduce the utility costs substantially. According to U.S. EPA, 2008b, the schools which use products with Design Team Leader [Architect, Project Manager, Administrat or, Engineer] Teachers, Parents, Students HVAC, Lighting Security, Communicati ons, Fire, Acoustics, Indoor Air Quality Commissio ning Agent Contractor, Cost Consultant Facility/ Building Engineer

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26 ENERGY STAR rating r equire 40% less cost to run when compared to conventional schools High roof and wall insulation of the en velope along with efficient glazing components will have positive impact on the building performance Daylight harvesting strategies with good electric lighting and productive HVAC system will also mitigate the energy consumption of the building. Installat ion of Renewable Energy Technologies Once the target EUI of the building is successfully achieved (<20KBtu/sf/yr) the energy needs can be covered with the help of Renewable Energy Technologies. The team should take advantage of the location of the project and its climate zone while selecting the techno logies for K 12 schools has categorized 8 climate zones based on their seasonal metrics. Each climate zone has its share of energy strategies and recommendations. Energy consultants can be very helpful in reviewing the installation process of technologies Below are most common renewable energy technologies: Solar photovoltaic p anels Photovoltaic panels are a wid ely used renewable energy system which captures energy from sun light and converts it to electricity. Solar energy is the largest renewable energy source in the world. The solar cells in this system converts solar energy into direct current (DC). Then with the help of appropriate power conversion equipment the alternating current (AC) is p roduced. The solar cells are assembled in a series or parallel circuit to produce higher power levels. A typical module consists of 40 solar cells assembled together. The solar panel has one or more modules. Combination of the photovoltaic panels is called an Array. Basing on their operation and distribution PV systems are classified into two types: Grid connected syste m and stand alone system.

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27 Considering the average age of the schools, i.e.42 years, payback periods of this technology is fast. It is less than 20 years after all the rebates and ta x credits. Fi gure 4 2. Renewable Energy Technologies (Nigeria Intel ) Geo exchange s ystems This is a technology that should be implemented in HVAC system. The Geo exchange system is similar to any other electrica lly powered system which is used to heat and cool the interior spaces but it takes to do that Geo exchange heat pump present in this system releases heat into the earth when it is in cooling mode and extracts heat from the ground in hea ting mode. They are classified into various types based on their design and placement. Direct exchange, closed loop, open loop, horizontal and vertical geo thermal heat pumps are some of those. Lady Bird

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28 Johnson middle school uses this technology effective ly by reducing 30% of the total energy consumption. Wind turbines: Wind turbines are used to generate electricity b y converting kinetic energy of the wind to electric energy. Similar to solar PV panels, wind turbines can be connected to the elect rical grid or used as stand alone applications. They can also be connected to solar PV system in some cases. Large number of wind turbines are built closer to each other to form wind farm or wind plant. Wind power density (WPD) is the quantitative measure of the win d energy. It varies with height of the turbine, velocity and density of air. Operations and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance (O&M) and measurement and verification (M&V) are highly significant step s and crucial in achieving N et zero Energy All the oc cupants of the building, ranging from teachers, students and employees should be well educated about the systems installed. Importance of conserving natural resources should be included in the course curriculum. A sense of ownership and the value of the pr oject should be induced in to the culture of the organization thereby making everyone stewards of the Net Zero movement. Proper digital monitoring systems shoul d installed to review the performance of the building. First year performance determines the acc urate efficiency of the building. It may happe n that design occupancy do not comply with actual occupancy of the building. Frequent auditing will enable the facility to run according to design and meet its performance targets consistently. Periodic and pre ventive maintenance will have favorable effect on operational efficiency.

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29 Below are some of the preventive maintenance activities: Minimizing the pressure drops by keeping the HVAC system clean. Fix broken sensors to get authentic feedback from automation systems. HVAC sensors should be inspected to have comfort air quality. Replacing bulbs which are meeting performance levels. Ensuring all pumps and fans are oiled and operating properly. Figure 4 3. Operation and Maintenance cycle Strictly implementing a bove mentioned strategies will play a crucial role in reducing energy consumption and thereby provides opportunity to achieve Net Zero Energy. AUDIT PLAN MEASURE ADJUST

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30 CHAPTER 5 CASE STUDIES Lady Bird Johnson Middle School, Irving, Texas Lady Bird Johnson Middle S chool is the fi rst Net Zero School in the state of Texas and the largest in the country with the total area of 152,250 square fee t. This LEED Gold certified school was opened in the year 2011 and was awarded as the Best K 12 green school for the year 2013 by the Center f or Green S chools at U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). The idea of the school is to reduce, reuse, and recycle by educating future generations and making them stewards of environment. Figure 5 1. Lady Bird Johnson Middle School is the largest Net Zero School in US ( Source: Irving Independent school district)

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31 Table 5 1 Lady Bird Johnson Middle School SCHOOL AT GLANCE Architects Corgan Associates, Inc. Energy Consultant Image Engineering Group Contractor Balfour Beatty Construction EUI 22.8 KBtu/sf/yr Gross square footage 152,250 SF Occupancy 1000 students Project Cost $29,610,423 As a part of energy efficient strategies, the wall and roof insulation are above and beyond the code standards. Fabral wall panels on the exterior walls of the building and metal cladding covering the canopy keeps the building tightly insulated from outside air. The canopy provides the solar shading by covering the west and south facing windows of the building. Highly efficient glazing adopted helps the heat to pass through in winter to maintain the warmth of occupants and reflects the heat in summers. Considering the hot Texas summers, a high ly reflective roof and bright silver color finishing were specified for all the products which helps in reduc ing the heat a bsorption and thereby improves the overall performance of the building. Equipped with g eo thermal HVAC System and building automation systems the 22.8 KBtu/sf/yr which is very low compared to aver age EUI of conventional schools in U.S To offset this energy usage very efficient renewable energy technologies were employed. Lady Bird Johnson is one of those rare schools which have solar and wind renewable technologies on the same site. Solar PV pane ls with rating of 550kW were used to cover a bout 66,000 SF of roof area G eo exchange systems or g eo th ermal pumps which reduce otal energy usage are also installed 468 geothermal wells, each 250 feet deep were connected to 105 heat w ater pumps for

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32 heating and cooling systems. The s chool also utilizes the wind energy by having 12 wind turbines with maximum rating of 28.8 kW. Importa nt observation to be noted is the area of the school has been classified as no wind zone by NREL. The ini tial costs of the school were increased by 15% but the payback period is expected to be 12 15 years. While the initial costs have increased by $3.7million due to Net Zero Strategies, the school is saving $250,000 each year through utility bills Rainwater harvesting, xeriscaping, grey water collection LED lighting in hallways, GREENGUARD furniture and usage of ENERGY STAR kitchen equipment are among other energy efficient strategies. Richardsville Elementary school, Bowling green, Kentucky This 77 ,000 Squa re foot elementary school is the first Net Zero School in United States and was built with construction costs of $14.2 million. Figure 5 2. Richardsville Elementary School ( Source: Sherman Carter Barnhart ) The two story bui lding accommodates 550 students and was designed to be a Net Zero school with the target EUI of 17 KBtu/sf/yr. This project represents the

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33 continuous energy successes of Warren C ounty School district, Bowling G reen, Kentucky. The project was completed in the year 2010. In the process of achieving NetZero Energy status, an integrated design process was implemented by involving school district officials, architectural and engineering design team, the state department of education and power companies around the area. Table 5 2. Richardsvill e Elementary School SCHOOL AT GLANCE Architects Sherman, Carter, Barnhart, PSC Energy Consultant CMTA Engineering Contractor RG Anderson EUI 17 Kbtu/sf/yr Gross square footage 77,000 SF Occupancy 550 students Project Cost $ 14.2 million Single ply membrane with rigid insulation on Metal decking Overall R value=R 32 Reflectivity 95 ICF exterior walls Overall R value = R 28.6 View windows (center of glass) U factor 0.29,SHGC 0.40 Daylighting windows (center of glass) U factor 0.47, SHGC 0. 78 Taking advantage of optimized orientation, Insulated concrete form walls, R 32 insulated roof high performance building envelope is designed. Richardsville elementary is the first school in the district to utilize the daylight harvesting Light shelve s, clerestories in each classroom and main hall, and skylights are some of their efficient lighting strategies. Substitu ting desktop with laptop computers and usage of ENERGY STAR rated kitchen have contributed to reduction in energy usage. To mitigate the energy usage various energy efficient strategies technologies ranging from geo exchange systems, geothermal hot water and energy recovery are employed. Dedicated outside air system (DOAS) delivers the outside air directly into the

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34 classroom unrelated to h eat pump system. Demand control ventilation is coupled with DOAS to further reduce the energy consumption. Richardsville Elementary S chool is one of the few schools which use thin film flexible PV instead of rigid panels. The t otal cost of the 394 KW PV pa nel system which covers roof and parking lot is $ 2,650,000. The school also boasts of some innovative technologies like mobile computer carts which eliminated the need for a separate computer lab area of 1200sf thereby reducing th e utility costs. To moni tor and verify system was also designed. The School has themed some portions of the building based on various energy efficient techniques implemented as part of educational awareness. For example, the w ater co nservation hallway is where students can see the amount of water collected through rain wat er harvesting and how much is utilized for flushing toilets. Likewise, they have solar, geo thermal and recycling hallways. With all the above mentioned strategies, the S chool has 75% energy redu ctions over ASHRAE 90.1 2004 Post occupancy the EUI of the school is 1.55KBtu/sf/month which is close to the target performance (17KBtu/sf/yr). The school also sells the power generated by thin and crystalline solar panels to Tennessee Valley A utho rity, the local utility company, earning $ 37,000 every year. Efficient kitchen cooking strategies, operation and maintenance plan and materials reuse are among the other strategies. The P.S.62 School Staten Island, New York Located on a 3.5 acre site area, P.S.62 Richmond is the first ever Net Zero Energy School in New York and Northeast United States. The construction and design of the school was launch ed in October 2012 and will open for use in fall 2015. It offers a

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35 50% energy re duction over a New York City Standard Construction Authority (SCA) normal public school. Figure 5 3. The P.S.62 School (Source: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill) The b uilding envelope is ultra insulated with R 23 precast concrete wall s and rigid insulat ion between panels. Maximum benefits are gained by adopting optimized orientation and high performance envelope. By taking advantages of the sunlight, adequate daylighting strategies such as occupancy sensors, dimmable and skylight fixtures are designed. W ith open staircase between the two floors, the amount of light infiltration is improved. Highly efficient HVAC system with geo exchange systems, energy recovery ventilation (ERV) and demand control ventilation to specific areas are employed to maintain goo d indoor air quality and comfort ventilation. A vegetable and

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36 greenhouse garden, low energy kitchen equipment are some of the other energy conservation strategies. Table 5 3. The P.S.62 School data BUILDING AT GLANCE Architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) Energy Consultant AKF Group, In Posse LLC Contractor Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) Gross square footage 68,068 SF Occupancy 444 Students Project Cost $58,000,000 A huge array of 2000 photovoltaic panels rating 60 6 kW will cover the roof and the S outh faade of the building is expected to generate 1.9 million KBtu of energy per year. Solar thermal hot water system is designed to serve 80% of Domestic hot water (DHW) needs. This public funded school is completely built on a green space

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37 CHAPTER 6 STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES FOR NET ZERO ENERGY SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA The Sunshine S tate with its distinctive climate and superior levels of solar radiation c an be the nationwide leader in implementation of N et zero energy scho ols. In 2011, the state ranked third in net electricity generation from solar energy. The government has been committed to implement ing energy efficient strategies in the public schools in the last 10 years. But lacking proper initiative s and the participa tion of school boards, Net Zero Energy School is still not a reality in this part of the country. This chapter reviews the climatic advantages and energy efficient strategies that can be adopted in Florida. Energy Strategies for Educational F acilities in F lorida Major energy end uses in schools statewide are lighting and HVAC systems. Due to very hot summers, the cooling loads of the buildings are quite high. Beginning with orientation of the b uilding to completely offset the energy usage with renewable en ergy technologies, various strategies should be implemented to make a school NetZero Energy. Some of them suitable strategies for Florida one are discussed below. Refer to Appendix A zone. Or ientation The building orientation is the first step in the process of constructing energy efficient building. The East/ West axis building orientation to maximize north and south exposure is optimum for daylight harvesting and reducing heating and cooling loads of the building. The variation of 15 0 is acceptable and has same efficiency of East/West

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38 orientation. This kind of orientation helps in reducing the heat gains in the summer while Envelope In order to ga in maximum benefits the Envelope should be highly insulated making it air tight. Cool roofs with a high Solar Reflectance Index (SRI>=78) should be preferred in hot climates to dark roofs. Well insulated walls with high resistance value such as Insulated C oncrete Form (ICF) walls will help i n keeping the resistant from solar heat gains. Also glazing on the East and West facades of t he building should be minimized by designing more openings on North and South exposure as sun control devices are not very effe ctive. In Florida, North exposure get s less direct solar radiation which enables it to have less heat gains. Whereas south exposure gets intense heat but winter thereb y reducing the heating loads. Reflections from adjacent building surfaces, tree s or wal ls should be considered at the d esign phase as they might have considerable impact on heat gain and shading strategies. Harvesting the daylight should also be considere d at the design face. Design team should consider putting clerestories, roof monitors for vertical fenestration of the building. If the sloped glazing opening is less than 70 0 then it falls under sky lighting category. The properties of glazing products su ch as visible transmittance (VT), solar heat gain Coefficient (SHGC) and U factor should be chosen based on the climate zone recommendati ons by AEDG. Refer to Appendix A for more information. Massing Decreasing the c arbon footprint of the building is anoth er very important target Reduction in footprint and good orientation will reduce the energy consumption by 10%.

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39 For example, a Two story building is more efficient than one story building given both has same foot area and orientation. But it should also b e understood that massing will be counter productive after three levels. Lighting Daylight harvesting and a high efficiency lighting system are common practice s for all the new energy efficient schools. Adopting this strategy should be p l anned in the desi gn stage of the project. Electrical lighting energy should be reduced by maximizing the natural lighting. Design should ensure that building is day lit for at least 60% of the hours of school operation (AEDG) Areas like classrooms, cafeterias, administrat ive offices and multipurpose rooms should be considered for daylighting. Minimum of 10ft high classrooms should be considered for daylighting. Figure 6 1. Interior Daylighting (Source: CMTA Consulting Engineers) Having clerestories in classrooms and main hall, dimmable fixtures, Skylights, LED site lighting, daylight and occupancy sensors will have huge impact in reducing the lighting loads. Daylight zones can be created inside the north and south facade s of the

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40 building by placing the glazing in location s that reduce the need of lighting fixtures. With the help of Louvers direct solar radiation on the occupants can be eliminated. East and west orientation must be restricted to few windows and for effective results overhangs should be considered on the Sou th faade of the building. On the other side, increasing the glazing areas for excessive daylight may adversely affect the building by increasing the cooling loads. To avoid glare and discomfort for teachers and students, daylighting windows should be pro vided above the 7ft. At the same time, few view windows should be below 7ft allowing visual comfort for the occupants. Designing daylighting for rooms with AV system is bit challenging as it should not cause inconvenience for visual projections Therefore t he balance between the controlled daylighting and cooling loads should be achieved which provides quality and controlled light for the occupants. Target light power densities (LPD) of various spaces in the building like classroom, gym, multi purpose rooms, rest rooms, auditoriums, kitchen and cafeteria have been mentioned in the AEDG recommendations for Florida climate zone. Light colored interior finishes for spaces, high reflectance ancy sensors would have positive impact on the energy savings. All the lighting in the exterior areas like parking lots and drives should be auto reduced to 25% at night. HVAC System Efficient HVAC system will help in reducing the heating and cooling loads of the building. According to AEDG for K 12 schools guide, 3 types of below mentioned HVAC systems can be used. 50% reduction in energy can also be achieved if the existing HVAC system performs better than the suggested systems. HV AC 1: Ground source heat pump with dedicated outdoor air system for ventilation.

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41 HV AC 2: Fan coils with a water chiller, a water boiler or electric resistance heat, and a dedicated outdoor air system for ventilation. HV AC 3: Multiple zone, variable air volume (VAV) air handling units with a water chiller, a dedicated outdoor air system for ventilation, and perimeter or in floor radiant heat located in the occupied spaces. Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHP) It is also known as Geo exchange system This system uses rature to cool or heat the building instead of cooling tower and boiler. In summer, when the temperature of the building is high, it rejects the heat to the ground. In winters, it takes the heat from the ground thereby reducing the heating loads of the bui lding. Geo exchange system is suitable for all climates according to AEDG guide. Though some people may rise doubts about its efficiency in Florida, actual performance of the system is yet to be tested. As mentioned in the earlier chapters, schools like La dy Bird Johnson Middle School reduces 30% of its energy consumption by making use of this system. They have installed 105 geo thermal pumps for the school. All the components are factory assembled which includes refrigerant to air heat exchanger, refriger ant to water heat exchanger, compressor, fan and controls. Fan Coil System In this system each thermal zone is equipped with separate fan coil unit. They are typically installed in the ceiling plenum above the corridor or in the adjacent closet to the spac e. Nevertheless, enough space should be provided for maintenance purposes. In this system, all the coils are connected to centralized water chiller. Centralized water chiller and centralized boiler provides the cooling and heating requirements respectively For the Florida climate zone, it is recommended to use electric resistance heat instead of hot water heating due to minimal heating requirements.

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42 Variable air Volume air handlers In this system, recirculated air is cooled by central VAV air handling unit and then distributed to several individually controlled systems. Dual duct VAV terminal unit is present in every thermal zone. One damper ensures proper ventilation by controlling the outside air from the outside air unit while other cools the primary air from VAV air handling unit to maintain temperature in the respective thermal zone. All the VAV units are connected to central air distribution system. Air handling units are connected to common water distribution system. Water chiller provides the coolin g for the building while hot water coil or electric resistance heater is used for heating. Dedicated Outdoor air systems (DOAS) The DOAS can reduce the energy use by disconnecting cooling, heating and dehumidification of outside air (OA) unit for ventilat ion from sensible cooling and heating in the zone. A separate OA unit is designed to filter, heat, cool and dehumidify the outside air and deliver it. Terminal HVAC systems which are present will heat or cool recirculated indoor air to main temperature. Te rminal HVAC system may include water source heat pump, fan coil unit or dual duct VAV terminals. Apart from this, exhaust air energy recovery, demand controlled ventilation, temperature reset strategies can help in mitigating the overall energy use. P lug L oads Plug loads are energy consumption from electrical equipment such as computers, classroom technology, printers, copy machines, vending machines, and refrigerators Plug loads have been challe nging for the architects as their percentages increases when more energy efficient building technologies are adopted. They account

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43 for 10% 20% of total energy usage without considering the kitchen equipment. The technology design should explore the opportunities to switch off the servers, telecom and television syst coordinator involved in the design process. Practices like encouraging the use of laptop computers instead of desktops and using ENERGY STAR equipment for all the appliances would mitigate the plug loads significantly. Apart from some of the plug loads which are continuous such as re frigerators, security equipment can be powered off or deactivated when not in use. A typical s chool has 180 working days with a 8am to 3pm schedule and it is unoccupied for 75% of the year. Regulating this loads will have a huge impact on the energy consumption of plug loads. Some schools like Richardsville elementary school have a mobile computer lab which eliminates the area for the computer lab and thereby r educing the initial costs of the building. This innovation is possible by just having laptops with wireless network. Similar to lighting, occupancy sensors should be placed in each room to power off the coffee machines, printers, vending machines when not in use. ENERGY STAR rating equipment has this feature in it. It is also recommended for school boards to have policy which requires all the electric devices and appliances should be ENERGY STAR rated. Another category in the plug loads are Phantom loads or Parasitic loads. The electronic clocks, VCR, office equipment with wall cubes contribute to phantom loads. Usually phantom loads consume up to 5% of the phantom loads. These loads can be decreased by directly switching off the devices or powering off the power strip to which

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44 the devices are connected. Occupancy sensor controlled power strips are highly effective to offset these loads. Kitchen Equipment Most of the K 12 schools have kitchens ranging from few appliances to whole kitchen equipment. It is reco mmended have food service manager on board at design phase to reduce the energy consumption of the Kitchen. Implementing the following strategies will provide an opportunity to conserve the energy: Using Energy Efficient Kitchen Equipment All the heat pro ducing appliances such as broilers, griddles should be replaced with combination oven steamers, conventional ovens, microwaves and tilting skillets. Using ENERGY STAR rated kitchen equipment is highly recommended in all categories which include Solid door freezers, dish washers, fryers, hot food, ice machines, solid and glass door refrigerators and steamers. Exhaust and ventilation design systems To minimize the air flow, proper exhaust ventilation system should be designed for which placing of the cookin g equipment and design of hood systems are critical. By reducing the ventilation adequate exhaust flow should not be compromised. Kitchen hood system which include exhaust hood, fan, and ductwork should be designed by food service consultant or mechanical engineer. Reducing h ot water usage Using low flow water flow fixtures will conserve both water and energy. The Hot water design guide for commercial kitchens by FSTC will provide information on having maximum energy savings.

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45 Highly efficient refrigerati on systems Energy efficiency measures in refrigerating systems like automatic door closers to make sure that refrigerator is completely closed, high insulation(R 25 and above), strip curtains to mitigate infiltration and productive internal lighting system should be considered for energy reduction. Impressive savings can be achieved by having the following system technologies in place: Floating head pressure controls Liquid pressure amplifier Sub cooled liquid refrigerant Oversized condenser Mechanical sub cooler Evaporative condensers Operation and Maintenance Operation of the equipment will also have significant impact on the energy. All the freezers and coolers should be shut down during long holiday periods like summer and Christmas breaks. Anticipating the quantity and the kind of food served in cafeteria and reducing the energy consumed to prepare that menu without compromising on the nutrition will have positive impact on the energy savings. Commissioning Commissioning gives an opportunity to inspect all the techniques adopted basing the design and review any chances of improvement. Selecting the design and construction team is very important step in process of having a successful project. Team dynamics have a very key role to play from start to close out of the project. which constitute team member roles, budgets, performance, schedule and other

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46 supporting information. All the key facility operators and users contr ibute to this document. Quality assurance (QA) and Basis of Design (BoD) follow this document. The process of QA make sure that the building performs as per the designed norms. The evaluation process which was adopted for other team members should be appli ed in selection of the QA provider too. Making all the QA activities part of the construction schedule creates a critical path for successful completion of the project without any hiccups. Reviewing the strategies designed and executed by other team which will give broader perspective of the project. Strategies implemented on components like building envelope construction, daylighting, electric lighting, HVAC system, renewable energy technologies should be verified thoroughly before the final acceptance. Te aching tool A Net Zero Energy School serves as a great educational resource for the students who can relate it to day to day activities. Integrating the building design and its energy efficient strategies in the curriculum would make a strong statement abo ut the importance of conserving the resources and protecting the nature. Richardsville elementary school in Kentucky have themed hallways where students can learn, play and operate with the renewable energy technologies. Students studying under good daylig hting facilities and indoor air quality score high grades in tests. Proper energy design strategies have also proved to be enhancing the productivity of the occupants of the building. More than anything, next generation is well educated about the depletion of natural resources and well prepared to make this world a better place to live.

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47 Renewable Energy Technologies It does no t require much imagination to guess that solar energy radiation is the major renewable energy resource in Florida. Tapping the solar energy by installing PV panels will help in offsetting the energy consumption of the school. On the economic side too solar panels are very productive. Considering the average age of School buildings in United States (i.e. 42), schools can save huge expens es on electricity in the long run. The payback period for Solar panels is less than 20 years. Figure 6 2. Photovoltaic Solar Resources of US (Sources: NREL) PV systems can be installed on rooftops, on top of parking lots and also on ground. The ground mou nted PV panels should be installed inside the site boundary But it is highly recommended to restrict PV systems inside the building footprint. Unique

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48 funding opportunities are provided for the schools installing PV panels ranging from rebates by governmen t and local utility firms to grants, loans, incentives and bonds. It is also easy to develop estimates of the panels and evaluating the energy production and payback periods Wind energy is not very effective for Florida climate. Wind power density (WPD) is very low in this climate zone, therefore wind is not a productive option for generating renewable energy. Maps regarding other potential renewable energies by NREL can be found in Appendix A

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49 CHAPTER 7 ANALYSIS OF MEADOWBROOK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENERGY PE RFORMANCE Meadowbrook Elementary School is a public school located in Gainesville, FL w ith latitude of 29 41' a nd longitude of 82 27' This school is one of the 39 public elementary schools in the Alachua Cou nty and began its operation in fall 2012. Th e school serves 600 students from preschool to 5th grade, and has an overall student to teacher ratio of 17:1. The school with the area of 101,476 square foot has a flexible design and is ad aptable to be expanded to serve 200 students for future needs. Th e building creates an educational community based facility that covers wide areas of administration, a dining / multi purpose space for community events, a media center, and classrooms. Figure 7 1. Meadowbrook Elementary School (Parrish McCall Constructo rs) Meadowbrook has the site area of around 20 acres and was built throughout proper civil, architectural design, and preconstruction planning. The main part of the

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50 school includes a 2 story, concrete tilt wall building with bar joists and a mixture of sta nding seam metal roof and modified bituminous roofing systems. Table 7 1 Meadowbro ok Elementary School data SCHOOL AT GLANCE Name Meadowbrook Elementary School Location Gainesville, Florida Owner Alachua County Public Schools Desig ner Schenkel Shultz Architectural Firm Contractor Parrish McCall Constructors Principal Use Elementary K 12 school Occupants Appro ximately 600 students, 50 employees Gross Area 103,500 SF Conditioned Area Appro ximately 85,000 SF Distinctions/Awards 4 Globes Total Cost $16.5 M Cost Per Square Foot $160 Per SF Completion July 2012 The tilt up structure provides a fast approach mechanism with a reasonable cost and offers a durable system that is uniform and thus energy efficient. The panels are c overed by several different finishes, including a clapboard (lap siding) profile, smooth profile, and real brick, set in form liners to simulate a running bond pattern. The MEP systems feature 2 160 ton chillers outfitted with bi polar ionization modules that allow for less outside air leading to higher efficiencies. The school demonstrates its commitment to sustainability by designating green strategies that brought 4 Green Globes (equivalent of LEED Platinum) Certification.

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51 Figure 7 2. Summary of Achi evement from Green Globes Trane Trace 700 Software Trace 700 is an extensive energy modelling software which has proven industry applications and wide range of customer base. TRACE 700 software is the complete load, system, energy and economic analysis pro gram that compares the energy and economic impact of such building alternatives as architectural features, HVAC systems, building utilization or scheduling and economic options. Using this software various alternatives are created to check the efficiency o f energy guides. The changes made in the alternative models are discussed in the later part of this chapter. Actual Energy U sage vs Simulation M odel First and very important step in Energy Modelling is to calibrate simulated data to actual energy usage of the building. Several calibration standards and measurements are used to check the authenticity of the simulated data by comparing it with metered energy usage. In this process, coefficient of variance is calculated and if it falls in the tolerance range a ccepted by following methods then the simulation model is ready to use.

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52 Following are some of the widely used techniques: 2002: Measure of energy and demand savings (ASHRAE Standards Committee 2002) M&V) Guidelines for Federal Energy Projects, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP 2008) 2002) As measure of calibration, all the standards use Coefficient of Variance (CV) derived from Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). They are calculated based on equations 6 1 and 6 2. (7 1) (7 2) Where, M Month, is Actual Energy Consumption of each month N Month, is Simulated Energy Consumption of each month A Month, is the Average monthly energy consumption The range of tolerance for monthly data calibration of CV (RMSE) are 5%,10% and 15 % for IPMVP, FEMP and `ASHRAE respectively. For our study energy data from September to May is considered as summer energy information of the school is inconsistent. From the table 6 1 we can understand that CV (RMSE Month ) satisfies the tolerance range and the simulation data to be used in calibration is reliable. Now this model is considered as Baseline model for carrying out further simulations and comparing the results with various design guides. Finally, an efficient model have been proposed with all th e best practices and high performance products. (Srinivasan, et al,2010).

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53 Table 7 2 Actual and Simulated Monthly energy consumption and CV (RMSE) for Meadowbrook Elementary School Energy Consumption in KWh Month Actual data (M) Simulated data (S) (M S ) Sep 79281 70507 76983076 Oct 65840 59045 46172025 Nov 55840 52701 9853321 Dec 58960 58152 652864 Jan 59440 54483 24571849 Feb 54960 48257 44930209 Mar 54880 54610 72900 Apr 61840 60324 2298256 May 68480 64866 13060996 Total 693313 656737 1306 0996 RMSE Month 4928.325116 CV (RMSE Month ) 8% Figure 7 3. Actual data vs Simulation data of the school 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Actual data Simulated

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54 Actual Model As the actual model used in simulation is reliable, it was used to calibrate energy use for all t he existing design strategies of the school. The type of HVAC, power of lighting systems and subsequent recommendations were established based on the mechanical, electrical plans. This calibration is carried out to determine the energy consumption of vario us end use categories. As shown in the figure below, auxiliary loads which include supply fans, pumps and stand alone base utilizes consume 34% of the total energy. This is followed by plug loads at 27%, cooling at 19%, lighting at 15% and heating at 22%. The building EUI as determined by the simulation was 27.68 KBtu/ft2 year (292.04 MJ/m2 year). When compared to conventional school buildings, i.e. 68 KBtu/ft2 year or 717.43 MJ/m2 year (DOE Building energy databook, 2013) this value is very less. This supp orts the fact that Meadowbrook elementary school is already highly energy efficient. Figure 7 4. Energy End use in Baseline or Existing Model Heating 5% Primary cooling 19% Auxiliary 34% Lighting 15% Receptacle 27% ENERGY END USE

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55 Model Inputs and Assumptions Four major components of the building whose properties have significant impact on the energy consumption of the building are targeted. The components include building envelope, Lighting, HVAC system and plug loads. Applying energy efficient strategies for above mentioned components, based on various design guides, three additional mode ls were developed to compare the performance of the building (Refer to below table). They are: 1) 2) 3) Proposed Model (State of the Art Model) For Models 1 & 2, values recommended in the design guides were use d whereas proposed model was developed by considering all the best possible options to increase the performance of the school. State of art is taken as reference when developing this model. The existing design such as bipolar ventilation is retained in the proposed model as it is considered best possible option compared to others. Envelope Highly insulated envelope would have lower heat gains and thereby reduces cooling loads of the building. For the Florida climate zone, highly insulated cool roof with hi gh Solar Reflective Index (SRI) is recommended to avoid heat absorption. Using R 40 with poly iso cynurate for roof insulation will yield better results as it already being used in some of the other Net Zero Schools. Likewise, using Insulated Concrete Form s (ICF) and R 28 Spray foam insulation for walls is recommended. For window glazing, triple pane low E windows should be preferred which has less U value and Shading co efficient (SC). It should also be remembered that after some point having high insulate d

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56 envelope will yield diminishing results. For example, having using windows with high shading co efficient would reduce the day lighting of the building. Therefore, perfect balance between building envelope and daylighting should be maintained. HVAC Me adowbrook has two Air cooled chillers which supply chilled water to seven AHUs located in different parts of building. The efficiency of two chillers is 1.21kW/ton which is less in comparison to chillers available in market. This can be improved by using h igh efficiency centrifugal chillers with VFD controls having efficiencies in the range of 0.45kW/ton 1kW/ton. The school also uses a Bipolar Ionization system in order to purify air, remove mold, dust, odors and reduce gaseous contaminants like VOCs. The system is very efficient and has reduced the OA requirements to 5cfm/person. Other strategies such as energy recovery systems, demand control ventilation and dedicated outdoor air systems can also be implemented in order to make the school consistent with the Net Zero Energy goal. Lighting Lighting is one of the major factors contributing towards the energy consumption of Meadowbrook. Currently, the school uses a variety of fluorescent and HID lamps for internal lighting. Existing Light power densities of various rooms such as classrooms, conference halls, cafeteria, corridors, and storage rooms have been replaced with this area by retrofitting these lights with high efficient LED lamps having high lumens to watts ratio. Also, the amount of heat generated by LED lamps is much less than the existing ones which would further reduce the cooling loads. The lifespan of the LED lamps is much higher as compared to fluorescent lamps an d thus requires less number

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57 of replacements. Tubular daylighting is another innovative design which can be adopted. Plug Loads Reducing plug loads in the Schools have been very challenging for the designers. As plug loads constitute for 27% of the total en ergy consumption in the actual model, it was addressed by trimming the plug load densities. Actual model of the School estimated the plug load densities as 1.4 W/ft2 which is very high. Benchmarked plug load densities were considered as existing approaches like NREL, ASHRAE 90.1 1989, COMNET are under or over estimating the same. (Ravi Srinivasan et al 2011 ). Assuming 4 computers for each classroom, plug load density of 0.7 W/ft2 is considered for all the classrooms. Also using ENERGY STAR equipment will m itigate the energy consumption of the building drastically. Apart from those systems which require continuous energy like refrigerators and security cameras, other equipment such as printers, coffee machines should be turned off when not in use. Below tabl e shows all the changes made to the existing model by apply ing the recommendations based on the respective energy guides

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58 T able 7 3 Recommendations applied to existing baseline model in comparison with AEDG Guide and Proposed Model Component 90 .1, 2007 Baseline Model AEDG 50%Savings Proposed Model ENVELOPE Roof Wall Window U 0.048 6in. R 20 insulation above deck U 0.124 3.5 in R 13 steel framed wall U 0.75 & SC 0.287 U 0.0 4 68 Tilt up Conc Panel 2.5in R 12 insulation U 0.0693 Viracon Glazing U 0.85 & SC 0.37 U 0.039 R 25 c.i. U 0.064 R 13.0 + R 7.5 c.i. U 0.64, SHGC 0.456, SC 0.525 R 40 with poly iso cynurate insulation R 28 Spray foam insulation Insulated Concrete Form walls Low E, Triple pane U=0.25, SC=0.32 LIGHTING LPD (W/sf) Classroom 1.4 Restroom Kitchen, Cafeteria, conference 0.9 Corridor 0.5 Office 1.1 Storage 0.8 Library 1.2 LPD (W/sf) Classroom=0.5 Restroom=1.36 Corridor=1.46 Office=1.01 Storage=0.8 Cafeteri a= 1 Kitchen=1.2 LPD (W/sf) Classrooms, art rooms, kitchens, media rooms 0.8 Cafeteria, Lobby 0.7 Offices 0.60 Rest rooms 0.5 Corridors & Mechanical rooms 0.4 Usage of LED is recommended to mitigate energy consumption due to high efficacy and life of lamps. PLUG LOADS EPD Miscellaneous Loads=1.4 W/sf EPD Miscellaneous Loads=1.4 W/sf EPD 0.7 W/sf

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59 Table 7 3. Continued Component 90.1, 2007 Baseline Model AEDG 50%Savings Proposed Model HVAC Chillers ASHRAE 62.1 2004/20 07 10 cfm/person No, Rooftop units Bipolar Ventilation 5cfm/person 2 AC Chillers 1.21 KW/ton 0.662 IPLV 10 EER, 12.75 IPLV 11.6 EER, 19.8 IPLV with VFD and VEMA motors

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60 Re sults After calibrating the simulations for all the models, follo wing data was observed. Table 7 4 90.1, 2007 Baseline Model AEDG 50%Savings Proposed Model 35.83 27.68 25.7 22.71 The EUI of the Model have been reduced gradually. The proposed model is most efficient of all with EUI of 22 71 which is almost close to the average EUI of Net Zero Energy schools in US. Figure 7 Proposed model is highly energy eff icient and by adopting more recommendations energy consumption can be further reduced Scope of Photovoltaic Panels to Offset the Energy C onsumption The gap between the proposed target EUI and the net zero energy goal is eliminated by installing photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Meadowbrook 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 EUI of normal School in US ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Baseline model AEDG 50% Savings Average EUI of Net Zero Schools Proposed Model 68 35.89 27.68 25.7 20.63 22.71 EUI in KBtu/sf/yr Path to Net Zero Energy

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61 currently has 183 kW PV array sys tem consisting of 609 Hanwha panels with a capacity of 300W per panel, to produce the above mentioned power. Based on the results obtained from NREL PV Watts calculator, our target EUI of the proposed model requires 500 kW PV modules to completely offset e nergy consumption. Potential Roof Area for PV array I nstallation From the total roof area, six potential areas suitable for PV array installation were chosen based on their orientation which have maximum exposure to Sun. Sum of the six areas is 33,000 sf. Considering about 85% of the available area as some space is required for creating pathways to walk, maintenance and to avoid shading of panels, potential area for PV array installation is 28,050 sf. (Refer to Figure 6 6 and Table 6 5). Therefore, the po tential roof area which is suitable for installation of PV array is 26,400sf. Figure 7 6. Design Builder model showing area suitable for PV array installation

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62 Table 7 5. Potential PV array installation area Area A 4400 SF B 11700 SF C 7000 SF D 3100 SF E 4500 SF F 2300 SF Total: 33000 SF Ratio of panel to total area: 80% PV Panel Area = (80%)(33000)= 26400 SF The current PV array installed on the roof has a low efficiency of about 14% and occupies approximately 18,000 sf. Thus, rou ghly 10,000 sf of south facing area is available for installing additional panels. The energy consumption of the school can be completely offset by installing an additional 317 kW array. Lesser number of panels will be required if higher efficiency modules are used. PV modules available today are about 20% efficient. Thus, using such high efficiency panels and adopting energy efficient strategies as suggested earlier, Meadowbrook has an opportunity to achieve a net zero energy status within the building foo tprint itself. However, if the available roof area is insufficient, a solar carport can be created for the parking lot and could be used as PV system support. The solar carport will also provide shade, which not only protects the vehicles from the harsh e ffects of the sun but down. Having flat roof has more benefits when compared to existing pitched roof. More PV panels can be installed on a flat roof. For Meadowbrook, con sidering flat roof would increase the available area for PV array installation by 60%. If a flat roof is assumed

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63 53,000 sf of roof area is available, that provides 20,000 sf more space than the current roof area Figure 7 7 Existing state of Solar pane ls (Source: Solar Impact) Figure 7 8. Model showing increased roof areas suitable for PV array installation

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64 CHAPTER 8 S UMMARY AND CONCLUSION T he models analyzed in this work indicate d good results after simulation analysis However, it should be noted t hat the results are based on estimated inputs. Trane Trace 700 energy modelling software was used to analyze four s cenarios discussed in this work comprising the actual (existing) situation, ASHRAE 90.1 2007, ASHRAE AEDG 50%Savings, and the proposed state of the art model. The existing model was calibrated and complied with FEMP 2008 and ASHRAE Guide line 14 2002. Less difference between the actual to simulated data is a good indication of the accuracy of the proposed model during operational months of the building. The available data for the Meadowbrook school energy consumption over summer was n ot reliable due to the ongoing construction activities. Therefore, the results generated by the software were considered for evaluating energy consumed in summer Financial expenditure to implement energy efficient strategies has not been discussed in this paper. Further studies can be undertaken to define an optimized balance between the higher upfront costs and obtained EUI, as well as the payback period. test platforms for implementing technic al and financial strategies. We recommend more detailed research on integrating energy and economic policies for schools in Florida which can motiv ate many other schools to achieve net zero energy status.

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65 APPENDIX A ASHR RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLIMATE ZONE 2 Figure A 1. Recommendations by ASHRAE;s AEDG

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66 Figure A Figure A 3. Window glazing pro perties

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67 Figure A 4. Climate Zones in USA Figure A 5. Wind Energy resources in USA

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68 APPENDIX B N ET ZERO ENERGY SCHOOLS Figure B 1 Net Zero School Projects in USA Figure B 2 .Net Zero En ergy: Energy use and solar impact

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69 LIST OF REFERENCES Adhikari R., Aste, N., Pero, C. D., & Manfren, M. (2012). Net zero energy buildings: Expense or investment? Energy Procedia, 14, 1331 1336. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. (2011, September 28). Advanced Energy Design Gu ide for K 12 School Buildings. Retrieved from https://ww w.ashrae.org/standards research -technology/advanced energy design guides/50 percent aedg free download Efficiency, E. Energy efficiency programs in K 12 schools Doo Consulting, LLC. (2013, October 1). Net Zero Schools Report. Retrieved from http://www.abell.org/pubsitems/ed netzeroschools1013.pdf Hutton, P. C. (2011) Zero energy Schools Beyond platinum. Educational Facility Planner, 45(3), 43 46. Florida Power and Light. (n.d.). A ir Cooled Chillers. Retrieved from http://www.fpl.com/business/savings/pdf/chiller_primer_brochure.pdf Interior Daylighting, Reprinted with permission from CMTA Consultin g Engineers, http://www.cmtaegrs.com/index.php/photo gallery/sustainable design/ Kibert, C. J., & Fard, M. M. (2012). Differentiating among low energy, low carbon and net zero energy building strategies for policy formulation. Building Research & Information, 40(5), 625 637. Kolokotsa, D., Rovas, D., Kosmatopoulos, E., & Kalaitzakis, K. (2011). A roadmap towards intelligent net zero and positive energy buildings. Solar Energy, 85(12), 3067 3084. Meadowbrook Elementary School, Gainesville, Reproduced with permission from Parrish McCall Constructors, Inc http://www.parrish mccall.com/index.php/our projects/education/meadowbrook elementary school (April 16, 2014) Lady Bird Johnson Middle School. Courtesy of Irving Independent School District Pless, S. D., & Torcellini, P. A. (201 0). Net zero energy buildings: A classification system based on renewable energy supply options National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Pless, S., Torcellini, P., & Long, N. (2008). Development of Design Guidance for K 12 Schools: From 30% to 50% Energy Sav ings, Pratapchandran S. (2011). Energy Efficient Net Zero Schools. Retrieved from http://www.peterli.com/spm/resources/articles/archive.php?article_id=3109

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70 P.S.62 School Richmond, Staten Island, Reproduced with permission from Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM), SOM, http://www.som.com/news/nyc_breaks_ground_on_first_net_zero _energy_schoo l (October 26 th ,2012) Srinivasan, R. S., Lakshmanan, J., Santosa, E., & Srivastav, D. (2011). Plug load densities for energy analysis: K 12 schools. Energy and Buildings, 43(11), 3289 3294. Srinivasan, R. S., Lakshmanan, J., & Srivastav, D Calibrated simulation of an existing convention center: The role of event calendar and energy modeling software. Upadhyay, N., & Brinkmann, R. (2010). Green local governments in florida: Assessment of sustainability performance. Sustainability Science: T he Emerging Paradigm and the Ecology of Cities, 6(1), 18. US Department of Energy. (n.d.). Buildings Energy Data Book. Retrieved from http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/CBECS.aspx US Envi ronmental Protection Agency. (2011). Efficiency, E. Energy Efficiency Programs in K 12 Schools. A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Retrieved from http://epa.gov/statelocalclimate/documents/pdf/k 12_guide.pdf U.S. EPA. EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE) (2008 Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C., EPA/600/R 07 /045F (NTIS PB2008 112484) Zeiler, W., & Boxem, G. (2013). Net zero energy building schools. Renewable Energy, 49, 282 286.

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71 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ruthwik received his Master of S ci ence degree in civil e ngin eering from the University of Florida in the spring of 2014 He pr eviously achieved his Bachelor of Technology degree in civil engineering degree in 2012 from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University India Even as a child, Ruthwik always had an inclin ation to build beautiful things The passion to build innovative structures was always been his driving force which motivated him to choose civil engineering as his major His interests include Net Zero Energy (NZE), Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Supply chain management. Du ri ng the two years of graduation, Ruthwik has also shown keen interest in the fie lds of economics and finance After graduating from the University, he is planning to work for a company with values in the field of construction and try his luck in the field of entrepreneurship simultaneously. Finally, he hopes to spend his knowledge and energy in a right way which would make the world a better place to live.