Integrated Natural and Built Environment Strategies for Adapting to Sea Level Rise

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Integrated Natural and Built Environment Strategies for Adapting to Sea Level Rise Case Studies, Evaluation Framework, and Application to Coastal Small Towns in Florida
Physical Description:
1 online resource (117 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Zeng, Rong
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.A.U.R.P.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Urban and Regional Planning
Committee Chair:
FRANK,KATHRYN I
Committee Co-Chair:
MACEDO,JOSELI

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
adaptation -- integrated -- sea-level-rise -- strategy
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Global climate change is happening. The resulting rising sea levels particularly put coastal communities at high risk and threaten the long-term sustainability of both the natural and built environments. Coastal habitats, which are significant connections between the land and water, especially for rural coastal communities, are expected to gradually migrate inland in response to sea level rise. However, human interventions such as buildings, roads, and hard shoreline protection structures will potentially impede this process, therefore becoming a critical factor in habitat loss in the future. Given this consideration, adaptation strategies for sea level rise need to be planned ahead in order to balance the tradeoffs between the linked social and ecological systems. This thesis focuses on exploring integrated adaptation strategies to address sea level rise impacts for both the natural and built environments. Two primary research questions were generated: (1) How to enhance the social-ecological resilience of a community in coping with climate change and sea level rise? (2) What are sustainable adaptation strategies for both the natural and built environments in long-term planning? The methodology of this thesis is developed and composed of three parts: first, comprehensive analysis of five case studies to identify the proposed adaptation strategies for different coastal communities and the extent to which an integrated approach was incorporated into each; second, developing an evaluation framework to assess the sustainability of a variety of strategies and the performance of the integrated strategies; third, designing adaptation strategies for the thesis study area Yankeetown-Inglis, Florida, in order to examine the application of integrated strategies.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rong Zeng.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: FRANK,KATHRYN I.
Local:
Co-adviser: MACEDO,JOSELI.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2014
System ID:
UFE0046780:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

INTEGRATED NATURAL AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTING TO SEA LEVEL RISE: CASE STUDIES, EVALUATION FRAMEWORK, AND APPLICATION TO COASTAL SMALL TOWNS IN FLORIDA By RONG ZENG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

PAGE 2

2014 Rong Zeng

PAGE 3

To my parents

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my committee c hair, Dr. Kathryn Frank and c o c hair Dr. Joseli Macedo for their guidance and assistance throughout my thesis work. Dr. Frank is a great mentor who stimulates my interest in e nvironmental p lanning, especially on adaptation planning for climate change and sea level rise. Without her support, I would not have made this ha ppen. T hank you also to Dr. Macedo for her guidance and insight, particularly with regard to the design part of my thesis Both professors have influenced my academic research significantly, and I anticipate that they will continue guiding my future profes sional career. Special thanks to the University of Florida Planning for Coastal Change in Levy County Project h eaded by Dr. Kathryn Frank, as well as to the entire project team. They have always provided an indispensable foundation and valuable informatio n source for my thesis. Finally, I would like to thank my beloved parents for their selfless love and support all the time.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 LIST OF ABBREV IATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 10 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Sea Level Rise ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Adaptation Planning and Resiliency Building ................................ .......................... 16 Adaptation Strategies for the Natural Environment ................................ ................. 18 Adaptation Strategies for the Built Environment ................................ ..................... 20 Protection ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 20 Accommodation ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 Retreat ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 22 Integrated Adaptation Strategies for the Natural and Built Environment ................. 23 Living Shoreline ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Ecosystem Based Adaptation ................................ ................................ .......... 24 Green Infrastructure ................................ ................................ ......................... 25 Landscap e and Ecological Urbanism ................................ ............................... 25 Summary of Literature ................................ ................................ ............................ 26 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 28 Case Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 28 Selection of Cas e Studies ................................ ................................ ................ 29 Vulnerability Assessment ................................ ................................ ................. 30 Adaptation Strategies ................................ ................................ ....................... 30 Adaptation Strategy Evaluation Framework ................................ ............................ 31 Adaptation Evaluation ................................ ................................ ....................... 31 Indicators ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 32 Yankeetown Inglis Analysis and Strategy Design ................................ ................... 35 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ 36 Vulnerabilit y Assessment ................................ ................................ ................. 37 Adaptation Strategies ................................ ................................ ....................... 37

PAGE 6

6 4 CASE STUDIES ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................... 39 Case Study I: City of Punta Gorda, Florida ................................ ............................. 39 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 39 Vulnerability Assessment ................................ ................................ ................. 40 Adaptation Strategies ................................ ................................ ....................... 41 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 43 Case Study II: Town of Groton, Connecticut ................................ ........................... 44 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 44 Vulnerability Assessment ................................ ................................ ................. 45 Adaptation Strategies ................................ ................................ ....................... 46 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 47 Case Study III: City of Lewes, Delaware ................................ ................................ 48 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 48 Vulnerability Assessment ................................ ................................ ................. 49 Adaptation Strategies ................................ ................................ ....................... 50 Conclu sions ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 50 Case Study IV: The State of Maryland ................................ ................................ .... 51 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 51 Vulnerability Assessment ................................ ................................ ................. 53 Adap tation Strategies ................................ ................................ ....................... 54 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 55 Case Study V: San Diego Bay ................................ ................................ ................ 56 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 56 Vulnerability Assessment ................................ ................................ ................. 57 Adap tation Strategies ................................ ................................ ....................... 58 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 61 Strategy Classification ................................ ................................ ............................ 62 Nature Environment ................................ ................................ ......................... 63 Water Qual ity and Supply ................................ ................................ ................. 63 Built Environment ................................ ................................ ............................. 64 Flooding and Stormwater Management ................................ ............................ 65 Resource Based Industries ................................ ................................ .............. 65 Public Outreach and Education ................................ ................................ ........ 66 Strategy Evaluation ................................ ................................ ................................ 66 5 RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR YANKEETOWN INGLIS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES ................................ ................................ ................. 73 Study Area Overview ................................ ................................ .............................. 73 Natural Environment ................................ ................................ ......................... 74 Built En vironment ................................ ................................ ............................. 76 Social and Economic Data ................................ ................................ ............... 78 Vulnerability Analysis ................................ ................................ .............................. 79 Natural Environment Vulnerability ................................ ................................ .... 80 Built Environment Vulnerability ................................ ................................ ......... 83 Observation of Community Input ................................ ................................ ............ 87

PAGE 7

7 Adaptation Strategies Scenarios and Recommendations ................................ ....... 87 Adaptation Strategies Scenario I ................................ ................................ ...... 88 Goals and objectives ................................ ................................ .................. 88 Strategies and recommendations ................................ .............................. 88 Adaptation Strategies Scenario II ................................ ................................ ..... 97 Goals and objectives ................................ ................................ .................. 97 Strategies and recommendations ................................ .............................. 97 Comparison and Summary ................................ ................................ ................... 101 6 CONCLUSION S AND FURTHER STUDIES ................................ ........................ 105 Conclusion s ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 105 Further Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 107 LIST OF REFE RENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 109 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 117

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Indicators for evaluating su stainable adaptation strategies ................................ 3 3 4 1 Comparison of cases and adaptation s trategies ................................ ................. 68 4 2 Strat egy evaluation for case studies ................................ ................................ ... 70 5 1 Yankeetown Inglis habitat and land use changes by 3 feet SLR ........................ 83 5 2 Yankeetown Inglis habitat c hanges in developed and undeveloped dry land s by 3 feet SLR ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 86 5 3 Yankeetown Inglis e xisting developed area affected by 3 feet SLR ................... 86 5 4 Adaptation strategy evaluation of Adaptati on Strategies Scenario I and II ....... 104

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Comparison of maximum and minimum project ions of global SLR by the year 2100 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 16 5 1 Study area of Yankeetown Inglis ................................ ................................ ........ 74 5 2 Yankeetown Inglis 10 meter digital elevation model ................................ ........... 76 5 3 Yank eetown Inglis existing land use s ................................ ................................ 77 5 4 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projection of SLR ................................ ............... 80 5 5 Low lying areas of Yankeetown Inglis ................................ ................................ 82 5 6 SLAMM results of habitat cha nges by a 3 feet SLR scenario ............................. 82 5 7 Yankeetown Inglis a reas lik ely to be changed by 3 feet SLR ............................. 84 5 8 Levy County 100 year sto rm surge ................................ ................................ ..... 85 5 9 Yankeetown Inglis water supply with 3 feet SLR impacts ................................ ... 86 5 10 Adaptation Strategies Scenario I adaptation str ategies for the vulnerable area s ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 95 5 11 Adaptation Strategies Scenario I waterfront design ................................ ......... 96 5 12 Adaptation Strategies Scenario II adaptation strategies ................................ 100

PAGE 10

10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FGDL Florida Geographic Data Library IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability LID Low Impact Development NFIP National Flood Insurance Program NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration SLR Sea Level Rise SLAMM Sea Level Rise Affecting Marshes Model SFHA Special Flood Hazard Area TNC The Nature Conservancy TDR Transfer of Development Rights

PAGE 11

11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning INTEGRATED NATURAL AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTING TO SEA LEVEL RISE: CASE STUDIES, EVALUATION FRAMEWORK, AND APPLICATION TO COASTAL SMALL TOWNS IN FLORIDA By Rong Zeng May 2014 Chair: Kathryn Frank Cochair: Joseli Macedo Major: Urban and Regional Planning Global cli mate change is happening The resulting r ising sea levels particularly put coastal communities at high risk and threaten the long term sustainability of both the natural and built environments. Coastal habitats, which are significant connections between the land and water, especially for rural coastal communities, are expected to gradually migrate inland in response to sea level rise. However, human interventions such as buildings, roads and hard shoreline protection structures will potentially impede this process therefore becoming a critical factor in habitat loss in the future Given this consideration, adaptation strategies for sea level rise need to be planned ahead in order to balance the tradeoffs between the linked social and ecological systems. This thesis focus es on exploring integrated adaptation strategies to address sea level rise impacts for both the natural and built environments Two primary research questi ons were generated: (1) How to enhance the social ecological resilience of a community in coping with climate change and sea level rise? (2) What are sustainable adaptation strategies for both the natural and built environments in long term planning ?

PAGE 12

12 The methodology of this thesis is developed and composed of three parts: first, comprehensive analysis of five case studies to identify the proposed adaptation strategies for different coastal communities and the extent to which an integrated approach was incorporated into each ; second, developing an evaluation framework to assess the sustainability of a variety of strategies and the performance of the integrated strategies ; third, designing ad aptation strategies for the thesis stud y area Yankeetown Inglis Florida in order to examine the application of integrated strategies.

PAGE 13

13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Although global mitigation measures have been taken climate change is posing unavoidable risks and consequences to the natural, social, and economic systems Not ably, s ea level rise is a remarkable consequence of global warming In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projected the global sea level would rise 0.2 to 0.6 meters by the end of this century but has still been criticized for underestimating the situation by not fully taking into account the accelerated ice loss in Antarctica and Greenland (IPCC, 2007; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [ USACE ] 2011). S ea level rise has become a complex problem affecting the long term sustainability of both the natural and built environments. Coastal communities are extremely vulnerable to sea level rise impacts including inundation of low lying areas more frequent and intensive flooding due to storm surge s increased erosion, saltwater intrusion, and loss of wetlands (Snow & Sn ow, 2009). Coastal habitats, which are significant connections between the land and water, especially for rural coastal communities, are expected to migrate inland in response to sea level rise. However, human interventions such as buildings, roads, and hard shoreline protection structures will potentially impede this process therefore becoming a critical factor in habitat loss in the fut ure Although uncertainties remain, the potential changes of these interventions would become an opportunity to help the coastal communities adapt to sea level rise impacts Some of them may choose to retreat inland with higher elevation while others prefer to increase the shoreline armoring to protect the developed area (Fuller et al ., 2011) All these options would potentially affect the health of coastal habitat s as well as the valuable ecosystem services they provide

PAGE 14

14 to the built environment. Give n this consideration, adaptation strategies for sea level rise need to be planned ahead in order to balance the tradeoffs between the linked social and ecological systems. For the time being, adaptation efforts are usually approached from either a built environment or natural environment standpoint rather than an integrated perspective This thesis aims to help draw attention to the concept of integrated strategies for adapting to sea level rise. To address this purpose, two primary research questions we re generated: (1) How to enhance the social ecological resilience of a community in coping with climate change and sea level rise? (2) What are sustainable adaptation strategies for both the natural and built environments in long term planning ? According to this research focus, the methodology of this thesis is composed of three parts: first, comprehensive analysis of five case studies to identify the proposed adaptation strategies for different coastal communities and the extent to which an integrated app roach was incorporated into each ; second, developing an evaluation framework to assess the sustainability of a variety of strategies and the performance of the integrated strategies; third, designing ad aptation strategies for the thesis stud y area Yankeeto wn Inglis Florida, in order to examine the application of integrated strategies.

PAGE 15

15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This review of literature discusses the current planning efforts and strategies that have been proposed or implemented for adapting to sea level rise. First of all, historical evidence of rising sea levels combined with scientific projections for the continuation of this trend is stated as the reason for addressing sea level rise impacts. Second, this chapter elaborates the definition of adaptation planning and the importance of building resiliency for the linked social ecological system in achieving sustainable development. Lastly, various existing adaptation strateg ies for sea level rise are defined and classified into three different contexts as the natural, built, and both natural built environment s The classification of adaptation strateg ies help s to identify the current role of integrated strategies in adaptation planning process and the differences to other types of strategies This in turn will provide a foundation for further assessing the integrated strategies and applying them in practice. Sea Level Rise The g lobal mean sea level has risen since the 20th century and is expected to accelerate during the 21th century due to global warming ( Nicholls & Cazenave, 2010). The increased sea level is mostly coming from the expansion of seawater as the ocean warms and the water from melted ice and land water reservoirs (Nicholls & Cazenave, 2010). T hough just how much the sea level will rise remain s uncertain scientific measurements and projections can help predict the rate at which it may rise Sea level rise projections can vary under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios, depend on a variety of factors, and differ from region to region. Fi gure 2 1 shows a comparison of maximum and minimum projections of the global sea level rise by the year 2100 from

PAGE 16

16 diverse authors or publications ( U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [ USACE ] 2011). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers guidance also estimates a 1.5 to 5 f oot rise in sea level by the year 2100 (USACE, 2011) Figure 2 1. Comparison of maximum and minimum pr ojections of global SLR by the year 2100 Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 201 1 Rising sea level is expected to cause a number of negative effects: inundation of low lying coastal regions; more frequent and intensive flooding during storm events; increased coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion into groundwater; damage of coastal properties and infrastructure; and losses of coastal wetlands and forests (Bedsworth & Hanak, 2010; Nicholls & Cazenave, 2010 ; FitzGerald et al ., 2008). Adaptation Planning and Resilienc y Building Two fundamental responses have been initiated to reduce climate change and sea level rise risks : mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation means alleviating the global warming tendency through reducing greenhouse gas emissions ( Fssel 2007). Adaptation is defined as the adjustment in ecological social, or economic systems in

PAGE 17

17 response to actual or expected climate stimulus and their effects or impacts (Smit, 2003 p. 879 ). The adjustment s include reducing vulnerability for communities or regions, as well as increasing capacity to accommodate potential impacts. Although traditionally mitigation has received much more attention than adaptation, increasing consideration of adaptation is needed ( Fssel 2007). In addition to employing mitigation approaches globally to alleviate sea level rise risks by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adaptation measures can b e taken at the local or region level to cope with increased impacts However sometimes mitigation and adaptation measures will be implemented against each other (e.g. the increased use of air conditioning), but can also benefit each other by alleviating climate change impacts simultaneously (e.g. coastal wetland restoration) ( Fssel 2007; Moser, 2012). Adaptation planning and strategies usually work by reducing vulnerability to altering conditions or by increasing adaptive capacity or resiliency ( Bedsworth & Hanak, 2010). Adaptive capacity refers to the potential or ability of a system, region, or community to adapt to the effects or impacts of climate change (Smit, 2003, p. 881). It can be evaluated in terms of the social, economic, technologica l, and institutional conditions of the environment in which adaptation measures are taken (Smit, 2003). The practices for increasing adaptive capacity or resiliency can be considered the same as those for sustainable development (Smit, 2003) Building resilience is the new framing for adaptation to in tegrating the dynamic changes i n the linked social ecological system (Boyd & Cornforth, 2013). Before exploring ways for resiliency building, i t is important to understand the link between the social and e cological systems. Many scholars have discussed the ir

PAGE 18

18 interrelationship s (Berkes & Jolly, 200 2 ; Folke, 2006; Wilkinson, 2011). For example, ecosystem services is one of the primary bridges between the two systems, which can be defined as the conditions an d processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life (Daily, 1997 p. 3 ), or put more simply the benefits people get from ecos ystems. This correlation is especially obvious in the rural coastal communities, wh ich typically contain abundant natural resource s The ecosystem service s in these areas essentially connect the social and ecological systems through logging fishing, and other water related industr ies. B uilding resilience is crucial to adaptation for the linked social ecological system (Wilkinson, 2011). There are several avenues of research focused on the social ecological resilience. Walker et al. (2 004 ) defined the social ecological resilience as the capacity of a system to absorb di sturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function structure and feed backs, and therefore identity, that is, the capacity to change in order to maintain the same identity (Walker et al 2004, p. 4). Alth ough it is not a concept lasting for a long time, Wilkinson (2011) argued that planning needs to pay more attention to the social ecological resilience because it can be another way to achieve sustainable development. Furthermore, building resilience to both social and natural communities is an effective way to address complex problems like climate change (Tompkins, 2004). Adaptation Strategies for the Natural Environment Climate change is grad ually and increasing ly affect ing forests and other natural systems and their biodiversity ecosystem service s, and goods. The United States Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) studied 21 synthesis and assessment products (SAPs) for understand ing the changing climate and how societ ies can mitigate

PAGE 19

19 and adapt to its impacts. Among th e products they are studying on, SAP 4.4 reviewed and summarize d the possible adaptation options for natural environments including nation al forests, national parks, nation al wildlife refuges, wild and scenic rivers, nation al estuar ies, marine protect ed areas ( Blate et al. 2009, p. 57 ). To sum up the key points from SAP 4.4 (Kareiva et al. 2008), it is crucial to start consider ing climate change adaptation by clarify ing and analyzing management goals, assessing climate change impact s, and characterizing uncertaint ies. A variety of adaptation options have been used to tackle other environment al stressor s but adjustment may be needed when coping with climate change. Th ese adaptation options include: Protecting key ecosystem features that form the underpinnings of a system; reducing anthropogenic stresses that erode resilience; increasing representation of different genotypes, species, and communities under protection; increasing the number of replicate units of each ecosystem type or population under protection; restoring ecosystems that have been compromised or lost; identifying and using appropr iate habitats as conditions change. ( Kareiva et al. 2008, p. 326) In order to address climate change, removing or reducing non climate related stresses can be the most critical strategy to enhance resilience to climate change (Lawler, 2009). D ecreasing an thropogenic stresses such as development, pollution, and overfishing is considered to be an effective approach to promote resilience in response to climate change ( Kareiva et al 2008). For instance in order to increase the resilience of rivers to protect key riparian zones, shifting or moving existing public access to habitats or waterfronts could be a helpful approach ( Kareiva et al 2008). One way of promoting resilience in national parks is to remove hard structures on coastlines to facilitate natural reg eneration and inland migration of wetlands Some have suggested expand ing existing reserves or protected areas to allow movement of species and systems (Noss, 2001). C oastal systems particularly require

PAGE 20

20 larger reserves to allow for the species to migrate inland when the sea level rises (Lawler, 2009). This will not only require larger reserves, but also new reserves in the right locations. S ome recent research and discussions explore increasing the connectivity of fragmented habitats for species moving in response to climate change (Noss, 2001; Hulme, 2005). The approaches for increasing connectivity include the design ation of wildlife corridors, plac ing small stepping stone reserve s between larger preserve s, and enhanc ing the management of water s or lands between the protect ed areas to f acilitat e sp ecies movements (Lawler, 2009). Adaptive management tend s to be an important and effect ive way to implement climate change mitigation strategies (Kareiva et al. 2008; Lawler, 2009). In consideration of the uncertaint ies of climate change, adaptive management applies a more iterative path through continuous learning and monitoring. The primary proces s of adaptive management involves assessing potential climate change impacts and implications, design ing and implement ing management approaches, monitoring and evaluating management effectiv eness, and finally redesign ing and improving management approach es as needed (Kareiva et al. 2008). Adaptation Strategies for the Built Environment Three primary adap tation strateg ies have been discussed for the built environment in addressing sea level rise impacts specifically They are protecti on, accommodation, and retreat Protection Protection strategies currently can be achieved through structural or non structural approaches to mitigating sea level rise impacts while keeping important structures or infrastructure along the coast that cannot be altered, such as downtown

PAGE 21

21 areas, important roadways and historical districts (FDEO, n.d.; CSA International, 2008) techniques ( e.g. seawalls, dikes, bulkheads, and riprap s ) to stabilize and protect the shore (CSA International, 2008). E fforts also have been made in many cases to prevent communities from storm s urg es, flooding, and other hazards such as i nstallations of protection structures (e.g., levees, floodgates, and storm surge barriers ) and improvements of infrastructure (e.g., storm sewers ) to control stormwater runoff. Beach nourishment or the building of sand dune s and marshes are common approaches for non structural protection (CSA International, 2008). Beach nourishment with other structural protection. However, since beach nourishment usually requires a large amount of sands with specific sources, the cost of beach nourishment will be very expensive. The b uilding of sand dune s and marshes by reusing dredge material is another option to buffer the rising sea level s But this strategy needs further studies and demonstration to determine its effectiveness (CSA International, 2008). Accommodation Accommodation is a different type of adaptation strategy ; it is the attempt to maintain existing pubic infrastructure or private propert ies at risk from sea level rise. However, u nlike protection strateg ies that rely on external barrier s accommodation strateg ies usually employ design methods to protect developed areas from sea level rise impacts. Commonly used accommodation strategies include elevated grade surface, elevated structure, and floating structure ( Hirschfeld & Holland 2012 ). Elevated grade surface involves the raising of building pads or foundation walls typically in new structures or infrastructur e Elevated structure involves lifting the existing building to

PAGE 22

22 allow for water flows beneath the structure. Floating structure is the anchoring of the structure on the wate r (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). Adaptation strategies can also be achieved through enhancing building codes and resilient designs to maximize the capacity of structures to confront flooding (Grannis, 2011). For example, the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) currently requires certain minimum design requirements of construc tion in zones in Special Flood Hazard Area s (SFHA). However, the resilient design approach will be easier to apply to new construction than to existing development (Grannis, 2011). Setbacks and buffers are also considered as accommodation strategies in whi ch certain zones are left undeveloped to prevent the adjacent inland from flooding and storm surges. T he buffer zones retain natural features and provide important benefits such as water filtration flood water buffering and recreational opportunities ( Grannis, 2011). They can be achieved through zoning and land use restrictions (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). Retreat Retreat strategies generally involve the removal or rel ocation of existing development to other area with less vulnerability an d the prohibi t ion of future new development in the vulnerable area Feasible options include T ransfer of D evelopment R ights rolling easements, purchase of development rights, and conservation easement (FDEO, n.d.). Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) is a market based tool shift from sending areas where local governments want to discourage development to areas where local governments want to increase development The property owners in sending areas can sell their development rights to other p roperty owners such as those in receiving areas to increase development densities (Grannis, 2011). In addition,

PAGE 23

23 governments could also use subdivision ordinances to restrict new development in the vulnerable area and encourage cluster development in the up land and safer area (Grannis, 2011). Rolling easement is defined by Titus (1998) as a tool that allows construction near to the shore, but require s the property owner to recognize nature s right of way to advance inland as sea level rises (p. 1316). In g eneral, rolling easement acts as law enforce ment to remove private structures after a certain length of time once private structures become public lands as habitat migrates inland in response to rising sea levels ; if properties remain standing, temporary rent will be charged. Rolling easement can be used in combination with other adaptation options such as elevation or setback s (CSA International, 2008) As retreat options often relate to the acquisition of private properties in vulnerable areas by public entities it is essential to consider the current legal framework of property rights at the local level The costs for compensation and relocation can be very high, so retreat strategies are recommended to use in combination with other protection or accommodation strategies and to apply in the most vulnerable a rea (CSA International, 2008). Integrated Adaptation Strategies for the Natural and Buil t Environment Adaptation strategies for both the natural and built environment s which can be regarded as integrated adaptation strategies aim to mitigate sea level ris e impacts to developed area s and residents, while minimizing the negative effects to the natural environment Living shorelines, ecosystem based adaptation, green infrastructure, and landscape or ecological urbanism are currently proposed integrated strategies. On the other hand, integrated concept can refer to the coordination of various natural or built

PAGE 24

24 adaptation strategies in a balanced way to reduce neg ative impacts on both systems simultaneously Moreover, using natural features to protect a commun ity from sea level rise impacts can in turn help improve the quality of life of the community and enhance its identit y and sense of place. And after all, people are likely to live on the coast to enjoy the beac hes, vistas, and natural areas. Living Shoreline The l iving shoreline strategy is an erosion control approach to increasing sedimentation or reducing water action through revegetation and restoration with little hard structure protections (CSA International, 2008). Mainly this strategy relies on a variety of plants and vegetation, sands, and rocks to protect coastal habitats and stabilize the shores. The benefits of living shoreline strategy include t hat it restores or enhances natural shoreline habitats; and helps maintain costal processes through the strategic placement of plants, stone, sand fill and other structural and Ecosystem Based A daptation Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EBA) has been receiving more attention in recent years. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provided a general adaptation strategy to help people and communities adapt to the negative effects of e t al. 2012, p. 8). S pecifically, EBA uses natural resources to protect human resources from climate change impacts by delivering ecosystem service s continuously (Jones et al. 2012). According to Jones et al. (2012) important services that help human com munities to adapt to climate change include disaster risk reduction, sustainable water management,

PAGE 25

25 food security, and livelihood diversification. Using nature to reduce impacts of climate change and resulting natural disasters has been proved to be effecti ve in various studies; for example coastal marshes and mangrove forests can help dissipate storm surge impacts and slow down coastal erosion (The Nature Conservancy, n.d.; Jones et al ., 2012). C oral reefs can help reduce more than 85 percent of the wave energy along the coast, substantially protect ing coastal communities from erosion and storm surges (The Nature Conservancy, n.d.). Moreover, EBA is likely to be a more cost effective approach than other hard protections such as seawalls or dams u sually bui lding these structures is more expensive than conserving or restoring existing habitats (Jones et al. 2012) Green Infrastructure Green infrastructure basically involves using eco roofs, green alleys and urban forestry to increase sustainability and improve quality of life. Green approaches have been seen as a best practice when used in combination with grey infrastructure to build resiliency and adapt to climate change impact s (Foster et al 2011). The benefits of green infrastructure include improv ing stormwater management preventing flood s and storm surge s conserving water, and reduc ing urban heat island effects (Foster et al ., 2011). Low impact development (LID) is a green technique for stormwater management that relies on natural systems instead of storm sewers t o control stormwater. Landscape and E cological U rbanism Landscape urbanism is a relatively new theory that emphasiz es the significant role of landscape as an initiative in urban design. Though the exact definition of landscape urb anism is still elusive and examples of this concept are rare, some

PAGE 26

26 distinguished projects have used landscape as a critical element in their work, such as Brooklyn Bridge Park s effort to apply ecological treatment for stormwater management. Landscape urba nism offers a new way of thinking to reexamine the connections between natur e and place and to provide a more flexible approach to deal with specific problems of urban condition (Gray, 2011). Ecological urbanism is an other concept that aims to use a more holistic ecological approach to create a new urban aesthetic that between ecology and urbani (Mostafavi & Doherty, 2010, p. 17). Summary of Literatur e The literature review of current adaptation planning and strateg ies reveals that the integrated approaches to enhancing resiliency for the both natural and built environments is critically important to address sea level rise impacts in a long term sustai nable way However, the co ncept of integrated adaptation strateg ies is still nascent and limited examples have been implemented The majority of studies researched adaptation strateg ies for the natural or built environment separately but few of them identified or considered adaptation strateg ies with a more social ecological approach w hereas indeed climate change and sea level rise is affecting the natural and built environments simultaneously. Although some adaptation strategies can protect human com munities against sea level rise impacts, they will cause or aggravate negative impacts to the natural environment such as installation of hard protection structures These negative impacts in particular, would be more obvious in rural communities because they hold larger natur al areas along the coast. Therefore, in order to further evaluate the pros and cons of different adaptation strateg ies and explore the potential of integrated strategies in sustainable adaptation

PAGE 27

27 planning, it is necessary to formulate a process and criteria for assessing a series of strategies. The following chapter will discuss the methodology this thesis used to evaluate different adaptation strateg ies that derive from five ongoing adaptation projects and the process used to develop adaptation strateg ies in practice for the thesis study area.

PAGE 28

28 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This thesis aims to identify and assess integrated adaptation strategies for both the natural and built environments to address sea level rise impacts f rom a sustainable perspective. T wo primary research questions were generated: (1) How to enhance the social ecological resilience of a community in coping with climate change and sea level rise? (2) What are sustainable adaptation strategies for both the natural and built environments in long term planning ? G i ven this research focus, the methodology of this thesis is developed in and composed of three parts: first, comprehensive analysis of five case studies to identify the proposed adaptation strategies f or different coastal communities and the extent to which an integrated approach was incorporated into each ; second, developing an evaluation framework to assess the sustainability of a variety of strategies and the performance of the integrated strategies; third, designing ad aptation strategies for the thesis stud y area Yankeetown Inglis Florida, in order to examine the application of integrated strategies. Case Studies Case study is a prevalent qualitative research method, which is characterize d by a ver y flexible and open ended technique of data collection and analysis (Grinnell, 1981, p. 302). In this thesis, a collection of c ase s were carefully selected to identify their adaptation planning processes and proposed strategies for adaptation to sea level rise. The purpose of analyzing a variety of cases is to illustrate adaptation strategies for the built, natural, and both environments, as well as to understand their applications and feasibilities According to Kumar (2011), the assumption of case study design is that the

PAGE 29

29 selected case is either extremely representative or highly a typical so that a single case can define the prevalence of a certain group of cases. Therefore, the selection of cases is very important to the validity of the final result Fiv e cases were selected based upon their geograph ic location s, vulnerability to sea level rise, and adaptation planning efforts. The analyses of the five cases include their adaptation planning goals and processes, detailed adaptation strateg ies, outcomes, and implementation if available. The data and information collected for the analyses generall y came from their adaptation plan s, government document s, journal a rticles, and relevant websites. Selection of Case Studies Important criteria were considered in the selection of cases including sea level rise impacts, geographic locations, natural and built conditions, and communit y characters that are comparable to the thesis study area Yankeetown Inglis Five cases that currently have climate change and sea level rise planning in place were examined: the City of Punta Gorda, Florida; the Town of Groton, Connecticut; the City of Lewes, Delaware; the State of Maryland; and San Diego Bay The first three citi es and towns were selected to analyze the adaptation planning efforts at the local level, while the other two examples were chosen to examine the adaptation strategies from a broader state or regional perspective As adaptation and management of natural en vironment are usually undertaken at a larger scale, evaluation of adaptation strategies at the state and regional level s can help to fully understand the integrated concept. T h ough the five cases are regionally separated sea level rise ha s posed similar r isks to these communities, including inundation and flooding, degraded water quality and supply, and loss of habitat s and properties. Some of the communities, such as the City of Punta Gorda and the City of Lewes have already implemented

PAGE 30

30 adaptation and mitigation strategies in their communities However, their implemented strategies differ in terms of their own goals and objectives. Identifying various adaptation strategies from a series of cases will help further examine the advantages and disadvantages of different adaptation strategies. Vulnerability Assessment Assessing vulnerability to sea level rise i mpacts is a common process that all five cases have implemented. In examining the methodology and outcome of vulnerability assessment for each community it is helpful to understand the general concerns and issues these cases have addressed, as well as to examine what strategies they used against each vulnerability. On the other hand the methodology of vulnerability assessment these cases used c ould also provide a reference and comparison for analyzing the vulnerability in Yankeetown Inglis area. Adaptation Strategies The analysis of five case s aims to illustrate their proposed adaptation strategies for the built, natural, and integ rated natural built environment at different scales Although sea level rise threatens coastal communities in a similar way the design of adaptation strategies can vary due to the character s and specific concerns of an individual community Th is a nalysis also i ntend s to examine if these cities or regions employed any integrated concept in developing th eir strategies, and if any similarity of conditions that Yankeetown Inglis may share. An evaluati on framework that derived from the literature review will then be used to determine the degree to which the strategy contributes to the sustainable goal.

PAGE 31

31 Adaptation Strategy Evaluation Framework The purpose of this thesis is to explore integrated adaptation strategies for the linked social ecological system in addressin g sea level rise impacts. The analysis of five cases will offer a variety of adaptation strategies, but not all of them are derived from an integrated standpoint. In order to further explor e the pros and cons of different strategies and examin e the potenti al of integrated strategies, an evaluation framework with identified indicators will help assess whether the strategy promotes the resilience building in achieving sustainability Moreover, understanding the attributes of diverse strategies will assist in designing integrated adaptation strategies for the study area Yankeetown Inglis. Adaptation Evaluation A variety of approach es have been develop ed for evaluating the success of adaptation Smit and Lenhart (1996) argued that the effectiveness of adaptation measure s can be evaluated by its capacity to reach a set of adaptation goals and objective s. However, Adger et al (2004 ) stated that the success of adaptation should not be measure d only by the set objective s because one successful action for one objective may generate negative impacts to other spatial scales or systems. They argued that adaptation can be assessed by four policy appraisal principles: effectiveness efficiency, equity and legitimacy while difficulties and uncertainties of assessme nt remain (Adger et al 2 004 ). In addition there are some evaluation methods from other perspective s. Tol et al. (1999) argued that, in terms of a disaster management perspective policies need to be assessed with regard to econom ic viability public acceptability environment al sustainability and behavioral flexibility

PAGE 32

32 W i th respect to the research focus in this thesis, the methodology of evaluation and criteria setting need to be develop ed from a more linked social ecological perspective T he select ion of criteria and indicators will also guide the creation of adaptation goals and objective s for the pilot area Yankeetown Inglis. Indicators The key consideration of selecting the indicators is what factors would contribute to the resilience building of the social ecological system for long term sustainability Thus, the sustainability indicators could be critical in shaping the evaluation framework (Tompkins et al. 2010). Three evaluation framework s were selected and synthesized to design sustain able indicators for this research : the adaptive co management evaluation framework from P lummer and Armitage (2007), sustain able rural livelihood s indicators from Scoones (1998), and evaluation framework from San Diego Bay Adaptation Strategy (Hirschfeld, 2012) Plummer and Armitage (2007) identified three component s for assessing adaptive co management in the linked social ecological system : an ecological component an econom ic component approach ed using a sustainable livelihood s framework and process component that draws attention to the role of institution s and power (Plummer & Armitage, 2007 p. 65 ). Scoones (1998) identified five primary indicators for evaluating sustain able rural livelihood s. They are creation of working days, poverty reduction well being and capabilit ies, livelihood adaptation vulnerability and resilience, and natural resource base sustainability 6) Furthermore, according to specific issues and conditions of climate change and sea level rise, another ev aluation framework from the San Diego Bay Adaptation Strategy (Hirschfeld, 2012) was referenced to fill gaps in the previous two frameworks.

PAGE 33

33 A set of questions was considered to create indicators: Does the strategy can help to reduce GHG emissions? Is the strategy flexible enough to respond to changing circumstances? Does the strategy create opportunity for the public to access shorelines, beaches, and recreational facilities? W i ll the strategy maintain community character? Given the consideration of all factors discussed above of enhancing social ecological resilience for the community under climate change stresses, the author synthesized a list of indicators as shown below in T able 2 1. The indicators for evaluating sustain able adaptation planning and strategies can be classified into three components : ecosystem livelihood and process A series of specific indicators will contribute to the target components Table 2 1. Indicators for evaluating sustainable adaptation stra tegies Ecosystem Livelihood Process Ecological components Increase economic and social well being Diverse stakeholders involvement Relationships and functions Decrease vulnerability Communication and negotiation Diversity Public safety and health Transactive decision making Memory and continuity Increase food security Social learning Sustainable resource use Reduce GHG emissions Flexibility Public access Community character Source: Adapted from Plummer & Armitage, 2007; Scoones 1998; Hirschfeld, 2012.

PAGE 34

34 Ecosystem is a focal component in the complex social ecological system. T he resilience of the ecological system can depend on four indicators : ecological components, relationships and functions, diversity, and memory and continuit y (Plummer & Armitage, 2007) Ecological components refer to specific species, habitats, and biophysical features that consist of ecological systems. Relationships between components and their environment are important in maintaining irregular functions. A nother key element is diversity which can promote regeneration of and innovation in a system. Ecological memory and continuity indicates the capacity of a system to continue its self organization (Plummer & Armitage, 2007 ) Livelihood component associates with the outcomes of socio economic, ecological and institutional drivers. A livelihood consists of capabilities, assets, and activities needed for living, and a sustainable livelihood means the system has the ability to recover from disturbances while increas ing i ts assets ( but not sabotag ing its natural resources ) (Scoones, 1998). In an effort to evaluate the sustainable livelihoods outcome of adaptation strategies a list of factors can be used to evaluate the strategies, including improv ing economic and social well being by increasing income and decreasing poverty, decreas ing vulnerability promot ing public safety and health, us ing resources sustainabl y and increas ing food security. In addition, specific c limate change concerns can be measured including reducing GHG emissions, providing public access, maintaining community character and the flexibility of the strategy (Scoones, 1998) Process component in the context of this thesis, refers to the adaptation planning process that contributes to the strategy development. As the process inextricably link s the final outcomes, there is a need to evaluate how the adaptation

PAGE 35

35 strategies are created. The f ollow ing indicators are considered when evaluating the adaptation planning process: diverse involvement, communication and negotiation at different scales transactive decision making by reaching consensus through diverse inputs and opinions, and social learning (Plummer & Armitage, 2007 ) In this study, the process indicators will be used to assess the overall adaptation planning process for cases instead of individual strategy. Clearly, the three components and corresponding indicators are quite different ranging from very specific to very diffuse indicators. Given the fact that precisely measuring these indicators will require an amount of qualitative techniques and data, the author prefer red to use a more concise way to evaluate potential strategies. An evaluation rating scale will be assigned to assess the extent to which the strategy contributes or conflicts with the identified indicators: ++ means the strategy strongly contributes the indicator; + indicates the strategy somewhat con tributes to the indicator; 0 shows the strategy has no effect on the indicator; states the strategy is somewhat in conflict with the indicator; and -reveals the strategy significantly conflict s with the indicator (Hirschfeld, 2012). Then the valu es of each strategy can be calculated to determine its sustainability. This evaluation method will be used for analyzing adaptation strategies from case s tudies as well as from the adaptation strategies scenarios for Yankeetown Inglis. Yankeetown Inglis Analysis and Strategy Design The purpose of conducting analysis and strategy design for the study area Yankeetown Inglis is to test the integrated approach and the evaluation framework. Yankeetown Inglis was chosen as the study area for several reasons. First, Yankeetown Inglis is a rural community along the Florida western coast with valuable

PAGE 36

36 natural resources and unique rural character, which is appropriate for studying integrated adaptation strategies for sea level rise Furthermore, a s the author has participated in the sea level rise project of the University of Florida and Florida Sea Grant: Planning for Coastal Change in Levy County, especially the Yankeetown Inglis part, this thesis has gotten great help and support from this proje ct and could be considered as further research for designing adaptation strategies for Yankeetown Inglis. Data Collection A variety of methods have been used for data collection for Yankeetown Inglis vulnerability analysis and strategy design. Both primary and secondary sources of data served as a foundation in forming an understanding of the community. Secondary data sources consist of document s from governmen ts and agencies, as well as spatial Geographic Information System (GIS) data obtained from the Florida Geographic Data Library (FGDL), which include environmental features, conservation lands and priorities, land use, private property, and demographic s They help to examine the character of the study area in terms of its social econom ic, cultur al, environment al and geograph ic contexts. On site observation as a primary data source was also used to identify the place and its potential role in applying adaptation strateg ies. Other essential d ata collected were sea level rise projection models. Two primary models have been considered and applied in this research: the bathtub inundation model and Sea Level Rise Af fecting Marshes Model (SLAMM). The b athtub inundation model projects that all land under a given elevation would be inundated by raising sea levels based on local topography while SLAMM, generated by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), is a relatively dynamic model that predicts the coastal habitat

PAGE 37

37 changes under different sea level rise scenarios and their influence on developed or undeveloped dry land. Because of the abundant natural features along the Yankeetown Inglis coast, SLAMM is likely to be a more suitable projection for analyzing sea level rise impacts for the st udy area. Vulnerability Assessment S ea level rise vulnerability assessment for the study area generally consists of two parts: natural environment vulnerability and built environment vulnerability. To understand sea level rise impacts to the natural enviro nment, the SLAMM output will show through specific data on how many changes would occur on different types of habitat and land use C hanges in developed and undeveloped dry land can also be calculated by SLAMM result With the projected sea level rise model, the vulnerability of the built environment can be further assessed through spatial analysis in GIS mappings. For instance, with the spatial overlaying of SLAMM output on land use or property data, the types of lan d use or structures that would be affected by changing habitats can be visually perceived In addition, the vulnerability to the built environment can also be assessed based on other relevant qualitative and quantitative data collected ahead such as demographic and economic data, as well as the data from the observation of community workshops conducted by the Planning for Coastal Change in Levy County Project. Adaptation Strategies A nalysis and design of adaptation strategies for Yankeetown I nglis is a synthesis process taking into account diverse components of previous research, including literature review of different types of adaptation strategies evaluation of strategies from case studies by an evaluation framework, and vulnerability anal ysis of the study area.

PAGE 38

38 Two adaptation strateg ies scenarios will be conducted for Yankeetown Inglis based on different goals and considerations. Adaptation Strateg ies Scenario I focuses on sea level rise adaptation planning for both the natural and built environments by applying more integrated strategies, while Scenario II intends to select adaptation strategies that would increase the resilienc e of the built environment. T h ough strategies for the two adaptation scenarios differ in the light of different goals and objectives they share some common desires : to protect the community from sea level rise impacts, to meet the basic needs and to maintain the rural character. The two adaptation scenarios will then be assessed and compared by the evaluation fram ework created early on in this research The purpose of conducting and comparing two adaptation scenarios is to explore and identify the significance and potential of integrated strategies in promoting sustainable adaptation to sea level rise impacts.

PAGE 39

39 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDIES ANALYSIS Case Study I: City of Punta Gorda, Florida Introduction The City of Punta Gorda is located on the Florida southwest coast which is exposed to the negative impacts of climate change and sea level rise Hurricanes and storms have visited the community several times in recent years, caus ing severe damage to private property the loss of mangrove forest s and threats to public safety. One of the triggers of Punta Gorda involve ment in climate change planning projects was Hurricane Charley in 2004, which led to expensive property damage in the city ( National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] 2010). Although Punta Gorda ha d already adopted some adaptation strategies to deal with climate change impacts in its Comprehensive Plan, such as structure elevations, drainage systems improvements, and the relocation of important infrastructures and facilities, the city still aims to build resiliency for the communit y through long term adaptation planning (Beever et al ., 2009). The City of Punta Gorda, Florida initiat ed a climate change planning project in 2008 with the support of the Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program and Florida s Southwest Regional Planning Council. This project was part of the Climate Ready Estuaries program develop ed by the National Estuary Programs and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NOAA, 2010). In November 2009, the project published the City of Punta Gorda Adaptation Plan which contain ed a physical vulnerability assessment and prioritize d adaptation strateg ies for the city Public participation was their efforts to identify the most

PAGE 40

40 vulnerable areas and prioritize adaptation strategies. This approach identified, by a variety of citizen stakeholder s in the public workshop s eight key vulnerabilities and 104 acceptable recommended adaptation options (Beever et al ., 2009). T he plan contain s three major component s: vulnerability assessment, consideration s for selecting priorit ies and action s and communication with stakeholder and decision makers (Beever et al ., 2009). Vulnerability Assessment The City of Punta Gorda contain s significant low lying areas with wetland s and open lands along Charlotte Harbor and Alligator Creek. T he major vegetation categories include coastal wetland s, transition zone s, and inland prairie The city has general flat elevation s from sea level to about 15 feet over sea level (Beever et al ., 2009). The project conducted a risk analysis and vulnerability assessm ent to identify the most signif icant impacts of climate change, the timeline for the predict ed impacts, and other factors and consideration s needed to set priorities (Beever et al 2009). As a result of communication between stakeholders and decision makers, 54 vulnerabilities falling into eight categories were identif ied by the citizen s of the City of Punta Gorda in the public workshop s, in priority order: 1. Fish and wildlife habitat degradation 2. I nadequate water supply 3. F looding 4. U nchecked or unmanaged growth 5. W ater quality degradation 6. E ducation and economy and lack of funds 7. F ire 8. A vailability of insurance (Beever et al ., 2009, p.46)

PAGE 41

41 Adaptation Strategies G i ven the eight identified vulnerabilit ies of Punta Gorda, corresponding adaptation strateg ies to mitigate each problem were then disc ussed. The workshop s finally accepted 104 for adaptation planning rejecting an additional 34 (Beever et al ., 2009). Seven adaptation options were prioritized for the community to add ress climate change impact s: 1. Protect and restore seagrasses 2. Use native plants in landscaping to improve water supply and drought 3. Identify the areas of remain ing natural shorelines in local master plans 4. Constrain location for certain high risk infrastruc ture to address unmanaged and unchecked growth 5. R estrict fertilizer use to maintain water quality 6. P romote green building alternative s to address education econom ic and finance issues 7. Implement d rought preparedness planning to add ress fire vulnerability ( Beever et al ., 2009) In particular, the Adaptation Plan discussed adaptation to coastal erosion and sea level rise. The City of Punta Gorda has already applied three adaptation strateg ies for the built environment to add ress flooding and coastal erosion is sues: protection managed retreat and accommodation (Beever et al ., 2009). For the protection strategy, the Adaptation Plan did not rely on hard protection approach es, such as seawalls and dikes, as it determined that they would be less financially sustainable in the long run and were less ecological ly sustain able. But the plan did suggest that a passive protection approach could be applied in the histor ic downtown district of Punta Gorda by elevating existing building s or adding addition al height to new building s. Adding 8 to 10 feet of height would be sufficient to protect against rising sea levels through 2200

PAGE 42

42 (Beever et al ., 2009). Another option the Adaptation Plan provided to protect the shoreline was establish ing ecosystem s seaward of the existing shoreline (Beever et al ., 2009). Under this circumstance the shoreline may be maintain ed statically while coastal ecosystem s are protect ed. For the managed retreat strateg y, the Adaptation Plan argued that it is a financially and ecological ly sustainable option. However many problems c ould occur when applying this strategy including in migration land use conflict s, property loss, taking issues, short term relocation costs, and negative tourism effect s (Beever et al 2009) Therefore, the City of Punta Gorda proposed a comprehensive shoreline assessment to determine the appropriate lands for protection or relocation based upon estimates of sea level rise, coastal erosion and storm surge s R olling easement and other similar policies can be employed to encourage shoreline retreat inland and discourage hard structure protection. In addition, there is a need to identify the areas likely to be inundated according to the hazard projection s, so new investment will be minimize d in those areas and inundate d building s and infrastructure s will be removed or relocate d. Finally, good waterfront design principles are still needed to adapt existing structure s to new requirement s anticipating sea level ri se (Beever et al ., 2009 ). For the accommodation strategy, the Adaptation Plan suggested that accommodation would be better applied in combination with the managed retreat strategy and for areas where retreat is finally plan ned (Beever et al ., 2009). I n addition special guideline s are needed for these areas to support water depende nt land uses, adapt to rising sea levels, allow habitat migration and incorporate good waterfront design principles (Beever et al ., 2009, p. 203).

PAGE 43

43 Moreover, the City of Punta Gorda has applied for funding from the U.S. Department of Transportation for the Downtown Infrastructure Protection Seawall Replacement Project to preserve its important railroad corridors in the Punta Gorda Community Redevelopment Area (Beever et al ., 2009). Innovative in land seawall s will be created at about 3 feet higher than the existing elevation to protect critical transportation infrastructure from rising water table s and storm surge s Also, the project will design ate sufficient space for ecosystem processes (Beever et al 2009). Conclusions The City of Punta Gorda Climate Change Adaptation Plan documents the critical vulnerabilit ies of the city and adaptation strateg ies to address each area of vulnerability. The adaptation strateg ies were generally created in consi derations of ecolog ical and financial sustainabilit y. Protection, managed retreat, and accommodation are the major adaptation strategies for the built environment to address sea level rise issues. On the other hand, the plan also propose s some integrated s trategies to relieve sea level rise concerns t o the natural built environment such as using landscap ing to improve the water supply, preserving natural shoreline to protect against flooding, and suggesting green building alternatives. As a result, Punta Gorda seems illustrate the successful application of the integrated climate change adaptation approach Public participation was the key approach used to prioritize vulnerabilit ies and adaptation strateg ies. Although the city has not yet reported how the se adaptation strateg ies have been implement ed, the Adaptation Plan detailed specific implementation action s and plans for the monitoring and evaluation of strateg ies. It particularly emphasized the importan ce of monitoring and evaluation to assess the successfulness of the adaptation process Detailed monitoring measure ments, data

PAGE 44

44 needed, and primary target goals were displayed in the p lan. The p lan will be update d during the adaptive management process and will incorporate new knowledge and technique s from the monitoring and evaluation of implementation results. Case Study II: Town of Groton, Connecticut Introduction The Long Island Sound Study in conjunction with the Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI) and Connecticut Department of Environment Protection is creating a Coastal Adaptation Plan for t he Town of Groton, Connecticut (Gregg, 2010). I n April 2011, the entities presented a final report about the adaptation plan to the Town of Groton (Stults & P agach, 2011) The major adaptation planning process was formed through three essential workshops, which were conducted to convene diverse stakeholder s from the governments of different levels to develop adaptation strateg ies for Groton and the Northeast (ICLEI, n.d.). The goal of the workshop s was to educate differ ent stakeholder s about climate change impacts and adaptation planning ; to identify vulnerabilit ies and corresponding adaptation strateg ies; and to develop implem entation plans (Gregg, 2010). To be specific, three workshop s focused on different objectives: 1. Climate adaptation planning process and project ed global, region al and local climate changes 2. Identification of vulnerabilit ies based on global and region al projection 3. Identification of adaptation action to increase resilience in addressing climate change impacts (Stults & Pagach, 2011, p. 4) The final report describes the adaptation planning process, ou tcomes, and suggestions for future studies, which provide d recommendations for the Town of Groton

PAGE 45

4 5 and other communities, especially coastal communities in addressing climate change impact s. Vulnerability Assessment The Town of Groton is located on the Thames River. Climate change is already affect ing Groton thr ough shoreline erosion intensive storms and hurricane s, sea level rise, and tidal marsh migration (Stults & Pagach, 2011). In order to assess the existing and potential climate vulnerabilit ies in the future the pro ject use d scientific information and the COAST tool to evaluate the potential econom ic damage caused by climate change. This tool helps decision makers select adaptation strateg ies based on implementation costs. T h e project identified the following vulnerabilit ies for Groton as potential climate change impacts during the workshop : Increased coastal flooding and overflow s of sewers L oss of coastal habitat s S alt water intrusion affecting drinking water quality and supply More frequent flooding could hamper important roads, ac cess, and other infrastructure s I mpacts on marina facilit ies and docks I ncreased econom ic impacts Reduced shell fishing and fish spawning Reduced overall quality of life (Stults & Pagach, 2011, p. 7) W orkshop participant s also identified key areas or infrastructure s as vulnerable to sea level rise and flooding, including specific roads and bridges, a water treatment

PAGE 46

46 plant, schools, residential and commercial location s, ecological resource s, and emergency service s (Stults & Pagach, 2011 ) Adaptation Strategies According t o the vulnerability assessment, workshop participant s then identified a series of strategies : Install of f lood/tide gates at specific location s Beach nourishment Flood proof existing building s Designat e more stringent building and engine ering design standards Conver t upriver land to wetlands Guarantee emergency access through e levat ing or relocating vulnerable infrastructure s Creat e retreat zoning, implement of redevelopment restriction s and change building codes to avoid development in the most vu lnerable areas Designate vulnerable areas as buffer zones Identify the safest transportation routes for the school district and other agenc ies during extreme events through improve d road condition report s Develop stormwater runoff reduction program Creat e a comprehensive watershed management plan Educat e resident s about climate change and its impact s Identify availabl e funding from local s tate, and f ederal agencies to improve important infrastructure s Integrate climate preparednes s into the Capital Planni ng process Master Plan of Conservation and Development update process the zoning regulation s revision, and streetscape project (Stults & Pagach, 2011, p. 9 10) T he potential adaptation strateg ies for the Town of Groton can also be classified into the following categories : protection accommodation and managed retreat. The

PAGE 47

47 m ajority of the strateg ies disc ussed here intend to address flooding and sea level rise impacts to the built environment ; however limited strateg ies have been considered and propose d for the natural environment or even both the natural and built environments Furthermore, the project emphasized the econom ic assessment of differ ent strateg ies in order to determine the best cost benefit choices. Conclusions The Town of Groton coastal c limate change planning report essentially documented the adaptation planning process and identified the vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies for the town. It also provided recommendations for the next steps of climate preparedness including conduct ing a town wide vulnerability assessment and climate action plan, facilitat ing coordination and communication with pubic and stakeholders, and pursu ing funding sources. It also suggested that s tate, f ederal, and other stakeholders need work together to hel p and support the town for climate change data and knowledge updating (Stults & Pagach, 2011). In addition, Groton learned valuable lessons from this adaptation planning process that are not only direct ing Groton s further planning steps, but also provid in g recommendation s for other communit ies. It is very important to understan d a community s vulnerabilit ies and needs through face to face meetings with different stakeholders, which was critical to Groton s process The collaboration across levels and sectors can also support better planning and implementation for resilienc e building Last but no t least, the plan also pointed out several problems and challenges in the planning process such as planning despite uncertaint ies, the difficulty of valuing ecosystem s, and the need to decrease incentives to build in vulnerable areas (Stults & Pagach, 2011).

PAGE 48

48 Case Study III: City of Lewes, Delaware Introduction The City of Lewes, Delaware, is exposed to the natural hazards such as storm surges and flooding s and over 30% of the parcels within the Federal Emergency Management Agency ( FEMA ) 100 year floodplain (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011) Lewes has already focused on the hazard mitigation planning and has a Hazard Mitigation Strategy (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011). I n cooperation with Delaware Sea Grant and ICLEI Lewes launched the Hazard Mitigation and Climate Adaptation Pilot Project in 2011 The purpose and goals of this pilot project were to further assist and guide the City of Lewes in incorporat ing climate adaptation into its hazard mitigation planning, thereby improving community resiliency and sustainability (City of Lewes, 2011; Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI 2011). The project team acknowledged that stakeholder and public input are important to the planning process. Four workshops and several meetings have been conducted to biggest vulnerabilities and feasible actions to reduce these vulnerabilities (Delaware Sea Grant & IC LEI, 2011). Public participation was involved in all the steps that the project processed: 1. Identify existing hazards and associated vulnerabilities 2. Assess climate change impacts on existing hazards 3. Identify two key vulnerabilities 4. Select hazard mitigation and climate adaptation actions 5. Create implementation plans (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011, p. 7 8) The products of these and Climate Adaptation Action Plan that released in June, 2011. The pla n further documented the methods used and the outcomes produced during the project process (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011)

PAGE 49

49 Vulnerability Assessment The City of Lewes is the oldest town in Delaware with a historic and special relationship with the sea. The community consists of residential areas a central business district, a beachfront area, and an abundant natural environment including tidal wetlands, tidal creeks, and sandy beaches (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011). Due to its geographic location an d general ly flat topography, Lewes is very vulnerable to the natural hazards such as flooding, storms, severe thunderstorms, wind, drought, erosion, and tornadoes. Climate change could multiply the negative effects of these natural hazards (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011). In particular, more signi ficant threats to Lewes will come from sea level rise, such as change of flood pattern, losses of dry lands, erosion and saltwater intrusion (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011). The State of Delaware is curren tly working on planning for a projected future sea level rise of between 1.6 and 4.9 feet (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011). Current and future vulnerability self assessments were conducted for Lewes. The current vulnerability self assessment concentrated on flooding problem s The future vulnerability self assessment was conducted according to the information gathered from workshops. Participants engaged in a vote to select key vulnerabilities in terms of the three components of the vulnerability assessmen ts : exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011). As a result, two key vulnerabilities were identified by the community: S altwater intrusion into aquifer s and potential changes of precipitation pattern s caused by sea leve l rise Homes and City infrastructure threatened by flooding and higher water levels (Delaware Sea Grant & ICLEI, 2011, p. 37)

PAGE 50

50 Adaptation Strategies With the consideration of key vulnerabilities identified by the community, potential adaptation strategies w ere identified that focused particularly on addressing flooding and water resource concerns. In order to identify the most important actions for the City to implement in advance, participants from the last two workshops engaged in a ra n king exercise to sco re potential strategies in terms of their social, administrative, technical, political, economic and environmental feasibility. As a result, six actions for hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation were recommended to the City for implement ation (in priority order) : 1. Integrate climate change issues into the comprehensive plan as well as the building and zoning codes 2. Improve outreach and education particularly focused on successful behavior changes related to home building and retrofits 3. Integrate aq uifer information into all planning efforts 4. Determine road levels and evacuation risk using elevation data 5. vulnerability from direct flood impacts, as well as from indirect flood impact s to access routes 6. ICLEI, 2011, p. 49) Conclusions The City of Lewes Hazard Mitigation and Climate Adaptation Pilot Project aimed to protect public safety and reduce loss from natural h azards as well as increase the general resiliency of the community. Lewes already has significant experience in hazard planning for many years, which can be a strength and opportunity for the City to better integrate hazard mitigation and climate change a daptation. So proposed strategies were more focused on flooding and water resource issues in light of planning and policy

PAGE 51

51 standpoints The primary concern of the Lewes Adaptation Project is protection of existing properties and infrastructures from natural hazard impacts. Although the plan did mention using ecosystem based tools such as creating buffer zones for habitat inland migration, these integrated strategies were not the priority In order to help monitor the implementation of proposed strategies, the project outlined the guidance for each strateg y including key implementation steps, possible timelines, administration and staffing, and indicators for monitoring. The important lessons learned fro integration of climate cha nge adaptation planning and hazard mitigation by combining two different processes Adaptation planning framework and a natural hazard mitigation planning framework from FEMA (Delaware Sea Gr ant & ICLEI, 2011). The work of Lewes showed that these two approaches can be integrated, especially for communities that already have hazard mitigation efforts. Case Study IV: The State of Maryland Introduction The State of Maryland, which contains over 4,000 miles of shoreline, would be extremely vulnerable to sea level rise. Maryland has already experienced 1 foot of sea level rise during the past century and 13 bay islands have been inundated as a result (Johnson, 2010; Maryland Department of Natural Resources [ DNR ] n.d.). Recognizing the negative impacts of climate change and sea level rise the Maryland Department of Natural Resources ( DNR ) cooperated with the Maryland Commission on Climate Change (MCCC) and the St ate Legislature to address climate change issues through engaging and educating the public, developing

PAGE 52

52 adaptation strategies and policies, and building capacity for local governments (Johnson, 2010). MCCC developed the Climate Action Plan in 2008 to discus s climate change impacts, economic cost, and a series of strategies to reduce GHG emissions and the negative effects of sea level rise Chapter Five Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing MCCC, 2008 p. 1) is an essential element of the Plan that researched sea level rise vulnerabilities and developed This chapter include s two phase s : Phase 1 focused on developing strategies to address sea level rise impacts (Boicourt & Johnson, 2010) and Phase 2 researched adaptation strategies in terms of different sectors, including and Terrestrial Ecosystems; Bay and Aquatic Environments; Water Resource s; and (Boicourt & Johnson, 2010 p. 2 ). Additionally, in December 2009, DNR initiated a p roject of (Feifel & Papiez, 2010 p. 1 ) aiming to prioritize adaptation strategies for conservation land and identify coastal lands of significant climate change vulnerability and adaptation opportunities through selected criteria (Feifel & Papiez, 2010). One of the key adap tation strategies is facilitating the inland movement of high priority coastal ecosystems. In pub l ic workshops conducted by DNR and NOAA, three key criteria were selected to identify climate change target ed areas: coastal lands with little to no hardened s horelines and other barriers; suitable undeveloped uplands 0 to 5 feet above sea level; and intact wetland migration corridors (Papiez, 2009). These efforts finally

PAGE 53

53 helped Maryland to identify coastal lands that need conservation (Feifel & Papiez, 2010). V ulnerability Assessment A vulnerability assessment of climate change impacts have been developed by the MCCC Scientific and Technical Working Group to analyze the likely impacts on different sectors, including water resources, aquatic ecosystems, farms and forests, coastal zone and ecosystems, and human health. The assessment was established according to model projections and literature review (Boesch, 2008). In general, due to clim ate change, the average temperature in Maryland tends to increase significantly, as well as the precipitation (Boesch, 2008). As a result, the following impacts are projected to occur in Maryland and are identified as the most important vulnerabilities of the State to climate change impacts : Increased precipitation will likely affect water supply and increase urban flooding events Aquatic ecosystems are likely to be degraded by increased salinity and habitat loss Northern hardwoods and pines will likely to diminish as climate related stresses Species shifts and decrease of biodiversity Hundreds of square miles of land and wetlands will likely be lost due to sea level rise Water quality in the Chesapeake and Coastal Bay would decrease and restoration goals wo uld hardly to be attained Living resources in the Chesapeake Bay are likely to change in terms of species composition Heat related health risks are likely to increa se if under higher emission scenarios (Boesch, 2008).

PAGE 54

54 In particular, sea leve l rise is a cri tical threat to coastal Maryland. The Technical Working Group from the MCCC projected that in the future the sea level may rise 2.7 to 3.4 feet in Maryland by the end of this century under different emission scenarios (MCCC, 2008). Rising sea levels are li kely to generate many negative impacts to including shore erosion, coastal flooding, inundation, impacts to barrier and bay islands, and higher water tables and sal t water intrusion (MCCC, 2008). Adaptation Strategies Maryland rec ognized the complexity of planning for climate change and sea level rise, so the s tate applied an integrated approach to integrate climate change adaptation planning to existing state and local sector based planning, management, and regulatory efforts (MCCC, 2008). Detailed adaptation strategies were identified for different sectors. Aquatic and terrestrial e cosystems Preserve habita t migration corridors and native biodiversity hotspots Facilitate coastal ecosystems moving inland by sea level rise impacts Protect suitable habitat for endangered and threatened species Conserve riparian corridors and areas adjacent to shoreline habitats Agriculture Protect soil and freshwater resources Reduce nutrient and sediment runoff Maintain abundant area for agricultural productions and investigate production alternatives in demonstration areas

PAGE 55

55 Human habitat and h ealth Protect and expand natural flood storage areas Preserve and increase natural buffers to protect inland from storm surge Protect potential relocation areas Preserve potable water supply Resource based i ndustries Provide upland relocation and access opportunities Maintain public acces s to beaches and open spaces Facilitate aquaculture development in appropriate areas Maintain tourism and outdoor recreational opportunities Transportation and l and u se Prevent ecosystem fragmentation Promote relocation and prevent development in high risk coastal areas Protect human settlements and other historic and cultural properties Conserve habitats sequestering carbon and maintain habitat integrity through corridors (Papiez, 2009) In particular, Maryland initiated the Living Shoreline Protection Act in 2008 to require the use of non structural coastal protection approaches except when proven infeasible. Additionally, the Plan also suggested adapting to climate change and reducing vulnerability through coastal land conservation, for example, using a gr een infrastructure approach to address climate change impacts (Johnson, n.d.). Conclusions The State of Maryland identified the climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies on a state scale, thereby providing appropriate direction to local governments in addressing these potential threats to the communities. A number of

PAGE 56

56 towns and cities in Maryland have been working on adaptation planning at the local level to assess climate change vulnerabilities and develop adaptation strategies. It has been noted that Maryland particularly emphasized the preservation of ecosystems and habitats and the use of various integrated strategies to assist in mitigating sea level rise impacts t o the natural built environment such as planting living shoreline s preserving natural buffers to mitigate storm surge s and implementing green infrastructure methods. Maryland s adaptation planning efforts demonstrate the effective application of integrated strategies at the state level. Case Study V: San Diego Bay Introduction San D i ego Bay is in Southern California with a vibrant coast and livable communities, but rising sea levels and other climate impacts threaten the overall well being of the region. It is predicted that sea levels could increase as much as 5 feet in the San Diego region by 2100 (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). In order to plan for these changes in advance and enhance community resiliency, a Public Steering Committee was constituted to develop policy responses and reco mmendations (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). Other project partners were ICLEI, the San Diego Foundation, and the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve Coastal Training Program, all of whom contributed to the develop ment of sea level rise adaptati on strategies through a collaborative proces s (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). The Adaptation Strategy project was started based on the ICLEI s climate adaptation planning framework, which include d conducting climate vulnerability assessment, setting goals a nd developing policy recommendations. After developing adaptation strategies, the project recommended that an implementation plan should be

PAGE 57

57 developed and monitored (Hirschf eld & Holland, 2012). Besides learning from ICLEI, the project also conducted a series of workshops and meetings to enhance understanding of climate change issues, build collaboration, and generate important feedback to inform the Adaptation Strategy. The Adaptation Strategy outlined a comprehensive vulnerability assessm ent and broad strategies for building community resiliency as well as detailed sector based vulnerabilities and targeted strategies (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). Vulnerability Assessment The vulnerability assessment began by identifying the problems of se a level rise on San Diego Bay. Based upon the scientific predictions of sea level rise, the vulnerability assessment assumed a rising sea level of 20 inch ed by 2050 and 59 inch ed by 2100 (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). The impacts of sea level rise identified by the project include d inundation, flooding, rising water table, coastal erosion, and saltwater intrusion. Three elements of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were used to assess various vulnerabilities (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). As a result, the project evaluated the primary vulnerabilities for different sectors in detail. The habitats of e cosystems and critical species are likely to migrate inland Contaminated site s will be subject to inundation and flooding releasing more contamination into flood waters or area soils S torm sewers are vulnerable to inundation and flooding on the Bay that would exacerbate the flooding Sanitary sewers in low lying areas could be affected by floodwater inflow that would result in discharge of wastewater into the Bay Water distribution components will be affected by inundation and flooding affect ing the potable water Energy facilities will be vulnerable to erosion, inundation, and flooding

PAGE 58

58 Local transportation facilities such a s access and roads will be vulnerable to flooding and inundation R esidential buildings will be highly vulnerable to inundation and flooding by 2100 Emergency response facilities will be moderately vulnerable to flooding Shoreline parks, recreation and publ ic access will be extremely vulnerable to inundation and flooding Parts of the a irport will be affected by inundation and flooding, and a irport operations will be highly subjected to inundation and flooding by 2100 Low income residents, the elderly, the h omeless, and ethnic minorities will be more vulnerable to sea level rise. Additionally people who work in these vulnerable sectors will become vulnerable populations (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012, p. 20 21) Adaptation Strategies Both comprehensive and targe ted strategies were considered by the project in the Adaptation Strategy. The comprehensive strategies were recommended for implementation at regional and local levels. For implementation at the regional level it was suggested that a regional adaptation working group of public agency representatives can be created to facilitate stakeholder engagement in the implementation. It was recommended that e ducation training and outreach programs should be enhanced for diverse stakeholders and the pub lic Furthermore, it was determined that scientific research into sea level rise should be continued to better understand sea level rise vulnerabilities Finally, a need was identified to engage other agencies such as regulatory agencies and FEMA to work c ollaboratively addressing sea level rise impacts (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). For local implementation, Adaptation Strategy recommended four strategies for implementation at the agency level: incorporat e sea level rise issues into local and regional plans and projects; take advantage of support from the State of California

PAGE 59

59 Climate Action Team; assess detailed vulnerabilities at a locational level; and develop decision making frameworks for each jurisdicti o n (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012). Additionally, a series of targeted adaptation strategies were developed for identified vulnerable sectors corresponding to the vulnerability assessment. A summary of the strateg y options for San Diego Bay is listed below. E cosystems and critical species Develop habitat migration project s and provide opportun ities for habitat inland migration through preserving or expand ing ecological buffers Facilitate low impact development (LID) strategies to protect water quality and redu ce stormwater runoff Protect habitat corridors to promote species migration Undertake research on sediment transport dynamics and improve the health of wetlands Contaminated sites Develop an assessment for high risk contaminated sites and conduct an improved regional assessment for prioritizing adaptation strategies Stormwater management Prioritize LID stormwater practices and improve stormwater management plans and capital improvement programs to addre ss sea level rise impacts Conduct a detailed vulnerability assessment for stormwat er management at facility level Enhance capacity of stormwater management facilities Wastewater Improve existing wastewater management plans and capital improvement programs to take into account sea level rise impacts Conduct a detailed vulnerability assessment for wastewater facilities Improve wastewater emergency response, maintenance procedures, and facility design

PAGE 60

60 A ssure that new sewer mains and manho les are sealed against floodwater and groundwater Potable water Conduct a detailed vulnerability assessment for potable water facilities Improve potable water emergency response and maintenance procedure s Energy facilities Work w ith San Diego Gas and Electric to develop a detailed vulnerability assessment of energy infrastructure for specific sites and to design new facilities to cope with sea level rise Local transportation facilities Create new transportation projects at the loc al level Work with San D iego Association of Governments and Caltrans to conduct a detailed vulnerability assessment of regional transportation facilities in order to improve existing infrastructure and design new facilities to account for sea level rise im pacts Supervise changes in design standards relating to drainage, and consider applying floodplain level standards in vulnerable areas Building stock E nhance floodplain management regulations for areas in the 100 year floodplain and other areas that will b e vulnerable to sea level rise W o rk with FEMA to account for future sea level rise in F l ood Insurance Rate Maps Initiate financial incentives for higher standards in buildings E nhance education and outreach for property owners in flood prone areas F acilitate better understanding of the existing building elevation through obtaining more specific data Consider applying FEMA s National F l ood Insurance Program (NFIP) minimum requirements to new development for areas that are vulnerable to the projected s ea level rise but not in existing 100 year floodplain s

PAGE 61

61 Emergency response facilities C reate higher standards for all emergency response facilities and collect more detailed information about critical facilities Parks, recreation, and shoreline public acces s P rioritize the most vulnerable parks, open space s and habitat vulnerable to flooding, and promote public access as shoreline change s Identify specific vulnerabilities for sites and buildings and develop adaptation responses Regional airport operations Integrate sea level rise flood scenarios into the Regional Aviation Strategic Plan and consider alternative sites Explore potential alternatives for airport access to avoid vulnerable roads that may be impaired by inundation and flooding (Hirschfeld & Holland, 2012 p. 28 53 ) Conclusions T h e San Diego Bay adaptation effort is one of the first sea level rise adaptation plan s generated at a regional level. The collaboration of stakeholders from various agencies and property owners is a key element in the planning process. The Adaptation Strategy provides general vulnerability assessment for different sectors and suggest s targeted strategies for each vulnerability. The first step s were to learn about how sea level rise would affect the community by the end of this century, educate the community about its findings, and assist further efforts to incorporat e sea level rise planning into local policy and programs. The proposed adaptation strategies can be generally classified into those addressing natural, built, and both environments. The i ntegrated concept has been incorporated into their strategies such as using LID for stormwater management and water quality protection, facilitating habitat migration and preserving ecological buffers. The project will continue

PAGE 62

62 the adaptation planning efforts to engage stakeholders and coordinate implementation at the local level Strategy Classification These five cases re present initiative adaptation planning for climate change and sea level rise at different scales both locally and regionally. Although the plans differ due to the varying characteristics of each region or area there are similarities in their adaptation planning. One of the important similarities is that they all integrate d scientific projections and information in to their planning and develop ed vulnerability assessment s of climate change in the first place, either for the region or local community Even though some of their vulnerability assessments are n ot very detailed they all present major concerns for climate change planning which direct ed their strategy developments. These adaptation strategies address certain common concerns: 1. Natural environment 2. Water resources 3. Built environment 4. Flooding and stormwater management 5. Resource based industries 6. Public outreach and education Although a few strategies may not be included in these six categories above directly for example, the San Diego Bay Adaptation Strategy has been addressing adaptation planning f or contaminated sites and regional airport operations they all relate to the built environment to some extent. In addition, these issues all generally relate to the specific impacts of sea level rise, and will also guide the vulnerability assessment and strateg y design for Yankeetown Inglis detailed in the next chapter. The author will discuss each concern and corresponding strategies in the following

PAGE 63

63 paragraphs as well as the similarities and differences of the five strategies. A detailed comparis on of the five cases and their strategies will be showed in Table 4 1 Nature Environment The five adaptation strategies for the natur al environment addressed th re e elements : terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, and critical species Generally, all five cases have recognized the negative impacts of sea level rise on coastal ecosystems such as habitat loss and inland migration T he City of Groton, the State of Maryland, and San Diego Bay all consider the strategy of protecting or expanding coastal ec ological buffers to facilitate inland habitat migration. Moreover, preserv ing habitat migration corridors and suitable habitat is a common strategy for maintaining habitat integrity and protecting endangered species. As coastal wetlands are particularly important for the City of Punta Gorda and San Diego Bay, all three strategies recommend enhancing wetlands protection and restoration Groton and Lewes strategies also mention creating a comprehensive watershed management plan or integrat ing aquifer inform ation into all planning efforts to maintain a health aquatic ecosystem Water Quality and Supply Another important issue the se five strategies considered was water resources. Most of them emphasize d the importance of preserving water quality and water supply. To achieve this goal, San Diego Bay suggest ed applying LID, while Punta Gorda recommend ed using native plants in landscaping to improve the water supply. Punta Gorda also propose d the restrictio n of fertilizer use to maintain water quality. Maryland point ed out that facilitating water management and implementing conservation practices will ensure an adequate and safe water supply for humans and ecosystems. In addition,

PAGE 64

64 San Diego Bay identifie d st rategies for wastewater management facilities to address flooding and inundation f or example, incorporating sea level rise issues in to wastewater management plans and creating a detailed vulnerability assessment for the most vulnerable facilities. Built Environment All five cases addressed adaptation strategies for the built environment, which can be classified into three categories: protection, accommodation, and managed retreat. For protection approaches, Groton suggest ed applying beach nourishment and hard flood or tide gates for shoreline protection, while Maryland planned to expand soft natural buffers to protect inland areas from storm surge s Maryland also point ed out the importance of preserving vulnerable historic and cultural properties. Under ac commodation approaches, Punta Gorda recommend ed apply ing green building alternatives through tax ation initiatives, education, and green lending. Gorton advocate d enhancing the building and engineering design standards to prepare for to future climate condi tions. San Diego Bay also consider ed applying floodplain level design standards in vulnerable areas. The introduction of financial incentives to improve buildings and infrastructures was recommended as well. In terms of managed retreat approaches, Punta Gorda, Gorton, and Maryland all advocated for promoting relocation of important buildings and infrastructure s in the most vulnerable areas and to limit development in those areas In addition, Punta Gorda, Gorton, and Lewes mention ed that there is a need to incorporate climate change concerns and preparedness into existing local plans and legislation. San Diego Bay has discussed adaptation strategies for regional airport and

PAGE 65

65 energy facilities. Regional collab oration is the key to strategy development and i mplementation. Flooding and Stormwater Management Another important issue all of the cases dealt with is flooding and stormwater management. Some of the strategies referred to the protection of and accommodation approaches for the built environment discuss ed above, such as the installation of floodgates at specific locations, protect ion of natural flood storage areas, and flood proofing of existing buildings. Furthermore, Lewes mention ed the need to evaluate the to direct and indirect flood impacts. Collaboration with FEMA to account for future sea level rise in existing plans was als o recommended by San Diego Bay. Additionally, the five cases proposed enhancing stormwater capacity and reduce stormwater runoff to address the flooding of structures. San Diego Bay also suggest ed prioritizing LID stormwater practices and improving capital improvement programs and stormwater management plans to address sea level rise impacts. For emergency preparedness, Gordon and Lewes advoca te d identifying evacuation routes for extreme events, and San Diego Bay recommended improving standards for all emergency response facilities. Resource Based Industries Maryland and San Diego Bay both emphasize d the significance of adapting resource based industries to climate change problems. Maryland suggest ed the protection of agriculture and aquaculture development through protecting soil and freshwater, reducing nutrient and sediment runoff, and maintaining abundant areas. San

PAGE 66

66 Diego Bay advocated prio r i tizing the parks, open spaces, and habitat most vulnerable to flooding, thereby developing specific adaptation responses. Public Outreach and Education Public outreach and education is one of the key elements for all five cases in adaptation planning. Conducting workshops was a common approach the cases used to facilitate stakeholder participation and collaboration. R ecommendations were made to further enhance education and outreach for property owners and residents a bout climate change and its impacts. Strategy Evaluation Evaluation of the strategies above was based on the methodology described in the last c hapter, using an evaluation rating scale to assess the performance of the strategy on each indicator. T wo components and 13 indicators were examined for each strategy, and the process component was examined generally for each case. A detailed evaluation result is display ed as Table 4 2 The purpose of this evaluation of adaptation strategies from case studi es was to assess the sustainability of different strategies and therefore to identify best practice s A lthough limitations and deviations remain in the evaluation, the result can at least reveal the characters of different strateg ies to some exte nt. In conclusion more int egrated strategies that account for the natural environment (e.g. facilitate d i nland habitat migration by preserving or expanding ecological buffers and restored and protected wetland s ) tend to be more sustainable as they can not only enhance the ability of ecosystems in adaptation to climate change impacts, but also somehow decrease the vulnerability of human s to flooding and storm surge impacts. Conversely, hard shoreline protection approaches (e.g. flood/tide gate ) for the built environment

PAGE 67

67 seem less integrated and sustainable because habitats and species would be disturbed by this kind of approach. The result also reveals a set of integrated strategies including LID strategies, use of native plants in landscaping to improve wate r supply and drought, soft shoreline protection approaches, green building alternatives, the protect ion and expan sion of natural flood storage areas, and the protect ion of resource based industries. Last but not least, the assessment of the process of adap tation planning for the five cases indicates that they shared common characteristics that assure d the final outcomes. These characteristics include d the involvement of multiple types of stakeholder s across scales and fields, the conduction of workshops for communication and negotiation of diverse perspectives, reaching decisions through group consensus, and promoting further public outreach and education. In addition, classifying and evaluating a number of adaptation strategies fr om the five cases aid in a deeper understand ing of the pros and cons of different strateg ies and identify ing the more integrated strategies among them. The cases also illustrate the conditions in which integrated strategies are suitable to apply in order t o reduc e certain vulnerabilities to sea level rise. This process will further provide information and a foundation for developing integrated strategies for the study area Yankeetown Inglis explored in the next chapte r.

PAGE 68

68 Table 4 1. Comparison of cases and adaptation strategies Adaptation Strategy Cases Punta Gorda Groton Lewes Maryland San Diego Bay Natur al e nvironment 1 Facilitate habitat i nland migration by preserving or expand ing ecological buffers X X X 2 Protect habitat migration corridors and suitable habitat s for species migration X X 3 Protect and restore wetlands X X 4 Creat e a comprehensive watershed management plan X 5 Integrate aquifer information into all planning efforts X Water quality and water s upply 1 Facilitate LID strategies to protect water quality and reduce stormwater runoff X 2 Use native plants in landscaping to improve water supply and drought X 3 Restrict fertilizer use to maintain water quality X 4 F acilitate water demand management and conservation practices to ensure an adequate and safe water supply X 5 Incorporate sea level rise issues in to wastewater management plans X Built e nvironment 1 Use h ard shoreline protection methods (e.g. flood/tide gate) X 2 Integrate shoreline protection methods (e.g. expand natural buffers) X 3 Protect historic and cultural properties X 4 Implement a ccommodation methods (e.g. enhance building and engineering design standards) X X

PAGE 69

69 Table 4 1. C ontinued Adaptation Strategy Cases Punta Gorda Groton Lewes Maryland San Diego Bay 5 Implement g reen building alternatives X 6 Use r elocation methods X X X 7 Incorporate climate change concerns into local comprehensive plans and other related legislations X X X 8 Initiate financial incentives to improve buildings and important infrastructures X X Flooding and s tormwater m anagement 1 Install flood/tide gates at specific locations X 2 Flood proof existing buildings X 3 Protect and expand natural flood storage areas X 4 Work with FEMA to account for future sea level rise in existing plans X 5 Enhance stormwater capacity and reduce stormwater runoff X X X X X 6 Prioritize LID stormwater practices and improve stormwater management plans and capital improvement programs to address sea level rise impacts X 7 Identify evacuation risk and safest routes during extreme events X X Resource b ased i ndustries 1 Protect agriculture and aquaculture development X 2 Prioritize the parks, open space, and habitat most vulnerable to flooding, and promote public access as shoreline s change X Public o utreach and e ducation 1 Educat e residents about climate change and its impacts X 2 Enhance education and outreach for property owners in flood prone areas X 3 Facilitate public education and outreach on changing behaviors X

PAGE 70

70 Table 4 2. Strategy evaluation for case studies Adaptation Strategy Evaluation Indicator Value Ecosystem Livelihood Process Ecological components Relationships and functions Diversity Memory and continuity Econ/Social well being Decrease vulnerability Public health and safety Increase food security Sustainable resource use Reduce GHG emissions Flexibility Public access Community character Diverse stakeholders Communication and negotiation Transactive decision making Social learning Natur al e nvironment 1 Facilitate habitat inland migration by preserving or expanding ecological buffers ++ ++ ++ ++ + + + + 0 + + + + 16 2 Protect habitat migration corridors and suitable habitat s for species migration ++ ++ ++ ++ + 0 0 0 0 0 + 0 + 11 3 Protect and restore w etland s ++ ++ ++ ++ + + + 0 0 + + 0 + 14 4 Crea te a comprehensive watershed management plan + + + + + + + + 0 0 + 0 + 10 5 Integrate aquifer information into all planning efforts + + + + + 0 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 6 Water q uality and s upply 1 Facilitate LID strategies to protect water quality and reduce stormwater runoff + + + + + + ++ ++ + + + 0 0 13 2 Use native plants in landscaping to improve water supply and drought + + + + + + ++ ++ + + + 0 + 14 3 Restrict fertilizer use to maintain water quality 0 0 0 0 + + ++ ++ 0 0 + 0 0 7 4 Facilitate water demand management and conservation practices to ensure an adequate and safe water supply 0 0 0 0 + + ++ ++ 0 0 + 0 0 7 5 I ncorporate sea level rise issues in to wastewater management plans 0 0 0 0 + + ++ + 0 0 + 0 0 6 Built e nvironment 1 Use hard shoreline protection methods (e.g. flood/tide gate) 0 ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 2 2 Integrate shoreline protection methods (e.g. expand natural buffers) + + + + + + + + 0 + + + 0 11 3 Protect historic and cultural properties 0 0 0 0 + 0 0 0 0 0 + 0 ++ 4 4 Implement a ccommodation methods (e.g. enhance building and engineering design standards) 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 + 0 + 5 5 Green building alternatives + + + + + + + 0 + 0 + 0 + 10

PAGE 71

71 Table 4 2. C ontinued Adaptation Strategy Evaluation Indicator Value Ecosystem Livelihood Process Ecological components Relationships and functions Diversity Memory and continuity Econ/Social well being Decrease vulnerability Public health and safety Increase food security Sustainable resource use Reduce GHG emissions Flexibility Public access Community character Diverse stakeholders Communication and negotiation Transactive decision making Social learning 6 Use r elocation methods + + + + 0 ++ ++ 0 0 0 + 0 8 7 Incorporate climate change concerns into local comprehensive plans and other related legislations 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 + + + 0 0 6 8 Initiate financial incentives to improve buildings and important infrastructures 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 + 0 + 5 Flooding and s tormwater m anagement 1 Install of flood/tide gates at specific locations 0 ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 2 2 Flood proof existing buildings 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 + 0 + 5 3 Protect and expand natural flood storage areas + + + + + + + + 0 + + + 0 11 4 Work with FEMA to account for future sea level rise in existing plans 0 0 0 0 + ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 Enhance stormwater capacity and reduce stormwater runoff 0 0 0 0 + ++ ++ 0 + 0 0 0 0 6 6 Prioritize LID stormwater practices and improve stormwater management plans and capital improvement programs to address sea level rise impacts + + + + + + ++ ++ + + + 0 0 13 7 Identify evacuation risk and safest routes during extreme events 0 0 0 0 + ++ ++ 0 0 0 + 0 0 6 Resource b ased i ndustries 1 Protect agriculture and aquaculture development + + + + + + 0 ++ + 0 + 0 + 11 2 Prioritize the parks, open space, and habitat most vulnerable to flooding, and promote public access as shoreline change + + + + + + + 0 0 + + ++ ++ 13

PAGE 72

72 Table 4 2. C ontinued Adaptation Strategy Evaluation Indicator Value Ecosystem Livelihood Process Ecological components Relationships and functions Diversity Memory and continuity Econ/Social well being Decrease vulnerability Public health and safety Increase food security Sustainable resource use Reduce GHG emissions Flexibility Public access Community character Diverse stakeholders Communication and negotiation Transactive decision making Social learning Public o utreach and e ducation 1 Educat e residents about climate change and its impacts 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 0 0 + 4 2 Enhance education and outreach for property owners in flood prone areas 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 0 0 + 4 3 Facilitate public education and outreach on changing behaviors 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 0 0 + 4 Cases 1 Punta Gorda ++ ++ ++ ++ 2 Groton ++ ++ ++ ++ 3 Lewes ++ ++ ++ ++ 4 Maryland ++ ++ ++ ++ 5 San Diego Bay ++ ++ ++ ++

PAGE 73

73 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR YANKEETOWN INGLIS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES This chapter discusses current conditions of the study area Yankeetown Inglis in terms of its natural and built environment s social and economic background, and potential role in adap tation planning. Th r ough a detailed analysis of sea level rise impacts to the study area using scientific projections more specific vulnerabilities will be ascertained as to what and where the impacts are likely to occur to the natural and built environme nts In addition, t he public input from the two community workshops that held by the Planning for Coastal Change in Levy County Project will also contribute to the goals and objectives in developing adaptation strategies for the community. Finally, two adaptation strategies scenarios will be introduced and compared by the evaluation framework in order to examine the potential of integrated adaptation strategies. Study Area Overview The two adjacent rural towns of Yankeetown a nd Inglis lie in the south of Levy County and beside the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 5 1). The Withlacoochee River glides through the south of both towns connecting them with Citrus County. Coastal habitats form a natural buffer between the Gulf and developed areas. The combined area of Yankeetown and Inglis is about 7,222 acres, and 29% of th e land is developed area According to the U.S. Census data of 2010, the population of Yankeetown is 502 and of Inglis 1,325 The population s are denser along the west of the Withlacoochee River and the east of Inglis. Coastal rural communities like Yankeetown and Inglis will be particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels because of their relatively low topography and limited financial capacity. As a result, planning for climate change and sea level rise should take place now to prepare for the impacts from these changes.

PAGE 74

74 Figure 5 1. Study area of Yankeetown Inglis Natural Environment Yankeetown Inglis and the sur rounding area in Levy County have a gradually sloping topography that bulge s from the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 5 2). Yankeetown includes much more low lying area than Inglis and nearly half of its land is less than 3 feet above sea level This area contains significant natural habitat that supports a wide variety of flora and fauna. It is generally dominated by coastal saltwater marsh, swamp, freshwater marsh, freshwater wetland forests, flatwoods, upland hardwoods, and a number of undeveloped dry land. Although Inglis is much more developed than Yankeetown, there is still a lot of undeveloped dry land and swamp, freshwater marsh and cypress swamp around the developed area. The coastal wetlands and other

PAGE 75

75 natural resources, especially those in Yankeetown, have also be en identified as high conservation priorities by the Critical Lands and Waters Identification Project (CLIP). The se areas are very important to the community on account of not only the ecosystem services and aesthetic values they provide. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Servic e also identified a series of endangered and threatened species in the Yankeetown area, includ ing ten reptile s one amphibian, two fish, thirteen bird, two plant, and two mammal species. One of the mammals on the list that inhabits the Withlacoochee River is t he West Indian manatee ; this river was of Yankeetown, 2009). Because of this and other reasons, the Withlacoochee River, which flows through the edges of the two t owns and finally into the Gulf of Mexico is considered a critical natural resource of the area It provides numerous resources for marine and fishing, supporting ing recreational opportunities. The lower Withlacoochee River ha s been designated an Outstanding Florida Water (OFW) due to its significant ecological value and recreational function (Town of Yankeetown, 2009). Another critical area designated as OFW and need ing special protection is the area along the Yankeetown shoreline comprised of wetlands and open water. This area is part of the Big Bend Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve and has exceptional scientific, recreational, biological and aesthetic value (Town of Yankeetown, 2009).

PAGE 76

76 Figure 5 2 Yankeetown Inglis 10 meter digital elevation model Built Environment In general, Yankeetown and Inglis can be entered by three major roads: US 19 and CR 40 from the northeast and east of Inglis, respectively, and North Suncoast Boulevard which runs thro ugh Citrus County in south. CR 40 is also the important road that runs through a nd links Yankeetown and Inglis. Southeast 193 rd Place is another major road branching from US 19, entering Yankeetown and extending to the coast of Gulf of Mexico. According t o land use data from FGDL, Yankeetown Inglis is currently composed of developed area s wetland, upland forests, agriculture, and utilit y land (Figure 5 3). The developed area s generally consist of low and medium density residential area with

PAGE 77

77 fewer than five dwelling units per acre, and a couple of parcels with high density ; as a result, single family homes are the dominant housing type in Yankeetown Inglis. R esidential density is relatively higher along the Withlacoochee River and around the commer cial and services area in Inglis. T he t wo t owns are equipped with t own halls, police and fire stations, schools, churches, a water plant, and other public services, as well as several marina facilities and recr eational spots along the river. Figure 5 3. Yankeetown Inglis existing land use s For public facilities and infrastructures, septic tanks have been widely used in Yankeetown for collecting and treating wastewater, and there is no public wastewater facility in t own. The existing drainage system in Yankeetown consists of ditches that are maintained by the Levy County Mosquito Control Department, but no facilities are used

PAGE 78

78 to treat or hold stormwater before it is discharged into the Withlacoochee River. This lack o f a stormwater management program probably aggravate s erosion and flooding problems (Town of Yankeetown, 2009). Yankeetown also owns a potable water system which has the capacity to serve the existing developed area and the demand projected for the future projected, but a current practice of dredging manmade canals to provide river access from residential areas c ould potentially affect the water quality and potable water supply in Yankeetown at some point (Town of Yankeetown, 2009). Social and Econom ic Data According to the U.S. Census data the population s of Yankeetown and Inglis in 2010 were 502 and 1,325 respectively ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 ). The decennial census data from 1970 2010 shows that Yankeetown and Inglis grew steadily from 1970 to 2000, when their populations began to shrink while Levy County as a whole and the s tate of Florida have shown a steady growth since 1970 ( Economic and Demographic Research [ EDR ] 2007). The age distribution dat a of Yankeetown and Inglis shows a significant prop ortion of the t owns age d 65 or older The was 60.9 in 2010, and 52.0 ( EDR, 2012). The slo w growing population and the high pro portion of older people are mainly due to the relocation of retirees from els e where This trend has also had an impact on the average household income for both towns to some extent. Based on the data from 2011 U.S. Census economic reports, Inglis has a significant percentage 23.4% of households with a yearly inc ome less than $10,000, and the median household income as a whole (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.). This significant low income and elderly population c ould potentially influence future housing planning and preparedness for coastal ch ange or emergency events.

PAGE 79

79 In addition, the data on the employed civilian population reveals that the largest industry in Yankeetown in 2011 is construction (22%), followed by manufacturing (14%), entertainment and recreation (12%), and transportation and u tilities (11%). In Inglis, the largest industry is educational and social services (13%), followed by 11% in construction, entertainment and recreation services, transportation and utilities P ublic administrat ion is the smallest sector, employing 3 % of the population (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.). The above social and economic data analysis indicates that Yankeetown and Inglis possess the general characteristics of rural communit ies with small and aging population s low average income s and poverty rate s hi gher than the s tate average. These condition s c ould potentially increase the difficulties of preparing for coastal change adaptation; however, appropriate adaptation strategies could also provide opportunities for the t owns redevelopment and the creation of new jobs, improving the overall economy. Vulnerability Analysis Typically the economies and quality of life of c oastal communities like Yankeetown Inglis are inextricably linked to their natural environment and geographical features These communities a lso typically face more risks than inland areas. Hurricane s storm surge s flooding, coastal erosion and other issues potentially threaten coastal assets and public safety at any time. In addition, over the course of history coastal habitats and species have migrated causing habitable lands to be lost According to historical topographic surveys, the area between Cedar Key and the Withlacoochee River has experienced a kilometer or more of inland marsh migration since the creat ion of this coastal forest (Raabe et al ., 2004). This migration could

PAGE 80

80 increase exponentially due to climate change and sea level rise. Because of their location and relatively low elevation, Yankeetown and Inglis will be particularly vulnerable to sea leve l rise and its impacts including the loss of low lying lands due to inundation increased flooding, saltwater intrusion, and habitat changes. In order to plan for these impacts in advance and develop effective strategies, it is important to understand wha t impacts could occur and where The fundamental step of this vulnerability analysis was to obtain sea level rise projections for the study area. In this thesis, the author uses the projection from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Figure 5 4 ) which estimat es a 1.5 to 5 f oot sea level rise by year 2100, and concentrates on the 3 feet scenario which is commonly accepted un der current climate conditions. Figure 5 4 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projection of SLR Source: Frank, 2012 Natural Environment Vulnerability D irectly visualizing the results of sea level rise in terms of inundation of low lying areas is possibly by relying on the so called bathtub model, which is a static model solely based on the geographic elevation. Figure 5 5 shows the result of low lying areas

PAGE 81

81 in Yankeetown and Inglis under different sea level rise scenarios using this model. However, sea level rise is a relatively slow and gradual process, and this model is unable to take into account the changes along shore lines, especially how natural communities will be affected C oastal Yankeetown contains abundant wetlands includ ing saltwater marsh, swamp, freshwater marsh, and freshwater wetland forests. These habitats will be the first in the area to experienc e sea le vel rise impacts. As a result, a more dynamic model called Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) which addresses inundation, overwash, erosion, and salinity tends to be more accurate for forecasting changes that would likely t o occur in coastal commun ities such as the Yankeetown Inglis area covered by this study Figure 5 6 is a projection using SLAMM that shows the changes in habitats and land uses under a 3 f oo t sea level rise scenario in Yankeetown and Inglis through the year 2100. Generally, the coastal natural community will respond to rising sea levels by migrating inland. In this model, s wamps will be gradually replaced by saltwater marshes and transitional saltmarshes; saltwater marshes, transitional saltmarshes, and tidal flat s would expand to the developed and undeveloped dry lands if there are no barriers in place; uplands forests would be replaced by saltwater marshes and transitional marshes; new open water and beach es would be created within city limits due t o a rising water table. Table 5 1 shows the changes in acres of specific habitats in a 3 f oo t sea level rise scenario

PAGE 82

82 Figure 5 5 Low lying areas of Yankeetown Ingli s A B Figure 5 6 SLAMM results of habitat changes by a 3 feet SLR scenario: A) Current habitats and land uses ; B) h abitat and land use changes

PAGE 83

83 Table 5 1. Yankeetown Inglis habitat and land us e changes by 3 feet SLR Current Habitats and Land Uses (Acres) Habitats and Land Uses by 3 Feet SLR (Acres) Changes (Acres) Saltmarsh 1,951.05 2398.90 447.85 Swamp 709.57 277.30 432.27 Transitional Saltmarsh 155.28 625.90 470.62 Freshwater Marsh 118.90 111.27 7.63 Cypress Swamp 8.69 8.12 0.57 Tidal Flat 0.14 152.26 152.12 Beach 4.50 24.62 20.12 Water 473.24 596.30 123.06 Developed Dry Land 1,897.40 1,708.85 188.55 Undeveloped Dry Land 1899.30 1311.65 587.65 Source: SLAMM d ata from The Nature Conservancy Under this scenario, the biggest threat to natural communities from sea level rise could be human intervention on developed or undeveloped dry land. However, SLAMM is not a very sophisticated model and uncertainties and limitations remain. For example, it is difficult to predict the frequency and intensity of storms that might be caused or aggravate d by sea level rise, so the additional vulnerability of coastal wetlands in these circumstances is hard to predict. The changes caused to natural communities due to sea level rise could also affect existing conservation pri orities. Better understanding of the vulnerabilities caused by sea level rise can assist in identify ing lands that may provide adaptation opportunities in advance. Built Environment Vulnerability As wetlands migrat e inland due to rising sea levels in the Y ankeetown coastal area, a large number of developed areas are likely to be affected Figure 5 7 shows the area likely to be changed by 3 feet sea level rise based on the SLAMM results ; the parcels in purple are developed lands that would be threatened by gradually migrating wetlands. According to Table 5 2 a significant amount of developed and undeveloped

PAGE 84

84 dry lands will be overtaken by saltmarsh and transitional saltmarsh if barriers are removed, and about 8 acres of land that lie mostly along the Withlac oochee River would be conver t ed to open water. These areas generally consist of low and medium density residential neighborhoods marina facilities, civic buildings (i.e., Yankeetown Town Hall and a f ire s tation), community parks, and commercial structure s. Table 5 3 shows which existing developed areas would be affected in this scenario Figure 5 8 also shows the 100 year storm surge map of Levy County, and in this scenario the Yankeetown Inglis area would experience a medium to high level of water With a rising sea level, storm surges could be more intens e and threat en the upper inland areas of Yankeetown Inglis Figure 5 7 Yankeetown Inglis a reas likely to be changed by 3 feet SLR

PAGE 85

85 Figure 5 8 Levy County 100 year storm surge R ising sea levels will likely affect critical infrastructure in the built environment especially water related facilities such as wastewater systems and drinking wells. Figure 5 9 shows that at least one irrigation well and two monitor wells would be affec ted by the SLAMM predicted scenario Currently Yankeetown and Inglis rely on individual septic tank s for wastewater treatment, which could be vulnerable to coastal change and sea level rise for future need. Rising water tables tend to increase the failure of septic systems, potentially degrading water quality and damaging public health. Saltwater intrusi on is another possible impact that could contaminate drinking wells. Water related facilities play a significant role in the basic life of the community and e ffectively

PAGE 86

86 adapting to these water related issues will be crucial to determining the future quality of life. Figure 5 9 Yankeetown Inglis water supply with 3 feet SLR impacts Table 5 2 Yankeetown Inglis habitat c hanges in developed and undeveloped dry land s by 3 feet SLR Type of habitat D eveloped l and c hange to (Acres) Undevel oped dry land c hange to (Acres) Saltmarsh 43.70 176.18 Transitional Saltmarsh 124.94 372.85 Tidal Flat 0.81 1.52 Open Water 1.90 6.10 Beach 1.86 7.07 Total 173.21 563.72 Source: SLAMM d ata from The Nature Conservancy Table 5 3 Yankeetown Inglis e xisting developed area affected by 3 feet SLR Developed area in land use Acres affected by 3 feet SLR Low density residential 93.25 Medium density residential 106.66 Recreational 9.59 Institutional 3.85 Open land 2.12 Source: SLAMM d ata from The Nature Conservancy

PAGE 87

87 Observation of Community Input During the summer of 2013, the author participated in the Yankeetown Inglis part of the Planning for Coastal Change in Levy County Project. Two public workshops held by the project were observed by the author to collect community feedback and input on coastal change issues. The first workshop introduced the vulnerability of community to sea level rise while the second workshop focused on providing adaptive design strategies for sea level rise impacts Participants in the se two workshops include d planners, community leaders, and residents. T hey were generally concerned ab out saltwater intrusion, water quality and supply, and other water related issues. I ncorporating sea level rise adaptation into long term planning while maintaining its rural character was important to the community Moreover, participants identified the n eed s to get support and help from the state and other agencies when initiating adaptation planning, as well as to purse funding resources to facilitate further implementation. Adaptation Strategies Scenarios and Recommendations This section provide s two scenarios of sea level rise adaptation planning for the study area Yankeetown and Inglis, and elaborates detailed strategies for each adaptation scenario. T h ese two alternatives are based on different goals and object ive s, aiming to explore relatively more integrated and sustainable solution s to increase social and ecological resilience of the community The literature review and five case studies serve as the basis for developing the following adaptation strateg ies scenarios and recommendations T h e six co ncerns derived from the case studies will guide the general direction for recommendation development T he strategy evaluation framework created for the case studies will also be used to evaluate and compare the two adaptation strateg ies scenarios, in order to find more sustainable alternatives.

PAGE 88

88 Adaptation Strategies Scenario I Adaptation Strategies Scenario I was created with the consideration of the ecological, social, and economic impacts of sea level rise to the study area and tries to explore the balance among these contexts by developing integrated strategies to help the built environment cop e with these impacts while minimiz ing the negative impacts on the natur al environment Th is integrated strateg y not only take s into account soc ial and ecological correlations but also call s for the incorporation of adaptation and mitigation strategies into climate change planning. Goals and objectives Considering the conceptual needs of the Adaptation Strategies Scenario I with the integration of the natur al and built environment s the following list of goals and objectives are offered to guide the proposed strategies. 1. Enhance the resilience of the natur al environment so it can adapt to sea level rise impacts 2. Buil d resiliency of the built environment while minimiz ing negative impacts on the natur al environment 3. Protect water quality and water supply 4. Adapt to emergency events including storm surges and flooding 5. Preserve the rural community character and enhance cohes ion and resiliency 6. Provide opportunities for economic development to adapt to future changes and growth 7. Educate and engage public with adaptation planning and information Strategies and recommendations As discussed in the vulnerability analysis section for Yankeetown and Inglis, the lar ge amount of wetlands in coastal Yankeetown and the surrounding area would gradually migrate inland with rising sea levels Therefore, the composition of habitats in

PAGE 89

89 the se area s would also alter: s wamps would be gradually rep laced by saltwater marshes and transitional saltmarshes; upland forests would be lost and covered by saltwater marshes and transitional marshes; saltwater marshes, transitional saltmarshes, and tidal flat would expand into developed and undeveloped dry lan ds if no barriers are in place. In general, a significant portion of wetlands, forests, and their related flora and fauna would be lost This disappearance would not only affect the ecosystem services the se habitats provide to coastal communities but also increase the risk of flooding and other storm effects to the existing development As such Adaptation Strategies Scenario I proposes to help the natural environment adapt to these impacts through wetland restoration and forest management, in or der to promote the health of sustainable ecosystems, create a b uffer from flooding and waves, contribute to reduc ed CO 2 emissions and provide ecosystem services to the community by improving water quality and supporting resource based industries. For wetl and restoration, salt tolerant plants would be the best choice for the coastal area. W ith limited human and financial resources in rural communities it is important to set priorities for protection and restoration. For example, t he biodiversity of the system could be a criterion in determin ing the most critical habitats Additionally, co o p e ration with conservation organizations such as the Big Bend Seagrasses Aquatic Preserve or The Nature Conservancy will help develop research and monitor changes to co astal habitats as well as disseminate information and suggestions to the public and decision makers. For forest management, data from the vulnerability analysis shows that about 668 acres of upland forests including mixed hardwood conifer, tree plantations, pine flatwoods, upland coniferous forest, and longleaf pine habitats would

PAGE 90

90 be affected by a 3 f oot sea level rise scenario by the year 2100. These forests would shrink significant ly or even disappear if no appropriate m anagement were taken Climate change and sea level rise will increase the uncertainties and challenges in effective management. Rather than resisting the changes and impacts, enabling forests to gradually adapt to the inevitable effects seems more reasonab le for prevent ing catastrophic disaster (Millar et al 2007). A daptation options such as planting permeable landscapes, facilitating species migrations, or enhancing diversity with mixed planting should be applicable (Millar et al ., 2007). Integrating sci entific information to identify key species and prioritize practices with a higher chance of success is also important to effectively build adaptive capacity and enhance the resiliency of forests (Blate et al ., 2009). On the other hand wetland restoration and forest enhancement can help maintain public access to wetlands and water, as well as provide opportuniti es for recreatio n. As coastal wetlands in Yankeetown area would migrate inland in respond to sea level rise, Adaptation Strategies Scenario I recom mends facilitating the acquisition of these area s as a natural buffer zone, and gradually relocat ing existing structures and residents to safer upland area s so that habitats can migrate inland over the long term New development in the future should be di scouraged in these areas. The acquisition of the vulnerable lands can be achieved through rolling easement s Transfer of Development Rights (TDR), or conservation easement s However, more research and planning are needed to address the policy and legal issues presented by this option Figure 5 1 0 shows the area s with specific structures that would need to be re moved to less vulnerable uplands in this scenario The se structures are found on private

PAGE 91

91 properties, marina facilities, civic properties, and comm unity parks, which currently serve as a community center for residents. Therefore, a more detailed plan for gradually facilitating this relocation process and redesign ing a new community center to the upland should be considered. The corridor along CR 40 is one potential location for the new community center. Additionally, identifying vulnerable areas with high adaptation priorit y and ecological significance will help promote the effectiveness of implementation. Besides the relocation strategy, Adaptati on Strategies Scenario I also recommends combining the accommodation strategies As the area along the Withlacoochee River is vulnerable to sea level rise but also important for providing community access to the water accommodation strategies are suggeste d for areas with less vulnerability. Strategies such as elevating structures improving in frastructures, and enhancing design standard s are applicable. Designing setbacks and expanding buffers with a living shoreline strategy are also recommended for the vulnerable waterfront area s, in order to accommodate both the ecosystem adaptation and public access. It has been noticed that the community has no stormwater management plan, so designing integrated adaptation strategies for stormwater retention and perco lation are critical ly necessary G reen infrastructure and LID strategies are recommended to all community area s, particularly at vulnerable waterfront locations. Currently, applicable green infrastructure and techniques include different types of eco roofs green streets and alleys, green open spaces and forestry (Foster et al 2011). The se have been recognized as the y goals in applying a local level. LID techniques share the

PAGE 92

92 same principles with green infrastructure approaches and contain bioretention systems, grass swales, vegetated roofs, cisterns, and permeable pavements (EPA, 2000). The benefits of green infrastructure and LID strateg ies are broadly from improving stormwater management, accommodating natural hazards, storing and conserving water, filtering pollutant s and managing water quality, to reducing GHG emissions. Many projects have proved that green infrastructure and LID are m ore cost benefit strategies than conventional technologies for climate adaptation (Foster et al 2011). For Yankeetown and Inglis, several green infrastructure and LID options are available. Permeable paving and driveways are suggested along major roads such as CR 40 and at waterfront public access points to faci litate drainage of stormwater runoff, floods, and storm surges Rain garden is another option for contro l ling rainwater and stormwater runoff ; this technique involves planting flood t olerant plants in low points in the landscape Moreover, bioswales ( vegetated drain channels ) can be placed along residential streets in low lying areas to direct flood and rainwater away from development. Figure 5 11 shows an example of waterfront design using these strategies. An added benefit of incorporating these practices into the study area is that they contribute to improving the community with high quality landscape s and aesthetic appeal, which can attract more residents and investments. Though CR 40 has the capacity to evacuate the residents of Yankeetown and Inglis during natural h azards and disasters (as seen during past hurricanes) the emergency evacuation plan needs to be updated to identify the best eva c uation route s reduce evacuat ion time s and ensure shelter s are correctly placed Because

PAGE 93

93 Yankeetown Inglis has a large population of elderly people, providing assistance to those with special needs during eva c uation should also be considered in the plan. Outside the vulnerable area s new infill and redevelopment are suggested for both eastern Yankeetown and northern Inglis. P rivate properties relocated from the vulnerable area s can be proper infill in existing residential zones. As residential density increases improvements to the infrastructure such as wastewater treatments should be carefully considered to meet future demands and changes In addition, the redevelopment of community centers is encouraged to incentive economic development and community revitalization New infill suc h as restaurants, retail operation s, and other commercial mixed use businesses can be placed in the se community center s, which are adjacent to residential area s. This influx of development will improve the quality of life for residents, diversify land use (reducing vulnerability), and enhance community connecti vity. I nnovative design elements can be incorporated to enhance the community identity including new signage at the entrance of each town, a multi use trail along CR 40A to connect Yankeetown with th e natural coast and street landscape improvement using native plants. Finally, education and outreach to the public s hould be continued and expanded to increase awareness of sea level rise and the associated effect s T he major strategies for Adaptation Strategies Scenario I can be summarized as follows : Facilitate natural environment adaptation with wetland restoration and forest management Preser ve and expand ecological buffer area s to promote inland migration of habitat s and species

PAGE 94

94 Gradually relocate existing structures from vulnerable area s to safer upland areas Incorporate a ccommodation strategies such as elevating structures and improving infrastructure Use living shorelines to protect structure s in the vulnerable waterfront areas Apply green infrastructure approaches such as permeable pav ement s rain garden s bioswales, and etc. Apply LID techniques to control stormwater runoff and protect water quality Update evacuation plan for hurricane and emergency events by identifying evacuation routes, reducing evacuation times, and improving shelter locations Pursue infill and redevelopment in new town center of Yankeetown and existing town center in Inglis Enhance education and outreach for community

PAGE 95

95 Figure 5 10 Adaptation Strategies Scenario I adaptation strategies for the vulnerable area s

PAGE 96

96 Figure 5 11. Adaptation Strategies Scenario I waterfront design Source of images : FloodProBE, n.d. ; City of Berkeley De partment of Public Works, n.d.; Eye On Annapolis, 2011

PAGE 97

97 Adaptation Strategies Scenario II Adaptation Strategies Scenario II is more concentrated on adaptation for the built environment to protect people and property from the negative impacts of climate change and sea level rise. More traditional and existing adaptation strategies derived from the literature review and case studies will be used for this scenario. Goals and objectives T he following goals and objectives are provided to support the development of Adaptation Strategies Scenario II to help the built environment adapt to sea level rise impacts. Although Adaptation Strategies Scenario I and II share some goals and objectives, they are different in terms of the approaches they propose to achieve them 1. Adapt for the built environment to protect public health and safety 2. Protect infrastructures, public and private properties from the negative impacts of sea level rise 3. Protect water quality and water supply 4. Adapt to emergency events including flooding and storm surges 5. Provide opportunities for economic development to promote long term growth 6. Maintain rural community character and enhance cohesion and resiliency Strategies and recommendations Unlike Adaptation Strateg ies Scenario I, Adaptation Strategies Scenario II aims to protect existing development from sea level rise impacts but on the other hand it recommends direct future development away from the high risk area. Thus, f or the most vulnerable area s in western Yankeetown and along the Withlacoochee River, Adaptation Strategies Scenario II suggests the community use protection measures to prevent residents and their properties from flooding and inundation impacts. Recommended h ard protection methods i nclude seawalls, dikes, floodgates, and

PAGE 98

98 bulkheads. These structures tend to maximize the protection of existing land uses including private properties, civic buildings, marina facilities, and critical infrastructure s The design standard s for the protectiv e structure should be carefully considered to account for future sea level rise and related impacts. S oft protection methods such as living shorelines are also recommended at certain locations to mitigate the negative impacts on the natural environment. Fi gure 5 12 shows how hard and soft protection methods can be used together in the study area. If necessary, accommodation approaches can also be applied to strengthen the ability of structures to resist flooding and inundation. A vailable options include revising the building code s enhancing design standards for existing and new structures and improving infrastructure s Capital Improvement Programs (CIPs) could be a useful tool for Yankeetown and Inglis to acquire invest ments in their public facilities i n order to accommodate future growth and mitigate sea level rise impacts. Additionally, rezoning is suggested to restrict new development in the vulnerable area s and it is also recommended that higher standards for flood proofing features should be incorporated into building codes To prepare for hurricanes and other natural events, i t is needed to identify the best evaluation route s reduce evacuation times, and improve shelter placements. Furthermore sea level rise can potentially provide an opportunity for redevelopment and revitalization in the community. It is suggested to redevelop the centers of Yankeetown and Inglis, as well as the area s along the Withlacoochee River. The centers can be revitalized with new infill and mix ed use of land such as new residential and commercial areas The concepts of c luster development and smart

PAGE 99

99 growth should be incorporated in designing the se c enters. Additionally e xisting major roads and sidewalks need to be improved. For example, SE 193rd Place is the m ain road leading to Yankeetown and extend ing to the Gulf of Mexico. This roadway could be improved with the creation of a multi use trail for both bicycles and pedestrians. The portion extending to the western natural coast could be elevated to withstand f uture inundation by increased sea levels. Tree planting and landscaping with native vegetation are recommended to o ther major roads and sidewalks. Public access to the river can be increased in the less vulnerable areas in waterfront Yankeetown Inglis to p rovide recreational opportunities and enhance community character. As a result, the strategies for Adaptation Strategies Scenario II can be summarized as follows : Use hard protection techniques to protect people and properties from inundation and flooding Use soft protection measures such as living shorelines where feasible Use accommodation methods such as building code revision and design standard improvement Apply Capital Improvement Programs (CIPs) to invest in infrastructure improvement to accommodate future growth and sea level rise impacts Us e zoning to restrict new development and require higher standards for flood proofing design in the vulnerable area Update evacuation plan for hurricane and emergency events by identifying evacuation routes, reduci ng evacuation times, and improving shelter locations revitalize community and maintain its character Create opportunities for outdoor recreation and activities to facilitate social communications

PAGE 100

100 Figure 5 12. Adaptation Strategies Scenario II adaptation strategies Source of images: Essex Walks, n.d.; Macdonald, n.d.; Wisconsin Department of Transportation, 2011; Eye On Annapolis, 2011

PAGE 101

101 Comparison and Su mmary Although Adaptation Strategies Scenario I and II share some goals and objectives, different adaptation strategies are employed by each adaptation scenario to achieve its aims The evaluation framework outlined in the Case Studies Analysis Chapter is also helpful for assess ing the sustainability of different strategies when comparing them Table 5 4 shows the result of comparison of two adaptation strategies scenarios through determining which one is a more sustainable solution to sea level rise adaptation for Yankeetown Inglis. The strategies were evaluated based on two components : ecosystem and livelihood This study did not evaluate the process component of each adaptation strategies scenario becaus e it is more suitable for local governments and decision makers when selecting adaptation strategies for their communities Essential elements, which include diverse involvement communication s for consensus and social learning should be ta ken into account to facilitat e successful selection of adaptation strategies based on community needs and character. When comparing the two adaptation strategies scenarios, Adaptation Strategies Scenario I seem s to be a more sustainable alternative than Adaptation Strategies Scenario II as the average value of its strategies is much greater than Adaptation Strategies Scenario II. The primary reason for this is that Adaptation Strategies Scenario I uses more integrated adaptation strategies that take into account the effects of both social and ecological systems. T h e significant difference between the two adaptation scenarios is their strategy preference s for the most vulnerable area s in Yankeetown and Inglis. Adaptation Strategies Scenario I suggests to use a relocation

PAGE 102

102 strategy in the vulnerable developed area s for preventing t he community from flooding and storm surges in the meanwhile, allowing for habitats migrating inland However, Adaptation Strategies Scenario II prefers to take hard protection me asures to protect existing development and public safety Although the relocation of existing development and structure s is costly and will increase GHG emissions in the short term with redevelopment, using hard protection measures will cause cumulative ne gative impacts to the natural environment and increase shoreline erosion. Additionally, Adaptation Strategies Scenario I advocates for assisting coastal ecosystems adaptation to sea level rise with wetland restoration and forest management which will not only help protect ecological buffer zones for hazards but also enhance climate mitigation goals by increasing carbon storage. The other integrated strategies in Adaptation Strategies Scenario I are green infrastructure approaches and LID tec hniques These tactics use ecological components to control stormwater drainage problems that could be caused by rising water table s The economic benefits of these practices usually outweigh the ir costs unlike traditional measures in many cases ( Foster et al. 2011 ). However, a more detailed cost benefit analysis of LID and green development is needed for the study area be fore a final adaptation strategies scenario is adopted According to Adaptation Strategies Scenario II, soft protection measures seem to be more sustainable than hard protection structures in many ways, so strategies such as living shorelines can be used with hard protection methods where feasible in order to mitigate the negative impacts on the natural environment Adaptation Strategies Scenario II promotes a couple of feasible strategies for better adapt ing the built environment to sea level rise impacts, such as restrict ing new development by re zoning

PAGE 103

103 the vulnerable area s and promot ing cluster development in safer upl ands These strategies could help to protect new development from sea level rise impacts over the long term and revitalize both the social and economic character of the existing community In conclusion, integrated strategi es from Adaptation Strategies Scenario I contribute to the sustainable goal and enhance the resiliency of both the natural and built environments. Given the fact that the community depends on its rich natural resources for economic health, the application of integrated strategies would better maintain and enhance thereby improving the overall quality of life for residents Furthermore, i n order to select feasible strategies and guarantee the ir successful implementation with the limited financial and public resources in the rural communities it is important for local governments and decision makers to prioritize strategies based on their community needs and character, as well as the perceived short term and long term benefits. O n the other hand, the projection of sea level rise impacts still contains a lot of uncertainties It is possible that sea level rise might be more severe or swifter than currently projected so more flexibility should be considered into adaptation strategi es. An a daptive management approach could be integrated in to adaptation planning by taking into account new developments in climate change impact prediction as they emerge

PAGE 104

104 Table 5 4 Adaptation strategy evaluation of Adaptation Strategies Scenario I and II Adaptation Strategy Evaluation Indicator Value Ecosystem Livelihood Process Ecological components Relationships and functions Diversity Memory and continuity Econ/Social well being Decrease vulnerability Public health and safety Increase food security Sustainable resource use Reduce GHG emissions Flexibility Public access Community character Diverse stakeholders Communication and negotiation Transactive decision making Social learning Adaptation Strategies Scenario I 1 Facilitate natural environment adaptation with wetland restoration and forest management ++ ++ ++ ++ + + + 0 0 + + 0 + 14 2 Preserve and expand ecological buffer area s to promote inland migration of habitats and species ++ ++ ++ ++ + + + + 0 + + + + 16 3 Gradually relocate existing structures from vulnerable area s to safer upland area s + + + + 0 ++ ++ 0 0 0 + 0 8 4 Incorporate a ccommodation strategies such as elevating structures and improving infrastructure 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 + 0 + 5 5 Use living shorelines to protect structures in the vulnerable waterfront area s + + + + + + + + 0 + + + 0 11 6 Apply green infrastructure approaches such as permeable paving s rain garden s bioswales and etc. + + + + + + + + + + + + + 13 7 Apply LID techniques to control stormwater runoff and protect water quality + + + + + + ++ ++ + + + 0 0 13 8 Update evacuation plan for hurricane and emergency events by identifying evacuation routes, reducing evacuation times, and improving shelter locations 0 0 0 0 + ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 9 Pursue i nfill and redevelopment in new town center of Yankeetown and existing town center in Inglis 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 + 0 ++ 4 10 Enhance education and outreach for community 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 0 0 + 4 Total: 93 Average: 9.3 Adaptation Strategies Scenario II 1 Use hard protection techniques to protect people and properties from inundation and flooding 0 ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 2 2 Use soft protection measures such as living shorelines where feasible + + + + + + + + + + + + 0 12 3 Use accommodation methods such as building code revision and design standard improvement 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 + 0 + 5 4 Apply Capital Improvement Programs (CIPs) to invest in infrastructure improvement to accommodate future growth and sea level rise impacts 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 + 0 + 5 5 Use zoning to restrict new development and require higher standards for flood proof design in the vulnerable area 0 0 0 0 + + + 0 0 0 + 0 + 5 6 Update evacuation plan for hurricane and emergency events by identifying evacuation routes, reducing evacuation times, and improving shelter locations 0 0 0 0 + ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 Redevelop the growth to revitalize community and maintain its character 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 0 + + + 0 ++ 7 8 Create opportunit ies for outdoor recreation and activities to facilitate social communications 0 0 0 0 ++ 0 0 0 0 0 + ++ ++ 7 Total: 44 Average: 6.3

PAGE 105

105 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION S AND FURTHER STUDIES Conclusion s This thesis identified a variety of adaptation strategies for sea level rise from a review of existing litera tures on adaptation strategies and an analysis of five case s in different scales. These strategies were then classified and assessed through an evaluation framework with a series of indic a tors derive d from the principles of adaptive co management from Plummer and Armitage (2007) sustai n able rural livelihood s from Scoones (1998) and San Diego Bay Adaptation Strategy from Hirschfeld ( 2012) Previous studies and a vulnerability analysis of sea level rise impacts support the development of two adaptation strateg ies scenarios for the thesis study area Yankeetown Inglis. A comparison of the two adaptation strategies scenarios demonstrates that the integrated strateg y that address es both the natural and built environments provides a more sustainable approach to help bui ld resiliency for the social ecological systems of Yankeetown Inglis The final results of the two adaptation strateg ies scenarios re present a traditional planning approach and a new way of thinking. Traditionally, urban planning serves people by focusing on the built environment in order to improve the quality of life and overall well being of residents However, increasingly planners are paying more attention to the relationship between the natural and built environments Coastal communities, especially rural communities, usually have unique and intrinsic connections with the water and other local ecosystems that provide numerous benefits In adaptation planning for sea level rise, the strategies of protection, accommodat ion an d retreat for the built environment alone are unlikely to meet the needs of sustainable

PAGE 106

106 development. Thus, applying a more integrated approach to build resiliency for both the social and ecological systems becomes critical. The Yankeetown Inglis case proved the importance of balancing concerns in the natural and built environments to maintain and enhance the character of rural coastal communities in adaptation planning. The added benefits of this ap proach are that natural resources and green features in the living environment help enhance community identit y and quality of life, in turn attract ing more people and investment to the community T his thesis made attempt to examine the existing and potenti al role of integrated strategies in promoting sustainable adaptation to sea level rise. Although the analysis of five case s indicates an increasing trend of considering natural adap tation in strategy development, the overall awareness of the concept of int egrated planning still needs to be enhanced The Adaptation Strategies Scenario I for Yankeetown Inglis present s the concept of integrated adaptation. Though limitations remain, this could be a starting point for decision makers in Yankeetown Inglis and other similar coastal communities to incorporate the integrated approach into their future adaptation planning. H igher land value s in urban areas may result in different adaptation priorities, but an integrated approach could also he lp decision makers in these areas to balance the tradeoffs among social, economic, and environmental concerns when planning for climate change and sea level rise By further researching the cost s and benefit s of different strategies as well as weighing th e short and long term goals and needs of the community Yankeetown and Inglis have the capacity to alleviate the threats sea level rise poses to their communities or even to turn those threats into opportunities for community revitalization.

PAGE 107

107 Further Studies Adaptation to sea level rise is a n ongoing process requiring continuous learning and exploring. Learning by doing can best describe this process of making decision s based on diverse uncertainties and immature knowledge (Ahern, 2011). In order to successfully accomplish sustainability in adaptation planning it is critically important to integrate the most up to date science, innovations and technolog y as well as collaboration and social engagement. For Yankeetown and Inglis, and for other similar coastal rural communities, this thesis provides some ideas for further research and studies. First, Yankeetown and Inglis should initiate a detailed infrastructure vulnerability to sea level rise especially for their water supply and wastew ater treatment facilities. Since infrastructure and facilities are associated with land use patterns and will affect the future infill and relocation process, there is a need to assess where existing facilities have the capacity to support new development or where new central systems and technologies would be needed Additionally, it is very necessary to establish a Stormwater Management Plan to accommodate more intensive flooding and inundation by rising sea levels, and to better maintain the quality of wa ter supply. Second, further studies can concentrate on how to integrate climate change and sea level rise into the policy context, including the local comprehensive plan, zoning ordinance s and land development regulations For example, a conservation ordinance can be created to identify the priorities for protection and relocation areas Furthermore, it is important for local governments and decision makers to prioritize strategies based on community needs and character, as well as short and long term benefits. S etting a timeframe could help ensure future implementation.

PAGE 108

108 Finally, research is needed regarding how to better engage the public and facilitate social learning in the policy and decision making process. Communication about climate change is critical to help the public understand the changes needed to mitigate its effects and gain their buy in for related public policy decision s Research on how to better change people ideas and behaviors for building re siliency to climate change problems is of vital importance

PAGE 109

109 LIST OF REFERENCES Adger, W. N., Arnell, N. W., & Tompkins, E. L. (2004). Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global environmental change, 15 (2), 77 86. Ahern, J. (2012). From fail safe to safe to fail: sustainability and resilience in the new urban world. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100 (4), 341 343. Bedsworth, L. W., & Hanak, E. (2010). Adaptation to climate ch ange: a review of challenges and tradeoffs in six areas. Journal of the American Planning Association 76 (4), 477 495. Beever, J. W., Gray, W., Trescott, D., Cobb, D., U tley, J., Hutchinson, D., . Ott, J. (2009). City of Punta Gorda Adaptation Plan. SWFRPC and CHNEP Technical Report, 09 4. Retrieved from https://www.flseagrant.org/wp content/uploads/2011/08/Punta_Gorda_Adaptation_Plan.pdf Berkes, F., & Jolly, D. (2002). Adapting to climate change: social ecological resilience in a Canadian western Arctic community. Conservation ecology, 5 (2), 18. Blate, G. M., Joyce, L. A., Littell, J. S., McNulty, S. G., Millar, C. I., Moser, S. C ., . Peterson, D. L. (2009). Adapting to climate change in United States national forests. Unasylva, 231 (232), 57 62. Retrieved from http://www.atmos.washington.e du/~breth/PCC/Au2009Readings/rmrs_2009_blat e_g001.pdf Boesch, D. F. (Ed. ). (2008). Comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts in Maryland. Retrieved from http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Air/ClimateChange/Documents/FINAL Chapt%202%20Impacts_web.pdf Boicourt, K. & Johnson, Z. P. (E ds.). (2010). Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Phase II: building societal, economic, and ecological resilience. Retrieved from http://www.dnr.state.md.us/climatechange/climatechange_phase2_adaptation _st rategy.pdf Boyd, E. & Cornforth, R. J. (2013). Building climate resilience: lessons of early warning in Afr ica. In S. C. Moser & M. T. Boykoff (Eds.), Successful adaptation to climate change: Linking science and policy in a rapidly changing world (pp. 201 219). Routledge. Burke, D. G., & Hardaway Jr, C. S. (2007). South River Shore Erosion Management and Living Shoreline Guidelines Retrieved from http://bea dev.com/wp content/uploads/2013/04/south river living shoreline guidelines.pdf

PAGE 110

110 City of Berkeley Depar tment of Public Works. (n.d.). Bioswale in planter strip [Photograph]. Retrieved January, 2014, from: http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/Public_Works/Sewers_ _Storm /Watershed_Resources.aspx City of Lewes. (2011, June). The city of Lewes hazard mitigation and climate adaptation action plan Retrieved from CAKE: http://www.cakex.org/virtual library/city lewes hazard mitigation and climate adaptation action plan Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., De Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B ., . Van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Ecological economics, 25 (1), 3 15. CSA International Inc. (2008). Sea Level Rise Response Strategy Worcester County, Marylan d Retrieved from http://www.dnr.state.md.us/dnrnews/pdfs/Worcester.pdf Daily, G. (1997). Washington DC: Island Press. Delaware Sea Grant & Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI). (2011). The City of Lewes hazard mitigation and climate adaptation action plan Retrieved from http://www.deseagrant.org/sites/default/files/attachments/Lewes Hazard Mitigation and Climate Adaptation Action Plan.pdf Delaware Sea Grant. (2011, 10 24). The City of Lewes hazard mitigation and climate adaptation pilot project Retrieved from http://www.deseagrant.org/city lewes hazard mitigation and climate adaptation pilot project Essex Walks. (n.d.). Clacton on sea [Photograph] Retrieved January, 2014, from : http://www.essexwalks.com/walks/clacton_walton.html#page=page 1 Eye On Annapolis. (2011). CBMM living shoreline [Photograph] Retrieved January, 2014, from : http://www.eyeonannapolis.net/2011/07/05/chesapeake bay trust reaches 40 million in awards/#jp carousel 20466 Feifel, K. & Papiez, C. (2010). Integrating Climate Change Adaptation Strategies into Maryland's Coastal Land Conservation Targeting [Case study on a project of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources]. Product of EcoAdapt's State of Adaptation Program Retrieved from CAKE: http://www.cakex.org/case studies/1707 (Last updated July 2012) FitzGerald, D. M., Fenster, M. S., Argow, B. A., & Buynevich, I. V. (2008). Coastal impacts due to sea level rise. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 36 601 647. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1 146/annurev.earth.35.031306.140139

PAGE 111

111 FloodProBE. (n.d.). Reliability of urban flood defences [Photograph] Retrieved January, 2014, from : http://www.floodprobe.eu/images/wp4building.jpg Florida Department of Economic Opportunity (FDEO). (n.d.). Adaptation planning Retrieved from http://www.floridajo bs.org/community planning and development/programs/technical assistance/community resiliency/adaptation planning Florida Department of Economic Opportunity (FDEO). (n.d.). Adaptation planning in Florida Retrieved from http://www.floridajobs.org/fdcp/dcp/AdaptationPlanning/AdaptationPlanninginFlori da.pdf Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change Human and Policy Dimensions, 16 (3), 253 67. Foster, J., Lowe, A., & Winkelman, S. (2011). The value of green infrastructure for urban climate adaptation. Center for Clean Air Policy, February Retrieved from http://dev.cakex.org/sites/default/files/Green_Infrastructure_FINAL.pdf Frank, K. (2013). Yankeetown Inglis adaptive strategies workshop [PDF document]. Retrieved January, 2014, from : http://changinglevycoast.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/yankeetown inglis workshop july 11 low res.pdf Fuller, R., Cofer Shabica, N., Nature Cons ervancy (U.S.), & Coastal Services Center (U.S.). (2011). Marshes on the move: A manager's guide to understanding and using model results depicting potential impacts of sea level rise on coastal wetlands Narragansett, RI : Charleston, SC: The Nature Conse rvancy, Global Marine Team. Fssel, H. M. (2007). Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons. Sustainability science 2 (2), 265 275. Grannis, J. (2011). Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea Level Rise and Coastal Land Use. How governments can use land use practices to adapt to sea level rise. Georgetown Climate Center, Washington Retrieved from http://www.cakex.org/sites/default/files/Adaptation_Tool_Kit_SLR.pdf Gray, C. (2011). Landscape urbanism: definitions & trajectory. Landscape Urbanism Journal (1). R etrieved from http://scenariojournal.com/lu landscape urbanism definitions/

PAGE 112

112 Gregg, R. M. (2010). Coastal Adaptation Plan for the Town of Groton, Connecticut [Case study on a project of the Long Island Sound Study and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection]. Product of EcoAdapt's State of Adaptation Program Retrieved f rom CAKE: http://www.cakex.org/case studies/845 (Last updated January 2011) Grinnell, R. J. (Ed.). (1981). Social work research and evaluation Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock. Hirschfeld, D., & Holland, B. ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability, (2012). Sea level rise adaptation strategy for San Diego Bay Retrieved from http://www.icleiusa.org/static/San_Diego_Bay_SLR_Adaptation_Strategy_Compl ete.pdf Hulme, P. E. (2005). Adapting to climate change: is there scope for ecological management i n the face of a global threat? Journal of Applied Ecology, 42 (5), 784 794. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Ass essment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Johnson, Z. (n.d.) [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://www.fws.gov/northeast/climatechange/conference/pdf/1045am_zoe_johnso n.pdf Burke & J. E. Dunn (Eds.), A Sustainable Chesapeake: better models for conservation (pp. 3 12 ). The Conservation Fund. Jones, H. P., Hole, D. G., & Zavaleta, E. S. (2012). Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 2 (7), 504 509. Kareiva, P., Enqu ist, C. Johnson, A., Julius, S. H., Lawler, J., Petersen, B ., . West, J. M. (2008). Synthesis and Conclusions. In : Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate sensitive ecosystems ad resources (SAP 4.4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Kumar, R. (2012). Research methodology. New Delhi, India: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd. Lawler, J. J. (2009). Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning. Annals of the New York Academy of Scie nces, 1162 (1), 79 98.

PAGE 113

113 Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI). (n.d.). Groton, Connecticut coastal climate adaptation workshop: meeting notes and presentations Retrieved from http://www.icleiusa.org/climate_and_energy/Climate_Adaptation_Guid ance/groto n connecticut coastal climate adaptation workshop meeting notes and presentations?searchterm=groton Macdonald, S. (n.d.). Multi use wood boardwalk [Photograph], Retrieved August, 2013, from: http://www.americantrails.org/photoGalleries/cool/24 Low Boardwalk ADA Accessible Trail.html Maryland Commission on Climate Change (MCCC). (2008). Comprehensive Strategy ility to Climate Change. Phase I: sea level rise and coastal storms. Retrieved from http://www.mde.state.md.us/assets/document/Air/ClimateChange/Chapter5.pdf Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR). (n.d.). Coastal habitats and sea level rise Retrieved from http://dnr.maryland.gov/ccp/habitats_slr.asp Millar, C. I., Stephenson, N. L., & Stephens, S. L. (2007). Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological applications 17 (8), 2145 2151. Moser, S. C. (2012). Adaptation, mitigation, and their disharmonious discontents: an essay. Climatic Change 111 (2), 165 175. Mostafavi, M., & Doherty, G. (Ed.). (2010). Ecological urbanism Baden: Lars Mller Publishers. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (2010). Florida community is progressively planning to adapt to climate change Retriev ed from http://www.csc.noaa.gov/magazine/2010/05/article1.html Nicholls, R. J., & Cazenave, A. (2010). Sea level rise and its impact on coastal zones. Science 328 (5985), 1517 1520. Noss, R. F. (2001). Beyond Kyoto: Forest management in a time of rapid climate change. Conservation Biology, 15 (3), 578 590. Office of Economic and Demographic Research (EDR). (2007). Resident population of Florida municipalities by decennial census: 1970 2000 Retrieved from http:// edr.state.fl.us/.../population demographics/2000 census/censusdata.xls Office of Economic and Demographic Research (EDR). (2012). Table dp 1. Profile of general demographic characteristics: 2010 Geographic area: Town of Yankeetown, Levy County Retrieved from http://edr.state.fl.us/Content/area prof iles/2010 census city/2010DP_78925.pdf

PAGE 114

114 Office of Economic and Demographic Research (EDR). (2012). Table dp 1. Profile of general demographic characteristics: 2010 Geographic area: Town of Inglis, Levy County Retrieved from http://edr.state.fl.us/Content/area profiles/2010 census city/2010DP_33800.pdf Papiez, C. (2009). Coastal Conservation & Climate Change Workshop [PDF document]. Retrieved fr om http://dnr.maryland.gov/ccp/pdfs/AS_ChelsiePapiez.pdf Plummer, R., & Armitage, D. (2007). A resilience based framework for evaluating adaptive co management: linking ecology, economic s and society in a complex world. Ecological economics, 61 (1), 62 74. Raabe, E. A., Streck, A. E., & Stumpf, R. P. (2004). Historic topographic sheets to satellite imagery: a methodology for evaluating coastal change in Florida's Big Bend tidal marsh. US Geological Survey, Center for Coastal and Regional Marine Studies. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02 211/ Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: a framework for analysis. IDS Discussion Paper 72. Retrieved from http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/dmfile/Wp72.pdf Smit, B., & Pilifosova, O. (2003). Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equ ity. Sustainable Development, 8 (9), 9. Smith, J. B., & Lenhart, S. S. (1996). Climate change adaptation policy options. Climate Research, 6 (2), 193 201. Snow, M. M., & Snow, R. K. (2009). Modeling, monitoring, and mitigating sea level rise. Management of E nvironmental Quality, 20 (4), 422 433. Retrieved from http:// www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1793627 Stults, M., & Pagach, J. Local Governments for Sustainability, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. (2011). Preparing for climate change in Groton, Connecticut: A model process for communities in the northeast. Retrieved from http://www.groton ct.gov/depts/plandev/docs/Final Report_Groton Coastal Climat e Change ProjectJP.pdf The Nature Conservancy. (n.d.). Using nature to reduce climate and disaster risks. Retrieved from http://coastalresilience.org/ sites/default/files/resources/tnc_cc_UsingNature_v7b_ web.pdf Titus, J. G. (1998). Rising seas, coastal erosion, and the takings clause: how to save wetlands and beaches without hurting property owners. Md. L. Rev., 57 1279. Tol, R. S., Klein, R. J., Janse n, H. M. A., & Verbruggen, H. (1996). Some economic considerations on the importance of proactive integrated coastal zone management. Ocean & Coastal Management, 32 (1), 39 55.

PAGE 115

115 Tompkins, E. L., & Adger, W. (2004). Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change? Ecology and society, 9 (2), 10. Tompkins, E. L., Adger, W. N., Boyd, E., Nicholson Cole, S., Weatherhead, K., & Arnell, N. (2010). Observed adaptation to climate change: UK evidence of transition to a well ada pting society. Global environmental change, 20 (4), 627 635. Town of Yankeetown. (2009). Yankeetown comprehensive plan Retrieved from http://www.yankeetownfl.govoffice2.com/index.asp?Type=B_BASIC&SEC={3509 A776 0A50 4489 9E09 CA04B996CE3A} Travers, A., Elrick, C., Kay, R., & Vestergaard, O. United Nations Environment Programme, (2012). Ecosystem based adaptation guidance: moving from principles to practice. Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/clima techange/adaptation/Portals/133/documents/Ecosyste m Based Adaptation/Decision Support Framework/EBA Guidance_WORKING DOCUMENT 30032012.pdf U. S. Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce, (n.d.). Profile of selected economic characteristics, 2007 2011 Amer ican Community Survey, Town of Inglis, Levy County Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/ productview.xhtml?pid =ACS_11_5YR_DP03&prodType=table U. S. Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce, (n.d.). Profile of selected economic characteristics, 2007 2011 American Community Survey, Town of Yankeetown, Levy County Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid =ACS_11_5YR_DP03&prodType=table U. S. Census Bure au. U.S. Department of Commerce, (n.d.). Profile of selected economic characteristics, 2007 2011 American Community Survey, Levy County Retrieved from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid =ACS_11_3YR_DP03&prodType=table U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). (2011). Sea level change considerations for civil works programs (Circular No. 116 5 2 212). Retrieved from http://wetlandswatch.org/Portals/3/WW documents/USACE_EC_1165 2 212_2011Nov.pdf U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). American FactFinder fa ct sheet: Inglis town, Florida. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml#none U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). American FactFinder fact sheet: Yankeetown town, Florida. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_f acts.xhtml

PAGE 116

116 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water. (2000). Low Impact Development (LID): A literature review (EPA 841 B 00 005). Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/green/upload/lid.pdf U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2008). Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate sensitive ecosystems and resources (SAP 4.4). Washington, D.C: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=180143 Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., & Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transforma bility in social ecological systems. Ecology and society, 9 (2), 5. Wilkinson, C. (2012). Social ecological resilience: Insights and issues for planning theory. Planning theory, 11 (2), 148 169. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. (2011). Rural multi use path [Drawing], Retrieved August, 2013, from: http://www.westofthei.com/2011/09/27/bristol citizens give views on highway 45 shared path at board meeting

PAGE 117

117 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rong Zeng grew up in the historic town of Suzhou, China, and has experienced rapid ur banization and resource exploitation in her hometown. With an initial interest in improving the living environment of her hometown Rong received a Bachelor of E ngineering in Urban Planning and Design at Nanjing Forestry University. Rong pursued a Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Plannin g at the University of Florida to further explore planning that seeks to better balance the natural and built environment s, concentrating on environmental planning and adaptation to sea level rise. S he continue s to deve lop her knowledge of and skills related to sustainable development to address climate change challenges with the aim of becoming a professional planner