Scalable Wireless Sensor Network for HVAC Control

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Title:
Scalable Wireless Sensor Network for HVAC Control
Physical Description:
1 online resource (53 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Kumar, Saket
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.S.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Committee Chair:
BAROOAH,PRABIR
Committee Co-Chair:
INGLEY,HERBERT A,III
Committee Members:
SHEA,JOHN MARK

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
extender -- network -- range -- sensor -- wireless
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Mechanical Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
A wireless sensor network can be used effectively to monitor temperature, CO2 content, relative humidity & occupancy measurements for all rooms within a building. The wireless sensor network uses radio transceivers for communication and data transmission. The limited range of the radio transceivers is one of the primary concerns in deployment and operation of such wireless sensor network. In order to achieve desired results from such wireless sensor network, one need to ensure the robustness of the network operation and to manage the time variation in the network due to power recycling. In a view to provide support to our ongoing research on Occupancy Based HVAC Control, such a wireless sensor network was designed. However, while deploying such a wireless sensor network, certain specific issues were faced, and the same can be summarized as follows 1 The coverage area of the wireless sensor network was curtailed due to the limited range of radio transceivers, 2 The temperature sensors used in the sensing node often gave erratic readings and hence they could not be used for control purposes with certainty 3 In case of temporary power failure at the base station, a manual reset of each sensing node was required 4 The number of sensing nodes per Access Point was limited to eight (8) only To overcome the above issues faced while deploying wireless sensor network, we designed an improved version of wireless sensor network with following improvements 1 In order to deal with the limited range issue of radio transceivers, we developed a pair of Range Extenders to relay data from the sensing nodes to the Access Point 2 A new temperature sensor was used to get accurate readings 3 Sensing nodes were made capable of detecting lost connection to an Access Point and automatically re-establish the connection with the Access Point 4 The number of sensing nodes per Access Point is now increased to thirty (30). The present thesis paper deliberates the issues faced by the previous version of the wireless sensor network as well as the corrective measures taken to effectively deal with those issues.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Saket Kumar.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: BAROOAH,PRABIR.
Local:
Co-adviser: INGLEY,HERBERT A,III.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2014
System ID:
UFE0046736:00001


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SCALABLE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR HVAC CONTROL By SAKET KUMAR A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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2014 Saket Kumar

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To my Parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my advisor Dr. Prabir Barooah for his constant guidance, encouragement and key advice necessary for me to complete my thesis. He always believed in me and supported me to shape my ideas. Under his guidance I successfully overcame many difficulties and l earned a lot. I would also like to thank my committee members, Professor Herbert A. Ingley and Professor John M. Shea for serving as my committee members. I thank my colleagues Jonathan Brooks and Yashen Lin for their valuable time. I would like to thank my parents and my family for their encouragement and best wishes.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 1.1 Wireless sensor Network Design (V0) ................................ .............................. 12 1.2 Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 13 1.3 Proposed Design for Range Extender ................................ .............................. 14 1.4 Wireless sensor Network Design (V1) ................................ .............................. 15 2 RANGE EXTENDER ................................ ................................ ............................... 17 2.1 Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 17 2.2 Connection Configurations ................................ ................................ ................ 19 2.3 Hardware ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 21 2.4 Range Extender Access Point (RE_AP) ................................ ........................... 21 2.4.1 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 2.4.2 Software ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 22 2.5 Range Extender Relay Device (RE_RD) ................................ .......................... 22 2.5.1 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 2.5.2 Software ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 22 2.6 Proposed Design ................................ ................................ .............................. 23 2.6.1 Sequence of Connection ................................ ................................ ......... 24 2.6.1.1 One Range Extender ................................ ................................ ..... 24 2.6.1.2 A Pair of Range Extenders ................................ ............................. 25 2. 7 Network Comparisons: ................................ ................................ ...................... 27 2.8 WSN with Proposed Range Extender vs. Zig bee Network .............................. 28 3 END DEVICE ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 29 3.1 Hardware ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 29 3.1.2 Temperature Sensor ................................ ................................ ................ 30 3.1.3 DS18B20 vs. LM35DZ ................................ ................................ ............. 32 3.2 Software Improvement ................................ ................................ ...................... 33 3.2.1 Auto Reconnect (End Device) ................................ ................................ 33 3.2.2 Au to Restart (End Device) ................................ ................................ ....... 35 3.2.3 Averaging the Samples (Temperature Measurement) ............................. 35

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6 3.2.4 Code for DS18b20 ................................ ................................ ................... 35 3.2.4. 1 Initiation: ................................ ................................ ......................... 36 3.2.4.2 Convert Temperature [13, 14]: ................................ ....................... 37 3.2.4.3 Read Data from scratchpad [13, 14]: ................................ ............. 37 3.2.5 Channel Hopping Capability for End Device ................................ ............ 37 3.3 Temperature Sensor Calibration ................................ ................................ ....... 38 4 ACCESS POINT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 40 4.1 Hardware ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 40 4.2 Software ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 40 4.2.1 Maximum Nu mber of End Devices per Access Point .............................. 41 4.2.2 New End Point Connection ................................ ................................ ...... 41 4.2.3 Retaining LinkID ................................ ................................ ...................... 41 5 BASE STATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 42 Hardware ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 42 5.2 Software ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 43 5.2.1 Previous Version ................................ ................................ ..................... 43 5.2.2 Improved Code ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 6 INSTALLATION & TESTING ................................ ................................ .................. 44 6.1 Location ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 45 6.1.1 First Floor Plan (Before) ................................ ................................ .......... 45 6.1.2 First Floor (After) ................................ ................................ ..................... 45 6. 1.3 Second Floor Plan (Before) ................................ ................................ ..... 46 6.1.4 Second Floor Plan (After) ................................ ................................ ........ 46 6.1.5 Third Floor Plan (Before) ................................ ................................ ......... 47 6.1.6 Third Floor Plan (After) ................................ ................................ ............ 47 6.2 Shortcomings ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 48 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ................................ ................................ .... 49 7.1 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 49 7.2 Future Improvement ................................ ................................ .......................... 49 REFERE NCES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 51 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 53

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Connection Configuration ................................ ................................ ................... 20 2 2 Star vs. Tree Topology ................................ ................................ ....................... 27 2 3 Zig bee vs. WSN with proposed range extender [7, 12] ................................ ..... 28 3 1 Comparison between DS18B20 and LM35DZ ................................ .................... 32 6 1 Number of Base Stations ................................ ................................ .................... 44

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Wireless Sensor Network Design (V0) [7] ................................ .......................... 12 1 2 Proposed Range Extender Design ................................ ................................ ..... 15 1 3 Wireless Sensor Network Design (V1) ................................ ............................... 15 2 1 Range Extender Configuration 1 ................................ ................................ ........ 18 2 2 Range Extender Configuration 2 ................................ ................................ ........ 18 2 3 Modes of Connection ................................ ................................ .......................... 20 2 4 Proposed Range Extender ................................ ................................ ................. 23 2 5 Modes of Connection (Single Range Extender) ................................ .................. 25 2 6 Modes of Connection (A Pair of Range Extenders) ................................ ............ 26 2 7 Star vs. Tree vs. Mesh Network topology ................................ ........................... 27 3 1 Different Components of an End Device [7] ................................ ....................... 29 3 2 Temperature Sensor (DS18B20) ................................ ................................ ........ 30 3 3 DS18B20 Wiring ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 3 4 DS18B20 vs. LM35DZ ................................ ................................ ........................ 33 3 5 Flowcharts for End Device [1, 8] ................................ ................................ ......... 34 3 6 Sequence of transaction by Master (Microprocessor) & Slave (DS18B20) ........ 36 3 7 Channel Hopping Sequence ................................ ................................ ............... 38 3 8 Sensor in Open Box Vs. Sensor in Closed Box ................................ .................. 39 4 1 Flow Chart for Access Point [1] ................................ ................................ .......... 40 5 1 Base Station ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 6 1 Location of End Devices on 1st Floor (Before) ................................ ................... 45 6 2 Location of End Devices & Range Extender on 1st Floor (After) ........................ 45 6 3 Location of End Devices on 2 nd Floor (Before) ................................ ................... 46

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9 6 4 Location of End Device & Range Extender on 2 nd Floor (After) .......................... 46 6 5 Location of End Devices on 3 rd Floor (Before) ................................ .................... 47 6 6 Location of End Device & Range Exten der on 3 rd Floor (After) .......................... 47

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science SCALABL E WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR HVAC CONTROL By Saket Kumar May 2014 Chair: Prabir Barooah Major: Mechanical Engineering A wireless sensor network can be used effectively to monitor temperature, CO 2 content, relative humidity & occupancy measurements for all rooms within a building. The wireless sensor network uses radio transceivers for communication and data transmission. The limited range of the radio transceivers is one of the primary concerns in deployment and operation of such wireless sensor network. In order to achieve desired results from such wireless sensor network, one need to ensure the robustness of the network operation and to manage the time variation in the network due to power recycling. In a view to provide su pport to our ongoing research on Occupancy Based HVAC Control, such a wireless sensor network was designed. However, while deploying such a wireless sensor network, certain specific issues were faced, and the same can be summarized as follows: 1. The coverage area of the wireless sensor network was curtailed due to the limi ted range of radio transceivers, 2. The temperature sensors used in the sensing node often gave erratic readings and hence they could not be used for control purposes with certainty; 3. In case o f temporary power failure at the base station, a manual reset of each sensing node was required;

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11 4. The number of sensing nodes per Access Point was limited to eight (8) only. To overcome the above issues faced while deploying wireless sensor network, we desi gned an improved version of wireless sensor network with following improvements: 1. In order to deal with the limited range issue of radio transceivers, we developed a pair of Range Extenders to relay data from the sensing nodes to the Access Point; 2. A new temperature sensor was used to get accurate readings; 3. Sensing nodes were made capable of detecting lost connection to an Access Point and automatically re establish the connection with the Access Point; 4. The number of sensing nodes per Access Point is now i ncreased to thirty (30). The present thesis paper deliberates the issues faced by the previous version of the wireless sensor network as well as the corrective measures taken to effectively deal with those issues.

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12 CHAPT ER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Wireless sensor Network Design (V0) Figure 1 1 Wireless Sensor Network Design (V0) [ 7 ] Figure 1 1 shows the design of the wireless sensor network [ 7 ] installed in the Pugh hall. The salient features of the WSN Design were: 1. An End Device has been installed in each room that was to be controlled. It connects to the nearest access point and sends Temperature, Humidity, CO 2 Content & Occupancy status of each room to the access Point. 2. The Access Point connects to all nearest End Device s and receives data from each End Device.

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13 3. The remote computer (Base Station) uses a Python script to read the data from USB port sent by the Access Point. It then connects to a remote database server and saves all the data to the database. 1.2 Motivation This thesis is motivated from the problems faced during deployment of a wireless 4, 5, 7, 12, 15] project. One of the applications that the wireless sensor network is required to support is occupancy based HVAC control. The wireless sensors, also called as End Devices, were installed in each room to get occupancy measurements, room temperature, C O2 content & relative humidity. We identified following issues [ 10, 12 ] in the wireless sensor network (V0) [ 7 ] in Pugh Hall: 1. The wireless sensor network was limited due to the short range of radio transceivers. Moreover, the signal strength of the radio transceivers for many rooms was further attenuated due to multiple walls and metal ducts between the in many rooms due to poor signal strength. This issue was partially ameliorated by putting a large numbers of Base Stations. 2. The network used the tempera ture sensor which was not accurate and often certainty. 3. In case of power failure at the base station a manual restart was required for each End Device. This was very troublesom e as one had to go to each room and reset the each End Device connected to that Base Station. 4. The number of End Devices per Access Point was limited to eight (8) only. The present thesis deals in detail with the design of an improved wireless sensor networ k. The improved design is intended to increase the robustness and reliability of the wireless sensor network.

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14 We made the following changes in the wireless sensor network: 1. To deal with the limited range issue of the radio transceivers and to increase th e connectivity of the wireless sensor network, we developed a pair of Range Extenders, which acts as a relay between End Devices and Access Point. A key feature of the Range Extender is that it can be connected in series to get arbitrary large range. The d eveloped Range Extender is tested, and its reliability was studied. 2. To get more accurate temperature readings, we retrofitted the existing End Device with a new temperature sensor (DS18B20). This temperature sensor was tested in different testing condition s and was found to give stable and accurate readings. 3. To avoid manual resetting of End Devices, we added ping capability to End Devices. End Devices are now capable of detecting a lost connection with an Access Point and automatically re establish the conn ection with the Access Point. 4. The changes in the configuration file of an End Device were made to increase the number of End Devices per Access Point from eight (8) to thirty (30). 1.3 Proposed Design for Range Extender

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15 Figure 1 2. Proposed Range Extender Design Figure 1 2 shows the two possible configurations for Range Extender which can be used depending on the distance between the End Devices and Access Point. 1.4 Wireless sensor Network Design (V1) Figure 1 3. Wireless Sensor Network Design (V1) The improved version of the wireless sensor network was installed in Pugh Hall. The salient features of improved WSN design are: 1. The network now uses Range Extenders to relay data from the distant End Devices to the Access Points. 2. The network can use one or more Range Extenders depending on the distance between the End Devices and the Access Points.

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16 3. The End Devices can now automatically re establish the connection with their Access Point, if the connection is lost due to temporary powe r failure. 4. Thirty (30) End Devices can now connect to a single Access Point. The above mentioned features of the new WSN design improved the range, robustness, reliability and connectivity of wireless sensor network.

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17 CHAPTER 2 RANGE EXTENDER 2.1 Design The purpose of the Range Extender is to get data from the End Devices, which are not able to connect to the Access Point directly due to the limited range of radio transceivers, and relay it to the nearest Access Point. Desired features of a Range Exten der: It should be able to connect to End Devices on the specified channel; It should be able to transfer data at a good rate; It should be capable of being used with another Range Extender in series; It should be easy to program; It should work reliably and consistently (without disconnection). Microprocessors (EZ430 9, 11, 16 ], a low power RF protocol aimed at simple, small RF networks. This network protocol is intended to be used only for a certain class of ha rdware manufactured by Texas Instruments. While using this network protocol, we realized that there were several limitations on its use. According to Texas Instruments documents these limitations were due to the fact that the EZ430 RF2500 has a very low me mory and is only designed for small range operations. In the network protocol the support was mainly provided for Access Points & End Devices. However, certain specific support was also provided for Range Extenders as well. Their version of Range Extender used by the network Moreover there was no option of using more than one Range Extender in series. Apart from the above, there was also a limitation of using only four (4) R ange Extenders per Access Point. The Range Extender was free to receive data from any End Device in the range. So, there was a possibility that it would get data from the End Devices that are

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18 directly connected to the Access Point. The native Range Extende r supported by Texas Instruments would not have fulfilled our requirements for the wireless sensor network. We started working on new design for the Range Extender using the same network protocol, to meet our requirements. We tried and tested different de signs of Range Extenders and came up with a design which met most of our requirements. The proposed Range Extender can be used in two different situations: which are just out of range of the Base Station. If End Devices are much farther from the base station then two or more Range Extenders can be used together in series to relay data. Figure 2 1. Range Extender Configuration 1 Figure 2 2. Range Extender Configuration 2

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19 2.2 Connection Configurations The design of the Range Extender was flexible as one or more Range Extenders can be used depending on the distance of the End Devices from the Access Point. In the case of more than one Range Extender, the Range Extenders are connected in series. First, we will explain how a connection is established between an Access Point and End Devices. The basic concept of SimpliciTI [ 6, 9, 11 ] is peer to peer communication, where the connection is established only between two nodes. To es tablish the connection, a node has to initiate a link using the built in SMPL_Link(linkID_t *linkID) function and the other node shall listen to the link using the built in SMPL_LinkListen(linkID_t *linkID) function. Both functions have a parameter, which is a pointer to a local buffer residing on the application side. When the SMPL_Link() and SMPL_LinkListen() functions return successfully, the local buffer will contain the handle of the established connection which can be used later to send or receive me ssages from the other node. Therefore it is not necessary to work with device addresses on the application level. Rather it shall only use the link ID handle of the established connection. We can see from T able 2 1 that how a connection is being establish ed between an Access Point and End Device. The most important information which has not been mentioned explicitly in the supporting manual is that both the Access Point and End Devices support the connection both ways. I.e. the End Device can connect to Ac cess Point as an End Device and it can also connect to an End Device & Access Point as an Access point.

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20 Table 2 1 Connection Configuration Device 1 Device 2 while (SMPL_LinkListen(&sLID1) != SMPL_SUCCESS) { } while (SMPL_SUCCESS != SMPL_Link(&sLinkID1)) { } Device 1 Access Point Device 2 End Device while (SMPL_SUCCESS != SMPL_Link(&sLinkID2)) { } while (SMPL_LinkListen(&sLID2) != SMPL_SUCCESS) { } Device 1 End Device Device 2 Access Point Figure 2 3. Modes of Connection From the F igure 2 3, it is clear that either an End Device or Access Point can connect as both an Access Point and End Device.

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21 In F igure 2 3: Device 1, which possesses the basic configuration of an Access Point, connects to device 2 as an Access Point. Device 2, which possesses the basic configuration of an Access Point, connects to the device 1 as an End Device and connects to the device 3 as an Access Point. Device 3, which possesses the basic configuration of an End Device, conn ects to the device 2 as an End Device. Likewise an End Device can connect to an Access Point as an Access Point. Special care should be taken when an End Device is used as an Access Point, because by default its Rx (Receive) setting has been disabled. Ther efore its Rx setting needs to be made active before any attempt at receiving data is made. 2.3 Hardware The hardware used for the Range Extenders is the same microprocessor (EZ430 RF2500) [ 1, 2, 7, 8 ] used for the End Devices and Access Points. The differe nce between End Devices, Access Points & Range Extenders is the program running on each. 2.4 Range Extender Access Point (RE_AP) 2.4.1 Overview This is the first link in the Range Extender. This RE_AP can be used alone or in conjunction with a Relay Device (RE_RD). The RE_AP is named as an access point as it connects to more than one End Device at a time and then it gets data from each End Device and sends it to the main Access Point. It basically uses the configuration file of an Access Point. Hence it in herits all the properties of an Access Point such as reconnecting to the End Devices and receiving

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22 data from each End Device one by one. The only way it differs from the Access Point is that it connects to the main Access Point as an End Device. 2.4.2 Soft ware The software for a RE_AP differs from the software for an Access Point. The software for an Access Point sends data to a computer via serial port whereas the software for a RE_AP relays it either to the main Access Point or to the second link of Range Extender (RE_RD). 2.5 Range Extender Relay Device (RE_RD) 2.5.1 Overview This is the second link in the Range Extender. This RE_RD can be used with any RE_AP on the same channel. The RE_RD is named as relay device as it first connects to and receives data from the RE_AP and sends it to the main Access Point. It basically uses the configuration file of an End Device. Hence it inherits all the properties of an End Device, but a RE_RD works as a relay between an Access Point & RE_AP thus completing the path from End Device to the main Access Point. Being an End Device, its Rx setting needs to be made active before any attempt at receiving data is made. 2.5.2 Software The program for a RE_RD is completely different from the program of a RE_AP. The RE_RD only t ransmits data from the RE_AP to the main Access Point. The programming complexity for the Range Extender is minimal and requires only (minimal) changes in the code if the network changes in the following ways: The number of End Devices it supports changes The frequency channel changes

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23 The first change applies only to RE_AP but the second change applies to both RE_RD & RE_AP. 2.6 Proposed Design After trying out several possible Range Extenders design, we came up with the one which was more stable and reliable. The channel for the Range Extenders, Access Point and End Devices is the same. Figure 2 4. P roposed Range Extender

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24 The F igure 2 4 show s the complete implementation of a Range Extender. It also shows two possible uses of the Range Extender. If the distance between End Devices and Access Point causes weak signal strength between them (i.e. they are just out of range) then a RE_AP is enough to get the data from the End Device to the Access Point. If even after including a RE_AP they are unable to connect, then we need to put a RE_RD in between the RE_AP an d Access Point as shown in the F igure 2 4 2.6.1 Sequence of Connection T he Range Extender works on the same channel as of End Device & Access Points. There is a sequence of connection, which has to be followed to make the Range Extender work properly. This also explains how each device connects to each other. 2.6.1.1 One Range Extender In F igure 2 5 the modes of each device are shown when the connection is made while joining a network with a single Range Extender. The operation in the F igure 2 5 can be explained as: Device 1, which is an Access Point, connects to device 2 as an Access P oint. Device 2 connects to device 1 as an End Device and connects to device 3 as an Access Point. Device 3 connects to device 2 as an End Device The sequence of powering up the Range Extender is also important as these ility to reconnect after being power cycled. The Access Point is always ON. T he devices must be powered on in the following sequence: Make sure that all End Devices are ON.

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25 First plug in the RE_AP and wait until the green light on it blinks fast. This ind icates that all End Devices have connected to the Access Point. The RE_AP will then connect to the main Access Point. Figure 2 5. Modes of Connection (Single Range Extender) 2.6.1.2 A Pair of Range Extenders This configuration uses a pair of Range Exte nders to transmit data from End Devices to an Access Point. Figure 2 6 shows that all these modes can co exist in the same network. Using a pair of Range Extenders helped us extend the range of the wireless network to almost three times of its original ran ge.

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26 Figure 2 6. Modes of Connection (A Pair of Range Extenders) Figure 2 6 shows the modes for each device when the connection is be ing made. The operation in the F igure 2 6 can be explained as: Device 1 connects as an Access Point to device 2. Device 2 connects as an End Device to device 1 and as an Access Point to device 3. Device 3 connects as an End Device to device 2 and as an Access Point to device 4. Device 4 connects as an End Device to device 3 These devices must be powered on in the following s equence: Make sure that the main Access Point and all End Devices are ON.

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27 Then plug in the RE_AP (device 3); it will immediately connect to all End Devices and will give a green, fast blinking light indicating that RE_AP has been connected to all the End D evices. Now plug in the RE_RD (device 2); then the RE_RD will connect to the RE_AP first and then will connect to the main Access Point. This completes the starting sequence and starts the data flow. The data will be relayed through Range Extenders from th e End Devices to the Access Point. 2.7 Network Comparisons: The proposed Range Extenders will convert our wireless sensor network from a star topology to a tree topology network. Figure 2 7. Star vs. Tree vs. Mesh Network topology Table 2 2 Star vs. Tree Topology Star Topology (without Range Extender) Tree Topology (with Range Extender) 1) Limited range 1) Scalable 2) Easy to implement 2) Increased complexity 3) Single point of failure 3) Can have failure at multiple places

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28 2.8 WSN with Proposed Range Extender vs. Zig bee Network The wireless sensor network with Range Extenders is working on a tree topology. Another solution would be to use a mesh network such as a Zig bee network. But in our case the use of a Zig Bee based network would have been mor e expensive. Table 2 3 Zig bee vs. WSN with proposed range extender [ 7, 12 ] Device Arduino + XBee EZ430 RF2500 Cost $85 $20 Range 100 ft. 15 30 ft. Mesh Networking Capability Yes No Communication Protocol Zigbee SimpliciTi Using the Range Extender, we achieved almost the same reachability as would have been achieved with a Zig bee based network. As we have installed 60 End Devices in Pugh Hall, the cost of a Zig Bee based network would have been $3900 more as compared to tha t of an EZ430 based wireless sensor network with the proposed Range Extenders. The use of Range Extenders has improved our star topology based network to tree topology based network. The star a tree based net work meets our requirements & design criteria.

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29 CHAPTER 3 END DEVICE The End Devices have been installed in several rooms in Pugh Hall. They have sensors to monitor the following parameters: Temperature Occupancy status Humidity CO 2 content 3.1 Hardware Figure 3 1. Different Components of an End Device [ 7 ]

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30 Figure 3 1 shows the ready to install End Device with all the sensors and programmed microprocess or assembled inside a box. The F igure 3 1 also shows the different components of an End Device. The End Devi ce shown in F igure 3 1 was part of an earlier version of the wireless sensor network (V0). 3.1.2 Temperature Sensor The EZ430 Rf2500 comes with an inbuilt temperature sensor [ 13 ] for demonstration purposes. In the earlier design of the End Device we r elied on this inbuilt temperature sensor and used it for temperature monitoring. Later on it was found that this sensor on the chip was not accurate and gave erratic readings. Consequently we were unable to use the temperature reading for any control purpo ses. Figure 3 2. Temperature Sensor (DS18B20)

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31 In the modified design we used a new temperature sensor (DS18B20) for monitoring temperature in each room. The DS18B20 is manufactured by Maxim Integrated. Features of new temperature sensor (DS18B20): Digit al Output Operating Range: 55 degrees Celsius to +125 degrees Celsius Accurate up to +/ 0.5 degrees Celsius (over the range of 10 degrees Celsius to + 85 degrees Celsius ) Power Requirement: 3.0 Volts to 5.5 Volts 9 bit to 12 bit Celsius temperature measurement The most striking feature of DS18B20 is that it gives temperature readings as digital outputs thus reducing the chances of noise getting into the readings. The temperature readings from DS1820 are stable and change smoothly as the temperature v aries. The lower vulnerability to noise makes it a perfect choice for various applications and that is why we decided to use it. Before finalizing on DS18B20, we also tried out another temperature sensor (LM35DZ), but the results were not satisfactory. Tem perature readings for both sensors were compared. The readings of LM35DZ also vary with reference voltage applied to it. The DS18B20 has 3 pins namely Data Pin, Voltage Pin and Ground Pin. The DS18B20 communicates over a 1 wire bus that by definition requi res only one data line (and ground) for communication with the microprocessor. It can derive power directly Parasite Power

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32 Figure 3 3. DS18B20 Wiring 3.1.3 DS18B20 vs. LM35DZ Table 3 1. Comparison between DS18B20 and LM35DZ Figure 2 5 shows the comparison between temperature sensors DS18B20 & LM35DZ in the same testing condition. The readings from LM35DZ are the averaged sample for 30 readings. Even after averaging samples for LM35DZ, there was a great deal of fluctuation in the readings. The readings from DS18B20 were more st able and close to the actual temperature. The above plot of temperature readings in the same testing condition helped us to choose DS18B20 over LM35DZ. DS18B20 LM35DZ Digital output Analog output Less effect of noise on readings Vulnerable to noise Readings not dependent on voltage level (long wires can be used to transmit temperature readings) Readings depend on reference voltage (long wires may give inaccurate temperature readings) Stable temperature readings Fluctuation in temperature readings Programming effort increased Easily programmable

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33 Figure 3 4. DS18B20 vs. LM35DZ 3.2 Software Improvement The EZ430 RF2500 [ 1, 2, 8, 9 ] with all its pe ripherals has been programmed in Instruments microprocessors. It uses concepts of C and assembly language. EZ430 also uses Simpliciti Network Protocol for wireless communication. 3.2.1 Auto Reconnect (End Device) In the previous design of the wireless sensor network (V0), End Devices were unable to reconnect to the Access Point after losing connection. The lost connection between an End Device and Access Point could be due to the following reasons: A power failure and restoration of power to the Access Point. Signal interference

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34 In case of power failure of an Access Point, a manual restart of each End Device was required. In case of lost connection due to signal interference, a ma nual reset of that particular End Device was required. The improvements described here enable End Devices to reconnect to the Access Point by themselves without any manual intervention. We looked at different options available to achieve this without overl oading the system. Figure 3 5. Flowcharts for End Device [ 1, 8 ]

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35 The F igure 3 5 Outline of the proposed idea: Each End Device pings the Access Point at a fixed interval If the ping succeeds, the End Device continues to send data to the Access Point If the ping fails, a watchdog timer is used to restart the code from the beginning. Thus End Device goes again to the SMPL_LINK loop, where it reestablishes connection with the Access Point. The technique described above was tested for its accuracy, and it worked well in various scenarios. All the End Devices in Pugh Hall have been updated with the new code. 3.2.2 Auto Restart (End Device) During testing it was observed that sometimes End Devices stopped sending data to the Access Point for unknown reasons. It was assumed that it might be happening due to a memory leak in microprocessor. To get rid of this issue, we made the End Devices restart every 10 minutes. We used a software timer in the program to count 10 minutes and then to reinitialize the program from the beginning. After implementing the idea, we observed a reduction in lost connection and increase in the connectivity of the network. 3.2.3 Averaging the Samples (Temperature Measurement) To improve temperature readi ngs from the temperature sensor, we took the average of 30 temperature samples in each cycle. This technique helped us to reduce the sudden fluctuations in the temperature readings. 3.2.4 Code for DS18b20 We used a new temperature sensor (DS18B20) for bet ter measurement [ 13, 14 ]. This sensor returned temperature in digital form rather than in analog form. In the case

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36 of analog temperature sensors, it is easy to read data using an analog to digital converter (ADC). Data from ADC can be easily converted to t emperature readings using predefined formulae provided by the manufacturer. But in case of digital temperature sensors the program must include code to read each bit, do bit operation and then return the temperature readings. Operation (Measuring Temperatu re [ 14 ]) with external power source: Initiation Convert Temperature Read Data from scratchpad Master EZ430 (Microprocessor); Slave DS18B20 3.2.4.1 Initiation: Initiation is the process in which the bus master transmits a reset pulse. If there is a slave device active on the bus, it acknowledges its presence to the master by transmitting a presence pulse. Figure 3 6. Sequence of transaction by Master (Microprocessor) & Slave (DS18B20)

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37 3.2.4.2 Convert Temperature [ 13, 14 ]: To initiate a temperature measurement and A to D conversion, the master issues volts power supply, the master can issue a command to read time slots after the Convert T command, and the DS18B20 will resp ond by transmitting 0 while the temperature conversion is in process and 1 when the conversion is done. After the temperature conversion, the resulting temperature reading is stored in a 2 byte temperature register in the scratchpad memory, and DS18B20 ret urns to idle state. 3.2.4.3 Read Data from scratchpad [ 13, 14 ]: pulls the bus LOW for a minimum of 1 and then releases it. Now master goes to the reading mode. If slave tries to send 0, slave will pull down the bus to LOW otherwise it will allow the bus to remain HIGH. The reading period is 15 Master reads LSB first. The temper ature data are stored as a 16 bit, sign number in the temperature register in the slave device with the last 4 bits of the MSB containing the sign bit for the reading. The above bit pattern is converted to a 16 bit hex and then to decimal. For a 12 bit mode, the bit resolution is 0.0625 degree/bit. Multiplying the decimal value with the resolution bit will give the current temperature. 3.2.5 Channel Hopping Capability for End Device In the event of failure of the Access Point, all End Devices connected to it will get disconnected from it. To prevent the effect of such failure, an extra Access Point on a different channel is kept as a standby. Now, all End Devices have channel hopping capability. In case of failure of the Access Poi

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38 the Access Point on the previous channel. After a preset time each End Device will change channel and connect to the other Access Point. Figure 3 7. Channel Hopping Sequence Once the End Devices are connected to another Access Point, they will start sending data to the new Access Point. This prevents downtime due to any problem with the Access Point. This idea was tested successfully in the lab. 3.3 Temperature Sensor Calibration During installation and testing o f the temperature sensor (DS18B20), it was observed that the temperature readings from the sensor inside and outside the enclosure (box) were different. The box has been used to keep all the sensors and

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39 microprocessor in place as a unit. We carried out the same test for different sensors, and it was found that the difference in temperature existed with all other sensors too. The temperature from the sensor inside the closed box was consistently higher than that from the sensor in the open box (room temperat ure). Consequently an offset was used in the code to reduce the bias due to enclosure. Figure 3 8 shows the temperature readings from a temperature sensor in an open box and in a closed box in the same testing conditions. Figure 3 8. Sensor in Open Box vs Sensor in Closed Box

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40 CHAPTER 4 ACCESS POINT The Access Points have been installed at each Base Station to get data from End Devices and Range Extenders. These Access Points directly connect to the nearby End Devices and through Range Extenders to the distant End Devices. 4.1 Hardware The Access Point uses a single microcontroller (EZ439 RF2500). An FTDI Cable has been used to power EZ430 RF2500 [ 1, 2, 8, 9 4.2 Software Figure 4 1. Flow Chart for Access Point [ 1 ]

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41 4.2.1 Maximum Number of End Devices per Access Point In the previous version of the wireless sensor network (V0), the maximum number of End Devices connecting to an Access Point was limited to eight (8). This limitation forced us to use more Access Points to cover all End Devices. Updating the 6, 9, 11, 16 ] increased the number of End Devices per Access Point to thirty (30). The configuration file for the Access Point was modified to increase the number of End Devices which can connect to it. The macro Access Point. 4.2.2 New End Point Connection The Access Point has the capability to re establish connection in case of network failure with an End Device. The Access Point gets an interrupt if any new End Device tries to connect to it. It listens to the link and establishes the connection. 4.2.3 Retaining LinkID When Access Point establishes a connection with an End Device, it stores a LinkID for each End Device in its memory, and when the same End device for any reason gets disconnected and tries to reconnect to the Access Point, the Access Point assigns the same LinkID to the End Device. This is because the LinkID is assigned based on the dev Device is restarted. Access Point has the ability to retain the LinkIDs.

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42 CHAPTER 5 BASE STATION Hardware The low power computer (Dreamplug) running Debian Linux and the Access Point (EZ430 RF2500) are collectively called a Base Station. This is the place where the data received by the Access Point are processed by a Python script running on the Dreamplug computer. The data are then written to the database. Figure 5 1. Base S tation

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43 The Dr eamplug is a compact and low power computer running Debian Linux. In our case it worked as a remote server, whose job was to run a Python script, which read data from its USB port and wrote back to the database using Local Area Network. 5.2 Software 5.2.1 Previous Version The previous version of the wireless sensor network used software running on the Base Station computer, which had the following limitations: This resulted in the us e of two Dreamplug computers at the same place and each reading data only from one USB port. The software would not allow it to re establish the connection with the database if the database computer restarts or the database server gets back online after a brief period of shutdown. 5.2.2 Improved Code The following significant changes were made to the software to improve its efficiency: Read data from both USB ports The software was made to read data from both USB ports. This means that now two Access Point s can be put on a single Dreamplug computer unlike in the previous version where one Dreamplug had only one Access Point. The use of both USB ports reduced the overall cost of the complete system. Now we need only two (2) Dreamplug computers instead of the previous four. Smart code Catch The database server goes down for a brief period of time Any connection problem on USB ports occurs In both cases, the code prints the error and takes corrective actions

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44 CHAPTER 6 INSTALLATION & TESTING Once the design of the Range Extender was completed, we started planning deployment of End Devices and Range Extenders. The idea was to reduce the number of Base Stations with the use of Range Extenders and make the complete system more compact and manageable. We installed Range Extenders on the 2 nd & 3 rd floors. As shown i n F igures 6 1 to 6 6, after installing the Range Extenders the required number of Base Stations decreased from 8 to 3. This reduced the overall cost significantly. We due to limited range issue. There was a section of rooms on 3 rd t put a Base Station due unavailability of Ethernet connection. Consequently, end Devices were not installed in those rooms. Now, with the use of Range Extender we were able to put End devices in those rooms to collect sensor data. Range Extenders were installed on 2 nd & 3 rd floor for testing in Pugh Hall. With the use of range extenders we received data for our ongoing experiments on Occupancy Based HVAC Control for buildings. The range extenders provided sensor data from specified rooms for our experiments without any interruption for last one month. Table 6 1 Number of Base Stations

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45 6.1 Location 6.1.1 First Floor Plan (Before) Figure 6 1. Location of End Devices on 1st Floor (Before) 6.1.2 First Floor (After) Figure 6 2. Location of End Devices & Range Extender on 1st Floor (After)

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46 6.1.3 Second Floor Plan (Before) Figure 6 3. Location of End Devices on 2 nd Flo or (Before) 6.1.4 Second Floor Plan (After) Figure 6 4. Location of End Device & Range Extender on 2 nd Floor (After)

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47 6.1.5 Third Floor Plan (Before) Figure 6 5. Location of End Devices on 3 rd Floor (Before) 6.1.6 Third Floor Plan (After) Figure 6 6. Location of End Device & Range Extender on 3 rd Floor (After)

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48 6.2 Shortcomings We faced the following problems during testing and installation: As these Range Extenders are wall powered, it took some time to find the right locations for the Ran ge Extenders due to the limited wall power available in Pugh Hall. The Range Extender needs to be restarted manually in a specific sequence every time if the complete network goes through a power cycle. The wall outlets for Range Extenders were available only close to the ground. This forced us to use these outlets for the Range Extenders. Consequently, the range of the Range Extenders was greatly affected. Putting the radio transceivers at a height greatly improves their range.

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49 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 7.1 Summary In this thesis, we have made various important improvements to the wireless sensor network (V0) as summarized below: 1. With the use of Range Extenders the network was expanded into the entire Pugh Hall. We also reduced the number of Base Stations in Pugh Hall from eight (8) to three (3). The usefulness of Range Extenders became more evident when we replaced four Base Stations with four Range Extenders. The Range Extenders worked as a good replacement for Base Stations. Replacing Base Stations with Range Extenders reduced the overall cost of the project. 2. New temperature sensors were used in the End Devices to increase the accuracy of temperature measurements. 3. End Devices were enabled to reconnect to the network automatically. 4. The maxim um number of End Devices per Access Point was increased from eight (8) to thirty (30). 5. The Python script running on the Dreamplug computers was improved for better performance. 6. Channel hopping capability of End Devices was demonstrated. We are carrying out the tests to ensure the robustness and reliability of the improved wireless sensor network. 7.2 Future Improvement There are always areas of improvement. The future work on this project may include the following: 1. Improvement in the Range Extender code to make it auto sustainable in the event of power disruption or network failure. This step will ensure that the whole wireless system will join the network by itself and start sending data without any manual intervention. 2. The enclosure used for End Devices w as found to reduce the range of the radio then it should look at the orientation and positioning of the EZ430 RF2500 so that we get the maximum possible range when deployed.

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50 3. Th e range has been the biggest issue in our wireless sensor network. In the future work we would like to use an Access Point with an external antenna. Using an external antenna for the Access Point will definitely increase the range of the wireless network a nd thus will increase the connectivity. 4. The software reset of EZ430 should reset all the registers. A power on reset is required for an End Device to reset all the registers of a microprocessor. To achieve POR, we plan to use a small relay controlling power to the microprocessor. The small relay can be powered from a digital output pin of the microprocessor to complete a Power On Reset. If this is achieved this will reduce memory leakages in microprocessor and will also not require manual intervention every time to do a POR manually on an End Device. 5. The detailed analysis of offset calibration for the temperature sensor inside and outside the box is to be done.

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51 REFERENCES [1] Texas Instruments EZ430 RF2500 Available from: http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/slau227e/slau227e.pdf [2] Beginning microcontrollers with MSP430 Tutorial V0.4 by Gustavo Litovsky Available f rom: http://www.glitovsky.com/Tutorialv0_4.pdf [3] American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ANSI/ASHRAE standard 62.1 2007, ventilation for acceptable air quality, 2007. Available from: www.ashrae.org [4] Refrigerating American Society of Heating and Inc. Air Conditioning Engineers. Ansi/ashrae standard 55 1981, thermal enviro nmental conditions for human occupancy, 1992. Available from: www.ashrae.org [5] S. Goyal, H. Ingley, and P. Barooah. Zone level control algorithms based on occupancy informat ion for energy efficient buildings. In American Control Conference (ACC), pages 3063 3068, 2012. [6] Instruments, 2009. [7] Wireless Sensor Network [V0] [8] Available from: http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/slau144j/slau144j.pdf [9] Wireless Sensor Network using EZ430 RF2500, Texas Instruments April 2011 Available from: http://www.ti.com/lit/an/slaa378d/slaa378d.pdf [10] Deepak Ganesan, Alberto Cerpa, Wei Ye, Yan Yu, Jerry Zhao, Deborah Estrin Networking Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks [11] CC2500, Low Cost Low Power2.4 GHz RF Transceiver, Texas Instruments Available from: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/cc2500.pdf [12] Hu Bing, and Applications 2010.

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52 [13] Datasheet for temperature sensor, DS18B20, Maxim Integrated Available from: http://datasheets.maximintegrated.com/en/ds/DS18B20.pdf [14] Ishan Karve, Illustrated guide to interfacing Maxim One Wire (1 Wire) devices DS18B20 on TI Launchpad MSP EXP430G2 http://karve.in/?p=1408 [15] Rahul Subramany, Chenda Liao, and Prabir Barooah. Performance comparison of sensing systems for building occupancy measurement. Energy and Buildings, 2012. [16] Low Power RF Hardware & Tools Forum Texas Instruments http://e2e.ti.com/support/low_power_rf/f/155.aspx

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53 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Saket will graduate with a Ma ster of Science in mechanical e ngineering from the University of F lorida, Gainesville in May 2014 Since June 2013 he has been a Research Assistant in the Distributed Control Systems Lab at the University of Florida under Dr. Prabir Barooah. His research focused on developing wireless sensor networks for Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for smart buildings. Saket earned his Bac helor of Engineering degree in marine e ngineering from Marine Engineering & Research Institute Kolkata India He has worked as Marine Engineer onboard ship for fo ur years with Anglo Eastern Ship Management.