Exemplary Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs in Rural Secondary Schools

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Exemplary Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs in Rural Secondary Schools
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1 online resource (205 p.)
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english
Creator:
Rubenstein, Eric D
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Agricultural Education and Communication
Committee Chair:
THORON,ANDREW C
Committee Co-Chair:
BARRICK,R KIRBY
Committee Members:
OSBORNE,EDWARD WAYNE
PRINGLE,ROSE MARIE

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Subjects / Keywords:
exemplary
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools. The participants in this study were agriculture teachers, agriculture students, parents of agriculture students, and community members from two rural school-based agricultural education programs. In this qualitative study, focus groups, formal interviews, informal interviews, and observations were conducted. The data was analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. From the data, 5 themes and 23 factors emerged as the findings of this study. The five themes were: classroom, interest, involvement, supervision, and culture. The 23 factors were associated with one of the five themes. The researcher concluded that the utilization of SAE programs in SBAE continues to be a vital component of a total program. Further, agriculture teachers were found to be the most important program partner during the development and implementation processes. It was recommended that further studies be conducted to examine current practice of agriculture teachers in the development and implementation of SAE programs. Moreover, it was recommended that teachers provide student with classroom and on-site supervision during a SAE program. Finally, it was recommended that agriculture teachers require 100 percent of their agriculture students to conduct a SAE program.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Eric D Rubenstein.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: THORON,ANDREW C.
Local:
Co-adviser: BARRICK,R KIRBY.

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lcc - LD1780 2014
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UFE0046623:00001


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1 EXEMPLARY SUPERVISED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS By ERIC D. RUBENSTEIN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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2 2014 Eric D. Rubenstein

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3 To my Aunt (Kathleen Kreisher) a nd Grandmother (Joanne Lobach)

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS When I entered the agricult ural education profession as a high school teacher, I never believed that I would have been granted the opportunity to complete a PhD program. The opportunity that I was granted has been a blessing on my life and I have many people that I would like to th ank. First, I would like to thank my family for all of their support and love throughout my life, especially over the last four years. I am grateful for the constant encouragement that my parents, Amy, and Jon have given me throughout my doctoral program. I would also be remised if I did not thank Kathleen Kreisher and Joanne Lobach for the love and encouragement that they provided me during their lives. I know that you are watching over me today and I hope that I hav e and will continue to make you proud! I feel privileged to call each of you my family and I love you! I want to thank the graduate students in the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication at the University of Florida. O ver the last four year s I have developed a Gainesville fami ly of graduate students who have been there every day to help ensure my success Specifically, I want to thank Dr. Lauri Baker for helping me feel at home in Gainesville during my first year in the program. I also want to thank Dr. Av ery Culbertson, Dr. Nathan Conner and Jessica Gouldthorpe for sharing stor ies and encouraging words throughout our joint experience at the University of Florida. Further, I want to thank the other graduate students in Rolfs 310 ( Jessica, Mary, Tre, Cathy, Pei wen Milton, an d Austin) fo r sharing and collaborating on various ideas Y ou all have impacted my life and I have learned a great deal from each of you over the past four years. I wish each of you the best and look forward to collaborating in the future!

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5 During my doc toral work at the University of Florida I have had the opportunity to work with Dr. Andrew Thoron, Dr. Edward Osborne, Dr. R. Kirby Barrick, and Dr. Rose Pringle. Dr. Osborne, thank you for assisting me in the development of my dissertation topic and conti nually supporting my interest in SA E. Also, thank you for always pushing me to further my thinking and helping me to further develop my philosophical beliefs. I would also like to thank Dr. Barrick for providing me with constructive feedback throughout m y graduate studies. I believe that your support and mentorship have assisted in my development throughout my time at the University of Florida Dr. Pringle, thank you for being a part of my doctoral committee and assisting me in conducting a qualitative di ssertation study that is of quality and worth. I value the relationship that we have developed and am grateful for you r knowledge and advice over the last two years. The next individual that I would like to thank has been one of my biggest supporters thr oughout my doctoral program, Dr. Andrew Thoron. Over the last three years you have been my advisor, mentor, and most importantly my friend. I firmly believe that my success as a faculty member is directly because of the advisement and encouragement that y ou have given me, even before you were my official academic and consider myself privileged to be your first PhD student. I hope that I make y ou proud throughout my car eer as a teacher educator. Finally, I want to thank my Lord and S avior Jesus Christ. For all good things are done in the presence of God and are done in accordance with his will. I feel eternally blessed for the life that he has provided me and the oppo rtunities that have been granted to me throughout this life.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 13 CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 15 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ....................... 26 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 28 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 28 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 30 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 31 Assumptions of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 31 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 32 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 34 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 34 Conceptual Model Guiding the Study ................................ ................................ ..... 34 Supervised Agricultural Experience ................................ ................................ ........ 36 Student Factors Influencing SAE ................................ ................................ ............ 4 2 Benefits ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 44 Motivation ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 46 Kno wledge ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 47 Participation ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 48 Teacher Factors Influencing SAE ................................ ................................ ........... 50 St udies that Synthesize Literature ................................ ................................ .... 53 ................................ ............................ 54 ................................ .............. 57 ................................ ........................ 57 ................................ ......................... 58 ................................ ......... 58 Studies Comparing Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Teachers ............. 58 Parent Factors Influencing SAE ................................ ................................ .............. 59 Community Factors Influencing SAE ................................ ................................ ...... 60 School Factors Influencing SAE ................................ ................................ ............. 62

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7 Development and Implementation of SAE ................................ .............................. 64 Quality Factors of SAE ................................ ................................ ............................ 66 Co nstructivism ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 68 Situated Cognition ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 70 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 72 3 METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 74 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 74 Research Approach ................................ ................................ ................................ 75 Ontology and Epistemology ................................ ................................ .................... 77 Realism ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 77 Constructionism ................................ ................................ ................................ 78 Theoretical Perspective ................................ ................................ .......................... 79 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 79 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 79 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ 81 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 84 Measures of Trustworthiness and Rigor ................................ ........................... 86 Researcher Subjectivity Stat ement ................................ ................................ ......... 87 Chapter Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 92 4 FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 94 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 94 Description of Participants ................................ ................................ ...................... 96 Committed Teachers ................................ ................................ ............................. 100 Involved Teacher s ................................ ................................ .......................... 101 Concrete Examples ................................ ................................ ........................ 103 Early Introduction of SAE ................................ ................................ ............... 104 Requir ed SAE Programs ................................ ................................ ................ 109 Team Approach to Development ................................ ................................ .... 110 SAE Grade ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 111 Student Centered SAE Program ................................ ................................ ........... 112 Career/Student Interest Focus ................................ ................................ ....... 113 School Resources ................................ ................................ .......................... 116 Specialized Program for Each Student ................................ ........................... 118 Student Learning ................................ ................................ ............................ 119 FFA Influence ................................ ................................ ................................ 123 ................................ ................................ ... 125 Supportive Parents ................................ ................................ ......................... 125 Parental Knowledge of S AE ................................ ................................ ........... 128 Program Goals ................................ ................................ ............................... 129 Community Member Support ................................ ................................ .......... 132 Joint Supe rvision ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 134 Classroom Supervision ................................ ................................ .................. 134 On Site Supervision ................................ ................................ ....................... 137

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8 Sh ared Expectations ................................ ................................ ............................. 139 Supportive Administration ................................ ................................ ............... 140 Prior Sibling Involvement in SAE ................................ ................................ .... 141 Development of a Culture for SAE ................................ ................................ 143 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 145 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ .. 147 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 147 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................. 148 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 148 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 150 Committed Teachers ................................ ................................ ...................... 150 Student Centered SAE Programs ................................ ................................ .. 153 ................................ ............................ 155 Joint Supervision ................................ ................................ ............................ 157 Shared Expectatio ns ................................ ................................ ...................... 159 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 160 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 161 Conclusion: In rural sch ools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, the agriculture teacher is the most important program partner in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs ................................ ................................ ............................. 161 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, every student in an agricultural education course develops a SAE that is evaluated by the agriculture teacher based on record keeping practices taught withi n the first month of school. ................ 161 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, multiple program partners are central to the SAE development proce ss. ................................ ................................ ................. 162 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component program development. ................................ ................................ ................ 163 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, involvement in an SAE program influences an ................................ .......................... 164 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, SAE programs are beneficial to student development. ................................ ................................ ............................... 164 Conclus ion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, the FFA awards and degree structure serves as an extrinsic motivator for student participation in SAE programs. .................... 165 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, parents and/or community members support the ................................ ................................ ............. 165 Conclusion: In r ural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, parents lack general knowledge of SAE programs. 166

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9 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a c omponent of the SBAE program, SAE programs are guided by goals instead of a 4 year plan. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 166 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, teache rs supervise SAE programs during agriculture classes. ................................ ................................ ..................... 167 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, on site supervision leads to higher quali ty SAE programs. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 167 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, parents and community members supervise the teacher. ................................ .... 168 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, student participation in SAE programs encourages friends to also engage in a SAE p rograms. ................................ ................. 168 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, school administrators support SAE programs. ........ 169 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, prior sibling or family involvement in SAE programs increases student participation in SAE and assists in the development of a culture fo r SAE. ................................ ................................ ........................ 169 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 170 Recommendations for Practitioners ................................ ................................ ...... 173 Recommendations for Teacher Preparation and Professional Development ........ 174 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ............................... 175 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 175 APPENDIX A TEACHER INTERVIEW GUIDE ................................ ................................ ........... 178 B STUDENT FOCUS GROUP MODERATORS GUIDE ................................ .......... 1 81 C PARENT FOCUS GROUP MODERATOR GUIDE ................................ ............... 184 D COMMUNITY MEMBER FOCUS GROUP MODERATORS GUIDE .................... 187 E SAE OBSERVATION SH EET ................................ ................................ ............... 190 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 192 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 204

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10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Qualitative Physiological Assumptions ................................ ............................... 76 4 1 Student Participant SAE Programs ................................ ................................ ..... 99 4 2 Community Member Careers ................................ ................................ ............ 100 4 3 Parent Careers ................................ ................................ ................................ 100

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Conceptual model of SAE programs in SBAE. ................................ ................... 35 2 2 The Agricultural Education Program Model (Barrick, 1992) ................................ 65 5 1 Development and Implementation Factors ................................ ....................... 150 5 2 Model for the Development and Implementation of Exemplary Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs ................................ ................................ .... 177

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12 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AAAE American Association for Agricultural Education FFA The National FFA Organization NCES National Center for Education Statistics SAE Supervised Agricultural Experience SBAE School Based Agricultur al Education

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EXEMPLARY SUPERVISED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE PROGRA MS IN RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS By Eric D. Rubenstein May 2014 Chair: Andrew C. Thoron Major: Agricultural Education and Communication The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are present in the development and implementation of exemplary S AE programs in rural schools. The participants in this study were agriculture teachers, agriculture students, parents of agriculture students, and community members from two rural school based agricultural education programs. In this qualitative study, f ocus groups, formal interviews, informal interviews, and observatio ns were conducted. The data were analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. From the data, five themes and 2 0 factors emerged as the findings of this study. The five themes were: committed teachers, student centered expectations. The 20 factors were associated with one of the five themes. It was concluded that the utilization of SAE programs in SBAE continues to be a vital component of a total program. A culture for SAE was found to promote the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs. A griculture teachers were found to be the most important program partner during the development an d implementation processes. It was recommended that further studies be conducted to examine current practice of agriculture teachers in the development and implementation

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14 of SAE programs. I t was also recommended that agriculture teachers provide student s with classroom and on site supervision during a SAE program. I t was also recommended that agriculture teachers require 100 percent of their students to conduct a SAE program. Finally, a model for the development and implementation of exemplary SAE progr am s was presented.

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15 CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND How have Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs been utilized within secondary agricultural education programs? Should SAE still be an integral component of school based agricultural education (SBAE)? In the early 1900s SAE programs became an integral component of agricultural education (Croom, 2008; Moore, 1988) After nearly 100 years, SAE programs are still an integral component of a total SBAE program (Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008) This study examined the teacher, student, parent, community, and school factors that influence the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools This chapter will describe the national trends and target outcomes in secondary educa tion and explain how school based agricultural education can contribute to the achievement of these desired outcomes Next, this chapter will specifically address the evolution of SAE programs and their current relevance to school based agricultural educa tion and the educational system Furthermore, this chapter will examine the current status of SAE programs Finally, this chapter will examine the need for agricultural education to rejuvenate SAE programs before they become non existent Educational t heories and practices utilized in t he public education system in the United St ates have endured many changes (Aldridge & Goldman, 2006; Coleman, 2001) Furthermore, the 2012 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll reported that Americans have continued to lose confid ence in the public school system Conversely, over 75% of Americans responded as having trust and confidence in the teachers employed in public schools Further, the study reported that Americans believe that high stak es testing and common core standards could assist in closing achievement gaps (Bushaw

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16 & Lopez, 2012) Consequently, the quality of public schools has become a top priority of United States citizens (Garrett, 1998; Phipps et al., 2008) As parents have become more involved in school operat ions, their rating of local school quality has increased (Phipps et al, 2008) Therefore, to ensure that all students receive a high quality education, several trends have become established in the public education system Two such trends include an emph asis on a career focused education and context based instruction (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008; National Research Council 2000, 2009; Newcomb, McCracken, Warmbrod, & Whittington, 2004; Phipps et al, 2008) When teaching academic content, the Na tional Research Council (2000) stated that all learning should be embedded in a variety of contexts and conducted to prepare students for a career or college enrollment When examining teaching in a context, Roberts and Ball (2009) stated that the integra tion of academic principles into a contextual environment allows students to enhance their comprehension of the academic concept Further, Roberts and Ball stated that instruction should assist in preparing a workforce that is ready for college or a caree r An Educational Longitudinal Study conducted in 2002 by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) found that over 85% of the students who completed a questionnaire agreed or strongly agreed that going to school is important for obtaining a job Further, the study found that over 75% of the students perceived that the skills that they were taught and learned in school would be vital within their careers (NCES, 2002). For the first time in 2006, the NCES utilized a newly developed system that cl assified school location as urban, suburban, town, and rural (NCES, 2007) The

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17 classification system was developed due to an increased focus on rural schools in recent years (NCES, 2007) According to the NCES (2007), white English speaking students comp rised nearly 75% of the total enrollment in rural schools Furthermore, the report purported that rural students were less likely to enroll in college, when compared to students from town, suburban, and urban schools However, when examining student acad emic performance, the NCES (2007) found that a larger percentage of rural fourth and eighth grade students scored at or above the proficient level on the science National Assessment of Educational Progress than urban fourth and eighth grade students Fina lly, the National FFA Organization (2012), the leadership development component of agricultural education, reported that a larger percentage of FFA Chapters, and presumably secondary school agricultural education program s were located in rural areas than in suburban or urban locales The National Research Council publication Transforming Agricultural Education for a Changing World (2009) called for the integration of science in agricultural education curriculum The National Research Council (2000) posi ted that when teaching science, hands skills and science content knowledge The contextual or hands on science movement began with Dewey (1910), who stated that hands on learning engages st udents in learning and provides concrete examples for students to apply their knowledge to real world contextual experiences Further, researchers have argued that agriculture is a science (Hammonds, 1950; Thoron & Myers, 2009; True, 1929), and therefore, the science inherently embodied in agricultural practices should be highlighted to provide students with contextual laboratory application of science concepts (Phipps et al, 2008)

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18 Several studies have been conducted examining the integration or highligh ting of science in secondary schools agricultural curricula These studies have shown that agricultural educators have favorable perceptions of science based agricultural curricula (Enderlin & Osborne, 1992; Enderlin, Petrea, & Osborne, 1993; Johnson, 199 6; Roegge & Russell, 1990; Whent & Leising, 1988) Furthermore, studies have reported that students enrolled in agricultural education courses perform at the same level or at a higher level on standardized science assessments than students not enrolled in agricultural education courses (Burleson & Thoron, n.d; Chiasson & Burnett, 2001; Conners & Elliot, 1995; Enderlin & Osborne, 1991; Ricketts, Duncan, & Peake, 2006; Rogge & Russell, 1990; Whent & Leising, 1988) Finally, the incorporation of contextual l aboratory activities in SBAE has promoted career and college readiness (NRC, 2000; NRC 2009) To assist in career and college readiness, SBAE has provided instruction both ure, students have been engaged in instruction related to necessary skills, knowledge, and competencies needed for careers within the agricultural industry Conversely, students roducing an agriculturally literate society that values the agricultural industry Within SBAE students are adequately prepared for a career or further schooling, dependin g on the Within SBAE, agricultural educators have utilized SAE programs to promote the contextual application of academic content and the enhancement or development of

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19 career an d life skills (Phipps et al., 2008; Stimson, 1919; Talbert, Vaughn, Croom, & Lee, 2007) Barrick et al. supervised program of experience based learning activities that extend school based instruction and enhance their [student] knowledge, skills, and awareness of the p. 9) Newcomb et al. (2004) stated that students engaged in an SAE program should produce education al goals, career goals, and yearly plans for enhancing their ov erall program that the student will complete throughout the program, therefore providing contextual application of academic knowledge and skills (Barrick et al., 2011; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Stimson, 1919; Talbert et al., 2007) ability to set attainable goals has been essential to the development of SAE programs and career aspirations (Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al, 2008; Talbert et al., 2007) Prev ious studies have reported that students believe that SAE programs enhance their career aspirations and strengthen their knowledge of agricultural concepts (Dyer & Williams, 1997; Pals, 19 88; Williams 1979) Further, He rren and Cole (1984) concluded that SAE programs prepare students for careers in agriculture and promote the application of agricultural skills Opinion currently suggests that SAE programs provide students with the ability to apply academic concepts and develop career skills (Cheek, Arrin gton, Carter, & Randell, 1994; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Stimson, 1919) Stimson (1915) provided a clear description of the project method, now SAE, which described a program that was focused on the application of classroom principles in a real world

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20 SAE programs should increase in difficulty and scope each year students were enrolled in agricultural education While agricultural educators ha ve continu ed to believe that been as prescribed, allowing for students to have more freedom in the development of a program that meets their interests and career aspiration needs I n addition, SAE programs have moved away from strictly promoting skill development in production agriculture to include all facets of the agricultural industry (Barrick et al., 2011; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Talbert et al., 2007) Beyond production agriculture, SAE programs have focused on: agricultural education, food science, manufacturing and fabrication, agricultural communications, environmental science, research, small animal production, sales and service, and community service (Rub enstein & Myers, 2012) Beyond the literature published about SAE, governmental policy related to SBAE programs has historically incorporated verbiage dictating the use of SAE programs in SBAE (Phipps et al., 2008) The Smith Hughes Act of 1917 (as cite d in Phipps et al., 2008, p. agriculture, either on a farm provided for by the school or other farm, for at least six 17) Therefore, in order to rec eive federal Smith Hughes funding every student enrolled in an agricultural education program was required to complete an SAE program Later in 1963, the passage of the Vocational Education Act removed the requirement of supervised experience, which was a n essential component of the Smith Hughes Act of 1917 However, the Vocational Education Act did state that supervised experience may be provided to students enrolled in agricultural education

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21 Then, with the passage of the Vocational Education Amendment of 1968, language regarding supervised experience instruction was completely removed from federal legislation (Phipps et al., 2008) Since the passage of the 1968 Amendment, agricultural educators have continued to utilize supervised instruction within a gricultural education programs Nevertheless, student participation has continued to drop since the 1980s (Barrick et al., 1991; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Dyer & Williams, 1997) Historically, SAE has been a form of individualized application for students t o apply their knowledge gained in classroom instruction to a real world setting (Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008) When developing an SAE program, agriculture students have individually selected a project area that is tied to a career interest w ithin the agricultural industry (Barrick, 1992; Newcomb et al., & Phipps et al., 2008) In turn, students have strengthened and developed workforce and societal skills necessary to be successful in their careers and life (Barrick et al., 1992) In additi on, Roberts and Ball (2009) argued that industry relevant skills and knowledge must be incorporated in the agricultural education curriculum, and SAE programs provide students the opportunity to develop these skills Further, agricultural education progra ms must develop lasting relationships with industry representatives to ensure that students learn the necessary skills to be a productive member of the workforce (Phipps et al., 2008; & Roberts & Ball, 2009) SAE programs have been an integral component of a total SBAE program (Barrick et al., 2011; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Talbert et al., 2007) Talbert et al. (2007) stated that the utilization of SAE programs has allowed student s to retain knowledge, skills, and competencies at a higher rate than

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22 students who simply memorize information In 1994, Cheek et al. reported a positive relationship between student participation in SAE programs and overall student achievement in agricultural education Mo reover, the lit erature suggests that students who set personal education and career goals achieve d at a higher rate than students who did not utilized goal setting (Newcomb et al., 2004) Furthermore, Roberts and Harlin (2007) reported that SAE programs were still relev ant School based agricultural education (SBAE) has embraced the project method since Stimson first utilized this method in his classroom in 1908 (Roberts & Harlin, 2007) Today, the agricultural education profession uses the term Supervised Agricultura Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008) Over the past 100 years, several changes have occurred in the purpose of SAE in agricultural education The focus on skill based projects has shifted to a agricultural industry (Roberts & Harlin, 2007) itical Skills Survey (2010), United States employers reported that the future wor kforce must be equipped with skills beyond reading, writing, and arithmetic to include skills such as problem solving and critical thinking Phipps et al. (2008) stated that student involvement in SAE programs further promotes the acquisition of problem s olving and critical thinking skills Students who complete an SAE program have been required to make decisions that affect the economic productivity and overall success of the ir program (Newcomb et al., 2004) Finally, the development of these vital skil ls will assist students in being

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23 successful member of society and a well prepared employee for the workforce (Barrick et al., 1992) To ensure that SAE programs were properly implemented, teachers have been expected to supervise the student s program (Ne wcomb et al., & Phipps et al., 2008) Traditionally, supervision h as occurred through an annual home visit to the student s SAE program During the home visit, teachers have often been presented with an This opportunity was used to provide parents with an understanding of SAE programs and garner support for the agricultural education program (Newcomb et al., & Phipps et al., 2008) Based on this interaction, a lasting impression can be made with the pa rents that wil education (Phipps et al., 2008) Finally, more informal supervision can be conducted by the parent, community members, and employers (Newcomb et al., & Phipps et al., 2008) Further, support for the agricult ural education program can be promoted through the interactions that community members and employers have with students and their SAE programs (Phipps et al., 2008). In order to ens ure that the relevance of SAE was maintained, various considerations to the administration, development, and implementation of SAE programs in SBAE must be explored Roberts and Harlin (2007) proposed several changes to ensure that SAE programs remain relevant Due to some students inability to acquire the necessary resources t o conduct an SAE program (Retallick, 2010), teachers should allow students to utilize school facilities and resources to conduct an effective SAE program Further, students should have the ability to work on SAE programs during school hours, as long as th ose hours are not during an agricultural

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24 education course (Roberts & Harlin, 2007) programs, Roberts and Harlin reported that teachers must shift their role from being the holder of knowledge to the role of a faci litator In addition, teachers should utilize program partners (parents, community members, employers, etc.) to assist in the supervision of SAE programs However, the teacher should still be involved in the supervision of SAE programs (Barrick et al., 2011; Phipps et al., 2008; Talbert et al., 2007) An examination of these considerations could assist in an increased relevance of SAE in SBAE Each of the aforementioned considerations could assist in alleviating the current issues pertaining to the ut ilization of SAE programs in SBAE The agricultural education literature has reported that a decreasing number of students actually begin and continue to implement SAE programs (Barrick, Hughes, Baker, 1991; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Leising & Zilbert, 1985; Miller, 1980; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Retallick, 2010; Retallick & Martin, 2008; Roberts & Harlin, 2007; Steele, 1997; Talbert et al., 2007; Wilson & Moore, 2007) Studies have reported the following as factors that limit student partic ipation in SAE programs: lack of time due to involvement in other s chool and community activities lack of teacher en couragement to complete an SAE the amount of help fr om teachers teacher attitudes towards SAE teacher expectations of SAE lack of facilitie s lack of resources lack of student motivation

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25 lack of communic ation between program partners and inadequate teacher supervision (Barrick et al., 1991; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Foster, 1986; Lewis, Rayfield, & Moore, 2012; Steele, 1997; Wilson & Moore, 2007) In addition, teachers have reported several issues that have decreased utilization of SAE programs in SBAE These have included: difficulty designing an SAE program for every student, difficulty implementing SAE, dissatisfaction with SAE, lack of time/ decreasing summer contracts, difficulty teaching SAE, lack of resources, and keeping records (Barrick et al., 1991; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Lewis, Rayfield, & Moore, 2012; Myers, Dyer, & Washburn, 2005; Steele, 1997; Wilson & Moore, 2007) Further, while te achers have believed that SAE is relevant to agricultural education (Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Robinson & Hayes, 2010), the literature has purported that teachers do not view SAE as appropriate for their SBAE program (Camp, Clarke, & Fallon, 2000) When exami teachers have discussed SAE as it was philosophically and theoretically conceptualized but have not implemented SAE in the same manner (Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Moore & Wilson, 2007; R etallick, 2010) Finally, Retallick (2010) reported that SAE programs lack the utilization of a focused learning outcome; instead, teachers have utilized SAE as a means towards the completion of a record book In response to the current status of SAE, T he National Council for Agricultural Education appointed an Experiential Learning Planning Committee to address the following objectives: 1. 2. To identify the educational mer its of experiential learning; 3. To add SAE to the college ready/career ready conversations;

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26 4. To identify strategies that will help get SAE implemented by teachers; 5. To answer the question, What does the construct of experiential learning contribute to learning ?; 6. p. 3). In the final report produced by the Experiential Learning Planning Committee, 19 action items were presented for teachers to undertake to increase the utilization of SAE programs within SBAE The following six action items pertain directly to this study: 7. 8. Individual teacher must take ownership in implementation 9. 10. Teachers should be provided professional development for strategies to use 11. 12. 13. Must have teacher buy in p. 33 34) Therefore, a need existed to identify the factors that contribute in the develop ment and implement ation of exemplary SAE programs in rural SBAE programs Statement of the Problem The National Council for Agricultural Education developed an initiative to renew and reinvigorate the utilization of SAE within SBAE classrooms The Experiential Learning Planning Committee was developed to address the six objectives previously mentioned (Barrick et al., 2011) Following th e presentation of the final report, the planning committee was recharged with the development of specific methods to renew and reinvigorate the development and implementation of SAE

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27 Many issues regarding the utilization of SAE have been discussed within the agricultural education literature Throughout the literature, the decreasing level of student participation has been a major concern of the agricultural education community (Barrick & Esteep; 2011; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Talbert e t al, 2007) Further, teachers have reported numerous concerns regarding their ability to develop and implement SAE programs (Barrick & Estepp, 2011; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Dyer & Osborne, 1996; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Talbert et al 20 07) Studies have recommended that further examination of SAE program utilization in SBAE is needed (Barrick et al., 1991; Lewis et al., 2012; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Retallick, 2010; Robinson & Hayes, 2010) However, there is a paucity of research has bee n conducted examin ing teacher practice with respect to SAE programs (Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Dyer & Osborne, 1996; Dyer & Williams, 1997) Agriculture teachers consider SAE programs as a vital contextual learning opportunity for students (Phipps et al., 2008 ). These learning opportunities provide students in the development of personal skills that will benefit them as they become productive members of society. In order for SAE to be reinvented or reinvigorated, SAE inquiry must evolve beyond perception bas ed research and identify successful teaching strategies for SAE instruction The previously presented issues have caused the relevance and vitality of SAE programs to be questioned With the vitality of SAE programs in question, the problem this study in vestigated was the declining presence of SAE programs in SBAE and the real possibility that this cornerstone dimension of SBAE programs may not be recovered

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28 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are present in the d evelopment and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools The research questions that guided this study were as follows: 1. What teacher factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 2. Wha t student factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools ? 3. What school factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools ? 4. What community factors are pre sent in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools ? 5. What family factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools ? Significance of the Study This study is significant for agricultural educators, agriculture teachers, state agricultural education supervisors, agriculture students, parents of agriculture students, employers, school administration, policy leaders, and The National Council for Agricultural Education Teacher educators have often provided professional development seminars to inservice teachers When conducting coursework and conceptualization of current practice and the fact ors that should be utilized when developing and implementing SAE programs in rural SBAE Beyond the utilization of this study in professional development workshops, agriculture teachers will be able to individually utilize the results of this study to add ress development and implementation decisions related to the utilization of SAE Additionally, the results of this study could

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29 assist agricultural educators in informing school administrators of the need for agricultural education in the public school sys tem and the need for extended contracts to adequately implement and supervise SAE programs In addition, the results of this study will assist school administrators in recognizing the responsibilities for SAE of agriculture teachers and the impact that SA E has on student development and growth. career and academic readiness T he results of this study will also influence the instructional techniques and strategies that a griculture teachers utilize within their instruction Therefore, agriculture students will be provided with educational instruction Parents and employers of agricultural education students may use the results of this study to enhance their contributions to student development through SAE Further, state and federal policy leaders could utilize the results of this study when making budgetary considerations for the agricultural industry and agricultural education programs within the public school system In addition, this study will provide policy makers with further evidence that SAE is a unique component of SBAE that should be preserved for further agriculture students. Further, t his stud y could provide vital Planning Committee for utilization in the development of specific teaching methods as part of the initiative to renew and reinvigorate SAE programs More specifically, this study examined a current gap in the agricultural education literature base This study will provide agricultural educators and agriculture teachers with influential factors that should be considered when developing and implemen ting

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30 SAE programs Finally, this study addressed the need for further examination of SAE programs in SBAE as a dimension of Priority Area 4 of the National Research Agenda (NRA) (Doerfert, 2011) Doerfert (2011) called for research to be conducted that deepen[s] our understanding of effective teaching and learning processes in all Definition of Terms The following terms were operationally defined in this study: Agricultural Teacher : a secondary school instructo r or teacher of school based agricultural education (Phipps et al., 2008) Only agriculture teachers in rural schools participated in this study Community Factors: in this study this classification was utilized for the contribution, influence, and invo lvement of employers, community members, advisory council members, FFA alumni members, and the local and state economy on the SAE development and implementation process Exemplary Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: in this study programs were identified based on established criteria The utilized criteria were developed from previous research findings within the agricultural education literature base These criteria include: 1. SBAE programs that conduct exemplary student SAEs have, at minimum, 75% of students enrolled in agricultural education courses engaged in SAE programs, where student SAEs consist of a multi year program in which more than 100 hours of active participation have been recorded in their respective SAE programs 2. Rural program s are SBAE programs where a majority of the student body lives in a community of less than 2,500 people (USDA, 2013) However, if a county school system is utilized, than the SBAE program should be located in counties of less than 49,999 people (Office of Management and Budgets, 2013) Parent Factors: in this study this classification was utilized for the contribution, influence, and involvement of parents on the SAE development and implementation process Program partner s: in this study the individual s classified in this group were teachers, parents, and community members

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31 School based Agricultural Education: secondary agricultural education programs that instruct individuals in the food, fiber, and natural resource industry (Phipps et al., 2008) School Factors: in this study this classification was utilized for the contribution, influence, and involvement of school administrators, school facilities, and school operation procedures on the SAE development and implementation process Supervised Agr icultural Experience Program: an integral component of agricultural education that assists students in the development of real world applications for classroom instruction and career skills (Phipps et al., 2008) SAE Program Development: the teacher, stu dent, community member, employer, and school factors utilized when creating new SAE programs Further, this process is continued each year that the student remains in an agricultural education course (Phipps et al., 2008) SAE Program Implementation: the p rocess of initiating the utilization of a developed student SAE program This requires the teacher and student to gather the required resources for the developed SAE program (Phipps et al., 2008) Li mitations of the Study The findings of this study shou ld be interpreted with the consideration of the following limitations: The data included in this study were collected through the utilization of qualitative methodology from a purposively selected sample Therefore, the results of this study could not be generalized beyond the sample This study only examined SAE program development and implement ation factors in rural schools and may not be applicable to urban and suburban schools In qualitative research, the researcher is sole instrument utilized for data collection and analysis Therefore, the analysis and collection of the data can be However, researcher bias can be overcome or reduced through the use of triangulation, multiple data sources, prolonged engagemen t, and other methods utilized to uphold credibility of the study Assumptions of the Study The following assumptions were made in this study:

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32 The students, teachers, and community members involved in this study provided truthful information This stud y utilized semi structured interviews, prepared questionnaires, and observational guides to control the influence of researcher bias Chapter Summary This chapter provided evidence that agricultural education and SAE programs have supported current educa tional trends affecting the United States public education system This study focused on program partner, teacher, and student factors that influenced the development and implementation of SAE programs in agriculture programs in rural schools School ba sed a griculture programs have assisted in providing context based instruction that has prepared students for careers and college Further, SAE programs have been a vital component that assists in increasing student career and college readiness However, student participation in SAE programs has continued to decline with no signs that this trend will be reversed Students have reported that several external factors have influenced their participation in SAE programs including: resources, facilities, time, motivation, and teacher supervision. Teachers have accurately described the purpose of SAE programs but failed to implement them accordingly Teachers have reported several factors that have influenced their utilization of SAE within their agricultural e ducation program including: dissatisfaction with SAE, difficulty in developing a SAE program for every student, lack of time, lack of resources, and difficulty in teaching SAE The significance of this study was to begin identification of factors that s hould be considered when students develop and implement SAE programs in agricultural education The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence the

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33 development and implementation of SAE programs in rural SBAE The problem this study aimed to investigate was the declining presence of SAE in SBAE Following in Chapter 2 relevant empirical literature will be presented and the conceptual framework of this study will be described

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34 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Chapter 1 des cribed the national trends in the educational system and how school based agricultural education ( SBAE ) has contributed to the achievement of these goals Further, Chapter 1 described the role of supervised agricultural experience ( SAE ) in SBAE and examin ed the current status of SAE programs Finally, the research questions, limitations of the study, assumptions of the study, purpose of the study, and significance of the study were presented. Chapter 2 will describe the conceptual and theoretical framewor ks that guided the study Further, this chapter includes a discussion of relevant research that has been conducted within the agricultural education and educational literature base The literature included in this chapter pertains to the following areas: historical SAE components, student factors influencing SAE, teacher factors influencing SAE, parent factors influencing SAE, community factors influencing SAE, school factors influencing SAE, and the development and implementation of SAE programs Conce ptual Model Guiding the Study Within the SAE literature, little work has been completed in the construction of a model that guides the development and implementation of SAE programs Figure 2 1 represents the conceptual framework developed to guide this study The framework explains the role of student, teacher, parent, community, and school factors on student intention, development, implementation, and continual use of SAE programs Phipps et al., (2008) stated that the development and implementation o f SAE programs must be

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35 agreed upon by all involved in the program administration This includes the student, teacher, parent, and, in some cases, an employer or community member in tention to participate in SAE Bird, Martin, & Simonsen (2013) stated that external and Historically, participation in SAE has been extrinsically motivated during the development and implementation segment of the SAE program (Bird et al., 2013) The goal of this study was to identify the student, teacher, parent, community, and school factors that i nfluence the development and implementation of SAE programs Figure 2 1 Conceptual model of SAE programs in SBAE

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36 Supervised Agricultural Experience During the early 1900s agricultural education teaching methods consisted of lecture and physical skill labor training on the school farm ( Stimson, 1915; Stimso n, 1919) Stimson believed that the skills and abilities that were taught in agriculture classrooms could not be taught by merely books and observation Further, Stimson believed that these teac hing practices were impractical because students were forced to watch others complete the skill due to limited supplies and equipment Conversely, Stimson believed that hands on teaching strategies and programs needed to be included to ensure that students developed an understanding of the economic and commercial relevance of the lesson Stimson (1919, p 32) stated that Neither skill nor business ability can be learned from books alone, nor merely management of others Both require active participation, during the learning period, in productive farming operation s of real economic or commercial importance Stimson (1919) purported that most schools were far from being able to support all of their educational practices on school grounds However, in the early 1900s all of the educational requirements for graduat ion were contained and implemented within the school facilities During this time, agricultural instructors had little understanding of the Therefore, Stimson proposed that students should utilize their home farms, or local farms within a close vicinity of the school, to practice and develop skills focus on building connections between the classroom content taught to students and their experiences on their home or assigned farm This concept was called the project method ( Stimson, 1915; Stimson, 1919) This belief and conceptualization is the

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37 The found ational tene nts of t he project method were that of an instructional methodology used to develop student skills and competencies ( Stimson, 1915; Stimson, 1919) Stimson defined a project as a task that should be completed on a farm and involves the use of equipment and resour ces to accomplish a specific result that will enhance the educational process Students that completed projects were expected to utilize their home farms to further their learning within agricultural education Each project was designed to be hands on an d a practical, real world application of classroom instruction Students were expected to keep financial and diary records to track their progress on each project Stimson believed that recordkeeping was needed for students to further develop their knowl edge in the field Further, three main forms of projects were completed by students These included: improvement, trial, and production projects An improvement project was conducted to improve the farm facilities or working conditions Trial projects were utilized to encourage students to try new plants, animals, or techniques to enhance their production practices Finally, production projects were utilized for students to produce a specific crop for market Agriculture students completed at least on e project with records in each category prior to graduation ( Stimson, 1915; Stimson, 1919) Stimson (1919) stated that student projects should increase in di fficulty, scope, and sequence each year Specific projects were provided for students to complet e each year to ensure that projects increased in difficulty, scope, and sequence The projects Stimson required students to conduct were: First year a plant project of kitchen gardening or ornamental planting; Second year an animal husbandry project o f raising poultry, sheep, goats, swine, or bees;

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38 Third year an advanced plant project of fruit production, market gardening, or producing fruits and vegetables for market; Fourth year an advanced animal husbandry project of dairying, general farm manag ement, or agriculture as a business. Additional projects could be conducted or continued throughout the four year agriculture program project Likewise, students could develop a project to so lve a problem on their home farm ( Stimson, 1915; Stimson, 1919) While many projects were aimed at increasing student knowledge, Stimson Parents were in favor of the home project method Furthermore, parents found that the cost of having students stay at home was less than sending them to a boarding school Stimson pro ven techniques and practices Families found that the projects that were completed assisted farmers in experimenting with new crops and techniques that had been proven successful in other locations Stimson found that parents had a positive perception of the agricultural instructor, due to their ability to assist students in transferring knowledge from the classroom directly to their family farm Further, Stimson alleged that student parent interaction formed a relationship that proved essential in the o peration of the farm Finally, Stimson (1919) posited that an agricultural educator had a distinct role in the success of the project method Heald (1929) reported that since agriculture teachers were employed through the summer, Stimson required a week ly visit to each Additionally, teachers were expected to complete mid summer and mid winter professional development Professional development was devoted to assisting

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39 teachers in fostering teamwork in their classrooms and communities (He ald, 1929) Stimson (1919) identified teamwork as a vital component of the project method Since the conceptualization of the project method, several changes have occurred in the utilization of these projects (Phipps et al., 2008) The project method has endured several name changes that have in turn, broadened the scope of SAE programs These name changes, and year established, were as follows: Home School Cooperation Plan (1908); Farming Project (1919); Productive Farm Enterprise (1926); Supervised Farm Practice Program (1938); Supervised Farming Program (1943); Supervised Occupational Experience Program (1972); and Supervised Agricultural Experience Program (1992) (Phipps et al., 2008, p. 443). Further, the categories of SAE projects have been cha nged and broadened to include a larger portion of the agricultural industry (Phipps et al., 2008) The current category types are as follows: ownership/entrepreneurship, placement, research, and exploratory Ownership/entrepreneurship SAEs are utilized to prepare students to own and operate an agricultural business or facility (Phipps et al., 2008) Newcomb et al. (2004) stated that there are three types of entrepreneurship programs: production, group enterprise, and entrepreneurshi p. Production SAEs re fer to operations that focus on the production of animals and crops for market sales Group enterprise SAEs are when a group of individuals share the ownership and decision making power of the venture Typically, each student in the group completes a sep arate SAE project (Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008) Phipps et al. (2008) stated that entrepreneurship programs are non farm programs that student develop and operate agribusiness ventures for

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40 profit The utilization of entrepreneurship SAEs ha s provided students with the opportunity to develop needed managerial and technical skills (Newcomb et al., 2004) During the utilization of an ownership/entrepreneurship SAE, students are expected to keep diary and financial records The diary and finan cial records should illustrate the decisions that were made by the student regarding the success of the ownership venture (Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008) Placement SAEs are utilized when a student is employed by a company or business Stude nts who are engaged in a placement SAE can be paid or can volunteer (Phipps et al., 2008) Newcomb et al. (2004) stated that placement SAEs can be completed both after school and during the school day Placement SAEs that are completed during the school day are referred to as cooperative learning projects When students utilize a placement SAE, an agreement form should be completed by both the employer and student (Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008) The agreement informs both parties of their r esponsibilities during the placement SAE (Phipps et al., 2008) Once an agreement has been reached, a formal training plan should be established to ensure that the student has the necessary skills to complete any assigned tasks Further, the training pla n will describe the skills and experiences that should be provided to the student during the placement SAE (Phipps et al., 2008) Within the last 20 years, research and exploratory projects have been established as SAE categories (Phipps et al., 2008) Research SAEs should have a industry An experimental research SAE allows a student to conduct relevant and interesting research to develop new information and further the student knowledge of

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41 the topic and scientific process Students are responsible for designing, conducting, analyzing, and communicating their effort and results of an experimental research SAE (Phipps et al., 2008) Phipps et al. (2008) defined a se cond form of research SAE as an analysis SAE During an analysis SAE, students collect information from various sources, followed with a thorough analysis and evaluation of the collected information Once the information is analyzed and evaluated, the st udent completes a finished product that is equal to an experimental SAE in terms of quality and rigor Meanwhile, exploratory SAEs are designed to provide students with the opportunity to further learn about an agricultural career Students who complete an exploratory SAE collect relevant information from various sources to develop a firm awareness of a particular agricultural career of interest Phipps et al. (2008) stated that exploratory SAEs can be enhanced when partnered with a placement, ownership, or research program to further Roberts and Harlin (2007) posited that agricultural education profession should l conceptualization of the project method The agricultural education profession has year and singularly focused SAE (Roberts & Harlin, 200 7 ) Phipps et al. (2008) stated that teachers should assist student s in the development of a multi year program that builds in scope, sequence and difficulty Roberts and Harlin (2007) postulated that the utilization of programs has limited student involvement in SAE and that a conceptual change to projects could produce higher participation rates in students

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42 Student Factors Influencing SAE The examination of student participation, knowledge, benefit, and motivation in SAE has been examined throughout the agricultural education literature base (Arrington & Cheek, 1990; Barrick et al., 1991; Bird, Martin, & Simonsen, 2013; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Dyer & Osborne, 1996; Dyer & Williams, 1997; Hanagriff, Murphy, Roberts, Briers, & Linder, 2010; Kotrlik, Parton, & Leile, 1986; Lawver & Torres, 2012; Leising & Zilbert, 1985; Le wis, Rayfield, & Moore, 2012a; Lewis, Rayfield, & Moore, 2012b; Osborne, 1988; Pals, 1987; Retallick, 2010; Retallick & Martin, 2008; Ricketts, Duncan, & Peake, 2006; Steel, 1997; Talbert & Balschweid, 2004; Talbert & Balschweid 2006; Williams, 1979; Wil liams, 1980; Wilson & Moore, 2007) However, a lack of experimental research studies, that examined student factors in SAE programs, exist (Dyer & Osborne, 1995) Much of the research that existed in regards to SAE and student factors were perception bas ed (Dyer & Osborne, 1995) When examining student factors of SAE, three influencing factors of student participation in SAE have been researched within the agricultural education literature base These three influential factors include: benefits of SAE for students (Dyer & Osborne, 1995, Dyer & Williams, 1997), student motivation towards SAE (Bird et al., 2013), student knowledge of SAE (Lewis et al., 2012a) The b enefits of SAE participation have been examined from both the teacher and student perspe ctive (Dyer & Osborne, 1996; Dyer & Williams, 1997) When examining the student perspective, Knobloch (1999, p. 16) stated that: Supervised agricultural experiences implemented in agricultural education programs by its true definition of students experi encing agriculture with adult supervision have proved to help students apply knowledge, clarify career choices, solve problems through decision making, develop responsibility, and learn agricultural skills through practical experience.

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43 However, many other benefits of student participation in SAE have been established throughout the agricultural education literature activities (Phipps et al., 2008); involvement in SAE is no excep tion (Bird et al., 2013 Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Osborne, 1988) Studies have found that both rewards and awards have motivated students to participate in SAE programs (Bird et al., 2013; Dyer & Williams, 1997; Leising & Zilbert, 1985) Rewards were classif ied as money and program requirements (Bird et al., 2013), whereas awards were recognized as the National FFA Awards and Degree Program (Bird et al., 2013; Dyer and Williams, 1997; Leising & Zilbert, 1985; Retallick 2010; Wilson & Moore, 2007) Further, B ird et al. (2013) stated that intrinsic motivation can motivate students to continually participate in SAE programs. Student knowledge of SAE has recently been examined within the literature base Lewis et al. (2012a) found that students who were included in the study ( n = 1,027) were not knowledgeable about SAEs Further studies have found that SAE college (Arrington & Cheek, 1990; Lawver & Torres, 2011; Lawver & Torres, 2 012; Retallick & Martin, 2008; Talbert & Balschweid, 2006). Student participation in SAE programs has continued to decrease over the last 25 years (Barrick, Hughes, Baker, 1991; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Kotrlik, Parton, & Leile, 1986; Leising & Zilbert, 1985; Miller, 1980; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Retallick, 2010; Retallick & Martin, 2008; Roberts & Harlin, 2007; Steele, 1997; Talbert et al., 2007; Wilson & Moore, 2007) Retallick (2010) reported five factors that have

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44 influenced student par societal attitudes, (b) mechanics and structure of schools, (c) resource availability, (d) image, and (e) agricultural education system ( p. 66) Studies have established a need for the expansion of concepts related to SAE programs to adapt to the changing demographics and limited resources of agricultural education students (Barrick et al., 1991; Rayfield & Croom, 2010; Retallick, 2010; Retallick & Martin, 2008; Roberts & Harlin, 2007; Wilson & Mo ore, 2007) Benefits Williams (1979) examined high school seniors who received the FFA Chapter Farmer Degree or the FFA State Farmer Degree as their highest FFA degree in high school and their perceived benefits of participation in SAE Williams found t hat the top records, (2) promoted the acceptance of responsibility, (3) developed pride in ownership, (4) helped attain advanced FFA degree, and (5) encouraged the producti on p. 36 & 38) ownership, (2) promoted the acceptance of responsibility, (3) encouraged the keeping of records, (4) encouraged the production of animals and crops, and (5) developed pride in p. 38) Further, the researchers reported that the top five benefits of state ouraged the keeping of records, (3) promoted the acceptance of responsibility, (4) encouraged the p. 38) velopment (school, home, and community) were raked in the bottom one third Williams concluded

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45 that a majority of the students who participated in this study planned to enter an agricultural profession, and a majority of the students planned to obtain hig her education Finally, Williams purported that SAE programs are beneficial in the development of student knowledge, skill, occupation attitudes, and educational attitudes Rubenstein and Thoron ( 2014 ) conducted a qualitative study of the student benefi ts of participation in SAE by the 2012 FFA American Degree Star Finalists Rubenstein and Thoron reported that the participants cited student learning and recognition through the FFA award and degree system as benefits of participation in SAE Further, t he researchers found that participation in SAE influenced student career choices and skill development Finally, these researchers found that student interest Pals (1988) conducted a comp arison study of high school agricultural education students from 1981 1985 and 1986 of SAE programs Pals found that the number of production oriented SAE programs dropped in 1986 to 40% from 51% in 1981 1985 Further, the researcher found a slight increase in placement SAE programs Pals found that students perceived SAE p. 39) Moreover, Pals stated that the 1981 1985 students develop interest in agriculture, (c) learn to keep records, (d) make vo ag class practical, and (e) develop a good relationship wit p. 39) Finally, Pals recommended

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46 that more emphasis should be given to ensure that urban and suburban students find SAE to be a relevant component to agricultural education Dyer and Williams (1997) conducted a synthesis of research tha t examined the benefits of SAE programs These researchers found that studies that had examined the benefits of SAE were descriptive in nature, almost exclusively used survey methodology, and lacked cohesiveness Further, the benefits that were reported were general rather than specific in nature The study found that the following benefits were cited frequently in the literature: good work habits and attitudes, achievement in agricultural knowledge, SAE helped make agricultural education vocational, pre paration of students for jobs in agriculture, development of agricultural knowledge (especially animal science), and positive work attitudes. Motivation Bird, Martin, & Simonsen (2013) conducted a historical qualitative study that examined the role of moti vation in SAE literature published between 1928 1934, 1947 1953, and 1966 1973 Bird et al. found that historically extrinsic motivational factors have been utilized to engage student in SAE The researchers stated that mandating SAE participation, award s, and collaborative SAEs at school were the primary external motivational factors that influenced student participation However, the researchers stated that following the first year, intrinsic motivational factors must perpetuate a in SAE Bird et al. reported that student interest and a student owned project were the two most frequent internal motivators of student participation Bird et al. internal dri ve to complete an SAE program for the experience

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47 Knowledge Lewis, Rayfield, and Moore (2012a) conducted a descriptive study of Florida, Lewis et al. found that students from Utah could cl assify three to four categories of SAE, Indiana and Missouri students could classify two to three categories of SAE, and students from Florida could classify only one to two categories of SAE Over one third of the students from Florida could not classify any of the categories of SAE, while in Missouri, Indiana, and Utah, approximately one third of the students could classify all of the categories of SAE Overall, the researchers reported that the students who participated in this study were not knowledge able about SAE The researchers reported that one factor that However, the participants of this study reported that additional SAE instructional time was not needed Further, Lewis et al. stated that if teachers assigned a grade to SAE completion, student participation in SAE would increase Finally, Lewis et al. purported that due to a lack of SAE knowledge, students who are not interested in the completion of a production SA E program do not feel as though they are able to participate in SAE Arrington and Cheek (1990) conducted a correlational study that examined Florida high school students relationship between SAE scope and student achievement in agribusiness and natural resources education They reported that a positive relationship between SAE scope and student achievement in agribusiness and natural resources education However, the researchers found that participation in SAE was low within the sample population R icketts, Duncan, and Peake (2006) examined Georgia high school agriscience Ricketts et al.

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48 performance on the standardized science examination More specifically, the researchers found a low positive relationship between student participation in SAE and achievement on the science standardized test Talbert and Balschweid (2006) conducted a study that examined F career aspirations The researchers found that FFA members were interested in a career in science; however less than 10% of those students were engaged in a research SAE program Therefore, the researchers recommended that science careers be emphasized in the agricultural education curriculum and through student SAE programs Lawver and Torres (2012), in a study of post secondary agricultural education de towards teaching agriculture However, participation in SAE did not contribute to their beliefs of teaching agriculture Therefore, Lawver and Torres purported that students who are involved in the total agricultural education program are more lik ely to enroll in an agriculture teacher preparation program Participation Dyer and Osborne (1995) conducted a synthesis of research that examined student participation trends within the literature base They found a lack of experimental studies or true fou ndational pieces of literature had been conducted and that the literature lacked cohesiveness p. 10) The researchers reported that participation in SAE has been decreas ing Further, Dyer and Osborne reported that a lack of resources, facilities, teacher supervision, and student motivation were major causes for

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49 decreased student participation in SAE Finally, these researchers purported that rural white males were the m ost active SAE participants Steel (1997) analyzed student participation in the State of New York Steel found that only 29% of students surveyed in New York had an SAE program The researcher speculated that the lack of a federal legislative requirem ent to implement SAE could be a basis of the problem Further, Steel found that a lack of student program Finally, Steel recommended that agricultural education researchers and practitioners jointly overhaul the conceptualization and utilization of SAE in agricultural education Retallick and Martin (2008) investigated enrollment trends of high school agricultural education students over a 15 year period These researchers found a growing gap between the number of students enrolled in agricultural education and the number of students participating in SAE programs The study reported that as enrollment in agricultural education increased the number of students that particip ated in SAE decreased Furthermore, the researchers found that the growth rates of student participation in agriscience and agribusiness SAE programs grew faster than student participation in production oriented SAE programs Talbert and Balschweid (200 4) conducted a study that examined high school student factors for participation in SAE and FFA The researchers found that more FFA members participated in SAE programs than non FFA members Further, these researchers reported that all students enrolled in agricultural education should

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50 participate in an SAE program and receive instruction in career exploration and career opportunities Lewis, Rayfield, and Moore (2012b) examined Iowa, Missouri, Indiana, and actors that influence SAE participation Lewis et al. found that students who participated in the study identified the following influential factors of SAE participation: skills developed through a SAE program and involvement in other school or community activities In contrast to previous studies, this SAE: awards and recognition activities; enjoyment in agricultural education courses; adequate resources; adequate fa cilities; teacher encouragement; and teacher hel p. The researchers suggested that agricultural education programs begin offering additional facilities and resources to students for their use in SAE programs Lewis et al. proposed that teachers make a stro nger effort to help students with their SAE programs and encourage higher participation from students who reported that their teachers never helped them with their SAE program Similarly to other studies, the researchers purported that the supervision res ponsibility of a SAE program should be shared between the teacher, parent, and community Teacher Factors Influencing SAE The teacher was considered to have the largest impact on the utilization of SAE programs within agricultural education (Dyer & Osbor ne, 1995; Phipps et al., 2008; Swortzel, 1996) Phipps et al. (2008) stated that SAE is one of the major three components of a total agricultural education program Therefore, secondary agriculture teachers were expected to utilize SAE programs with stud ents (Terry & Briers, 2010) However, Terry & Briers (2010) stated that, on average, only three percent of an

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51 Research studies have found that teachers discuss SAE in a conceptual and theoretical manner bu t fail to implement SAE as they conceptually and theoretically define (Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Retallick, 2010; Wilson & Moore, 2007) Effective agricultural educators were expected to encourage students to participate in SAE and have a firm knowledge of S AE concepts (Roberts & Dyer, 2004) In a study conducted by Pals (1989) teachers reported the following four items as benefits of student participation in SAE: Helped learn additional concepts not taught in SBAE courses Provided opportunity to make decis ions Provided individualized instruction, and Learned to communicate effectively ( p. 23) agricultural education classroom Mowen, Wingenbach, Roberts, & Harlin (2007) f ound that biotechnology teachers acknowledged that their students should conduct SAE programs in biotechnology However, Mowen et al. (2007) speculated that lack of knowledge about biotechnology could limit their utilization of biotechnology con cepts throughout different aspects of the agriscience program Moreover, studies most difficult components of agricultural education and that teachers are growing dis satisfied with developing and implementing SAE (Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Robinson & Haynes, 2011 ) the declining utilization of SAE in agricultural education (Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Osbo rne, 1988) Finally, studies have reported that in service teachers could benefit from professional development seminars on the topic of SAE (Joerger, 2002; Johnson,

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52 Wilson, Flowers, & Croom, 2012; Layfield & Dobbins, 2002; Retallick, 2010; Roberts & Dyer 2004; Robinson, Krysher, Haynes, & Edwards, 2010; Sorensen, Tarpley, & Warnick, 2010; Wilson & Moore, 2007; Young & Edwards, 2005) The supervision of SAE programs was an important role of an effective agriculture teacher (Dyer & Williams, 1997; Robert s & Dyer, 2004) Studies have reported that the number of supervisory visits that a teacher conducts positively influences the quality of the SAE program (Anyadoh & Barrick, 1990 ; Harris & Newcomb, 1985 ; Gibson, 198 8 ; Dyer & Williams, 1997) Franklin (20 08) found that 81% of teachers surveyed in Arizona utilized their school greenhouse facilities to house and implement student SAE programs The utilization of school facilities can reduce teacher time spent traveling to SAE supervisory visits and increasi ng the level of supervision that the student receives while conducting a SAE program (Franklin, 2008) Dyer and Williams (1997) found that teachers, school administrators, and employers believe that teacher supervision is necessary; however the utilizatio n of supervision practices varies by state and teacher Due to the lack of empirical evidence within the SAE supervision literature base, Dyer and Williams (1997) recommended that experimental studies be completed to assist in the development and establis hment of SAE supervision standards To ensure the development and implementation of SAE programs within SBAE, teachers must be adequately prepared to utilize SAE during a preservice agriculture teacher preparation program When preparing preservice agri cultural education teachers, instruction related to SAE program utilization, development and implantation was an essent ial component of an agriculture teacher preparation program (McLean &

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53 Camp, 2000) However, McLean & Camp (2 000) found that few agricul ture teacher preparation programs in the United States offer a separate course on SAE program utilization, development, and implementation, while every program in the study reported teaching stu dents about SAE Young and Edwards (2006) found that Oklahoma State University student teachers ranked the importance of SAE lowest both before and after their internship experiences Therefore, the study recommended that teacher preparation programs reexamine the coursework that students complete in SAE to ensure that preservice teachers are instructed on the diversity of student SAE program areas (Young & Edwards, 2006) Studies that Synthesize Literature A synthesis of literature by Dyer and Osborne (1995) found that teacher attitudes and expectations have a st rong influence on student participation in SAE The researchers reported that beginning teachers believe that SAE program development is of high priority, but their actual performance is lacking Further, they stated that participation of teachers in SAE programs is limited Therefore, these researchers recommended that the agricultural education profession establish a mission, definition, and vision for SAE program utilization, development, and implementation Finally, the researchers suggested that te acher educators need to provide inservice teachers with assistance in developing science oriented SAE programs Dyer and Williams (1997) conducted a synthesis of literature regarding supervision of SAE programs The researchers found that the teacher is the key provider of SAE supervision and that teachers provide more supervision to production oriented SAE programs than the other category types Finally, these researchers

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54 postulated that the decreasing number of extended teacher contracts could lead to a reduced quality and quantity of teacher supervisory visits Roberts and Harlin (2007) conducted a philosophical review of literature regarding the utilization of the project method These researchers recommended that SAE programs should encompass a b roader perspective of careers that reflect Further, the researchers stated that the current classification system of SAEs might limit the development and utilization of innovative SAE programs They purpor ted that agriculture teachers should allow students individually or as a group to utilize school resources for their SAE and conduct their SAE program during school hours Finally, Roberts and Harlin concluded that teachers should serve as facilitators in the development, implementation, and utilization of SAE programs Swortzel (1996) conducted a study that examined Tennessee agriculture Swortzel found that teachers have relatively positive perceptions of planning and supervision practices The researcher found that multi teacher programs and teachers that grade SAEs have higher perceptions of planning Furthermore, Swortzel found that teachers had a higher perception of supervision if they graded SAE programs, were given paid hours for supervision, and were not agricultural education students in high school Leising and Zilbert (1985) examined factors that influenced California agriculture utilization of SAE programs The study found that student participation was influenced by a teacher requiring the student to conduct an SAE and if the SAE program was graded The researchers noted that teachers reported that 57% of their students

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55 comple ted an SAE program, while the students of the participating teachers reported that 68% of the students had an SAE program Finally, they recommended that policies be developed to encourage agriculture teachers to have 100% student involvement in SAE progr ams Wilson and Moore (2007) conducted a study of North Carolina agriculture The researchers found that teachers give the least amount of priority to SAE components of the agricultural education curriculum Further, they r eported the following barriers to effectively utilizing SAE: record keeping, high enrollment in agricultural education programs, lack of time, limited opportunities for student SAE programs, and lack of knowledge of new SAE categories Finally, these rese archers posited that more effort needs to be spent on assisting teachers in understanding advancements in SAE and how to utilize new SAE categories within SAE program development pe rceptions of the changing status of SAE Miller found that student participation in SAE was decreasing, and those teachers were not emphasizing SAE as much as they had in the past However, the researcher noted that the teachers reported that they planne d to increase their emphasis in the future Further, Miller purported that teachers believed that the opportunities for student SAE programs had increased but teachers did not believe that school facilities were available for student SAE programs Finall y, Miller reported that over half of the teachers were conducting SAE home visits, with reduced school time provided for home visits

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56 perspectives of the implementation of SAE p rograms Retallick found that agriculture skills (i.e record keeping and employability skills), (b) a component of the FFA award system, and (c) theoretically, serve s as one p. 65) Further Retallick stated that current SAE practice has not advanced or adapted with the changing demographics of agricultural education classrooms and student populations Retallick recommended that additional efforts be made to ensure that teachers are provided with training opportunities to assist in alleviating the current barriers of SAE implementation that are present within agricultural education classrooms Rayfield and Croom (2010) con ducted a modified delphi study that examined The researchers reported that the panelists indicated difficulty in engaging middle school students in SAE programs They suggested that middle school agricul ture teachers introduce SAE as a concept that they will further explore more in depth in high school Finally, the researchers stated that middle school teachers are developing innovation instruction practices to improve SAE instruction Johnson, Wilson Flowers, and Croom (2012) examined North Carolina Johnson et al. found that teachers have a positive perception of student participation in SAE programs Further the researchers reported that student ability was not a major concern of teachers, and opportunities for SAE involvement were a major barrier The

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57 authors purported that teacher involvement in professional development regarding working with special need with special needs student on SAE Finally, Johnson et al. recommended that professional development workshop be developed to assist teachers with modifying SAE programs for special needs studen ts Students Perceptions of Teachers Role in SAE assistance that they received from their agriculture teachers Williams found students perceived that agriculture teachers pr records, providing encouragement, setting educational goals and learning skills in p. 26) Further, the researchers reported that older students perceived that they received more assistance than yo unger students Williams recommended that teacher education programs include instruction on how teachers interact with parents responsibilities during an SAE program Preservic Robinson, Krysher, Haynes, and Edwards (2010) examined how Oklahoma State University preservice teachers spent their time during their student internshi p. Robinson et al. found that all preservice teachers were afforded the o pportunity to supervise SAE programs during their student internshi p. However, the researchers reported that preservice teachers who completed their student internships in the spring spent 30 minutes more a week supervising SAE programs tha n preservice tea chers who conducted their student internships in the fall Finally, Robinson et al. recommended

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58 that preservice teachers experience a wider variety of SAEs during their student internships Wolf (2011) conducted a efficacy of teaching agriculture The researcher found that beginning teachers were least efficacious in the SAE component of agricultural education Therefore, Wolf recommended that more emphasis should be placed on SAE in agriculture teacher preparation programs Finally, the researcher found that teachers who were not an agricultural education student in high school had a lower teacher self efficacy in SAE on of SAE A study conduc ted by Robinson and Haynes (2011 ), which examined Oklahoma alternatively certified agricultural instructors value and expectation of SAE programs, found that all of the participants value SAE programs and have distinct expectations for student participation Robinson and Haynes reported that teachers in this study perceived that SAE programs develop student career skills, life skills, relationships with community/industry representatives, with their teacher Furthermore, the resear chers programs, keep accurate data (i.e., record books) in their SAE programs, compete at a ( p. 54) Finally, Robinson and Haynes recommended that teachers embrace a wider variety of SAE programs, which in turn may lead to higher student participation rates Studies Comparing Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Teachers Duncan & R icketts (2008) examined the traditionally certified agriculture teachers and alternatively certified agriculture teachers to compare their total program efficacy

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59 Duncan & Ricketts found that both traditionally and alternatively certified teachers were ef ficacious about different aspects of their program management abilities However, the researchers found that traditionally certified teachers were more efficacious in their utilization of SAE activities Therefore, Duncan and Ricketts recommended that te acher educators reexamine their alternative certification programs to ensure that alternatively certified teachers are better prepared to utilize SAE within their agriculture programs Parent Factors Influencing SAE Parental support was essential to the development and implementation of SAE programs within agricultural education However, many parents did not understand the educational merit of SAE (Phipps et al., 2008) Parents often found that SAE programs invaded on family time and can impact a famil Therefore, Phipps et al. to ensure they understand their role in the SAE program The development of this working relationship will assist in strengthe (Phipps et al., 2008) Further, parents have a positive perception of supervision practices of SAE (Byers, 1972, as cited in Dyer & Williams, 1997) SAE supervisory visits provide teachers an opportunity to meet wit educational endeavors in a positive perspective (Phipps et al., 2008) Finally, Williams (1980) found that students perceived that their parents provided the most assistance in n agriculture, learning skills in agriculture and p. 27) parental assistance during the utilization, development, and implementation of SAE progr ams Williams found that parents were significantly more influential than teachers

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60 on more than half of the survey items Therefore, Williams concluded that parents have an extremely important role in the utilization of SAE programs in SBAE Williams re ported that parents provided more support in the following areas: development of agricultural interest, providing necessary SAE resources, production and marketing of SAE developed products, and making important decisions that influenced the SAE program Finally, Williams concluded that teachers must have a firm understanding of a Pals (1989) reported that parents be lieved the greatest value of SAE was found in the confidence; (c) provided opportunity to learn on own; (d) developed independence; and (e) learned to work with others However, the researcher reported that parents ranked career benefit as the lowest item Williams postulated that parents may not see a long career go al. Finally, Williams recommended that agriculture teachers continu e to utilize parents to support the utilization of SAE in agricultural education Community Factors Influencing SAE The utilization of SAE programs within agricultural education relied on the support and participation of community members (Phipps et al., 2008) Community members can include employers, future employers, and other supervisors (Phipps et al., 2008; Newcomb et al., 2004) Furthermore, Pals (1989) reported that employers ranked the following items as the top five benefits of student involvem ent in SAE programs: helped earn money while in school, promoted the acceptance of responsibility, developed self confidence, developed independence, and learn to work with others

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61 Later, Dyer and Osborne (1995) added that employers believe student partic ipation in SAE is valuable to students Moreover, literature supported that community members can and should assist in the supervision of student SAE programs (Lewis et al., 2012 a ; Phipps et al., 2008; Roberts & Harlin, 2007) In addition, studies have r eported that SAE programs have provided economic support of community business and corporations (Hannagrif, Murphy, Roberts, Briers, & Linder, 2010; Retallick & Martin, 2005) placeme nt SAE programs Fletcher et al. found that employers believe that student participation in placement SAE programs promoted the development of occupational skills Further, the researchers noted that employers valued the interaction that was established and maintained between the teacher and employer during the SAE program Fletcher et al. reported that employers ranked the following items as the top people in the agribusi the agricultural experience students had before starting their agribusiness employment, the individualized (one on one) coordination teaching efforts by the vocational agriculture teacher, [and p. 68) A study conducted by Retallick and Martin (2005) of the economic impact of SAE programs in Iowa found that school districts h ave a solid return on their investment in SBAE, and more specifically, SAE Retallick and Martin found that the return on investment increased from $1.14 in 1991 to $1.95 in 2001 However, the researchers

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62 noted that the number of unpaid SAE hours is incr easing Due to this increase, Retallick and Miller purported that this indicated a change in SAE programs They suggested that the number of students enrolled in a SBAE classroom could affect the utilization of SAE Hannagrif, Murphy, Roberts, Briers, and Linder (2010) conducted a study that examined the economic impact of SAE programs in Texas from 2007 2008 Hannagrif et al. found that animal science SAE programs are the most prevalent in the State of Texas Further, they found that FFA chapters spe nt over $12,000 a year on travel for students to exhibit their animal SAE programs (steers, lambs, & goats) T he researchers concluded that SAE programs in Texas have had a significant ($189 million) impact on the state economy Dittmar and Allen (2012) conducted a yearly analysis of Illinois SAE utilization in high school and middle school agricultural education departments Their report found that students earned a total of $10,353,154 from their SAE programs, which equated to an average of $1,047 per student Further, Dittmar and Allen reported that 40% of agricultural education students participated in an SAE program Finally, the report stated that 50% of students with an SAE received at least one supervisory visit from their agriculture teacher School Factors Influencing SAE While little research has been conducted on the influence of school administrators and other school factors on the utilization of SAE, Phipps et al (2008) stated that it is important for an agriculture teacher to ensure th at school administrators understand the educational value of SAE programs Phipps et al (2008) suggested the

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63 utilization of the following techniques to assist administrators in comprehending the educational value of SAE programs: Ask administrator to par ticipate in a SAE supervisory visit; Ask administrator to participate in an informational meeting with parents, student, and employers; Prepare and submit SAE visitation reports to administration; Prepare and collect photos of SAE programs to provide to a dministrators; Inform community of SAE programs through the local press; Construct an economic impact statement on community to present to administrators and community leaders; and Ask administrators to observe instructional lessons on SAE Phipps et al. (2008) further stated that administrators do not always comprehend the importance of supervision practices within SAE Therefore, the utilization of the aforementioned techniques could assist teachers in educating administrators on the importance of prop er and effective supervision of SAE programs Additional school factors may influence the utilization and effectiveness of SAE Moore, Kirby, and Becton (1997) stated that teachers felt that SAE was the weakest component of the total SBAE program before and after the implementation of block scheduling Further, the researchers stated that the agricultural education profession must examine the utilization of SAE to ensure that programs are still viable in the future Rayfield and Wilson (2009) examined researcher developed survey Rayfield and Wilson found that those high school principals perceived SAE as an important component of agricultural education Further, the researchers reported that principals believe it is important that agriculture teachers conduct supervisory visits However, the researchers stated that principals did not

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64 believe that their agriculture teachers were effectively completing supervisory visits Rayfield and Wilson developed two prom ising conclusions: (1) both urban and rural teachers value the importance of SAE and (2) prior experience with SAE does not affect Finally, they concluded that principals do not reward students for their partic ipation in SAE Smith perceptions of agricultural education programs The authors found that principals have positive perceptions of agricultural education programs Further, Smith an d Myers reported that administrators want to see growth in student content knowledge Finally, the researchers recommended that agriculture teachers work with administrators to ensure that student growth in content knowledge is obtained and noticed by loc al administrators Development and Implementation of SAE For SAE to be successful, teachers must effectively assist students in the development and implementation of SAE programs that meet their needs and interests (Barrick et al., 1992) In order to ef fectively develop SAE programs, teachers must develop positive working relationships with students, parents, employers, administrators, and community members (Phipps et al., 2008) Many teachers have reported that changing demographics and increased stude nt enrollment have affected the SAE development and implementation process (Dyer & Williams, 1997; Phipps et al, 2008) However, little research to no research has been done to examine how teachers currently develop and implement SAE programs Barrick e t al. (1992) developed a model for the total agricultural education p rogram (Figure 2 2 ) In this model, Barrick et al. (1992) stated that classroom and

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65 laboratory instruction in agriculture influence the development of application programs SAE and FFA The model illustrates that SAE programs are influenced by incentives within FFA or for personal improvement classroom and laboratory content will then influence their future employment opportunities and care er choices (Barrick et al., 1992) Figure 2 2 The Agricultural Education Program Model (Barrick, 1992) In order to develop appropriate and meaningful SAE programs, teachers must provide effective instruction in and supervision of SAE programs (Barric k et al., 1992) To assist teachers in developing and implementing effective SAE programs, Barrick et al. developed nine requirements for SAE programs These requirements are: The teacher must conduct systematic classroom instruction in SAE for all agri cultural education students; The teacher, in cooperation with an advisory committee, must determine the acceptable type, size and scope of SAE; The teacher must ensure that students maintain neat, complete, and accurate records;

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66 The teacher should provide school administrators and state officials with summary information on the nature and scope of student SAEs; The school administration must support the SAE component of the agricultural education program by providing the teacher with a reasonable student te acher ratio; Adequate time for supervision on SAEs must be provided to the teacher; Since many SAEs are year round experiences for students, the teacher must have an extended contract to ensure supervision of SAEs during summer months; Travel funds must be provided to the teacher to supervise SAEs; Adequate facilities and instructional materials for school and community laboratory programs must be provided to the teacher and the agricultural education program ( p. 13). The final component that must be examin ed during the development and implementation of SAE is the selection of a suitable SAE program area (Barrick et al., 1992) When selecting a topic area for an SAE program the teacher must work with the student, parent, community member, and/or employer th at will be assisting with the program When selecting a suitable SAE, the following factors must be considered: student prior experiences, student interests, student resources, student career interests, parental support, and available facilities for utili zation (Barrick et al., 1992) Phipps et al. (2008) stated that not every student will come into an agricultural education program with an SAE program topic Quality Factors of SAE When examining the definition of a quality SAE program, little research existed within the agricultural education literature base (Dyer & Osborne, 1995) Barrick et al. (2011), through a special project by the National Council for Agricultural Education, developed 16 assumptions of SAE from the literature base While these a ssumptions

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67 have not been accepted as quality factors, they did provide evidence towards the philosophical and conceptual status of SAE programs The following were the 16 assumptions developed by Barrick et al. (2011, p. 7 8): Viewed as a program, not as a project; Planned, with learning objectives and agreements among parties involved; Record/portfolio of experiences are kept by student and teacher and are part of instruction and evaluation; Shows evidence of growth in scope and sequence; Evidence of ski ll/competency/knowledge/experience development; Related to state approved agricultural content standards; A part of the curriculum, extended beyond classroom and laboratory instruction; Required of all students; Programs differ between students studying in agriculture and those studying about agriculture; Instructor prepared for and supportive of experience programs; Approved by school administration; Supported by program advisory committee; Program is supervised year round; Parents are informed and support ive of student involvement; Students invest time, energy and/or money; and Student programs are recognized Further, the SAE literature has lacked a formal definition of success Jenkins and Kitchel (2009) conducted a modified delphi study to examine quality indicators of SAE programs Jenkins and Kitchel established a panel of 36 professionals from various levels of the agricultural education profession The

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68 researchers found four quality indicators that were agreed upon by the panel Those four in dicators were: Teacher has supervision time for SAE Student has up to date records on SAE SAE involves goal setting A diversity/variety of SAE types are promoted ( p. 36). Further, the researchers reported that the panel identified the following indicators of quality SAE programs: goal setting, approval of program (advisory council & administration ) demonstration of growth, skill development, opportunity for recognition, parents/students/teachers are engaged in the SAE program, continuous year long instruct ion and supervision occurs, and all students have an SAE program Constructivism Constructivism served as the guiding epistemology of this study Schunk (2012) stated that constructivism is not unanimously accepted as a theory Many believe that constr uctivism is a philosophical or epistemological perspective that should be considered when examining teaching and learning (Simpson, 2002) Fosnot and Perry (2005) purported that the focus of the constructivist perspective and epistemology is an individual The c onstructivist epistemology has had a profound impact on the educational field (Fosnot, 2005; Schunk, 2012) Further, the constructivist epistemology described acilitator of teaching and learning when interacting with students (Bringuier, 1980; Schunk, 2012; von Glasersfeld, 1995; Simpson, 2002) and a provider of context to student learning environments (Phipps et al., 2008) Fosnot and Perry (2005) stated that constructivism is a nonlinear process that is dictated by the individual learner Constructivists believe that knowledge cannot be independent from the

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69 individual but is actually adaptive to the individual (Driver, 1995; von Glasersfeld, 2005) Further, influences their construction of knowledge and their future interaction with the phenomenon In order for an individual to develop meaningful knowledge, learners must build upon their prior knowledge of the content and context while engaging with a new phenomenon (Dewey, 1916) Cobb (2005) stated that interaction is essential to an The interaction in which an individual must engage can be indivi dualistic or within a social environment (Doolittle & Camp, 1999) Constructivism literature has identified three main forms of interaction: learners and their instructors (Crotty, 2010; Fosnot 2005), learners and their environment (Crotty, 2010; von Glas ersfeld, 2005), and learners and learners (Brooks & Brooks, 1993) Crotty (2010) stated that individuals must interact with the environment or the phenomenon/object when they construct knowledge without social interaction However, Vygotsky (1962) stated Therefore, within an educational setting, both individualistic and social constructivist practices have promoted learning (Schunk, 2012) The ag ricultural education literature base has extensively utilized and examined constructivism (Myers & Dyer, 2006; Newcomb, McCracken, & Warmbrod, 2004; Phipps, Osborne, Dyer, & Ball, 2008; Roberts, 2006; Roberts & Harlin, 2007; Thoron & Myers, 2011; Thoron & Myers, 2012) Phipps et al. (2008) stated that the utilization of constructivist methods has been and will continue to be utilized within agricultural

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70 education due to the naturalistic and hands on teaching approaches utilized by agricultur e teachers Further, Phipps et al. (2008) proposed seven principles to assist in guiding the utilization and implementation of constructivist methods in teaching and learning These principles include the following: Students are active learners. Learning is in search of meaning. Learning is social as students interact with a given phenomenon (student to student; teacher to student; student to teacher). processes. Learning is pr omoted through a context. Learning requires a holistic understanding of the lesson or unit. Learners are empowered to discover, create, and reflect to create a deeper understanding of instructional content (Phipps et al., 2008). Students enrolled in agricu ltural education courses are active learners; want to create meaning from classroom content; interact with peers and adults; learn within a context; and discover, create, and reflect on the learning that takes place throughout their SAE programs (Phipps et al., 2008) Situated Cognition Situated cognition is recognized as a constructivist learning theory that develops student knowledge and skill through student interaction with animate and inanimate objects and hands on teaching methods within a relevant context (Lave & Wenger, 1991) Learning environments that utilize situated cognition are usually rich with context, engaging to students, and incorporate social interaction (Wilson & Myers, 1999) Brown, Collins, & Duguid (1989) defined situated cognitio

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71 learning knowledge and skills in contexts that reflect the way they will be used in real Further, the authors argued that learning that has been removed from the F or example, students who are learning about food production should be engaged in an authentic learning experience within the food manufacturing and production industry The removal of context from the learning environment causes students to misuse or lack comprehension of their knowledge Therefore, educators must ensure that learners understand the community, industry, and/or culture in which their knowledge is being developed and applied Learners are unable to adopt and transfer the usage of a learned skill, if the learner Due to a lack of resources within context Further, the authors argued that the the opportunity to engage in industry relevant learning (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) Brown, Collins, & Duguid (1989) purported that the usage of situated cognition provids four benefits to students: 1) knowledge app lication; 2) invention of knowledge; 3) implication of knowledge; and 4) construction of appropriate industry related knowledge These benefits are developed when teachers utilize the following scaffold teaching model First, the teacher should promote l earning by having learners model skills or knowledge through an authentic activity in an appropriate context or culture Second, the educators should assist learners in practicing the skill or content Finally, the student should be encouraged to continu e to indicate, apply ,;; and transfer the learned skill or content independently (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) Lave and Wenger (1991) stated that the learner must then interact with others that are engaged in

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72 utilizing a learned skill or content Thro ugh this interaction learners are able to develop the following features of group learning: Collective problem solving skills; Displaying multiple roles; Confronting ineffective strategies and misconceptions; and Providing collaborative work skills (Brown Collins & Duguid, 1989 p. 40) Lave and Wenger (1991) presented four key instructional factors that must be followed when utilizing the theory of situated cognition during instruction: authentic information, learning in the appropriate social and phys ical environment, hands on learning, and interaction and collaboration First, information must be presented in an authentic manner for students to appropriately learn, apply, and transfer knowledge Situated cognition promotes industry skill development to be taught through a contextual application (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) Second, Lave and Wenger (1991) stated that learning should be taught in social and physical environments that are relevant, useful, and transferable to real world situations Third, learning should be hands on, allowing the student to individually construct or socially co construct knowledge Fourth, student learning should include interaction and collaboration with others (peers, teachers, community members, or industry rep resentatives) (Lave & Wenger, 1991) Summary The purpose of Chapter 2 was to present and describe the conceptual and theoretical frameworks that guided this study Further, this chapter included relevant research literature that presented contributions to the development of this study The literature included in this chapter was focused on student, teacher, parent, community,

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73 and school factors that influence the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs SAE programs remain an integral component of a total agricultural education program The utilization of SAE programs assisted students in developing career and college skills that will be beneficial to their success throughout the remainder of their lives While studies have establish ed perceived benefits to student participation in SAE, the literature still reported a decreasing level of student participation in SAE Furthermore, teachers have purported that limited student resources, large class sizes, limited school provided time, and changing student demographics have influenced Parents, community members, and school administrators perceived SAE to be beneficial to student development of skills and content knowledge However, little researc h has been done to completely describe the role of parents, community members, and school administrators on the development and implementation of SAE programs Further, little experimental research has been conducted that examined SAE within SBAE Theref ore, a vital need exists to examine current practice utilized by teachers, students, parents, community members, a nd school administrators in the development and implementation of SAE programs

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74 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Introduction Chapter 1 described the role of SBAE and more specifically, SAE programs in the United States public education system The primary focus of this study was to identify the factors that influence the development and implementation of exemplary SAE in rural secondary schools This stu dy was one of the first research studies that examined the utilization of SAE within SBAE classrooms. Finally, Chapter 1 described the limitations, assumptions, and need for this study Chapter 2 introduced and described the conceptual framework that gu ided this study Further, relevant empirical research was presented The empirical research focused on the following factors: student, teacher, parent, community, and school factors that influence the development and implementation of SAE programs Prev ious researchers noted that student participation in SAE and teacher utilization of SAE has continually decreased over the last 30 years. Furthermore, researchers have purported that teachers do not implement SAE programs as they philosophically and conce ptually define SAE. In this chapter, the specific methods utilized in this study will be described This chapter describes the ontology, epistemological perspective, theoretical perspective, participants, data collection methods, data analysis methods, and the measures of trustworthiness and rigor utilized in this study In an effort to describe the factors that influenced the development and implementation of SAE programs, qualitative methodology was utilized for this study

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75 The purpose of this study was to identify factors that present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools The research questions that guided the study were as follows: 1. What teacher factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 2. What student factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 3. What school factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 4. What community factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 5. What family factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? Research A pproach This study utilized qualitative methodology Creswell ( 1998 p. 15) described qualitative research as: A n inquiry process of understanding based on distinct methodological traditions of inquiry that explores a social or human problem The researc her builds a complex, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting In addition, McMillian and Schumacher (2013, p. 489) defined the qualitative research h that refers to an in depth study using face to face or observation technique to collect data from pe The data that are collected through qualitative collection methods provide a rich description of the context, participant s, environment, and content Further, the research objectives and questions utilized in qualitative research specify the topics or phenomenons tha t will be examined by the study (Bogdan & Bicklen, 2003). While allowing for the researcher to further explo re various facets related to the examined phenomenon (Creswell, 2013)

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76 Creswell (2013) stated that prior to beginning research, qualitative researchers should identify the physiological assumptions under which they operate These assumptions include: ontol ogical, epistemological, axiological, rhetorical, and methodologica l (Table 3 1) Table 3 1 Qualitative Physiological Assumptions Physiological Assumption Description Ontological reality or perception Epistemological the closeness of the researcher to the collected data and participants in the study Axiological requires that researchers note and recognize personal biases to the topic being examined Rhetorical the tense utilized by the res earcher in the written manuscript qualitative research may be written in a first person tense, while quantitative research is written in third person. Methodological allows the researcher to begin research with a specific data set in mind and broaden th e scope of the research as needed to examine the given phenomenon Adapted from Creswell (2013) Further, Bogdan and Bicklen (2003) described five characteristics of qualitative research Those five characteristics were: (1) naturalistic, (2) descriptive data, (3) concern with process, (4) inductive, and (5) meaning First, qualitative research is naturalistic in nature The researcher collects data from participants in their natural setting, and the researcher is the key instrument to data collection Second, words or pictures typically serve as the descriptive data collected during a qualitative study Then, researchers utilize the collected words and pictures to establish themes and meaning from the data Researchers utilize quotations from the data in the written manuscript to convey the theme or meaning developed from the analysis method Third, qualitative researchers provide a thorough description of the data collection and T he qualitative

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77 research process has been shown to be effective in educational research that examines student involvement and cognitive development (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968) Fourth, Bogdan and Bicklen stated that qualitative researchers tend to inducti vely analyze their data Qualitative researchers gather meaning from the data and build abstractions that convey the data in a holistic manner Fifth, qualitative researchers collect and interpret e Qualitative researchers ensure that participant perspectives are accurately portrayed during the analysis and in the written manuscript This study operated with an epistemological perspective of constructionism Further the study utilized an interp retivistic constructivism and social constructivism theoretical perspective To ensure that appropriate data were collected, the researcher utilized focus groups, interviews, and observations Ontology and Epistemology Realism According to Crotty (2010) ontology refers to the study of the existence of multiple realities . 10) of the phenomenon that was examined within the research This study and researcher utilized the ontology of realism . 133) Similarly, Mark, Henry, and Julnes (2000 p 15 16 ) stated that Realism presumes the existence of an external w orld in which events and experiences are triggered by underlying (and often unobservable) mechanisms and structures (Bhaskar, 1975) Commonsense realism also gives standing to everyday experiences It is antiformalist in the sense of not expecting logica l, formal solutions to vexing problems such as the nature of truth And it places a priority on practice and the lessons drawn

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78 difference between qualitative and quantitative methods Inst ead we see both as assisted sensemaking techniques that have specific benefits and limitations and commonsense realists, we believe that although there is a world out there to be made sense of, the specific constructions and construals that individuals mak e are critical and need to be considered. Turner (2008) suggested that real ism accepts that a real world exists that must be explored and interpreted through physical interaction between the individual and the world In this study, the participants physi cally interacted with a SAE program and developed knowledge based upon their interactions with the physical world. Further, Crotty (2010) posited that individuals occupy their own reality Therefore, the existence of multiple realities influence s individ meaning within their personal reality This study utilized a realist approach that assumed each participant had an individual reality where truth exists I experiences with the development and implementation of SAE programs could be constructed differently; therefore, the research was permitted to examine the perspective of the factors associated with the development and implementation process of SAE Constructionism Guba and Li ty of the world is different tha n the natural physical world Therefore, different research methods must be utilized According to Pa p. 96) Furthermore constructionists believed that knowledge is constructed through

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79 Crotty further stated relat p. 9) In this study, the researcher examined each within the Theoretical Perspective The theoretical fr ameworks of constructivism guided this study Crotty (2010) p. 7) Constructivism ref ers to an meaning making process as a construction of mea ning rather than a discovery Denzin and Lincoln (2000) define constructivism as construction of knowledge that is constructed through interaction between the individual and an object Constructivism denies the existence of an be inherently different based upon their previous experience, established schemas, and personal interactio ns with the object of interest (Crotty, 2010) Procedures Participants This study utilized a purposive method for participant selection Koro Ljungberg, Yendol Hoppey, Smith, and Hayes (2009) stated that studies utilizing a constructionism epistemologic al perspective and a constructivism theoretical perspective should utilize purposeful participant selection methods The states of Minnesota and Georgia were selected by the researcher. The researcher selected t he states and schools based on the demogra p hic characteristics Further, states were selected because a lack of

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80 k nowledge of their SAE practices exists therefore reducing potential bias in the data collection and analysis methods After selection of the two states the researcher contacted an a gricultural education university faculty member and the state agricultural education supervisor to garner three to five rural agricultural education programs that met the researcher a priori criteria of exemplary SAE programs The criteria were as follows : 1. SBAE programs that conduct exemplary student SAEs have, at minimum, 75% of students enrolled in agricultural education courses engaged in SAE programs, where student SAEs consist of a multi year program in which more than 100 hours of active participatio n have been recorded in their respective SAE programs 2. Rural programs are SBAE programs where a majority of the student body lives in a community of less than 2,500 people (USDA, 2013) However, if a county school system is utilized, than the SBAE progr am should be located in counties of less than 49,999 people (Office of Management and Budgets, 2013) S even school s in Minnesota and ten schools in Georgia were identi fied by the state agricultural education supervisor and agricultural education universi ty faculty member Following, t he researcher emailed each school to establish contact and request a phone interview If contact could not be made through email, the researcher made phone calls to the school to request a phone interview. All of the seven teachers in Minnesota and ten teachers in Georgia were contacted and interviewed by phone. The researcher conducted a phone interview with the agriculture teacher(s) to g at her evidence of the criteria a priori The researcher gathered evidence through th e United States Department of Education and the United States Department of Agriculture to determine if the school met the demographic characteristics Following the phone interviews, the researcher identified the specific rural school in Minnesota and G eorgia, which was utilized in the study The rural schools were identified based upon the agriculture teachers responses to the main and probing questions asked during the

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81 phone interview Specifically, agriculture teachers that were not interested in p articipating in this research study were removed from consideration The selected schools were deemed to be situated in a rural agriculturally based community. The teacher in the selected schools reported that every student in an agricultural education c philosophical description of SAE was similar to their described utilization of SAE within the SBAE program. O nce the schools were selected, the agriculture teacher at each agricultur al education program was notified of his or her selection for participation in the study, and visitation dates were established The agriculture teacher was then asked to select six students who were establishing a SAE program for the first time and six s tudents who had conducted a SAE program for 3 years or more A parent or guardian of each of the 12 students was contacted by the agriculture teacher to participate in a focus group during the on site visit Data Collection Site visits were scheduled fo r a three day observation and data collection period During the site visit, a minimum of two student focus groups, two parent focus groups, one community member focus group, and one or two teacher interview s ( depending on the number of agri culture teache rs in the program) were conducted Each focus group contained between four and six participants. According to Morgan (1988), focus groups may comprise of four to 12 individual participants. Participants were given the opportun ity to opt out of the focus group or interview at any point during the data collection process Each focus group was held in a conference room or classroom t hat was familiar to the student, parent and community member participants. School A comprised nine students, eight pare nts, and three community member participants

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82 S chool B comprised 12 students, eight parents, and one community member. The number of community member participants was lower than expected due to unexpected conflicts the day of the focus groups (harvest time a nd emergency vet calls) The individual interviews with the agriculture teacher were conducted in their classrooms. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed for data analysis Observations and informal interviews with addition al agriculture students who did not participate in the focus groups, were conducted by the researcher to establish consistency in the data between all students enrolled in an agricultural education course and to ensure that the researcher had achieved dat a saturation Data saturation was achieved by the researcher and was noted during the initial stages of data analysis. The data collection proce ss spanned two on site days. During day one, the agriculture teachers were asked to conduct a normal instruc tional lesson. During the instructional lessons, the researcher observed the relationships between the agriculture teacher and students. These observations were conducted to better understand the teacher student dynamic and to assist in reducing the nove lty effect. During day one, the agriculture teacher was interviewed during their planning period or after school. Immediately following school, the researcher conducted one student a nd one parent focus group. T he second on site day consisted of observin g t he students engaged in SAE related lessons The researcher conduc ted observations of the student s interaction with their SAE program, their record system, and the agricultural education tions were guided by a researcher developed observation form (Appendix E). During the lesson, the researcher identified students to participate in an informal interview Each informal

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83 interview was conducted during student work time that was built into t he lesson The informal interview was conducted through an informal discussion with the student during SAE instructional work time The students who participated in the informal interviews were randomly selected by the researcher, only those students who had returned IRB consent were selected. Interviews and focus groups were conducted utilizing a semi structured int erview guide (Appendices A, B C, & D ) The researcher utilized the m which consisted of prompts and probing questions e stablished prior to the data collection process, while adding additional probing questions to fully understand given statements made by the participants The individual interviews lasted between 50 and 90 minutes, while the focus groups lasted between 80 and 110 minutes During the interviews and focus groups, participants were permitted to utilize a pseudonym Even if participants chose not to utilize a pseudonym, pseudonyms were assigned to all participant s during the transcription process to ensure an onymity of the data (Creswell, 2013; McMillian & Schumacher, 2010) Further, all identifiers were removed from the data to ensure that participant anonymity was upheld The semi structured moderator guides were constructed to ensure that participants generated discussion and examples to strengthen their thoughts and argument. An opening statement was constructed and read to participants at the beginning of each focus group and interview. Further, the researcher collected preliminary summaries of the data to ensure that participant statements were interpreted correctly by the researcher. The researcher shared the preliminary summaries with participants at the end of each focus group and interview as a form of

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84 member checking. During the data collecti on process, the researcher ensured that the participants felt comfortable to share their thoughts and views regarding their personal influence on SAE program development and implementation Prior to the beginning of the focus groups and formal interviews, the researcher worked to develop a positive relationship with the participants to increase their sense of security and comfort. The research further stated that focus group participants should receive an incentive for participating in the research study The incentive is not a reward, honorarium, or salary An incentive was utilized as a stimulus to participate in the focus grou p. Public and nonprofit organization research should provide a monetary incentive of $50 to $75 per participant Further, non monetary incentives are worthy incentives for participation in focus groups (Krueger & Casey, 2009). In this study, parents and community members were provided with a $25 check for participation in the study. Further, the agriculture teachers were provid ed with a $75 dollar check for their participation and assistance with organizing participants a nd rooming needs for the study. Furthermore, the participants were provided with snack items before the focus group was conducted. Data Analysis The constant comparative method was first developed and described by Glaser (1965) as an analysis methodology utilized to develop theories from qualitative data The analysis method was developed to ensure that data from various cases and samples could be analyzed si multaneously (Glaser, 1965) Glaser & Strauss (1967 ) conducting a grounded theory study However, qualitative researchers have sought to utilize the constant comparative analy sis method separate from a grounded theory

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85 methodology In response, Lincoln and Guba (1985) construed a four step constant comparative method that was utilized to compare across multiple cases without the development of relationships and a theory, thereb y allowing the constant comparative method to be used solely as an analysis methodology step constant comparative analysis method included: 1) c ompare incident s applicable to each category, 2) i ntegrate categories and their p roperties, 3) d elimit the construction and 4) w rite the construction comparative method as a data analysis method. This study sought to identify factors that influenced the development and implemen tation of SAE programs without the establishment of relationships. Further, this study was not conducted to develop a mid level theory; it was conducted to identify factors that should be utilized by agriculture teachers when developing and implementing S AE programs within rural secondary agricultural education programs. Therefore, t he researcher utilized each of the proposed steps as follows: 1. Compare incident s applicable to each category during this step the researcher establishe d the creation of cate gories that described occurrences within the data Categories were developed for each case and then compared between cases The researcher defined properties or rules for the da ta that was incorporated in each category 2. Integrate categories and their pro perties during this step the researcher analyze d the categories that were established during the first step of the process Some of the established categories were redefined, combined, or a subcategory was created 3. Delimit the construction during th is step the researcher integrate d categories as they become more defined during the analysis process During this step fewer categories were created and more categories were combined to develop one category. 4. Write the construction during this stage the researcher ensured that member checking of the data ha d been conducted and that the final written manuscript had been prepared

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86 Measures of Trustworthiness and Rigor This study utilized trustworthiness and rigor as described by Lincoln and Guba (1985) Lincoln & Guba (1985) stated that when ensuring trustworthiness and rigor in qualitative research, the researcher must ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability of the research Credibility has a similar role to internal validity in quantitative research Further, confirmability ensures that the data provided by participants in the study are accurately presented and properly described during the analysis methods and in the written manuscript (Do oley, 2007; Lincoln & Guba, 1985 ) To ensure the credibility of the research study, the researcher utilized the following methods: 1. Member checking the researcher presented the analyzed data to the participants to ensure that they accurately described their responses; 2. Peer debrief ing the researcher worked with a researcher that was not linked to the study to ensure that appropriate analysis methods were utilized; 3. Persistent observations the researcher ensured that interviews ( 50 90 minutes) and focus groups were conducted in an in depth manner; 4. Referential adequacy materials the researcher examined written documents to verify and provide a holistic view of the context of the phenomenon being studied; and 5. Triangulation the researcher utilized more than two data collection met hods to ensure that verification of the data was achieved (Dooley, 2007; Lincoln & Guba, 1985) Transferability has a similar role to external validity within quantitative research Lincoln and Guba (1985) stated that transferability ensures that the re sults of the study can be applied by other researchers to similar contexts (not generalized) Further, Dooley (2007) stated that the researcher must provide thorough and thick descriptions

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87 of the context and data to ensure that the results of the study ca n be applied and fully understood by the reader Lincoln and Guba (1985) stated that dependability is similar to reliability in quantitative studies Dependability emphasizes the need for the researcher to account for the ever changing context within wh ich the research occurred (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) The researcher should include a description of the changes that occurred in the research setting and how the changes affected the research approach utilized in the study (Dooley, 2007; Lincoln & Guba, 1985 ) To ensure that dependability is upheld, the researcher must provide an audit trail with documentation on methodological decisions and reflection on the influence that the methodological decision had on the outcome of the research (Dooley, 2007) The con trustworthiness and rigor refers to the degree in which the results can be confirmed or corroborated by others The researcher is responsible for describing the changes that occurred in the set ting and how those changes affect the research approach utilized for the study (Dooley, 2007; Lincoln & Guba, 1985) Finally, to ensure that confirmability is upheld, the researcher must provide an audit trail with documentation of methodological decision s made during the study and reflections on the impact that the methodological decision had on the outcome of the study (Dooley, 2007). Researcher Subjectivity Statement As a child, I grew up in a family that valued the importance of the agricultural indust ry While I did not grow up on a farm, my extended family was actively engaged in the crop and animal aspects of production agriculture However, I was not actively

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88 engaged in agriculture until I entered the ninth grade and took my first agricultural edu cation course As a freshman in high school, I dreamed of becoming a veterinarian Throughout my high school agricultural education experience, I participated in a variety of SAE projects not an SAE program My high school agriculture teacher believe d that SAE was an avenue for students to explore and discover their passion for the agriculture industry In my first SAE program, I conducted a small animal care project where I ies During this year, my interest in becoming a veterinarian increased However due to only being 14 at the end of my freshman year, I was unable to work for a veterinarian During my second year of conducting an SAE program, I completed two separate SAE projects homes and participating in a pet therapy program that several of my classmates participated in as well This project allowed me to first realize that I might want to become a teacher rather than become a veterinarian I enjoyed the opportunity to interact with the residents and assist them in learning more about the animals that were part of the pet therapy program For my second SAE program, I adopted, tamed, and tr freshman year of high school as part of a graduation project My interactions with Willow fueled my passion to become a veterinarian Throughout my third year of high scho ol I conducted a new SAE project once again, a placement project at a local veterinary office Throughout my first year of working for a veterinarian I quickly realized that my interest of majoring in veterinary

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89 science was diminished However, in my agr icultural leadership course, we began implementing an elementary school mentorship program During this program, my classmates and I would travel to a local second grade classroom and present 30 minute lessons to students about agriculture During one of our monthly lessons, my agriculture teacher observed my interactions with my group of students and pulled me aside as we were leaving the elementary school She informed me that she thought that I was a natural teacher, and I quickly responded that if I were to become a teacher, I would definitely want to teach agriculture The SAE projects that I conducted my senior year were the most impactful on my future career I continued my placement project at the veterinary office, where I trained to become a receptionist and a veterinary technician My new SAE project was a half day internship in a seventh grade life science classroom During the final 3 periods of the school day, I observed and assisted Ms Roberta Coulter with the integration of agricultur al concepts into the seventh grade life science curriculum Throughout the year, I planned a variety of agriculturally based lessons and laboratory activities for students to apply the science concepts taught in the life science curriculum within an agric ultural context During this experience my passion for education developed and flourished After my high school graduation, I was elected to serve as the 2003 2004 State FFA President During my year of service, I was granted the opportunity to interac t with a variety of FFA members and agricultural education students and learn about their SAE programs Through this experience my knowledge and interest in SAE became stronger I witnessed students that began and ran their own businesses that have now

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90 b ecome their careers As I entered my undergraduate courses at The Pennsylvania State University, I believed I had a strong grasp of SAE and how I could engage students in SAE projects During my undergraduate coursework, only one of my courses discussed SAE and the utilization of SAE within the total agricultural education program As I completed my coursework in my undergraduate agricultural education program, I was introduced to the concept of SAE programs I initially believed that SAE should still be organized as projects instead of through a program concept However, as I completed my student teaching internship, I witnessed the effect that SAE programs can have on student knowledge development and retention Further, the students that I worked w ith during my student teaching experience that completed an SAE program had stronger career goals Due to my student teaching experience, I adopted and fully believed in the concept of SAE programs As I worked with my students as a teacher, I fully exp ected every student to develop a program topic area and to develop a project that could be conducted to assist I found that this method of SAE program development and implementation was successful but was rather teacher i ntensive Many students required a great deal of assistance in discovering an agricultural topic area in which to focus their SAE program As a teacher, I found the development of SAE program topic areas as the most time consuming aspect of the entire de velopment and implementation process Once students had a topic area chosen, they were rather successful in developing an individual project that would be completed each year of their SAE program

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91 rams each year I found that during a SAE supervisory visit that I was able to engage in high quality discussion Further, due to my engagement in SAE visits, community members a nd parents became actively involved in the activities of the agricultural education program and FFA chapter During my supervisory visits, I would discuss the success that students had with their individual program and allow the student to ask questions a nd/or seek advice on any aspect of their SAE Many times students that had a production based SAE program had more questions than students that were in a placement or exploratory program I must admit that I rarely utilized the research SAE category, due to a lack of understanding of the research SAE record book in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania During my teaching experience, my interest and passion for student participation in SAE grew and developed As I began my Master of Science and Doctor of Ph ilosophy programs at the University of Florida, I found that many of the questions in which I was interested in answering revolved around the concept of SAE My graduate coursework in educational theory and practice strengthened my belief that SAE is a vi tal component of agricultural education that should not be lost However, researchers have noted throughout the research literature that SAE participation is decreasing, and that teachers are overwhelmed with the development of SAE programs for every agri cultural education student I firmly believe that if the concept of SAE is not reinvented or reinvigorated, agricultural education programs will begin to operate without utilizing SAE programs While I do believe that any change to SAE will take time to become fully

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92 adopted by agriculture teachers, I do believe that a change must be made within the next five years I recognize that not every agriculture teacher that enters the classroom has the same passion for SAE that I possess However, I believe th at teachers should ensure that students receive adequate supervision during their SAE program both in the classroom and at home during supervisory visits Teachers should ensure that students create, develop, and implement SAE programs not individual projects that focus on a distinctive agricultural topic and increase in scope and sequence each year Further, parents should have an active role in the development, implementation, and sustainment of SAE programs I believe that teacher educators in a griculture teacher preparation programs should emphasize the importance of SAE with preservice agriculture teachers Furthermore, teacher educators should conduct research that examines the impact of SAE and the utilization of SAE through experimental stu dies Ultimately, the agricultural literature base regarding SAE has only examined student, teacher, parent, and employer perceptions and student participation in SAE As we work to reinvent and reinvigorate SAE within agricultural education, professiona l development workshops must be presented, and curriculum materials on SAE program development and implementation must be developed to assist students and teachers in identifying SAE programs that can be completed Chapter Summary Chapter 3 addressed the methods that were utilized in the study In this chapter, the ontology, epistemology, and theoretical perspectives were presented Further, this potential bias towards t he development, implementation, and utilization of SAE

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93 programs in secondary agricultural education Finally, this chapter outlined the specific methods that were utilized during the data collection and analysis phases. This study utilized qualitative met hods to determine the student, parent, teacher, community member, and school factors that influence the development and implementation of SAE programs in rural secondary schools This study operated under a realism ontology that recognized the presence of multiple realities and knowledge Further, this study utilized a constructionist epistemology Constructivist m the real world, and each Finally, this study functioned under a constructivism theoretical perspective Constructivists have posited that meaning is constructed through interaction b etween the individual and the environment/phenomenon The participants in this study were purposively selected, based upon the established criteria for the study and through an informal interview between the researcher and agriculture teacher Data were collected through the utilization of semi structured focus groups, semi structured interviews, observations, and informal interviews The semi structured focus groups and interviews were audio record and transcribed The collected data was then analyzed utilizing the constant comparative analysis method The following chapter presents the results of this study

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94 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Introduction Chapter 1 described the current educational system and the current concerns regarding the utilization of Su pervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs in School Based Agricultural Educa tion (SBAE). Further, Chapter 1 presented the justification for examining SAE programs within rural SBAE. The primary purpose of this study was to identify factors that are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools. Chapter 2 described the conceptual framework that guided this study and presented a thorough review of recent and historical literature that was relevant to this s tudy. The review of literature concentrated on empirical research in the following areas: student, teacher, parent, community, and school factors that influence the development and implementation of SAE programs. Chapter 3 presented the research methodolog y that was utilized to guide this study. The chapter presented the ontological perspective, epistemological perspective, theoretical perspective, data collection procedures, data analysis techniques, and measures to ensure the trustworthiness and rigor o f this study. This chapter present s the findings obtained through the data collection and analysis processes. The findings address the research questions of this study. 1. What teacher factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplar y SAE programs in rural schools? 2. What student factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 3. What school factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural sch ools?

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95 4. What community factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 5. What family factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? This chapter includ es the five the mes present in the data that were collected from students, teachers, parents and community members who were engaged in SAE in a rural SBAE program The SBAE programs that were examined were deemed to conduct exemplary SAE programs, based u pon the criteria presented in this study. The examined SBA E programs were located in the s tates of Minnesota and Georgia. The population was acquired through a purposive selection. The researcher contacted the state agricultural education supervisor and an agricultural education university f aculty member to nominate rural programs that met the a priori criteria of this study. The researcher then contacted each SBAE program to ensure that the program was deemed appropriate for participation in this study N ine focus groups were conducted with students, parents, and community members and three individual interviews were conducted with the three agriscience teachers. The transcription of the 12 focus groups and interviews resulted in a total of 956 minut es of audio and 261 pages of typed transcripts that were utilized in the data analysis process. E ach transcript was analyzed separately before employing the constant comparative technique to compare similar demographic groups. Following the comparison of focus groups and interviews of similar demographic groups, the transcripts were analyzed together to identify the five themes and 2 0 factors that will be presented in this chapter.

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96 Description of Participants The participating schools in this study were located in rural settings. Based upon the criteria established by this study, each school was conducting exemplary SAE programs. School A had one agriculture teacher and over 150 agriculture students. School A was located in rural Minnesota in a commun ity where the primary agricultural industry is seed corn production. School B is located in r ural Georgia where a variety of agricultural industries is prevalent. School B had two teachers and over 225 students enr olled in the SBAE program. School A loc ated in the middle of a l arge corn field roughly a half mile from the city limits. Several agric ultural based companies were located next to the road between the city limits and the high school. Next to the high school was a large grain elevator that was utilized by the local corn and grain producers. S everal different agricultural industries exist within the local community. Through informal interviews with the agriculture teacher and students it was discovered the following agricultural industries wer e present in the community: veterinary science, row crop production, vegetable production, fruit production, dairy production, greenhouse/nursery/ornamental horticulture production, poultry production, and landscape construction. The agricultural educatio n program was located in the back of the high school with the greenhouse laboratory that was located next to the football field approximately 1,000 yards from the agricu lture classroom. There were no standin g structures on the high school land laboratory, only open fields where row crops had been planted and harvested. It was observed that the SBAE program had access to the following laboratory facilities, each of which was utilized for student SAE programs: greenhouse, field crops laboratory,

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97 agricultural mechanics laboratory, computer laboratory, and a school wide vending machine. Further, it was observed that the school utilized The AET as a record management sy stem for all student SAE programs. During the classroom observations that were conducted at School A, it was observed that the agriculture teacher utilized the following instructional strategies: lecture, questions, demonstration, and individualized applicatio n. Throughout the instructional period, the teacher provided students with concrete examples, repeated and stressed important concepts/steps at an appropriate pace, provided clear explanations and directions, and provided time for students to contemplate the newly instructed concepts. School B was located roughly three miles outside of the city limits in the middle of a field that was surrounded by hedge rows. Several farms and fields were located between the city limits and the school grounds. There w ere also several wooded areas where the students noted that they would hunt. The school had several entrances where students and teachers gained access to the building. The agricultural education program was located in the back of the building near the s chool bus lot. Outside of the agriculture classroom door was an open nursery/landscaping facility and the greenhouse. Roughly 500 yards from the agriculture classroom was a modern livestock facility and show ring. The school utilized this area to house chapter and student animals. T he show ring was the location of a chapter show that was held each year for students across the state. During the classroom observations, it was observed that the agricultural education program had access to a variety of agri cultural education laboratories. These laboratories included: greenhouse, large animal facilities, agricultural mechanics laboratories, landscape laboratories, computer laboratories,

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98 garden plots, and a biotechnology laboratory. It was noted by the agric ulture teachers and students that all of the facilities were utilized in student SAE programs except the biotechnology and landscape laboratories. It was observed and noted during informal interviews with the agriculture teacher that the following industr ies were present in the local community: agricultural business, veterinary science, forestry, crop production, vegetable production, greenhouse/nursery/ornamental horticulture production, beef production, sheep/goat production, poultry production, and land scape construction. During the classroom observations, the agriculture teachers utilized the various instruction approaches within their classrooms. These instructional approaches included: lecture, questioning, demonstration, discussion, cooperative lear ning, experiential learning, and individualized application. During the classroom instruction, the agriculture teachers provided concrete examples, provided students with an opportunity to contemplate and apply newly learned concepts, stressed and repeate d important concepts at an appropriate pace, and gave clear directions and explanations for student activities. The agriculture teachers in both programs had completed or were in the process of completing a Master of Science degree specializing in Agricu ltural Education. Two of the agriculture teacher participants were male and one was female. T he agriculture teachers had between five and seven years of teaching experience and were enrolled in SBAE as a high school student. As a high school agriculture s tudent, each agriculture teacher was a member of the FFA chapter and conducted a SAE program. It was observed in both schools that the agriculture teachers had developed a positive relationship with the students enrolled in the agricultural education prog ram.

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99 Throughout the day, even before school began, students constantly visited the agriculture teachers and would sit in their rooms to talk about the happenings in their lives. Body language and their sincere tone demonstrated that the agriculture stude nts T he student participants were currently enrolled in an agricultural education class and were personally conducting a SAE program. The students had varying experience with agricultura l education, FFA, and SAE. The types of programs that were conducted by the student participants were focused in various different agricultural topics (Table 4 1) Table 4 1. Student Participant SAE Programs Student Gender SAE Program 1 Female Equine Management Placement and Entrepreneurship 2 Male Beef Production Entrepreneurship 3 Male Equine Science Placement 4 Female Specialty Crop Production Entrepreneurship 5 Male Agricultural Mechanics Entrepreneurship 6 Female Equine Management Placement 7 Female Agricultural Education Placement 8 Female Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Assisting Placement 9 Female Agricultural Education Placement 10 Female Goat Production Entrepreneurship 11 Female Greenhouse Management Placem ent 12 Female Garden Production Entrepreneurship 13 Female Dairy Production Entrepreneurship 14 Male Dairy and Crop Production Entrepreneurship 15 Male Dairy Production Placement 16 Female Poultry Production Entrepreneurship 17 Female Speci alty Animal Production (Honey Bees) Entrepreneurship 18 Female Poultry Production Entrepreneurship 19 Male Specialty Crop Production (Seed Corn) Placement 20 Female Landscape Maintenance Placement 21 Female Agricultural Sales Placement Th e parents and community members who participated in this study were all actively engaged in working with a student conducting a SAE program. Over half of the

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100 programs. A ll of the community members and one quarter of the parents were employed in the agricultural industry ( Table 4 2 and Table 4 3 ) Tabl e 4 2. Community Member Career s Parent Gender Career 1 Male Owner of a Family Farm 2 Male Owner of a Family Farm 3 Male E xtension Agent 4 Female Owner of a Family Farm Table 4 3. Parent Career s Parent Gender Career 1 Female Owner of a Dairy Farm 2 Female Animal Handler for a Assisting Care Facility 3 Female Owner of a Dairy Farm 4 Female Radiology Technologist 5 Female Bookkeeper/Accountant 6 Female Parent Educator & College Student 7 Male Director of Engineering for a Milk Producer Coalition 8 Male Township Maintenance Department 9 Female Stay at home Mom 10 Female Accountant 11 Male Contractor 12 Female Secretary 13 Female Disable Owner of Family Farm 14 Female Landscape Maintenance Department 15 Female Owner of a Remodeling Company 16 Female Sales Coordinator F rom the analysis of the data five themes were established. Those five themes were: committed teachers, student centered SAE programs, supportive surrounding Committed Teachers The first theme established from the data was the classroom. The classroom theme incorporated a variety of specific factors that are primarily implemented by the

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101 agriculture teacher. T he four participant groups discussed these factors throughout the informal interviews, formal interviews, and focus groups. T hese factors were also supported by the researche of the participant s body language and the interaction between the agriculture teacher and students during the program visit. The identified factors included: involved teachers, concrete examples, early introduction of SAE, required SAE p rograms, team approach to development, and SAE grade. Involved Teachers T he student and parent participant s noted that the agriculture teacher was involved in the development and implementation of SAE programs The participants stated that throughout the development and implementation process that the agriculture teacher was constantly involved in working with students The agriculture teacher worked to ensure that every student enrolled in their classes ha d a SAE program Parent 6 said I would say th at the biggest person that probably influenced what the kids the kids to participate; not only to participate but to do well at whatever probably coming from the teacher and rolling down. Beyond simply helping students establish an SAE program, the agriculture teach ers were involved in assisting students with continually improving their SAE Student 5 who conducted an agricultural mechan ics entrepreneurship SAE, stated [My teacher] help ed me in my ag mechanics class and also outside of school giving me tips on how to do certain things to build my chairs more effectively Student 5 mother Parent 10 that her son has an SAE program. Student 1 2 stated

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102 [My teacher] also has helped me and [ my teacher ] does that really want to further adding it. [My teacher] approa ched me about competing in the FF A ho rse show but it got canceled this year. [My teacher] P articipants stated that the agriculture teacher s provided support to the students in acquiring resources to conduct their SAE program. Some of the students in the participating schools lacked resources to conduct a SAE program. Therefore, the agriculture teachers spent time assisting students in finding adequate resources in order to conduct the students desired SAE progra m. Parent 2 responded When he [student] first brought the idea up that he wanted to raise cows, [my teacher] gave him input on what to do, where to go if he needed [help finding a cow] mainly with the ACS office [Department of Agriculture Agency] becau se [my teacher] had to sign some forms for him to be even involved with the Ag program Student 7 whose SAE focused on agricultural education programing mentioned that their h elping me The participants noted that the agriculture teacher encouraged students to participate in SAE. T encouragement to participate that they would have never conducted an SAE program. Student 13 responded that my teacher ] being like, you have to have an SAE, because we have [him/her] for an Ag class, so that was part of it. [My te acher] made me want to do something more involved than like a flower garden or something. S tudent 11 stated that the [My teacher]

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103 Concrete Examples When instructing the students in class about SAE programs, the agriculture teachers who participated in this study stated that they constantly utilized concrete examples of current or previous SAE programs that were conducted by students. The teachers discussed that the utilization of these examples assisted students who were developing an SAE prog ram for the first time with selecting an appropriate SAE topic and type. Within School B, the students are required to complete a student presentation of their SAE programs to their class. The student presentation s must include a description of their SAE program, program goals, program achievements, and photos of their SAE. Teacher 2 state d or report that they complete, we have them complete a tri board display and then they Teacher 1 responded, They students about their project so we actually use this frame and setup their boards. Half the kids in the class are presenting and the other class is their project. Beyond having the students present about their SAE programs, the teachers discussed that they work with students and provide e xample SAE programs. W hen initially discussing SAE, the teachers stated that they work with students to determine if the student s w ere engaged in an activity that could become their SAE program. Teacher 3 stated Well, what I want them to do, and I expe ct most of them to do, is look at what they are already doing first. Am I already? Am I already working in my parents yard? Am I already doing some heavy equipment operation or

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104 repairs or something like that? If I am, then maybe I already got something. We do that on the very first day actually. When discussing the development of a student Teacher 2 described realize it Students described that the examples provided in class assisted them in developing their SAE programs. During an informal interview, one student stated [My teacher] had not spent tim e providing me examples, I am not sure if I would have ever fi T he students recognized that being presented Student 3 responded that when h e first learned about SAE that the agriculture teacher had S everal students in the room that were very involved in theirs stand up and say what they did and why they enjoyed it and what they were able to do to it. Having four, five people talked about it s howed you the diversity of that is engaged from production agriculture to growing rabbits and what you can do and how it fits in your interest. Furthermore, Student projects all over the walls. Just going around and Early Introduction of SAE When beginning an agricultural education course in both of the participating schools, the agricultu re teachers were adamant that they began their SAE instructional unit within the first two to three weeks of school. They believed that it was important to ensure that students had developed an adequate SAE program early in the agricultural

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105 education cour se During this instructional unit, the agriculture teacher conducted various activities to assist students in identifying a SAE program that meet their interest s abilities, and resources. Teacher 1 or selection (of an SAE topic) we really spe school) between when we introd student needs to make their selection. We do several di f More specifically, Teacher Students have a hard time determining what they want their project to be or may have a hard ti m During the informal interviews the researcher determined that this teacher had students complete a career survey, listen to other students present conduct research about different SAE programs, examine their current after school activities, and complete a teacher approval form. Teachers in both SBAE programs required students to complete a teacher approval form for their SAE programs. Teacher 2 explained the teacher approval process as second, and third. Then figure out exactly which one fits the best that directly relates to the area Teacher 3 expla sheet at the beginning of the class. They are expected to fill it out to tell me what they're doing T he agriculture teachers also discuss the possible rewards for students that comp lete an SAE program. These rewards vary from recognition for monetary gains to

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106 3 described that when they introduce SAE that they pre sent about the Scholarship opportunities through the FFA, and that' s the one that usually lights up most of the You know what? I see this as an immediate benefit, not a 10, 1 2 years down the line That's what probably sells most of the kids, not all of them, but most of the kids. Teacher 2 stated during instruction about SAE that students are informed skills or people skills that they learn are going to go with them more than how to water a plant or properly pla When intro ducing the concept of SAE to their students, agriculture teachers also promote the development of record books and the need for accurate record keeping practices throughout the SAE program. Each of the agriculture teachers who participated in this study utilized the Agriculture Experience Tracker (AET) online record keeping system. The teachers expre ssed that the online system had recently replaced a paper based record keeping system. However, the teachers believed that the online AET system was more wi dely accepted by students due to the student s ability to easily update their records from their mobile devices and home computers. Teacher 2 stated, It seems to be a little bit easier for them to keep up with, because they can do stuff at home and they can do stuff here at school. We used to require them to leave the record books here at school and give them time in class to work on it, but now that they can do it either or, their participation seems to have gone u p. Teacher 3 supported Teacher ments by responding opportunity that we have to see these records be developed, I really am pushing e very single agriculture student to take this as if it's their home Quicken books or their Home

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107 When dis cussing c lassroom instruction in SAE, the student participants were adamant that they were initially intimidated by the concept. Some of the students stated that the multiple pages of handouts worried them about the complexity of the SAE program They also stated they were skeptical in their ability to be successful. Student 8 respo nded that the introduction of a SAE program was Very scary. [My teacher] stands up and [m y teacher] has this stack of papers in their hand and [m y teacher] goes, buckle your seatbelt, because as a freshman with no previous knowledge of what [m y teacher] was talking However, other students were immediately interested in the concept of SAE because of the examples that were provided by the agriculture teacher. Student remember [My teacher] [My teacher] makes it seem really fun and that you can really get engaged and that you c an really do something with When initially beginning their SAE program, students stated that with the assistance of the agriculture teacher, they completed various activities related to the development of a SAE program. These activities assisted students in the development of a SAE topic and ensuring that their record books were established before the SAE program was implemented. T hese activities assisted students in feeling more confident about their SAE programs and their ability to c onduct a SAE. Student e started by going on the AET website and that helped us set up what kind of SAE we wanted to do and it helped us keep track of all of our finances and everything that Student 9 responded that d uring classroom SAE instructional activities that their agriculture teacher would

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108 T come up to you one on one and really be t aspect on it. When discussing the concept of record keeping a nd the instruction that student s received in their agricultural education course s, parents and community members agreed that the practice wa s valuable to students. However, a majority of parents and community members stated that they were unsure if students keep up with their journal entries and financial records P arents and community members noted that students did in fact have a record ke eping system in place, but that information was the extent of their knowledge regarding their students SAE record book. Community member 3 plain causes them to thin k about the records part and learning something and what that means, and how that fits into Parent 3 responded, recording before she ever did it so right now she shows to herself, first, oh I look, I learned that and I learnt that I know how to do this or this is what he Parent she kept them or what she did with them and how she used them Parent 12 explained that their son believed that the student C an keep up with it in his mind and he thinks that is all that he needs to do to have the best memory to remember everything that you do right now. However, one community member did have a larger influence on the student participation in record keeping process. Community member 2 affirmed that

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109 ok up to date she was not going to get her paycheck. Required SAE Programs Teachers, students, and parents agreed that one of the major reasons that students participated in SAE was due to the course requirement for every student to conduct a SAE program. The requirement to participate ensured that every student would initially start a SAE program and continually be engaged in the program throughout the agricultural education course. The agriculture teachers believed that it is essential to engage all st udents in an SAE. Teacher 2 reported that E ach student has to complete an SAE for the class that consists of 15 hours of outside of classroom instruction. We do five or six checks r goals, hours require them to do a resume as part of their SAE project. At the end, they application. Teacher 1 stated W e go ahead and tell them (students) before they even enroll in the class, there is a project that goes with this and this requires a lot of time and it requires some work outside of the classroom. We want those parents to understand how important it is not only to not see his grade but to them having a successful experience in our Ag Department. Fu rther, teacher 1 expressed the rationale for including and requiring SAE programs in the SBAE program. Teacher 1 affirmed that I feel like they learn a lot more they is so much real life application there. They might not even know that life, I had to do implementation is that a high score in real world.

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11 0 Teacher 3 agreed that SAE programs were v ital to the success of SBAE when they stated f I didn't have SAE, my classes wouldn't be as strong as they are and my students wouldn't be as successful as they are, so I n The student participants agreed that they were r equired to conduct an SAE program. Student T he students also agreed that they initially conducted a SAE program because it was requ ired to be in an agricultural education course and to be a member of the FFA chapter. Student 17 w ithout having to the requirement of an SAE to be in FFA, compete on have to do one, I guess I probably would S tudent The requirement of conducting a SAE program was recognized by the paren t participants as well. Parent was basically maybe a requirement to do it 6 supported Parent 16 when it was stated that the student iculture class. It was also required for the class, too, to do it. I think there Team Approach to Development When developing a SAE program, it was believed by teachers and community members that a team approach should be utilized during the development process. B oth participant groups did not believe that the same individuals (teacher, parent, or community member) were necessary in the development of every SAE program. In some cases, only a teacher would be involved in t he development process, while in other situations a parent, teacher, and community member would all be involved.

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111 Teacher SAE is a total involvement between the parent and the student and the teacher While, teacher 1 contested that may be not the more people but that the quality of people that you have involved with an SAE can have a big influence on its success think there needs to be at least one adult who has a vested interest and is pla ying an active role in that SAE 3 added that a student can need C ommunity members that are involved in helping them to get that first animal, but more importantly, is being able to have the opportunity for them to help evaluate those kids with SAEs and even maybe help push those kids to make sure their SAEs are successful. Community members conjectured that the needs of every student were different during the d evelopment of an SAE programs. Community member 2 st ated, Sometimes the parent can or could be (the primary influencer) sometimes the employer, sometimes the Ag instructor. That will vary by every situation and by every student that goes through the program. Whoever he or she connects with the most I think can be the primary influencer. Community member s SAE Grade Beyo nd simply requiring every student to conduct a SAE program, the teachers stated that they also assigned every student a grade for involvement in SAE. The teachers believed that the student s w ere responsible for being actively involved in their SAE program and to keep an accurate record book documenting their involvement. Teacher Teacher 1 added,

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112 the assignment s that go with it that they do not have an opportunity to pass. I mean it is about 33% of their grade because in the three circle model, the SAE is one third of it. procedures. E ach of the teachers described a subjective grading system that examined if evidence of student learning was present and if students had achieved their established goals for their SAE program. Teacher 3 stated, All that I use is my own quality of evaluati on, so I don't have a set rubric. I look through their program and ... Mostly because every one of them is going to be on a different level. I look at them as, you take an exploratory project and you say, did that student put in the effort, not just to exp lore something, but to show what they've learned from that exploration. Teacher down to each individual program needs to do what works best for them and their administration but having re that Teacher 2 conjectured that student grade s should be b ased on the following questions: Did they achieve their goals? Do they in their pictures? Do they have the six pictures? Do they give an adequate description of their p roject? Student Centered SAE Program Throughout the informal interviews, formal interviews, focus groups, an d observations it was noted that student SAE programs were primarily determined based upon their particular interests. More spec ifically, it was noted that if student s began their first SAE program based upon their personal resources that the SAE program topic became an interest for the student s If the topic did not become an interest of the student s the topic was typically changed by the student s to a topic of their personal

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113 interest. From the data, six subthemes were established by the researcher: c areer/student interest focus, school resources, specialized program for each student, student learning, and FFA influence Career/Student Interest Focus were a focus of the development process by teachers, stude nts, parents, and community members The participants noted that student interests drive them to succeed and persevere. Teacher 1 stated, the best job that they could do, even the best student is just not going to be as motivated in that SAE. It was noted that student interest did not have to be a career interest T he participants described SAE programs as a possible way for students to explore different careers before attending college. However, teachers described that they attempt to determine a 1 reported during the development proc ess w e also try to tie it (SAE topic) into a career by saying okay, what career could you now be better prepared for 2 described the reasoning for students to develop career based skill s. year or two down the r Teacher 1 argued that by involving students in careers that may interest them in the future that the student s may be able to develop a lasting relationship with industry representatives. Teacher closely with the (loc While T eacher 3 primarily discussed that student

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114 resources were a primary focus for the initial development of a SAE program, it was noted by the participant that many if not all, of the SAE programs that were continued and built upon were developed through student interest. Many of the students who p articipated in the focus groups expressed a sincere and developed interest in their SAE topic area. Throughout the focus groups and informal intervi ews, the student s expressions become more animated and they began to smile when they discussed their SAE topic. The student participants stated that many of them had a personal interest in their SAE prior to beginning an agricultural education course, while some stated that their interest in thei r SAE program was developed through their involvement in SBAE and their SAE program. Student 1 an opportunity to further my equine training and be able to eventually trai n horses on my ow While student 2 described that during their involvement While making dinner one evening, stude nt 17 explained that We ran out of honey, so I went to the shed to grab more, because we just had boxes around from when my dad made it and it was like the last one and I had this panic attack, because I hate store bought honey. When I went back in that w involvement in a SAE program. Student 16 described that the development of their chickens. Du ring the focus group discussion, student 5 discussed his/her occupation as the inf e works in c onstruction, he always has

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115 and now woodworking and working with tools and everything. I thought it would be a good idea to Student participants described that if the ir first SAE was developed based upon their personal resources and not interest, that they felt little connection to the SAE program. However, the students became more involved in their SAE program if it was redeveloped towards a personal interest. Stude nt 10 stated My go with chickens was just being a freshman, I just wanted to get my 15 hours and I just wanted to get it all done with, well then I figured that I would change to goat production. With the goat production I had a goal of not given up on how to build a pen, because that was pretty horrible staying up least keep them alive for at least the four months till the fair. I think that accomplishing these goals have reall y been better. The parents stated that their children chose their SAE programs because of their personal or family interests in their SAE topic areas. Since the student s developed their SAE based upon their interests, the parents expressed that their sons and daughters were more interested in conducting a SAE program. Parent 1 stated and Parent t as something he wanted to do on his own. He wanted some cows, so he talked it over with his dad and his dad got him set Further, when discussing the development of a student SAE parent 16 exclaimed t has to be there in doing you're not going to give it your all The community members noted that in some cases the student s were influenced t in their SAE program. However, over time this also became a personal interest for the student. Community member 1 stated that the

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116 i nterest in agriculture and the SAE prog ram H e's learned a lot about how to feed, and how to run tractors, and how to hook up implements, and how to use the implement once he hooks it to the tractor Further the community members expressed their belie fs that a SAE should allow students to explore potential career options. Community member student knows what they want to do and it is good for them to experience other things because something might just click and change their mind Comm unity member sophomore School Resourc es Once SAE programs were developed, the agriculture teachers, students, and parents discussed that in some cases school resources were necessary for students to adequately conduct their SAE programs. In some ca ses, the student would use one of the school laboratories to conduct one small component of the project. In other ca ses, the student conducted the entire SAE utilizing school resources. Each of the participant groups noted that this was not necessarily true for every student, but school resources were required for some students to engage in SAE. Therefore, the agriculture teachers provided instruction time to students for SAE record book updates. Within the SBAE programs in this study, every agriculture student utilized a school computer to make record book entries and to complete various assignments for the agricultural education course. While some students completed their record keeping at home, it was found during observations and informal interviews that some of the

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117 agriculture students did n ot own a computer or have access to the internet at home. In these cases, the school computer and internet were necessary for their records to be kept accurate and for their assignments to be completed. The agriculture teachers recognized that students ne ed to have access to the school resources in order for the students to be successful in conducting a SAE program. In reference to the utilization of school resources for student SAE programs, teacher ething in one of the ag ccess to all Teacher 1 added that a student who lacked resources at home could do something with ag department resources, so working in t he greenhouse, working with on the land lab, working in my shop. Having those opportunities there are necessary 1 explained that the need for school resources changes each semester and year. Teacher 1 described that the agriculture teacher must determ ine if the resources are needed. W e have to kind of figure out, are they not doing this When the agriculture teachers discussed this concept, they were rather distraught and their v oices began to reserved demonstrating that they were upset and wanted to do more to help students engage in SAE. Students who utilized school resources were thankful for the opp ortunity to participate in a SAE program. During an in formal interview with a student who utilized the school land lab to conduct a SAE, the student continually mentioned that without the utilization of school resources it would have never been able to pa rticipate in SAE.

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118 Furt her, student 11 noted that the The need for student use of school resources was also recognize d by parents. Parent e had an advisor here that was working this summer on getting their classroom ready and that kind of thing and [Student 5] was able to come up here and use the ag mech lab 10 further described that withou yearly garden would not have been a success due to the colder than normal winter. Specialized Program for Each Student Within the educational system teachers and school districts recognize that e very student has individual needs in order to facilitate learning. Those individual needs are not exempt from conducting a SAE program. The teacher s in this study indicated that ensuring that every student has a SAE program that meets personal needs is o ne of the most difficult parts of developing and implementing SAE. Teacher 3 denoted that the students who have very limited resources were the hardest to as sist in the development process. Those ones that just literally don't have anything that are the biggest struggle. Those are the ones that are time consuming ones that we have to say, "You are not going to fall between the cracks, just because you don't have something right now. We are still going to find something for you. Teacher 3 further discussed possible SAE programs for students with limited resources, Now we got to start to find something for that person to do. It screams, do a and that just ends up happening unfortunately, b ut 99% of the time, we end up with some kind of a project where they can go home and at leas t say,

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119 To ensure that every student can conduct a SAE program that is specialized to particular interests and needs, additional resources items and the schools resources were needed. Some students were limited by financial resources to purchase items or animals for their SAE programs. In some cases, community members and community organizations have provid ed physical and financial resources to students who were conducting a SAE. Teacher We have had some community members who have made resources avai lable to students that might not have otherwise. Our local Kiwanis club actually awards animals to kids, they 17 explicated that our Alumni to help start my SAE. Starti ng my SAE Student Learning Throughout the informal interviews, formal interviews, focus groups, and observations, it was evident that student learning was at the forefront of the purpose for utilizing SAE i n the SBAE classroom. Regardless of the particular topic, teachers, students, parents, and community members recognized that for a SAE to be successful ife that learning must occur. Student l earning within SAE could include but was not limited to: content knowledge, skill development, career knowledge, career skills, or personal life skills. The agriculture teachers who participated in this study, avidly explained that student learning, career knowledge/skill development, a nd personal life skill development were the primary reason s for utilizing SAE programs in SBAE. Teacher 2 insisted that

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120 For a kid to be successful, they must develop good work ethic skills and responsibility. Not everybody is going to get an application or win an and commitment skills that they learned through their SAE project, and Teacher 2 further described that I think every student can gain something from their SAE. The skills and responsibility and things that he learns in landscaping can be directly tied to healthcare industry or anythin people skills that they learn that are going to go with them more than how to water a plant or properly plant a plant or things like that. Teacher 1 indicated a belief that a student should be able to descri be what was received from the SAE program. More specifically, teacher 1 expressed that a student should cultivate a personal desire to grow and develo p. Teacher 1 articulated a success and that they feel like it was something that can benefit them or that they can use in their Teacher p. Similar to a n internship conducted by a college student, teacher 3 believed that student learning was a key component to a student SAE program. Teacher 3 stated that at the expe ing, I'm learning something. It's not as big (in reference to the size of the program) as my next door neighbor that I know is in another class, and they have a big old project, but I'm learning something T eacher 3 further explained, I wish every kid could make a ton of money, but it's not dollars that always students to achieve some goals. I have kids that have failed miserably in the livestock thing, but the things that they've learned by failing miserably will help them when they h large scale

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121 The student participants recognized that the development of knowledge, skills, and competencies was an important component of a SAE program. The students noted through informal interviews and focus groups that their SAE programs assisted them in the development of career and life skills that will assist them achieving their life and career goals. Many of the students have developed SAE programs that have influenced their career choices. Whil e not all student s believe that they will begin a career within their SAE topic area, they did note that their experience has assisted them in identifying careers that they are interested in as well as those that they have little to no interest in speciali zing. Student 3 recognized the learning that has taken place during an equine production SAE program and then show it in a sale a year or two later and seeing it sold and seeing your finished proje Student 12 expressed that learning through their plant science research something 5 noted that the skills learned have assisted them in helping others Some of my coaches wanted to lock put on a refrigerator because ow to go about putting a lock on it. I came down here to the mechanic shop and I got a drill and they went out and bought a lock and I helped them put it on. The way now that I can now use tools efficiently and be able to do it on my own is really a big th ing for me. Student learning was also recognized by parents as a component of a SAE program. The parents believed that student learning assisted in motivating students to continue their participation in SAE. Further, parents reported that SAE progr ams as sisted their students in identifying potential future careers. Parent 2 stated that

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122 15] likes to be well rounded and knowledgeable, so any knowledge really, he likes to know about everything and he retains information very well and I think he is like 7 believed that being engaged in a SAE program was beneficial. F or her to learn a little bit about how hard it is to pull cash together for some of these ventures because that was something that she had never experi enced before was the need to manage some funds and cash flow of struggle with it anyway. It was a cool project for her. Parent 10 further supported tha t student learning is important. get into this and if I sell this for this, but thinking your time and what it really costs and maybe not being able to sell some things that you have money invested in is a very g ood learning experience, a very good reality check for them. Community members agreed with parents, students, and teachers that SAE programs develop student career skills. Many of the community members believed that they could assist the students in the development of career skills and knowledge through their interactions throughout SAE program. Community members noted that they could provide students with specific opportunities to apply their knowledge to real world settings and situations Community member 2 mentioned the ability to motivate a student to develop welding skills. Therefore, community member 2 expressed that the student is presented with a multitude of opportunities to practice their h n wanting to learn how to weld many different 2 further described thoughts about student learning

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123 Kids learn in many di fferent ways and most of the time they learn without even knowing that they are learning but the SAE can help quantify that. They will look at the last three month or six months. So what do you know en the light bulb will go on Community member 4 further supported student learning by describing interactions with some of the stude nts that currently work on the farm. At the end of the school year the students were requi red to complete a written assignment describing their SAE program. Community member 4 explained that h w ow, I can write so much more than I did back then and it does excite them. It does FFA Influence When describing their interest in participating in a SAE program, it was noted by the students that involvement in the FFA chapter was a motivating factor for them to engage in a SAE. However, it was not ed by the agriculture teachers that not every indicated that they spent little time discussing the FFA award and degree structure during their instruction of SAE. The teachers furth er stated that their requirements for the SAE program were not high enough to allow students to earn a state FFA degree if they only met the minimum requirements. This was to ensure that students would first become interested in their SAE and then the tea cher could discuss the possibility of earning a FFA degree or award. Teacher more hours, look, you can earn your State FFA D 2 described recognition through FFA as od for the kid to win the proficiency application and go on and get that recognition. But for the kid, in my mind, to have learned something

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124 success. The student participants state d that the ability to earn their State FFA D egree was a motivating factor for them to go above and beyond the course requirements for their SAE programs. However, it was no ted that throughout the students discussion SAE was important to helping them achieve their personal and career goals. Student 7 stated that FFA was One of the reasons I actually chose my SAE, is because to get your S tate FFA D egree in [State] you have to have 300 hours in your SAE and I thought that agricultural education was something that I would enjoy goal that goal and really my end goal. But I also just want to get a lot of work experience, because I do s ee agriculture education, being a potential future career. Student 17 described a relationship between FFA and SAE involvement, It seems like the kids that are going to stay in the in different CDEs, also have a better SAE, because they want to compete wi th their SAE for a proficiency and get the state degree and stuff, so I think the ones that are more involved in everything will have a better SAE. Student 10 explained that FFA was a motivation al put in for the proficien While parents recognized that their son or daughter was involved in FFA, it was noted that some parents believe the SAE was a component of FFA. Parent 16 stated, ng to go towards, a competition type expressed that they beli eved that the success of others with their SAE programs through FFA was a potential motivator to other students withi n the SBAE program. Com munity M ember 3 suggested

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125 When ensuring that every student is invol ved in a SAE program, it is essential to begin to fully understand the factors that influence student involvement. Throughout the development and implementation phases of a SA E program. The data provide evidence that parents, community members, and other external factors influence a four factors that emerged from the data were: supportive parents, parental knowledge of SAE, program go als, and community member support. Supportive Parents When working with students involved in a SAE program, teachers must continue to a ddress the needs of the student s parents. In this study, the parents were found to be extremely supportive of their so Parents noted that they believed their role was to be supportive and provide supervision to their student while they were engaged in their SAE program at home. Teachers agreed that having supportive parents assist s in ensurin g that students enrolled in agricultural education courses were engaged in a SAE program. The teachers noted that they spent time dis whenever they were engaged in a conversation Teacher 1 describ Further, T eacher 2 described that if parents are not involved in supporting their student

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126 However, T eacher 3 indicated that they had experienced some parents that were not supportive of their student s conducting a SAE program. In those cases, T eacher 3 stated a need to work wit and follow through. Just like you think, if I can help you with your homework after school, I hope I can help you with your SAE and provide you with some additional 3 explained th at in most cases this approach works with parents who are skeptical about their engagement in SAE. The students in the study recognized that their parents and other family members were extremely supportive of their SAE program. Throughout the focus groups and informal interviews, the students mentioned that their parents assisted them in acquiring pertinent resources for their program and that they were always there to answer questions they may have. Further, they believed that the support of their parents and family members was a reason that they initially and continually remained involved in a SAE program Student 3 affirmed that the SAE program and working with a supportive grandfather increased interest in a SAE A s I got involved, I got more interested and I continue d Student The parents who participated in th e study recognized that they were responsible for providing support to their sons or daughters throughout their SAE program. While discussing the support that they give their son, Parent 2 stated, W e support what he wants to do but we also encourage, lik e as a parent I may encourage him to take every opportunity that comes his way so if a teacher says you would be really good at this I could really use you to have to feel good about that and to take those opportunities when they are given,

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127 because there i s a reason why teachers are you know scouting certain kids to do that. The parents felt as though they had an interest in seeing their students succeed and learn from their SAE. More specifically, the parents who had several students who had conducted a SAE noticed that they became progressively more involved with each to work with their sons and daughters on their SAE p rograms. Parent y son was working 13 discussed their involvement in their SAE, One of his cows that he purchased was a cow that wa s pregnant. It had a because when he was at school, I was home feeding the calf with a bottle. I was a l ot involved. The parents also explained that they found enjoyment from watching and supporting their child. Parent amazing to watch her with these goats. She is full When describing their daughter, parent 14 responded that of the parents took an active role in assisting their sons or dau ghters in the development of their SAE program. P arent 4 described their role: M school so I talked to the teacher and tried to find something that would interest him. He did a stuffed duck last year and then this year h

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128 Parental Knowledge of SAE Throughout the study it became evident that a majority of the parents had a limited knowledge of SAE. The same question w hat does SAE mean ? able to answer the question. While agriculture teacher s believe that parents have a conceptualization and knowledge of the concept of SAE t he data collected through this study prov ided a different view of parent s knowledge of SAE. The teacher s in the s tudy indicated that they sent home a packet of information regarding the SAE program with the agriculture student s Furthermore, the teachers required the parents to sign a sheet sta ting that they understood the requirements and expectations of their stud ent. Teacher 3 described their policy as One of the things that they have to do to start it off, is that they do have to sign off on the course syllabus that has that grading spelled out. They all know on the first two days of the course, that their stud ent is required to do it. They already are aware to what amount, depends on how much they actually look at the syllabus, but they are aware or given the opportunity to be aware of it. T eacher 2 noted that they would provide electronic information as well t websites so there will be information on there and the parents are encouraged to visit However, many of the parents were unsure what role SAE played within the agricultural education course. Parents were confused as to if SAE was a separate course, a part of FFA, or if it was an assignment for the agriculture education course. Parent Further, P arent 12 explained their knowledge of the informati on packet that was given

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129 The la ck of knowledge continued when P arent an SAE program, the assignment that she had to do. All I knew was that I had to take parents were unsure how the student even developed the program topic. Parent 9 expressed confusion with the SAE development process The confusion continued when P arent 7 explained, 17] understood it, but when she first explained it to me I thou ght it was part of the class, I thought there when she first brought that up. What that turned into really became a shock to me after I found out what it was really about. The n it went well beyond the end of the class. I thought this was a project and when the class turned into. Parent When ex arent 5 responded, The parts to this SAE, right? The poultry is just a part, a little part and then she works. She mpt to describe a SAE program, P arent 12 responded that SAE was Program Goals During the development and implementation process, teachers and students work together to develop adequate and achievable goals for the stud ent to work towards during the SAE program. The main purpose of the goals was to continually mo tivate the student to continue their involvement and to apply their knowledge to their

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130 SAE. Teacher 1 described that a Even if they were unable to reach all of their goals, to at least reach a g When working with students on the development of SAE goals, teacher 3 asked th e students W hat do you want to do in the next six months? What are your projects? What do you want to do in the next year to two years?" These questions as sisted their students in the development of goals that have motivated them to continually participate in a SAE program. Teacher 3 explained that at the end of a SAE program that students need to be assisted in understanding what they achieved. Teacher 2 a kid can say that they can see they're learning through their SAE, that's probably the SAE goals were viewed as an essential component to guide student engagement in a SAE program When working with their agriculture teacher, the students recognized that there were different types of goals that they could set for their SAE program. Student 9 remembered that the short and lon g S tu d ent 9 mentioned that the agriculture teachers did not expect that all of the goals that were set would be directly related to the SAE program and that their agriculture teacher encouraged students personal s ide of the goals and [My teacher] Some of the students mentioned that they would develop goals with their teacher, but once they were engaged in their SAE that their goals changed because of their current

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131 assessment of th eir SAE program. Student 6 stated that after involvement in SAE that needed. What they need to work on that week or next month or what their goals were proud of the goals that they had set for themselves. While student 4 appreciated the support received from others, the student advice about how to expa nd it and make it my own but I have set goals throughout the students recognized that there were different types of goals that they could set for their SAE program. Student 1 2 realized that a goal for the SAE program was more than learning, but that the student had to grow enough produce for the family to eat money at the grocery stores t The students learning goals were important to parents when they were involved in assisting and supporting their sons and daughters. The parents recognized that the goals that the student developed for themselves would assist the parent in guiding and supporting their child as they engaged in a SAE program. Parent 15 expressed that they go online and they post their goals and the skills t hat they want to attain through 13 explained that SAE goals has assisted him in being more committed to his SAE program, setting his own goals, he has to be committed in raising these cows, making gets home from school. The very first time when we got into the program, when he started the cows and he had to do his fence, his daddy put him to work. He was so tired by the end of the day,

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132 ant to ever put Community Member Support When developing a SAE program for students, community members can play a large role in providing students with resources or assisting students in achieving their goals. Community members do not have to be directly linked with the agricultural industry. Some community members are local business entrepreneurs and could have little knowledge of the agricultural industry. S ome community members coul d just provide supportive comments to students who are conducting SAE programs or hire a student to complete work around their home. When developing SAE programs, agriculture teachers assist with connecting community members with students. In some cases the agriculture teacher may assist the student in acquiring a job or may assist students in identifying a community member that may be able to assisting them in providing guidance for their SAE program. Teacher s needs and what the commun eacher 1 explained that the S ome community members have developed a strong relationship with the agriculture teacher. Community members who have developed this type of relationship will contact the agriculture teacher before they hire employees to see if they have a student who might be interested in a job. T hese community members also assist with ensuring that students are completing their record books. Teacher 3 described one relationshi p with a local community member. loyees when they

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133 hire them to make sure to check in with me, when they get started, and make sure that 3 further described another situation where a community member was reluctant to hire a high school student f or an opening in a construction business. A year later, the community member contacted that agriculture The agric ulture students noted through informal interviews and focus groups that community members had been positive influencers on student SAE programs. Students who worked for different community members recognized that their knowledge and skill had been enhance d because of their opportunity to work with a local community member. Student 1 My personal trainer, influenced me a great deal. I learned so much from her more than I would have ever learned on my own. Sh When talking about a local community member who is his/her boss, S tudent been a big influence just igniting that passion and going beyond just helping me and whip and made sure I did all the dirty stuff as Furthermore, community members have provided the agriculture students with considerable amounts of positive comments regarding their SAE programs. When starting a business, S tudent 1 6 mentioned that community members have along saying we would definitely buy eggs from you. So they kind of supported us once 17 described an affiliation with a local

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134 community member as a supportive relat Beyond providing supportive comments, community members assist students in expanding their SAE programs. Student 4 explained that Community members always come up to m e and they give me ideas for found on the internet or something. They send me a picture, can you do this for me. Further, S tudent 6 expressed that community members had provided opportu nities to expand skill s with their horses rather than just at the local farm it helps me meet other people and get Joint Supervision Every participant group recognized that providing supervision to students during a SAE program was important. However, community members believed that the supervision that was being provided in the classroom was not adequate. P arents, teachers, and students believed that s upervision that was provided in the classroom was adequate and in some cases that an on site visit w as necessary. The data that were collected through informal interviews, observations, and focus groups provided evidence that students believed that they w ere adequately supervised. Therefore, the two subthemes emerged from the data were: classroom supervision and on site supervision. Classroom Supervision Within the classroom setting, the agriculture teachers provided students with classroom time to work on the development and implementation of their SAE program.

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135 During this classroom instructional time the agriculture teacher spent the entire time talking with students and ask ing questions about the student s SAE program. D uring the classroom SAE work time the students would raise their hands and ask several SAE specific questions of the agriculture teacher. Teacher 2 described a philosophy of SAE supervision as evaluate the student and to encourage the student to make sure the problems are getting done correctly and fill out the paperwork and that kind of thing. Then the community member or the parent is there to offer support as well, with the teacher, in ensur ing that the project gets done. One issue was noted by the agriculture teachers : with the current structure of class offerings it is difficult to physically see and talk to every student in th e program since almost half of the students enrolled in an agric ultural education course are not enrolled in the course every semester. When asked by the researcher about difficulties in reference to student supervision, Tea cher 3 described this concern, The only thing that would be is, as I am tracking them through their online recording, and that's what I do. I do have probably, outside of the class that I currently have, so the 4 classes I teach right now, it's about 80 kids total. I probably have 70 more students that I am watching on AET. Just seeing how they are doing on their tracking of their records and everything else. The hard part is how do I pull them in to say, "I want to see you do more. I want to see you keep working with the balance of everything else," but I do get to see quite a few. I probably talk to 3 to 5 kids on a weekly basis about their SAE outside of the students that I see in class. Teacher 1 recognized some issues with only classroom supervision but described that classroom can be effective if they K now what their (students) steps are that they are

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136 Teacher 2 described the typical classroom instructional practices when students are working on their SAE program. W e take time in class and in computer labs so they can enter records on AET and we do performance reviews with the kids or progress checks with the kids in class, 2 their records and things like that, that need class supervision. And to make sure that their stuff is do Student s recognized the benefits of classroom supervision and the role that their teacher played in the supervision of their SAE program. Further, students noted that their parents or community members provided a majority of the supervision that they received outside of the classroom. The students explained that when they are in class that they spend time working with the agriculture teacher to ensure that they are completing their assignments and SAE correctly. In turn, the student s are t hen responsible to relay this information to their parents or community members that are assisting them with their SAE program. Student 12 responded that the agriculture teacher provided supervision for the for plants, for my tomatoes he showed me websites that showed the best tips for amount of sunlight and watering that they needed and when to take them out of the 21 recalled one experience with classroom supervision, The parents who participated in the study recognized that the teachers were providing some supervision in the cla ssroom. In many cases, the parents denoted this

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137 practice as providing the students guidance and encouragement to keep them on schedule and assist them in meeting their goals. Parent 10 described the role in supervision "as keeping them (student as not actually doing the project, but assisting in keeping that schedule and meeting Further, P arent 12 ex plained that the teacher provided supervision when conducting On Site Supervision While the teachers in this stud y recognized the importance of conducing on site supervision, each of the teachers affirmed that due to time constraints and the number of students enrolled in the SBAE program that on site checks were near impossible. Teacher 2 stated that the only time to i f they bring it 2 further recognized that the lack of supervision could reduce the successfulness of some studen ts. successful students because of lack o The teachers did recognize that they need to be more actively engaged in providing on site supervision. Teacher 1 set a goal T eacher 2 menti oned that relying supervision, for the most part. Their supervisor has to sign off on their project at the T eacher 1 argued th

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138 Teacher 3 supported T eacher 1 that all parents are not able to provide supervision of students engaged in a SAE pr ogram. Teacher 3 noted that if parent s or community forms and they can say, this student is doing these things, this student has showed me how to do this specific T eacher 3 expressed that there is a need to train community members to provide supervision to students. Teacher 3 also stated that explain to them all, y es, it could happen, but there is just so many students, especially The students realized that if the SAE program was conducted on the school grounds utilizing school resources that the agriculture teacher provided more supervision to the student than if the SAE was conducted at home. Student 9 described the amount of on site supervision that was received by a student was dependent up on where the program was housed. with you 10 further explained that O nly one parent expressed th ey were the supervisor for the program. All of the other parents believed that the teacher was providing all of the necessary supervision for the SAE program and that their major role was to support the student thr oughout the SAE program. Parent 3, the one parent who recognized the role as the supervisor, stated that

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139 operations so [My teacher] will have no clue what is going on but I am the responsible C ommunity members were rather concerned with the amount of time that the agriculture teacher spent on site with students. SAE program was recognized by the community members as one of their roles in assisting with a st udent SAE program. However, the community member s suggested that if this was expected by the agriculture teacher that a training session should be conducted with every community member assisting with student SAE programs. This way every student was recei ving a similar experience and adequate supervision throughout the entire program. Community member 3 recognized that teachers may that the employer realizes that this i member 2 explained that the agriculture teacher need s up front so the employer knows what is expected of him as the employer in terms of guidelines, rules, regulations, expectat student is trying to reach certain goals for his SAE and it is important for the employer to Shared Expectations The final theme established from the collected data was the theme of culture. P articip ants described a developed and now inherent culture for SAE development and implementation within the SBAE program. The described culture has ensured that students recognize that if they are enrolled in an agricultural education course that the expectatio n exists to engage in a SAE program. Furthermore, it was noted that it is essential for there to be buy in by students, parents, community members, and school

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140 administrators. F rom the data the following factors were established: supportive administration prior sibling/family involvement in SAE, and development of a culture for SAE. Supportive Administration When working in a public school system, teachers must ensure that their local administration supports the work that is being done in their classroo m s The teachers and community members in this study recognized and discussed the supportiveness of the building administrators in both schools. While only an informal conversation to thank the building administrators for their support o f this study was held, it was noted by the researcher that the administrators were proud of the SBAE programs that were housed in their schools. The agriculture teachers believed that they had supportive administrators in both school s who supported the work that they were doing through SAE both inside and outside of the classroom setting. Teacher 2 explained that the Administration in our school is very supportive of what we do, especially standing histor y here at the school, so the facilities help, the administration helps. It all helps in the success of SAE. One way that administrative support is increased is through involving them in different aspects of the SAE program. Teacher 1 explained one way th at administrative suppo rt is increased in their school. When we do our presentation expo at the end of the semester, we invite our faculty and administration to participate in that. We encourage them to come down because they hear a lot about the SAE proj necessarily know very much about it but they hear kids talking about it so kind of one on one that they will appreciate the project more. T eacher 3 explained that having supportive administrators can assist in increa sing student involvement in SAE.

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141 T hey (administrators) see the connection between career development and the SAE portion of the AG program and my administration said that our AG programs needs to do mo re SAE and we need to find ways to make that available to them to do that, and that makes the students understand it even more that it has to be done. Beyond just teacher recognizing the importance of administrative support, the community members noted th at it is important to have support from both local and district administrators. The community members expressed that one way to ensure that administrators support a program was to ensure that the administrators can determine that student learning occurred within the program. Community member The other thing I think that really is help to be supportive is having the support of school board and the school administration. Our administration is pretty supportive of FFA and SAE and that whole concep agriculture teacher to face when developing and implementing student SAE programs. Community member 2, who had ser ved on the local school board, added that Many administrators discover that a successful program will attract students administrator that has the correct vision about it sees if they are learning in the classroom and how they do that is by supervision, by interacting with the students and seeing the learning by end of the program. Good administrators have the big picture in mind and they can tell if the kids are learning or no t. Prior Sibling I nvolvement in SAE When conducting a SAE program, students and their parents discussed that older siblings isted in the development of a culture within the family that participation in SAE was an expectation. Parents noted

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142 that they had a perceived better conceptualization of the concept of SAE and that they believed that they were better able to support their son or daughter. The students who had an older sibling who took an agricultural education course and conducted a SAE program indicated that in many cases they had similar interests as their older sibling and conducted a similar SAE program. Student 20 discussed that older siblings had a large impact on involvement in SAE. were super involved in FFA, they were both presidents and I saw them succeed with 20 added that older siblings involvement in SAE was a supportive factor as well. (participate) and just seeing them be able to succeed, it motivated me to want to In some cases, the older and younger brothers and sisters worked together to develop a single SAE program that met the needs of each student. When discussing the development of an SAE program, student 18 shared that a grandfather first had the to my sister, but I 18 further stated that her sister will take over the project when she enters high school in two y ears. When discussing how the SAE program was established, student ago my two brother and I decided we wanted to raise laying hens and broiler chickens, so we The parents who had multiple students complete a SAE program shared that h aving more than one child engaged in a SAE can be exciting. The parents added that it was especially exciting when they saw both children find their interest. I t was noted

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143 that some of the siblings developed a SAE program together and that the second sib ling further developed the program when they entered the agricultural education co urse. Parent 10 discussed the experience of having two students conduct a SAE program. Since we had the 1st daughter that did it and then the 2nd daughter picked up on it a nd she did expand it to some other things that the 1st daughter be in high school next year. I think it just builds excitement. Further, Parent 1 explained that the s tudent was motivated to participate in SAE Development of a Culture for SAE P articipants described a culture for participation in SAE that had been developed at each of the participating schools. The students understood that they were expected to conduct a SAE program if they enrolled in an agricultural education course. Teacher take ag classes because of the SAE, er CTE class and not Teacher 3 explained that student perspectives regarding SAE change over time when a culture for SAE is developed. Teacher 3 expla ined the experience with developing a culture for SA E It makes the idea when you com e into 9th grade and you take an AG class, and I was here about 4 years ago, that day of SAE class was, it might as well been a riot, be hy do I have to do this? Why do I have this? I think engines class. I didn't take AG e xperience class. I took an engi You get that argument. I don't get that argument anymore. The expectation is there and so the community expects it. Like if you take a class in art or whatever it might be, it's expected that you might have to spe nd a little money on some clay and some art supplies, something like that. T he agriculture teachers expressed that they were proud of the culture that they had developed and that they were pleased that students recognized that involvement in

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144 a SAE program was required of every agricultural education student. Teacher 2 explained how the culture for SAE had changed. Before we got here five years ago, the SAEs were not a major component in the classroom, and we made it that major component. Throughout the co urse of those five years, we constantly raised the expectations. Five two kids with quality projects to six, eight, ten, twelve kids with quality projects and some kids that if we just push them a little bit harder, they really good projects as long as we stay with them. Teacher 1 sugges ted that having a multi teacher program could be beneficial when developing a culture for SAE great ab out having that two teacher department or a multi teacher department is that you get two people or three peoples perspective on how you can develop a culture for success. Also, teacher 3 described that once the culture has been developed that it develops into a family culture. They prepare for that. They do hand down each other ideas of One of the students made a comment regarding the development of a culture for SAE. Student 8 indicated that watch ing other st udents develop a SAE program led to better preparation to develop and implement an SAE. Student 8 stated that watching and I was just constantly reminding myself, I have people backing me up, I have reso urces and I can do this. The parents noticed that the students were assisting in the process of developing a culture for SAE. Many of the parents described that their son or daughter enjoyed being in an agricultural education course and they had made fr iends through FFA. Those friendships encouraged students to participate and engaged in the SAE

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145 development and implementation process. Parent 5 expressed the student had k. T he other students who were enrolled in an agricultural education course supported and encouraged one another. Parent 10 expl i Parent 10 continued that because of the culture for SAE that had been developed that My chi and prod like with some things that you have. They want to do it. I think they enjoy it. They would rather be doing that than just about anything else. that. Summary The findings of this study were presented in this chapter. The research questions that guided this study were: (1) What teacher factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? (2) What student factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? (3) What school factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? (4) What community factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schoo ls? and (5) What family factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? The five themes that emerged from the d ata were: committed teachers, student centered SAE programs, joint supervision, and shared expectations Within those themes the following 2 0 development and implementation factors emerged:

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146 involved teachers, concrete examples, early introduction of SAE, required SAE programs, team approach to development, SAE grade, career/student interest focus, school resources, specialized program for each student, student learning, FFA influence, supportive parents, parental knowle dge of SAE, program goals, and community member support, classroom supervision, on site supervision, supportive administration, prior sibling/family involvement in SAE, and development of a culture for SAE. The findings that were presented in this chapter are further discussed in the following chapter.

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147 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Chapter 1 described the current educational system and the current concerns regarding the utilization of Supervised Agricultural Experien ce (SAE) programs in School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE). Chapter 1 also presented the justification for examining SAE programs within rural SBAE. The primary purpose of this study was to identify factors that are present in the development and im plementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools. Chapter 2 described the conceptual framework that guided this study and presented a thorough review of recent and historical literature that was relevant to this study. The review of literature co ncentrated on empirical research in the following areas: student, teacher, parent, community, and school factors that influence the development and implementation of SAE programs. Chapter 3 presented the research methodology that was utilized to guide this study. The chapter presented the ontological perspective, epistemological perspective, theoretical perspective, data collection procedures, data analysis techniques, and measures to ensure the trustworthiness and rigor of this study. Chapter 4 presente d the findings obtained through the data collection and analysis processes. The findings addressed the research questions of this study. Chapter 4 presented the five the mes present in the data that were collected from students, teachers, parents and comm unity members whom were engaged in SAE in a rural SBAE program.

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148 This chapter will present the conclusions based upon the findings of this study. T his chapter will also present recommendations for practitioners, teacher preparation, and future research. The following research questions guided this study. Research Questions 1. What teacher factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 2. What student factors are present in the development and implementati on of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 3. What school factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? 4. What community factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE progr ams in rural schools? 5. What family factors are present in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs in rural schools? Methods This study utilized qualitative methodology to identify teacher, student, parent, school, and community factors that were present in the SAE development and implementation processes. The participants and states were purposefully selected based upon a priori criteria that were established by a panel of experts. Once the criteria were established and the states sele cted, the researcher contacted an agricultural education university faculty member and the state agricultural education supervisor. The agricultural education university faculty member and state agricultural education supervisor were asked to provide the names of three to five rural agricultural education programs that met the established criteria for exemplary SAE programs in rural schools. The established criteria were as follows: 1. SBAE programs that conduct exemplary student SAEs have, at minimum, 75% o f students enrolled in agricultural education courses engaged in SAE programs,

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149 where student SAEs consist of a multi year program in which more than 100 hours of active participation have been recorded in their respective SAE programs. 2. Rural programs are SBAE programs where a majority of the student body lives in a community of less than 2,500 people (USDA, 2013). However, if a county school system is utilized, than the SBAE program should be located in counties of less than 49,999 people (Office of Mana gement and Budgets, 2013). The researcher then contacted each of the nominated schools to seek their willingness to participate and determine if the school met the selection protocol Data were collected over a two day period utilizing formal interview s, focus groups, informal interviews, and observations. The focus groups contained four to six student, parent, or community member participants and lasted between 80 and 110 minutes. The formal interviews were conducted with each of the agriculture teac hers and lasted between 50 and 90 minutes. The formal interviews and focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed for data analysis. The data were analyzed using a fo ur step analysis process that included: 1. Compare incidents applicable to each category 2. Integrate categories and their properties 3. Delimit the construction 4. Write the construction. Finally, trustworthiness and rigor of the study were upheld according to Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Dooley (2007). To ensure the credibility of the research study, the researcher utilized the following methods: 1. M ember checking, 2. Peer debriefing, 3. P ersistent observations, 4. R eferential adequacy materials, and 5. T riangulation.

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150 To uphold the trustworthiness of the research, the researcher utilized thorough and thick descriptions of the context and data to ensure that the results of the study can be applied and fully understood by the reader Furthermore, the researcher utiliz ed a methodological journal to ensure the dependability and confirmability of the research was upheld. Summary T he following themes emerged from the data during the data analysis process: Committed teachers, Student centered SAE program, Supportive surr Joint supervision, and Shared expectations. The participants in this study emphasized each of these themes in their responses during the classroom observations, informal interviews, formal interviews, and formal focus groups. Further more, 2 0 development and implementation factors emerged from the data (Figure 5 1). Identified Factors Career/Student Interest F ocus Prior Sibling/Family Involvement In SAE Classroom S upervision Program Goals Community M ember S upport Required SAE Progr ams Concrete Examples SAE Grade Development of a Culture f or SAE School R esources Early Introduction Of SAE Specialized P rogram for Each S tudent FFA Influence Student Learning Involved T eachers Supportive Parents On site S upervision Supportive Admini stration Parental Knowledge o f SAE Team Approach t o Development Figure 5 1. Development and Implementation Factors Committed Teachers In this study, the agriculture teachers were dedicated to assisting their students in the development and implementation of a SAE program. In some cases, this

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151 required the agriculture teachers to provide additional instruction and support following school. The additional support included: providing students access and supervision in the agricultural education laboratories assisting students with their record books, and assisting students with taking pictures of their SAE program. T he agriculture teachers were found to be supportive and encouraging towards student participation in SAE. P arents believed that the agricultu re teacher was a major reason that students were involved and engaged in a SAE. The students in this study reported that the agriculture teacher was involved in assisting the students in developing their SAE topic and the resources needed to conduct their SAE. T he agriculture teachers reported that they began their instruction on SAE within the first 2 3 weeks of school. This instruction included multiple days of learning activities associated with assisting students in the development of a SAE topic. Throughout the instructional time the agriculture teachers would provide concrete examples of various SAE programs that other students in the high school had conducted. The students recognized that the utilization of these concrete examples assisted in t he development of a SAE topic. Ha ving peer students present their SAE program. T he agriculture students indicated that they were excited or interested in conducting a SAE program because they witnessed their friends develop and implement a SAE program. According to the agriculture teachers, parents, and community members, every student enrolled in an agricultural education program should be required to conduct a SA E program. The agriculture teachers stated that a predetermined number of student

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152 hours was set for students to be engaged in their SAE program. The teachers reported that limited time influenced the teachers focus on SAE and their involvement in student SAE programs. When developing SAE programs, the agriculture teacher s parents, and community members indicated that an adult should assist the students during the development and implementation processes. However, it was stated that the program partner The parent and community member participants indicated that they could be considered the primary program partner. T he students discussed that in many cases the agriculture teache r was the major program partner that assisted in the development and implementation process. However, some students did recognize that their parents and community members assisted in motivating a particular interest within their SAE program. The agricul ture teachers stated that their evaluations of SAE were both objective and subjective. Throughout the semester, the agriculture teachers required each student to complete different assignments which included answering a variety of questions related to the ir SAE, completing a program plan, establishing goals for the program, and record checks. According to the agriculture teachers, these assignments were graded in an objective manner, many times based upon completion and thoroughness. However, at the end of each SAE program students were evaluated upon their personal development throughout the SAE program. When evaluating a

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153 wledge and skill growth throughout the SAE program. Student Centered SAE Programs A griculture teachers, students, parents and community members contended that The students in the study s tated that the programs that were developed based upon student resources were not successful and that their interest in engaging in these programs was diminished. Following the first year of an SAE program, many of these students developed a new program, based on their personal interests, if they were engaged in agricultural education and SAE during a second year. Conversely the agriculture teachers stated that in some cases it was necessary to initially develop a SAE program for students based on resou rces to assist them in developing an agriculturally based interest. The agriculture teachers agreed with the agriculture students, parents, and community members that agriculture was discovered that student interest was essent ial for the success of a SAE program More specifically, the agriculture teachers noted that some students required the utilization of school resources to conduct a SAE program. Agriculture students who utilized school resources and their parents recogni zed that student participation would decrease if school resources were not utilized. One of the parents did note that the SAE based resources provided by the agricultural education program were lacking quality. However, this parent noted that they were i n contact with school administration to garner financial support to increase the quality of the agricultural education

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154 During the student informal interviews, the agriculture students noted that they enjoyed making their own decis ions and managing their own programs. All of the participants in this study described that individual student SAE programs should be conducted. The participants noted that student interest was enhanced when individual SAE programs were utilized. T he agr iculture teachers believed that individual student SAE programs were easier to manage than student group SAE programs. The student data from formal and informal interviews and observations supported that students believed that their SAE involvement was b eneficial and assisted them in eliminating and selecting a specific career choice. The agriculture students also noted that they believed that their involvement in a SAE program had influenced their career deci sion. A griculture teachers believe d that SAE programs should be utilized to assist agriculture student s in exploring potential careers within the agriculture i ndustry P arents explained that involvement in a SAE program allowed for many of their children to eliminate possible career choices. Beyo students, parents, and community members believed that SAE programs should be developed to further support and promote student learning. Agriculture teachers viewed a SAE as an extension of classroom instruction and believed that student knowledge gain was essential. T he agriculture teachers reported that student learning supported the purpose of engaging agriculture students in a SAE. The agriculture students stated that a benefit of e ngagement in SAE was knowledge gain about a specific skill and the agriculture industry. C ommunity members noted through the focus groups that student knowledge gain was an essential component of a SAE program and that teachers

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155 should continue to promote student development. The community members further suggested that SAE provided some students with an instructional strategy that met their individual learning needs. M any of the agriculture student participants saw FFA as a supporter of their SAE not a s a purpose for their SAE. Beyond supporting their involvement in SAE, the agriculture students noted that involvement in FFA was beneficial to their development and their achievement of personal and career goals. Some of the students who were most enga ged in working on their SAE programs during class time were not FFA members. The researcher noted the most engaged students and verified with the agriculture teacher that the student was not active in the FFA chapter. P arents noted that their involvement in SAE programs assisted in the in most SAE programs they were responsible for supporting the agriculture student. However, it was noted that the level and type of support varied based upon the needs of each student. In some cases, parents provided the necessary resources and supervision for the SAE program, while in other cases the parent simply provided motivational support and transportation to and from their SAE. The agriculture students and teachers both agreed that parental support was a necessary componen t to a SAE program. A griculture students noted that parental support increased the agriculture student to participate in a SAE program. The students explained that the support of their parents assisted in strengthening their interest in the SAE topic and reinforced their desire to conduct an exemplary SAE.

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156 In each of the parent focus groups, the question of was asked of the researcher. P arents noted that they received a packet of information when their son or daughter enrolled in an agricultural education course. However, the parents expressed that they spent little time reading or examining the document. Some parents noted that they were relieved that more information was not provided at the beginning of the SAE program. One parent even went as far as stating that if they ha d all of the information they had currently, at the begin ning of the SAE development process that they would have felt overwhelmed and probably would not have encouraged the student to participate. The agriculture teachers in this study stated that that they attempt to provide parents with information regardin g the purpose of SAE and the parents role in the overall SAE program. Even though parents lack knowledge regarding SAE, the findings supported that they hav e a firm belief that SAE is beneficial to student development. This study examined parental belie fs from parent responses to questions during a semi structured focus group The parents firmly believed that student development was essential to conduct ing an exemplary SAE program. This factor emerged from observations of the ring the focus groups and their specific statements. When parents described their beliefs towards student knowledge development and growth, the parents would sit forward in their chair and their hand motions became more animated. A ll participants expre ssed that agriculture students should generate program goals instead of a four year plan when developing and implementing SAE programs. The agriculture teachers in the study expressed that student s who took a freshman or first year agricultural education course may not enroll in an additional agricultural

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157 education course. A griculture teachers denoted that student SAE topics may change as s in agriculture evolve s and develop s The agriculture students and parents believed that SAE p rogram goals assisted students in making decisions and promoted student engagement in their SAE. A griculture students, teachers, and parents noted goals that would be enhanced through SAE involvement. In turn, the agr iculture students and parents noted that SAE goals assisted the agriculture students in the development of career skills and knowledge regarding particular careers within the agriculture industry. In turn, this allowed a griculture students to select and eliminate potential future careers. A griculture students and teachers recognized that community member support and encouragement increased student engagement in SAE. The agriculture students expressed that when communi ty members provided kind words or words of encouragement that their motivation to participate and conduct quality work increased. The agriculture students indicated that positive comments from community members promoted their self esteem and gave them pri de in their work and personal abilities. S tudents explained that community members often suggested ways for their SAE program to improve and provided opportunities for the student s SAE program to expand. Joint Supervision The need for supervision was a n emergent theme throughout the data. The agriculture teachers recognized that providing agriculture students with adequate supervision was an essential component of their role in a SAE. The agriculture teachers discussed two different forms of supervisi on that was provided to the

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158 agriculture students engaged in SAE programs. These two forms of supervision were: (1) on site and (2) classroom supervision. Agriculture teachers recognized that on site supervision was more beneficial to students engaged in SAE. However, the agriculture students recognized that on site supervision could be conducted by someone other than the agriculture teacher. The parent and community member participants recognized that they could and do provide supervision to agricultur e students during their SAE. A griculture teachers noted that parents and community members could provide agriculture students with adequate on site SAE supervision. While the agriculture teachers in this study believed that on site supervision was benefi cial, the agriculture teachers w ere found to primarily conduct classroom supervision practices. Classroom supervision included SAE work days, answering student questions regarding SAE, reviewing student SAE record books and providing feedback, and providi ng classroom instruction on SAE. While community members agreed that they could and do provide supervision to they stated that they had never received any formal training regarding SAE supervision practices. Therefore, the commun ity members suggested that specific SAE supervision training sessions should be conducted. The community members suggested that the SAE supervision training sessions include pertinent techniques for providing students with adequate supervision during a SA E. However, it was noted that even if adequate training was conducted that agriculture teachers should still increase the number of on site supervisory visits that they conduct. One community member noted that they believed the agriculture teacher should conduct one on site supervisory visit per student per month.

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159 Shared Expectations T he participants in this study described that a culture for SAE participation fostered student participation. More specifically, the students noted that once the culture wa s established, that students within the school were aware that enrollment in an agricultural education course required the completion of a SAE program. Agriculture teachers were adamant that the development of a culture for SAE took several years to devel op. T he agriculture teachers noted that there were many difficult moments during the development of a culture for SAE. However, if the agriculture teacher continued to promote student engagement in SAE by every student then the agriculture teachers in thi s study believed that a culture for SAE would be developed. The programs in this study had strong administrative support for student involvement i n SAE programs. The teachers noted that administrators were invited to attend instructional lessons on SAE. Furthermore, administrators were invited to participate in the SAE showcase, where agriculture students presented their SAE programs to the other students in the agricultural education course. The students who had siblings who were agricultural education students had an established SAE prior to entering the SBAE program. Parents and teachers both described that the student s had a better conceptualization of the SAE expectations if they had a prior sibling who was involved in agricultural education course s and had conducted a SAE program. Many of the students stated that they worked with their siblings to develop a SAE program that met both of their interest s The student participants who had a sibling conduct the same SAE described how they utilized thei r own ideas to assist in the evolution and development of their SAE program. The parent participants noted that they believed that if they had two children conduct the same SAE

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160 program that each student made their own mark on the development of the SAE. Each student was able to make their mark on the SAE program because they had seen the success and failures of their sibling. Conclusions Based upon the findings of this study, the follo w ing conclusions were drawn I n rural schools with exemplary SAE pro grams as a component of the SBAE program : 1. The agriculture teacher is the most important program partner in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE program s 2. Every student in an agricultural education course develops a SAE that is evaluated by t he agriculture teacher based on record keeping practices taught within the first month of school. 3. Multiple program partners are central to the SAE development process. 4. S tudent career and personal interest s drive SAE program development 5. Involvement in a n SAE program influences an agricu 6. SAE programs are ben eficial to student development. 7. The FFA awards and degree structure serve s as an extrinsic motivator for student participation in SAE programs 8. Parents and /or c ommunity members support student SAE program s 9. Parents lack gen e ral knowledge of SAE programs. 10. SAE programs are guided by goals instead of a 4 year plan 11. Teachers supervise SAE programs during agriculture classes 12. On site supervision lead s to higher qual ity SAE programs. 13. P arents and community members supervise students SAE programs in addition to the teacher 14. S tudent participation in SAE programs encourages frien ds to also engage in a SAE program s 15. School administrator s support SAE programs

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161 16. Prior sibling or family involvement in SAE programs increases student participation in SAE and assists in the development of a culture for SAE. Implications E ach participant in the study agreed that the utilization of SAE programs was vital to the success of SBAE within the United States Public School System This overarching finding supported the works of Barrick et al. ( 1991 ), Rayfield & Croom ( 2010 ), Retallick ( 2010 ), Retallick and Martin ( 2008 ), Roberts and Harlin ( 2007 ), and Wilson and Moore ( 2007). Co nclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program, t he agriculture teacher is the most important program partner in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs T he agriculture teacher is the most imp ortant influencer in engaging students in a SAE program. This supports the work of Osborne (1988) and Swortzel (1996) who reported similar findings that the agriculture teacher has the most influence over the utilization of SAE programs within SBAE Ther efore, teacher preparation programs must continue to prepare preservice teachers to develop, implement and supervise SAE programs. This includes teaching students the why, what, and how of creating exemplary SAE programs. Furthermore, teacher educators should provide inservice teachers with professional development regarding SAE program development, implementation, and supervision. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program e very student in an agricultu ral education course develops a SAE that is evaluated by the agriculture teacher based on record keeping practices taught within the first month of school. I n SBAE programs where exemplary SAE programs exist, every agriculture student was required to con duct a SAE program This conclusion was supported by the work of Roberts and Dyer (2004) and Terry and Briers (2010) who postulated that

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162 teachers were expected to utilize SAE and to encourage students to participate in a SAE program. However, this study found that SAE was one of the most difficult components of agricultural education to teach and implement with students further supporting the work of Dyer and Osborne (1995) and Robinson and Haynes ( 2011). T he findings of this study supported the work of Dyer and Osborn e (1995) and Osborne (1988) who postulated that agriculture teachers should require students to engage in SAE and complete proper records Similar to the work of Leising and Zilbert (1985), this study found that during the development pro cess of a student SAE program, the agriculture teacher should provide clear evaluation expectations for the student. By providing clear expectations, agriculture students were more prepared for conducting a SAE program. This finding of providing clear ex pectations to students was supported by the work of Phipps et al. (2008) and Barrick et al. (2011). I t was also concluded that all students are evaluated during their SAE program. This finding was supported by Leising and Zilbert (1985) who concluded th at student SAE programs should be evaluated by the agriculture teacher. I t is suggested that each teacher determine a grading method that is most appropriate for their students and SBAE program. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs a s a component of the SBAE program m ultiple program partners are central to the SAE development process A ll program partners should be utilized in the SAE development and implementation processes. The findings indicated that the agriculture teacher shoul d recognize when a student may benefit from the involvement of a parent or community member in the development and implementation processes. Once this need is

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163 recognized, the agriculture teacher should identify the most appropriate program partner and beg in to foster a positive relatio nship between the two parties, therefore promoting student engagement in their SAE program. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program s ts drive SAE program development. S tudent interest drive s the SAE development and implementation processes. This finding was supported by Phipps et al. (2008) who described that student SAE programs could be developed based on student interest. The agr iculture teachers program were developed based upon resources. However, it was noted by the agriculture teacher and student participants that a SAE program should be developed based upon student interests instead of resources, if a student enrolled in an additional agricultural education course. This finding was supported by Bird et al. (2013) who reported that students who complete more than one year of a SAE were m otivated by internal motivators such as interest in their SAE program topic. B y providing school resources to agriculture students that agriculture teachers can garner parental and community support for the agricultural education program. Therefore, i f agriculture teachers assist students in securing the necessary resources to carry out a SAE program, student participation in SAE may increase. Supporting the recommendation of Lewis et al. (2012), the agriculture teachers described that school resource s were often utilized by agriculture students in order for all students to be engaged in SAE. Similarly to Frank l in (2008), the most commonly utilized school resource in this study was the school greenhouse.

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164 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary S AE programs as a component of the SBAE program i nvolvement in an SAE program influences an agriculture A ll participants believed that involve ment in a SAE program influences an career decision s This fin ding was supported by Rubenstein and Thoron ( 2014) who found that American FFA Degree Star Finalists believed that involvement in a successful SAE program influence d the ir career decisions Supporting the work of Roberts and Harlin ( 2007) the agriculture teachers in this study believe d that SAE programs should be utilized to assist student in exploring potential careers within the agriculture industry. C onversely to the findings of Pa ls (1989), the parents in this study believed that agriculture student involvement in a SAE program did influence a student career choice. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program SAE programs are beneficial to student development. eer choice, agriculture teachers, students, parents, and community members believed that SAE programs should be developed to further support and promote student learning The work of Barrick et al. (2011) and Phipps et al. ( 2008) supported the finding tha t student learning and development should be an essential component of a SAE program Further, Rubenstein and Thoron (2014) found that a benefit of engagement in a successful SAE was knowledge gain about a specific skill and the agriculture industry. The refore, it was conclude d that student development and growth is an essential component in an exemplary SAE and should be considered during the development and implementation processes.

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165 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a compone nt of the SBAE program t he FFA awards and degree structure serves as an extrinsic motivator for student participation in SAE programs. FFA awards and degrees are an extrinsic motivator for student p articipation in SAE This finding was supported by Bird et al. (2013) that found that the extrinsic motivator of the FFA award and degree system initially motivated agriculture students to engage in a SAE program. Bird et al. further stated that after the first year intrinsic motivators had a larger influence on student participation than extrinsic motivators such as the National FFA Organization. In this study, many of the agriculture student participants saw FFA as a supporter of their SAE not as a purpose for their SAE. This finding differed from Leising and Zilbert (1985) and Williams (1979) who found that student participation was due to the influence of the FFA award and degree structure Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program p arents and/or comm SAE programs. I n order for the student to be fully engaged in SAE parents and community members must assisted in the development of a st ic and the agriculture industry and reinforced the ir desire to conduct an exem plary SAE. Williams ( 1980) supported th is finding in of the assistance that they received from their parents. The findings from this study suggest that community members have a si milar impact on the development of student interest in agriculture and their SAE topic. Therefore, it would be beneficial for agriculture teachers to garner community member and parental support for the agricultural education program and SAE.

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166 Conclusio n: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program p arents lack general knowledge of SAE programs. While parents were extremely supportive of student participation in SAE, it was found that parents lack general knowledge of SAE concepts. Phipps et al. (2008) supported this finding and further stated that agriculture teachers should provide parents with information regarding the purpose and benefit of student engagement in a SAE program. However, in this study it was found that even with a lack of parental knowledge of SAE that parents were still supportive of student participation. Therefore, it was concluded that parents needed limited information regarding SAE to be supportive and encourage student participation in their SAE program. I t is important for agriculture teachers to purposefully select the information that they share with parents during the development and implementation process. This information should include the expectations that teachers have for student SAE programs and their expectations for parent involvement in SAE. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program SAE programs are guided by goals instead of a 4 year plan. SAE program goals were utilized by students instead of a 4 year plan. In this study, agriculture teachers believed that it was more beneficial for the agriculture students to develop reasonable and attainable goals for their SAE s. Further, it was found that student SAE goals included both skill/career based and personal development goals. The agriculture students suggested that their agriculture teacher provided support in the development of their SAE goals, further supporting the work of Williams (1980).

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167 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program t eachers supervise SAE programs during agriculture classes. A griculture students, teachers, and parents in this study believed that classroom supervision was an adequate form of supervision for SA E programs. The agriculture teachers noted that classroom instructional time was dedicated to classroom SAE supervision and that this was a choice they made to ensure that all students were successful in their SAE. However, community members believed tha t more on site supervision should be conducted by the agriculture teacher during a student SAE program. One community member noted that they believed the agriculture teacher should conduct one on site supervisory visit per student per month. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program o n site supervision leads to higher quality SAE programs. The findings of this study supported the work of Dyer and Williams ( 1997 ) and Roberts and Dyer ( 2004) that state d agriculture teachers recognized that providing agriculture students with adequate supervision is an essential co mponent of their role in a SAE S imilar to previous research by Dyer and Williams (1997) the agriculture teachers denoted that due to a lack of resources and time that the number of on site supervisory visits was limited. However, the agriculture teachers in this study believed that on site supervision was beneficial to student success in their SAE. The agriculture teachers in this study beli eved that student SAE programs would be of higher quality based upon the amount sup ervision that students received. This finding was supported by Anyadoh and Barrick ( 1990 ), Harris and Newcomb ( 1985 ), Gibson ( 1988 ), and Dyer and Williams ( 1997) that exami ned agriculture teacher supervision practices of SAE.

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168 Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program p programs in addition to the teacher. A ll of the par ticipants believed that an adult other than the agriculture teacher could supervise a student SAE program. This finding supported the work of Lewis et al. (2012b) that reported that supervision practices be shared between the agriculture teacher, parent a nd community member. Therefore, agriculture teachers should work to identify capable parents and community members to serve as SAE supervisors. The community members in this study stated that they had never received any formal training regarding supervis ion practices for a student SAE and felt unprepared to properly supervise student SAE programs Therefore, it was concluded that community members need specific training sessions. More specifically, t he training sessions need to include pertinent techniq ues for providing students with adequate supervision during a SAE. However, it was noted that even if adequate training was conducted that agriculture teachers still need to increase the number of on site supervisory visits that they conduct. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program s tudent participation in SAE programs encourages friends to also engage in a SAE programs. S tudents were more engaged in their SAE programs if their peers were involved in a SAE as well. The agriculture teachers and students discussed that prior student experience assisted in the development of a culture for SAE within the SBAE program. It was further noted by the agriculture teachers that the development of a culture for SA E assisted in engaging other students in a gricultural education courses and SAE programs. While little research has been conducted to examine the development of a culture of student participation in SAE, the participants in this study described that a

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169 cu lture for SAE participation fostered student participation. Therefore, it was concluded t hat agriculture teachers need to develop a culture for SAE within the SBAE program. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SB AE program s chool administrators support SAE programs. The findings of this study supported the need for garnering administrative suppo rt for student SAE involvement This finding was supported by the work of Rayfield and Wilson (2009) who investigated s chool perceptions of SAE. Rayfield and Wilson found that school principals perceived SAE as an important component of agricultural education. The recommendations for garnering administrator support that were posited by Phipps et al. (2008) we re supported by the agriculture teacher in this study. The agriculture teachers invited administrators to SAE instructional class periods and involved administrators in the SAE showcase at the end of each course. Therefore, it was concluded that involvin g administrato rs in SAE activities may elicit administrative support for SAE. Conclusion: In rural schools with exemplary SAE programs as a component of the SBAE program p rior sibling or family involvement in SAE programs increases student participatio n in SAE and assists in the development of a culture for SAE. P rior sibling and/or family involvement in SAE and agricultural education may increase student participation in SAE. It was reported by agriculture students and parents that siblings worked t ogether to develop SAE program topics. Therefore, younger sibling s are provided an opportunity to begin learning through SAE before the SAE program begi n s The participants in this study reported that prior sibling and/or family involvement assisted in the development of a culture for SAE. It was reported that agriculture students who had a sibling involved in a SAE program had a positive perception of SAE

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170 and were encouraged to participate. A s more siblings enter agricultural education courses and eng age in SAE that this will strengthen a culture for SAE participation. Discussion The findings presented from this study indicate d that exemplary SAE programs exist in rural SBAE programs. While previous studies indicated that participation in SAE has de creased ( Barrick, Hughes, Baker, 1991; Dyer & Osborne, 1995; Leising & Zilbert, 1985; Miller, 1980; Newcomb et al., 2004; Phipps et al., 2008; Retallick, 2010; Retallick & Martin, 2008; Roberts & Harlin, 2007; Steele, 1997; Talbert et al., 2007; Wilson & M oore, 2007 ), the schools examined in this study have increase d student participation. T his study presented findings that differ from previous research : 1) the identification and role of a SAE culture in SBAE program, 2) FFA is an extrinsic motivator that is not the sole purpose for student SAE participation, and 3) development of program goals to guide SAE programs, and 4) the development of a model to guide the development and implementation of SAE programs in rural programs. First, t he teachers in this study developed a common belief in the school and community that every student in an agricultural education course would be engaged in a SAE program. This common belief was referred to as a culture for SAE involvement within the agricultural education pr ogram, school, and community. The concept of SAE culture that was discussed took multiple years to develop. The teachers endured several challenges throughout the development process, such as: student rebellion, lack of parental support, lack of administ rative support, and limited resources/time. However, the teachers continued to thrive on their passion and determination to ensure that SAE was an essential component to their SBAE program. That passion and determination were the two factors identified b y teachers as the main determinates that

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171 kept them from giving up on ensuring that every agriculture student was engaged in an exemplary SAE program. decision making process when deciding to tak e an agricultural education course. Further, community members and parents accepted and believed in the need for student involvement in SAE. These factors strengthened the role of SAE in the SBAE program and have increased the influence that SAE has made on student learning in agriculture. T he examination and utilization of a culture for SAE will lead to higher participation rates in SAE and lead to the strengthening of SBAE nationally. A culture for SAE aids in student participation in SAE programs an d increased the learning that students gained from agricultural education courses. Students engaged in SAE programs are provided with the ability to apply and transfer knowledge gained through classroom instruction to real world situations and environment s. concepts taught throughout the school system, beyond the agricultural education classroom. Therefore, agriculture teachers have a unique opportunity to mentor a nd supervise students in the development of life, career, and college skills that will be utilized throughout their future. The development and utilization of a SAE culture is essential to the future of SAE within SBAE programs. Next, t he role of FFA as an extrinsic influencer differed from the results of previous studies. This study presents that FFA was not the sole purpose for student engagement in SAE programs. T he students and teachers purported that SAE would be more positively accepted if more s tudents were provided an opportunity to be involved in SAE programs, not if it was linked more closely with the National FFA award

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172 and degree structure. The role of the National FFA award and degree structure, in the programs that were studied, was to rew ard students for their achievement in SAE, not as a sole purpose for conducting SAE programs. The teachers believed that SAE was a means for extending their classroom instruction and that if students only conducted the minimum required hours that they wer e not going to be eligible for a FFA degree or award. However, if students thrived in SAE and went above and beyond the minimum required components, than the FFA award and degree structure was utilized as a Thir d, the results of this study indicate that program goals should be utilized when developing and implementing SAE programs Teachers and students alike believed that program goals provided a more fluid and adaptive approach to the development and implement ation processes. SAE programs provide students with an opportunity to explore a variety of aspects to the agriculture industry. T he students interests in agriculture and careers may change over a four year period. The utilization of program goals allow s for students to alter their SAE program focus to include their goals. The goals developed by students were both short and long term goals that were influenced by gain from their SAE program. This exercise is important to the future success of SAE program s. Finally a model was developed to assist inservice and preservice teachers in the development and implementation of exemplary SAE programs ( Figure 5 2). The

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173 Development and Implementation of Exemplary Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs mode l depicts that the program partner groups ( agriculture teachers, student, parents, school personnel ( administrators and other teachers), and community members) must all be involved in the development and implementation of exemplary SAEs. During the develo pment and implementation processes each of the program partner groups must examine and utilize the i dentified themes and factors to ensur e that all students are engaged in exemplary SAE programs. T he developed model assists inservice and preservice teache rs in the development of a SAE culture within their SBAE programs. The model was developed to graphically represent the data collected and summarize the components that contribute to exemplary SAE programs in SBAE in the United States of America. Recommen dations for Practitioners Based upon the findings of this study, the following recommendations for practice have been drawn: 1. The agriculture teacher should support and encourage student participation in SAE. 2. When instructing students about SAE, the agric ulture teacher should utilize concrete examples of student SAE programs. 3. I nstruction in SAE and SAE record keeping should occur in the first month of classroom instruction. 4. T he agriculture teacher should evaluate the SAE based upon the student s develop ment during their engagement in their SAE. 5. Agriculture teachers should continue to utilize SAE in a total SBAE program. 6. Agriculture teachers should integrate student SAE programs into classroom instruction. 7. Agriculture teachers should conduct a SAE showca se at the end of a semester for students to showcase their work. 8. Students should receive a grade for their SAE programs

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174 9. SAE participation should be required of all students. 10. Agriculture teachers should assist students in the development of SAE programs th 11. Agriculture teachers should assist student in ensuring that learning is present in a SAE. 12. Agriculture teachers should identify school resources that can be utilized by students when conducting a SAE. 13. Parents should receive information through presentations and printed materials to increase their knowledge of SAE. 14. Agriculture teachers should identify capable parents and community members to serve as SAE supervisors. 15. Community members should receive training when ass isting in the supervision of a student SAE. 16. Agriculture teachers should have students develop goals for their SAE programs. 17. Agriculture teachers should engage in the development of a culture for SAE. 18. Agriculture teachers should invite school administratio n to observe SAE based lessons and activities. 19. Agriculture teachers should utilize both on site and classroom supervision. 20. To further engage parents in SAE, The Agricultural Experience Tracker should develop a parent log in. This would allow parents to records and further assist in student participation in SAE. Recommendations for Teacher Preparation and Professional Development Based upon the findings of this study, the following recommendations for teacher preparation programs have been drawn: 1. Teacher educators should prepare preservice teachers to utilize both on site and classroom supervision techniques. 2. Teacher educators should engage preservice teachers in SAE programs to ensure that all agriculture teachers have personal experience with SAE. 3. T eacher educators should continue to include SAE instruction in a teacher preparation program.

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175 4. Teacher educators should provide inservice teachers with professional development to assist agriculture teachers with preparing volunteer s, parents, and employers to assist with and supervise SAE development and implementation. Recommendations for Future Research Based upon the findings of this study, the following recommendations for future research have been drawn: 1. The development of a model of the SAE development and implementation processes is warranted. 2. Further research should examin e the factors utilized during the development and implementation process through experimental studies 3. Continued examination of similar qualitative st udies that examine urban and suburban SBAE programs with exemplary SAE. 4. This study found that a culture for SAE had been established. Further research should examine the development of a culture for SAE. 5. A q uantitative examination of teacher utilization of the identified factors should be conducted. 6. A l ongitudinal examination of the influence that SAE has on student car eer choices is warranted. 7. Further investigation is warranted that examines the effects of a developed SAE curriculum that includes the identified factors. 8. A quasi experimental study should be conducted to investigate the utilization of student goals versus a four year plan. Summary This chapter presented a summary of the five themes that emerged from the data. Th is chapter presented c onclusions and implication of the findings of the study and provided recommendations for practitioners, teacher educators, and future research. The summary was presented based upon the five themes that emerged from the data. The five themes that emerged from the data were: committed teachers, student

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176 and shared expectations. More specifically, the study presented a summary of the 20 factors that were present in the development and implementation process. From the data, the following 2 0 development and implementation factors emerged: involved teachers, concrete examples, early introduction of SAE, required SAE programs, team approach to development, SAE grade, career/student in terest focus, school resources, specialized program for each student, student learning, FFA influence, supportive parents, parental knowledge of SAE, program goals, and community member support, classroom supervision, on site supervision, supportive admin i stration, prior sibling/family involvement in SAE, and development of a culture for SAE. The findings of this study indicated that SAE was still an integral component of SBAE programs in which agriculture teachers should require every student to particip ate. The findings also indicated that during the SAE development and implementation processes that students should develop career/skill and personal development goals that assist in the facilitation of student learning through SAE involvement. Further, it was suggested that agriculture teachers develop a culture for SAE in their SAE programs. The chapter then presented recommendations for practitioners, teacher educators, and future research.

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177 Figure 5 2. Model for t he Devel opment and Implementation of Exemplary Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs

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178 APPENDIX A TEACHER INTERVIEW GUIDE Interviewer Guide and Questioning Route Interviews (Teachers) SAE Program Development and Implementation in School based Agricultural Education Interviewer reads: Hello and welcome to our session today. Thank you for taking the time to join our discussion about Supervised Agricultural Experiences in school based agriscience classrooms. My name is Eric Rubenstein and I am a graduate s tudent at the University of Florida studying agriculture teacher education. Before we begin, let me share some things that will make our discussion easier. There are no right or wrong answers. Please feel free to share your point of view. Please speak up and clearly. We are audio recording the session because we do not want to miss any of your comments. The tape will not be heard by anybody other than myself and the other members of the research team. Once the tapes have been transcribed, the audio r ecordings will be destroyed. We will be on a first name basis, and in our later reports your name will not be attached to the reported comments. You may be assured of confidentiality. My role here is to ask questions and listen. I will be asking around 9 questions. Our Introductory Information Interviewer reads: educational degree, how you were certified, and your involvement in school based agricultural education during your high school experience. SAE Programs Interviewer reads: and Communication Department is centered on Supervised Agr icultural Experience (SAE) programs. Since you have worked with students to complete an SAE program, I would like to ask you a few questions about your experiences with SAE programs. while others believe that the student, parent, community member, and teacher all have ownership to the program. What is your belief on this topic? Please describe how you ensure that every student in your agricultural education program has a SAE program? o Probe: How does a student select an SAE program?

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179 o Probe: How does the community (business & industry, advisory councils, extension agents, local farmers, agricultural issues, etc.) influence the development of SAE programs? o Probe: How do parents influence t he development process? Please describe the role that SAE programs play within the school based agricultural education program at [high school]. o Probe: Are the students awarded a grade? If yes, what criteria are used in determining the grade? o Probe: Is cla ss time utilized for management of SAE programs? o Probe: Are students allowed to work on their SAE program (updating records, actual involvement, etc.) during course instructional time? Describe the record keeping process that students must maintain/complet e when conducting an SAE program. o Probe What are the students required to keep records of during an SAE program? Describe the instructional practices you utilize when instructing students about SAE. o Probe: How do students develop their SAE programs? o Pro be: What is your role in the development process? What motivates you to continue to develop and implement student SAE programs? o Probe: Is it an intrinsic motivator? o Probe: Are their extrinsic factors that motivate you? How do you ensure that every studen t has the materials necessary to implement the selected SAE program? o Probe: Do community members assist in this process? o Probe: Are students permitted to utilize school resources? Describe your supervision practices of SAE programs. o Probe: How often do you visit an individual SAE program? o Probe: Do you complete all of the SAE supervisory visits? Describe your definition of a successful SAE program. o Probe: What role does scope and sequence play in the success of SAE programs? o Probe: What role does FFA play i n the success of SAE programs? o Probe: What role do parents and community members play in the success of SAE programs? o Probe: What role does the school infrastructure play in the success of SAE programs? o Probe: What role does culture play in the success of SAE programs?

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180 Concluding Discussion Experience: What challenges have you faced in implementing SAE programs into a school based agricultural education program? Do you have an y thoughts or comments regarding SAE program development, implementation, and management that we have not discussed? ( Interviewer lists the key messages and broad ideas that devel oped from the discussion. ) Is this an adequate summary? Interviewer reads: As was explained at the beginning of the session, the purpose of this focus group was to gather information related to your Supervised Agricultural Experience. Your comments toda y will aid in future studies involving Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Also, teachers and teacher educators will be able to learn from your perceptions and experiences related to the development and implementation of Supervised Agricultural E xperience programs. Have we missed anything or are there any other comments? Interviewer reads: Thank you for taking time out of your day to share your opinions. Your participation is greatly appreciated and has provided valuable information.

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181 APPENDI X B STUDENT FOCUS GROUP MODERATORS GUIDE Moderator Guide and Questioning Route (Student Focus Groups) SAE Program Development and Implementation in School based Agricultural Education Moderator reads: Hello and welcome to our session today. Thank you fo r taking the time to join our discussion about Supervised Agricultural Experiences in school based agricultural education classrooms. My name is Eric Rubenstein and I am a Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Florida. Before we begin, let me share some things that will make our discussion easier. There are no right or wrong answers, but rather differing points of view. Please feel free to share your point of view even if it differs from what others have said. Please speak up and only one person shoul d talk at a time. We are audio recording the session because we do not want to miss any of your comments. The tape will not be heard by anyone other than myself and the other members of the research team. We will be on a first name basis, and in our late r reports your names will not be attached to the reported comments. You may be assured of confidentiality. My role here is to ask questions and listen. I will be asking around nine questions, and I will be moving the discussion from one question to the n ext. I will not be participating in the conversation, but I want you to feel free to talk with one another. It is important to be more reserved in sharing their respons es. Our session will last about one and a half hours. Please turn off your cell phone. If you need to leave your cell phone on, please leave the room when you get a call and return table in front of comments please use the name that they have on the card in front of them. This will assist the research team in portraying an accurate representation of your responses. Introductory Information Moderator reads: one at a time. Tell us your name, SAE program focus ar ea (beef production, landscaping, veterinary assisting, etc.), SAE type (entrepreneurship, placement, program (if applicable). SAE Programs

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182 Moderator reads: One of the pr ojects we are working on in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the University of Florida is centered on Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Since each of you has completed an SAE program, I would like to ask you a few ques tions about your experiences with SAE programs and the instruction/assistance you received. Please describe how your overall Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program was developed? o Probe: How were you involved in the development of your SAE prog ram? o Probe: How did you plan for the development of the program? Was a plan created or was it developed each year? When was the plan developed? o Probe: Did the community influence (business & industry, advisory councils, extension agents, local farmers, agr icultural issues, etc.) your SAE program? If so, how did they influence your SAE? If not, do you think that your SAE would be different if community members had influenced your program? Describe the role your agriscience teacher played in the development o f your SAE program? o Probe: How did your teacher introduce the concept of SAE each year? o Probe: What kinds of supervision were you provided by your teacher during your SAE program? Were you supervised at school or on site (home or business)? Describe what motivated you to continue your SAE program each year? o Probe: Did other individuals influence your continued involvement in SAE? o Probe: Did FFA influence your involvement in SAE? What factors have influenced the development or implementation of your SAE pr ogram? What was the most engaging aspect of your SAE program? Explain What is the most successful segment of your SAE program? Why? Has your SAE program influenced your career aspirations or goals, specifically in your SAE focus area? o If yes, describe how your SAE program has influenced your career aspirations, in your SAE focus area. o If no, are there skills, abilities, or competencies you have learned from your SAE that will apply to your future? Describe how those skills, abilities, or competencies will a pply to your future. Do you have a record book that you have utilized during your SAE program? (Describe the role it played in your overall program.)

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183 o If so, is it electronic or paper based? How did you use it? o If not, how did you record your financial ex penditures and gains Concluding Discussion We have talked today about your experiences completing a Supervised Agricultural Experience: What challenges did you face when completing your Supervised Agricultural Experience program? Do you have any suggest ions or comments we have not discussed? Moderator lists the key messages and broad ideas that developed from the discussion. ) Is this an adequate summary? Moderator reads: As w as explained at the beginning of the session, the purpose of this focus group was to gather information related to your Supervised Agricultural Experience program. Your comments today will aid in future studies involving Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Also, teachers and teacher educators will be able to learn from your experiences related to the development and implementation of Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Have we missed anything or are there any other comments? Moderato r reads: Thank you for taking time out of your day to share your opinions. Your participation is greatly appreciated and has provided valuable information.

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184 APPENDIX C PARENT FOCUS GROUP MODERATOR GUIDE Moderator Guide and Questioning Route (Parent Focus Groups) SAE Program Development and Implementation in School based Agricultural Education Moderator reads: Hello and welcome to our session today. Thank you for taking the time to join our discussion about Supervised Agricultural Experiences in school based agricultural education classrooms. My name is Eric Rubenstein and I am a Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Florida. Before we begin, let me share some things that will make our discussion easier. There are no right or wrong answers, but rathe r differing points of view. Please feel free to share your point of view even if it differs from what others have said. Please speak up and only one person should talk at a time. We are audio recording the session because we do not want to miss any of y our comments. The tape will not be heard by anyone other than myself and the other members of the research team. We will be on a first name basis, and in our later reports your names will not be attached to the reported comments. You may be assured of con fidentiality. My role here is to ask questions and listen. I will be asking around nine questions, and I will be moving the discussion from one question to the next. I will not be participating in the conversation, but I want you to feel free to talk wi th one another. It is important to be more reserved in sharing their responses. Our session will last about one and a half hours. Please turn off your cell phone. If you need to leave your cell phone on, please leave the room when you get a call and return me you comments please use the name that they have on the card in front of them. This will assist the research team in portraying an accurate representation of your responses. In troductory Information Moderator reads: one at a time. Tell us your name, current occupation, level of involvement in the SAE program, and your role in the SAE program that is being discu ssed. SAE Programs Moderator reads: One of the projects we are working on in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the University of Florida is centered on Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Since each of you has a son or daughter whom has

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185 completed an SAE program, I would like to ask you a few questions about your experiences with SAE programs and the instruction/assistance you provided. (SAE) program was developed? o Probe: To what extent were you involved in the development of your o Probe: How did you plan for the program? Was a four year plan created at the beginning of your year? o Probe: Did the community influence (business & industry, advisory councils, e xtension agents, local farmers, agricultural issues, etc.) the SAE program? community members had influenced his/her program? Describe the role o Probe: Did anyone else play a role in the development of the program? o Probe: How did the teacher introduce the concept of SAE each year? o agriculture teacher provide supervision for the SAE school or on site (home or business)? Describe what motivated your son/daughter to continue their SAE program each year? o Probe: Did in SAE? o o o volvement in SAE? What factors have influenced the development or implementation of your tions or goals, specifically in his/her SAE focus area? o career aspirations, in his/her SAE focus area?

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186 o If no, are there skills, abilities, or competencies that you believe that your son/d aughter has learned from his/her SAE that apply to his/her future? Describe how those skills, abilities, or competencies will apply to his/her future. Does your son/daughter have a record book they utilize during his/her SAE program? o Describe the role it If so, is it electronic or paper based? How did you use it? If not, how did your child record his/her financial expenditures and gains? If you had the opportunity to make a suggestion to the agriculture teacher to a why? Concluding Discussion We have talked today about your experiences working with your son/daughter completing a Supervised Agricultural Experience: What challenges did you f ace when assisting your son/daughter with his/her Supervised Agricultural Experience program? Do you have any suggestions or comments we have not discussed? Moderator lists the key messages and broad ideas that developed from the discussion. ) Is this an adequate summary? Moderator reads: As was explained at the beginning of the session, the purpose of this focus group was to gather information related to your role in the develo pment and Your comments today will aid in future studies involving Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Also, teachers and teacher educators will be able to learn f rom your experiences related to the development and implementation of Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Have we missed anything or are there any other comments? Moderator reads: Thank you for taking time out of your day to share your opinion s. Your participation is greatly appreciated and has provided valuable information.

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187 APPENDIX D COMMUNITY MEMBER FOCUS GROUP MODERATORS GUIDE Moderator Guide and Questioning Route (Parent Focus Groups) SAE Program Development and Implementation in School based Agricultural Education Moderator reads: Hello and welcome to our session today. Thank you for taking the time to join our discussion about Supervised Agricultural Experiences in school based agricultural education classrooms. My name is Eric Rub enstein and I am a Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Florida. Before we begin, let me share some things that will make our discussion easier. There are no right or wrong answers, but rather differing points of view. Please feel free to share your p oint of view even if it differs from what others have said. Please speak up and only one person should talk at a time. We are audio recording the session because we do not want to miss any of your comments. The tape will not be heard by anyone other tha n myself and the other members of the research team. We will be on a first name basis, and in our later reports your names will not be attached to the reported comments. You may be assured of confidentiality. My role here is to ask questions and listen. I will be asking around nine questions, and I will be moving the discussion from one question to the next. I will not be participating in the conversation, but I want you to feel free to talk with one another. It is important to so from time to time, I might encourage those who appear to be more reserved in sharing their responses. Our session will last about one and a half hours. Please turn off your cell phone. If you need to leave your cell phone on, please leave the room when you get a call and return begin to respond to a question and if you are addressi comments please use the name that they have on the card in front of them. This will assist the research team in portraying an accurate representation of your responses. Introductory Information Moderator reads: more about each other by going around the room one at a time. Tell us your name, current occupation, level of involvement in the SAE program, and your role in the SAE program that is being discussed. SAE Programs Moderator reads: One of the projects we are working on in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the University of Florida is centered on Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Since each of you has a son or daughter whom has

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188 completed an SAE program, I would like to ask you a few questions about your experiences with SAE programs and the instruction/assistance you provided. (SAE) program was developed? o Probe: To what extent were you involve d in the development of your o program? Was a four y ear plan created at the beginning of your year? o Probe: Did the community influence (business & industry, advisory councils, extension agents, local farmers, agricultural issues, etc.) th e SAE program? community members had influenced his/her program? f o Probe: Did anyone else play a role in the development of the program? o Probe: How did the teacher introduce the concept of SAE each year? o program? school or on site (home or business)? Describe what motivated your son/daughter to continue their SAE program each year? o nt in SAE? o o o in SAE? What factors have influenced the developme nt or implementation of your goals, specifically in his/her SAE focus area? o If ye career aspirations, in his/her SAE focus area?

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189 o If no, are there skills, abilities, or competencies that you believe that your son/daughter has learned from his/her SAE that apply to his/her fu ture? Describe how those skills, abilities, or competencies will apply to his/her future. Does your son/daughter have a record book they utilize during his/her SAE program? o If so, is it electro nic or paper based? How did you use it? If not, how did your child record his/her financial expenditures and gains? If you had the opportunity to make a suggestion to the agriculture teacher to ould that be and why? Concluding Discussion We have talked today about your experiences working with your son/daughter completing a Supervised Agricultural Experience: What challenges did you face when assisting your son/daughter with his/her Supervised Agricultural Experience program? Do you have any suggestions or comments we have not discussed? Moderator lists the key messages and broad ideas that developed from the discussi on. ) Is this an adequate summary? Moderator reads: As was explained at the beginning of the session, the purpose of this focus group was to gather information related to your role in the development and ricultural Experience program. Your comments today will aid in future studies involving Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Also, teachers and teacher educators will be able to learn from your experiences related to the development and implement ation of Supervised Agricultural Experience programs. Have we missed anything or are there any other comments? Moderator reads: Thank you for taking time out of your day to share your opinions. Your participation is greatly appreciated and has provide d valuable information.

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190 APPENDIX E SAE OBSERVATION SHEET School Name: _______________________ SAE Observation Sheet Facilities Greenhouse Field Crops Large Animal Facilities Small Animal Facilities Agriculture Mechanics Laboratory Aquaculture Lab oratory Landscape Laboratory Computer Laboratory Nursery/Orchard/Grove Garden Plots Biotechnology Laboratory Forestry Laboratory Food Science Laboratory/Meats Laboratory Turfgrass Laboratory Facilities used for SAE programs (found during informal interviews) Greenhouse Field Crops Large Animal Facilities Small Animal Facilities Agriculture Mechanics Laboratory Aquaculture Laboratory Landscape Laboratory Computer Laboratory Nursery/Orchard/Grove Garden Plots Biotechnology Laboratory For estry Laboratory Food Science Laboratory/Meats Laboratory Turfgrass Laboratory Classroom Resources Windows Computers Macintosh (Apple) Computers Ag Ed Net TV PC GPS Device Internet LCD Panel/Projector Laptop DVD player Smart Board Computeri zed Grading Lab aids Materials CASE Curriculum Classroom Resources used for SAE programs (found during informal interviews) Windows Computers Macintosh (Apple) Computers Ag Ed Net TV PC GPS Device Internet LCD Panel/Projector Laptop DVD play er Smart Board Computerized Grading Lab aids Materials CASE Curriculum Agricultural Industries in the Community Environmental Science Agricultural Business Agricultural Biotechnology

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191 Veterinary Science Forestry Crop Production Vegetable Pro duction Greenhouse/Nursery/ Ornamental Production Aquaculture Beef Production Dairy Production Sheep/Goat Production Swine Production Poultry Production Landscape Construction Teaching Strategies Utilized when Instructing on SAE Programs Lect ure Questioning Inquiry based Instruction Cooperative Learning Experiential Learning Demonstration Discussion Individualized Application Teacher Clarity when Instructing on SAE Programs Provides Examples Teaches at an Appropriate Pace Repeat s important items Provides Clear Explanations and Directions Stresses Important Concepts or Components Provides Time for Students to Contemplate Concepts

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192 LIST OF REFERENCES Alliance for Excellent Education. (2008). Facts for Education Advocates. Re trieved from http://www.all4ed.org/files/Facts_For_Education_Adv_Oct2008.pdf American Management Association. (2010). AMA 2010 critical skills survey. Retrieved from http://www.amanet.org/news/AMA 2010 critcal skills survey.aspx Anyadoh, E. B., & Barrick, R. K. (1990). Relationship between Selected Teacher, Program and Student Characteristics and Student Scores on Their Supervised Occupational Experience Program in Ohio. Summary of Research 57. Arrington, L. R., & Cheek, J. G. (1990). SAE scope and student achievement in agribusiness and natural resources education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 31 (2), 55 61. doi:10.5032/jae.1990.02055 Barrick, R. K., Arrington, L. R., Heffernan, T., Hughes, M., Moody, L., Ogline, P., & Whaley, D. (1992). Experiencing a griculture: A handbook on supervised agricultural experience. Alexandria, VA: The National Council for Agricultural Education. Barrick, R. K., & Estepp, C. M. (2011). Experience programs in agriscience education: From projects to SAEPs and beyond. Agricult ural Education Magazine, 83 (4), 26 27. Barrick, R. K., Hughes, M., & Baker, M. (1991). Perceptions regarding supervised experience programs: Past research and future direction. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (4), 31 36. doi:10.5032/jae.1991.04031 Bar rick, R. K., Whitson, R., Staats, J., Gruis, D., Hastings, H., Neyhart, J., Davenport, B., Cano, J., Foor, R., Retallick, M. S., & Estepp, C. (2011). Report of the experiential learning planning committee for The National Council for Agricultural Education Bird, W. A., Martin, M. J., & Simonsen, J. C. (2013). Student Motivation for Involvement in Supervised Agricultural Experiences: An Historical Perspective. Journal of Agricultural Education 54 (1), 31 46. Bogdan, R. C & Biklen, S. K. (2003). Qualitative Research for Education: An introduction to Theories and Methods (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education group. Bringuier, J. C. (1980). Conversations with Jean Piaget. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

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193 Brooks, G. J., & Brooks, G. M. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18 (1), 32 42. Retrieved from http://www/jstor.org/stable/1176008 Burleson, S. E., & Thoron, A. C. (2013). Unpublished manuscript. Bushaw, W. J., & Lopez, S. J. (2012). The 44 th annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of P hi Delta Kappa, 94 (1), 8 25. Camp, W. G., Clarke, A., & Fallon, M. (2000). Revisiting supervised agricultural experiences. Journal of Agricultural Education, 41 (3), 13 22. doi:10.5032/jae.2000.03013 Cheek, J. G., Arrington, L. R., Carter, S., & Randell, R. S. (1994). Relationship of supervised agricultural experience program participation of student achievement in agricultural education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 35 (2), 1 5. doi: 10.5032/jae.1994.02001 Chiasson, T. C., & Burnett M. F. (2001). The influence of enrollment in agriscience courses on the science achievement of high school students. Journal of Agricultural Education,42 (1), 61 71. Cobb, P. (2005Where is the mind? A coordination of sociocultural and cognitive constructivist perspectives. I n C. T. Fosnot (Ed.), Constructivism theory, perspectives, and practice (2nd Ed.), (pp. 39 57) New York, NY: Teacher College Press. Collins, A. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship and instructional technology (Technical Report No. 474). Champaign, IL: Unive rsity of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Connors, J. J., & Elliot, J. (1995). The influence of agriscience and natural resources Journal of Agricultural Education, 36 (3), 57 63. Creswell, J. W. (1998 ). Rese arch design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches Sage Publications, Incorporated. Croom, D. B. (2008). The development of the integrated three component model of agricultural education (3 rd Ed.). Journal of Agricultural Education, 49 (1 ), 110 120. doi:10.5032/jae.2008.01110 Crotty, M. (2010). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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194 Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). The sage handbook of qualitative research (4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston: D.C. Heath. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy in education. New York Macmillan. Dittmer, D., & Allen, L. (2012). Characteristics of Illinois agricultural educatio n. In FCATE (Ed.) 2012 Illinois agricultural education report, (pp. 7 11). Retrieved from http://agriculturaleducation.org/files/2012%20Ag%20Ed%20Report%20LowRes2 _10 27 2012_10_37_44.pdf Doerfert, D. L. (Ed.) (2011). National research agenda: American Asso ciation for 2015 Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University, Department of Agricultural Education and Communications Dooley, K. E. (2007). Viewing agricultural education research through a qualitative lens Journal of Agricultural Education, 48 (4), 32 42. doi: 10.5032/jae.2007.04032 Doolittle, P. E., & Camp, W. G. (1999). Constructivism: The Career and Technical Education perspective. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 16 (1). Retrieved from http ://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVTE/v16n1/doolittle.html Driver, R. (1995). Constructivist approaches to science teaching. Constructivism in education 385 400. Duncan, D., & Ricketts, J. C. (2008). Total program efficacy: A comparison of traditionally an d alternatively certified agriculture teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education 49 (4), 38 46. doi: 10.5032/jae.2008.04038 Dyer, J. E., & Osborne, E. W. (1995). Participation in supervised agricultural experience programs: A synthesis of research. Journal of Agricultural Education, 36 (1), 6 14. doi:10.5032/jae.1995.01006 Dyer, J. E., & Osborne, E. W. (1996). Developing a model for supervised agricultural experience program quality: A synthesis of research. Journal of Agricultural Education, 37 (2), 24 33. doi:10.5032/jae.1996.02024 Dyer, J. E., & Williams, D. L. (1997). Benefits of supervised agricultural experience programs: A synthesis of research. Journal of Agricultural Education, 38 (4), 50 58. doi:10.5032/jae.1997.04.050 Enderlin, K. J., & Osborne, E. W. (1991). Achievement and retention of middle school science students in a laboratory oriented agriculture plant science unit of study. Paper presented at the Central States 45th Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education, Springfield, IL.

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195 Ende rlin, K. J., & Osborne, E. W. (1992). Student achievement, attitudes, and thinking skill attainment in an integrated science/agriculture course. Paper presented at the 19 th Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting, St. Louis, MO. Enderlin, K J., Petrea, R. E., & Osborne, E. W., (1993). Student and teacher attitude toward and performance in an integrated science/agriculture course. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education. St. Louis, MO. Flet agribusiness placement SOE programs. The Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 26 (3), 62 69. doi: 10.5032/jaatea.1985.03062 Flick, U. (2006). An introduction to qualitative research (3rd ed.). London, UK: Sage. Fosnot, C. T. (1996). Constructivism: Theory, perspective, and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Fosnot, C. T., & Perry, R. S. (2005). Constructivism: A physiological theory of learning. In C. T. Fosnot (Ed.), Constructivism th eory, perspectives, and practice, (pp. 8 38). New York, NY: Teacher College Press. Foster, R. M. (1986). Factors limiting vocational agriculture student participation in supervised occupational experie nce programs in Nebraska. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture,27 (4), 45 50. doi: 10.5032/jaatea.1986.04045 Franklin, E. A. (2008). Description of the use of greenhouse facilities by secondary agricultural education instru ctors in Arizona. Journal of Agricultural Education 49 (3), 34 45. doi: 10.5032/jae.2008.03034 Gibson, G. L. (1988). Factors associated with the supervised occupational experience programs of Kentucky vocational agriculture seniors. (Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 2224A). Glaser, B. G. (1965). The constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Social Problems, 12 (4), 436 445. Retrieved from http://www.sssp1.org/index.cfm/m/325 Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967 ). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company. Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1990). Can there be a human science? Person Centered Review, 5 (2), 130 154. Hammonds, C. (1950). The dynamics of educational change. New Y ork: McGraw Hill.

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196 Hanagriff, R. D., Murphy, T. H., Roberts, T. G., Briers, G. E., & Lindner, J. R. (2010). Economic impact of supervised agricultural experiences: Returns from SAE investment costs in Texas, 2007 2008. Journal of Agricultural Education, 51 ( 4), 71 81. doi:10.5032/jae.2010.04071 Harris, D. E., & Newcomb, L. H. (1985). Vocational agriculture teacher characteristics and their relationship to perceptions of SOE importance attitudes toward supervision and quality of supervised occupational experie nce programs. The Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture 26 (2), 31 39 doi: 10.5032/jaatea.1985.02031 Heald, F. E. (1929). Our leadership in agricultural education: Rufus W. Stimson, pioneer. Agricultural Education, 1 (3), 3 4, 14, & 15. Retrieved from http://www.naae.org/links/agedmagazine/archive/Volume01/v1i3.pdf Herren, R., & Cole, L. (1984). Attitudes of Oregon vocational agriculture teachers toward the supervised occupational programs component of the vocational agric ulture curriculum. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 25 (3), 45 51. doi: 10.5032/jaatea.1984.03045 Jenkins III, C. C., & Kitchel, T. (2009). Identifying quality indicators of SAE and FFA: A Delphi approach. Journal of A gricultural Education 50 (3), 33 42. doi: 10.5032/jae.2009.03033 Joerger, R. M. (2002). A comparison of the inservice education needs of two cohorts of beginning Minnesota agricultural education teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education, 43 (3), 11 24. doi : 10.5032/jae.2002.03011 Johnson, D. M. (1996). Science credit for agriculture: Perceived support, preferred implementation methods and teacher science course work. Journal of Agricultural Education, 37 (1), 22 30. Johnson, L., Wilson, E., Flowers, J., & Cro om, B. (2012). Perceptions of North Carolina high school agricultural educators regarding students with special needs participating in supervised agricultural experience and FFA activities. Journal of Agricultural Education 53 (4), 41 54. doi: 10.5032/jae.2 012.04041 Knobloch, N. A. (1999). The new SAE: Applied. The Agricultural Education Magazine 72 (3), 16 18. Knobloch, N. A. (2003). Is experiential learning authentic?. Journal of Agricultural Education 44 (4), 22 34. doi: 10.6032/jae.2003.04022 Koro Ljungb erg, M., Yendol Hoppey, D., Smith, J. J., & Hayes, S. B. (2009). Epistemological awareness, instantiation of methods, and uniformed methodological ambiguity in qualitative research projects. Educational Researcher, 38 (9), p 687 699. doi: 10.31021/0013189X09 351980

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197 Kotrlik, J. W., Parton, G., & Leile, M. (1986). Factors associated with knowledge level attained by vocational agriculture II students. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 27(2), 34 39. doi: 10.5032/jaatea.1986.02 034 Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2000). Focus group interviews: A practical guide for applied research (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Lawver, R. G., & Torres, R. M. (2011). Determinants of pre service students' choice to teach secondary agricultural education. Journal of Agricultural Education 52 (1), 61 71. doi: 10.5032/jae.2011.01061 Lawver, R. G., & Torres, R. M. (2012). An Analysis of Post Secondary Agricultural Education Students' Choice to Teach. Journal of Agricultural Education 53 (2), 28 42. doi: 10.5032/jae.2011.01061 Layfield, K. D., & Dobbins, T. R. (2002). Inservice needs and perceived competencies of South Carolina agricultural educators. Journal of Agricultural Education 43 (4), 46 55. doi: 10.5032/jae.2002.04046 Leising, J. G., & Zilbert, E. E. (1985). Factors associated with supervised occupational experience in California vocational agriculture p rograms. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 26 (2), 56 64. doi:10.5031/jaatea.1985.02056 Lewis, L. J., Rayfield, J., & Moore, L. L. (2012a). Supervised agricultural experience: An examination of student knowledge and pa rticipation. Journal of Agricultural Education, 53 (4), 70 84. doi: 10.5032/jae.2012.04070 perceptions toward factors influencing supervised agricultural experience participation. Journal of Agricultural Education, 53 (4), 55 69. doi: 10.5032/jae.2012.04055 Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Mark, M. M., Henry, G. T., & Julnes, G. (2000). Evaluation: An integrated framework for understanding, guiding, and improving policies and programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. McLean, R. C., & Camp, W. G. (2000). An examination of selected preservice agricultural teacher education programs in the United States. Journal of Agricultur al Education, 41(2), 25 35. doi: 10.5032/jae.2000.02025

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199 National Research Council. (2009). Transforming Agricultural Education for a Changing World Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Newcomb, L. H., McCracken, J. D., Warmbrod, J. R., & Whittington, M. S. (2004). Methods of teaching agriculture (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Office of Management and Budget. (2013). Revisited delineations of met ropolitan statistical areas, micropolitan statistical areas, and combined statistical areas, and guidance on use of the delineations of these areas (OMB Bulletin No. 13 01) Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/bulletins/2013/b1 3 01.pdf Osborne, E. W. (1988). Planning and supervision strategies for SOE programs in agriculture. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 29 (4), 49 56. Pals, D. A. (1987). The value of supervised occupational experience programs as perceived by students. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 28 (2), 32 39. doi:10.5032/jaatea.1988.02032 Pals, D. A. (1988). The value of supervised occupational experience programs as perceived by students. Journal of agricultural education 29 (2), 32 39. doi: 10.5032/jae.1989.02018 Patton, M, Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Phipps, L. J, Osborne, E. W., Dyer, J. E., & Ball, A. (2008). Handbook on agric ultural education in public schools (6th ed.). Clift Park, NY: Thomson Delmar. Piaget, J. (1952) The origins of intelligence in children New York: Norton. Rawls, W. J. (1982). An Analysis of benefits derived from supervised occupational experience program s. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 23 (1), 31 38. doi:10.5032/jaatea.1982.01031 Rayfield, J., & Croom, B. (2010). Program needs of middle school agricultural education teachers: A delphi study. Journal of Agricultur al Education 51 (4), 131 141 doi: 10.5032/jae.2010.04131 agricultural experience. Journal of Agricultural Education 50 (1), 70 80. doi: 10.5032/jae.2009.01070 Retallick, M. S (2010). Implementation of supervised agricultural experience programs: Journal of Agricultural Education, 51 (4), 59 70. doi:10.5031/jae.2010.04059

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200 Retallick, M. S., & Martin, R. A. (2005). Economic impact of supervi sed agricultural experience in Iowa: A trend study. Journal of Agricultural Education, 46 (1), 44 54. doi:10.5032/jae.2005.01044 Retallick, M. S., & Martin, R. A. (2008). Fifteen year enrollment trends related to the three components of comprehensive agricu ltural education programs. Journal of Agricultural Education, 49 (1), 28 38. doi:10.5032/jae.2008.01028 Ricketts, J. C., Duncan, D. W., & Peake, J. B. (2006). Student achievement of high school students in complete programs of agriscience education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 47 (2), 48 55. doi: 10.5032/jae.2006.02048 Roberts, T. G. (2006). A philosophical examination of experiential learning theory for agricultural educators. Journal of Agricultural Education, 47 (1), 17 29. doi:10.5032/jae.2006.0101 R oberts, T. G., & Ball, A. L. (2009). Secondary agricultural science as content and context for teaching. Journal of Agricultural Education, 50 (1), 81 91. doi:10.5032/jae.2009.01081 Roberts, T. G., & Dyer, J. E. (2004). Characteristics of effective agricult ure teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education 45 82 95. doi: 10.5032/jae.2004.04082 Roberts, T. G., & Harlin, J. F. (2007). The project method in agricultural education: Then and now. Journal of Agricultural Education, 48 (3), 46.56. doi:10.5032/jae.20 07.03046 Robinson, J. S., & Haynes, J. C. (2011).Value and expectations of Supervised Agriculture Experiences as expressed by agriculture instructors in Oklahoma who were alternatively certified. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52 (2), 47 57. doi:10.5032 /jae.2011.02047 Robinson, J. S., Krysher, S., Haynes, J. C., & Edwards, M. C. (2010). How Oklahoma State University students spent their time student teaching in agricultural education: A fall versus spring semester comparison with implications for teacher education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 54 (4), 142 153. doi: 10.5032jae/2010.04142 Roegge, C. A. & Russell, E. B. (1990). Teaching applied biology in secondary agriculture: Effects on student achievement and attitudes. Journal of Agricultural Educati on, 31 (1), 27 31. doi:10.5032/jae.1990.01027 Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. The Urban Review 3 (1), 16 20. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02322211 Rubenstein, E. D., & Myers, B. E. (2012, Februa ry). Supervised agriculture experience programs: A demographic analysis of the 2010 American FFA Degree

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202 Talbert, B. A., & Balschweid, M. A. (2006). Career aspirations of selected FFA members. Journal of Agricult ural Education 47 (2), 67. doi: 10.5032/jae.2006.02067 Talbert, B. A., Vaughn, R., Croom, D. B., & Lee, J. S. (2007). Foundations of agricultural education Danville, IL. Terry, R., Jr., & Briers, G. E. (2010). Roles of the secondary agriculture teacher. I n R. M. Torres, T. Kitchel, & A. L. Ball (Eds.), Preparing and advancing teachers in agricultural education, (pp. 86 99). Columbus, OH: Curriculum Material Services. Thoron, A. C., & Myers, B. E. (2010). Perceptions of preservice teachers toward integratin g science into school based agricultural education curriculum. Journal of Agricultural Education, 51 (2), 70 80. doi: 10.5032/jae.2010.02070 Thoron, A. C., & Myers, B. E. (2011). Effect of inquiry based agriscience instruction on student achievement. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52 (4), 175 187. doi: 10.5032/jae.2011.04175 Thoron, A. C., & Myers, B. E. (2012). Effect of inquiry based agriscience instruction and subject matter based instruction on student argumentation skills. Journal of Agricultural Educa tion, 53 (2), 58 69. doi: 10.5032/jae.2011.04175 True, A. C. (1929). A history of agricultural education in the United States 1785 1925 (No. 36). US Govt. Print. Office. Turner, B. S. (2008). The constructed body. In J. A. Holstein & J. F. Gubrium (Eds.), Ha ndbook of constructionist research, (pp. 493 510). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. United States Department of Agriculture. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/Reports/RDRuralDefinitionReportFeb2013.pdf von Glaserfeld, E. (1995). Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Washington DC: Falmer Press. von Glasersfeld, E. (1998). Why constructivism must be radical. In M. Larochelle, N. Bednarz, & J. Garrison (Eds.), Constructivism and education (pp. 23 28). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Von Glaserfield, E. (2005). Introduction: Aspects of constructivism. In T. C. Fosnot (Ed.), Constructivism: Theory, perspectives and practice (2nd ed.), (pp. 3 7). New York, NY: Teachers College Press Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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203 Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Whent, L. S., & Leising, J. (1988). A descriptiv e study of the basic core curriculum for agricultural students in California. Proceedings of the 66th Annual Western Region Agricultural Education Research Seminar. Fort Collins, CO. Williams, D. L. (1979). Benefits received from supervised occupational ex perience programs as perceived by students. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 20 (2), 33 40. doi: 10.5032/jaatea.1979.02033 teachers with supervised occupational experience programs. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 21 (2), 33 40. doi: 10.5032/jaatea.1980.02021 Wilson, E. B., & Moore, G. E. (2007). Exploring the paradox of supervised agricultural ex perience programs in agriculture education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 48 (4), 82 92. doi:10.5032/jae.2007.04082 Wilson, B. G. & Myers, K. M. (1999). Situated cognition in theoretical and practical context. In Jonassen, D. & Land, S. (Eds.), Theoret ical foundations of learning environments. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Wolf, K. J. (2011). Agricultural Education Perceived Teacher Self Efficacy: A Descriptive Study Of Beginning Agricultural Education Teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education 52 (2), 163 176 doi: 10.5032/jae.2011.02163 Young, R. B., & Edwards, M. C. (2005). A profile of cooperating teachers and centers in Oklahoma: Implications for the student teaching experience in agricultural education. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research 55 (1), 60 73.

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204 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Eric D. Rubenstein was born and raised in Danville, Pennsylvania where he agricultural education student and an active FFA member and officer. Following high school graduation, Mr. Rubenstein served as the Pennsylvania State FFA President. Following the end of his state office term, Eric enrolled as an undergraduate student at The Pennsylvania State Univer sity (PSU). While at PSU, Mr. Rubenstein was an active member of the collegiate FFA chapter and was inducted into the PSU Alpha Tau Alpha honorary fraternity chapter. In 2007, Eric began his student teaching experience at Penn Manor High School in Lancaster, Pennsylvania under the su pervision of Ms. Carol Fay. In May of 2007, Mr. Rubenstein graduated with his Bachelor of Science Degree from PSU and was awarded a teaching certificate by the Pennsylvania Department of Education in agricultural education, general science, and environmental education. Following his gr aduation from PSU, Mr. Rubenstein completed three years of high school agricultural education at West Perry High School, Bellefonte High School, and Forbes Road High S chool. During his teaching tenure, Eric taught 15 different courses and supervised over 250 student SAE programs. Mr. Rubenstein served as a vice president for the Pennsylvania Association for Agricultural Education. Outside of the agricultural educatio n program, Eric served as a sports coach, drama club advisor and director, and as the enviro thon advisor. After three years of teaching, Mr. Rubenstein accepted an assistantship with the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication Department a t the University of Florida. In 2010, Eric began his work on a Master of Science degree focused in

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205 agricultural education under the instruction of Dr. Brian Myers. During his Master of Science program, Eric was a lead instructor for AEC 3033: Business and Technical Writing in the Agriculture Industry and served as a teaching assistant for the undergraduate History and Philosophy of Agricultural Education course. In May of 2012, Mr. Rubenstein graduated with his Master of Science and began his Doctor of Phi losophy studies in agricultural education under the tutelage of Dr. Andrew Thoron. During his Ph. D. program, Mr. Rubenstein served as the teaching assistant for various undergraduate agricultural education programs and assisted in the redevelopment of 2 u ndergraduate and one graduate level agricultural education courses. Further, Eric assisted in providing professional development programs for the agriscience teachers of the State of Florida.