Creation and Validation of a High School Student Conductor Curriculum

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Title:
Creation and Validation of a High School Student Conductor Curriculum
Physical Description:
1 online resource (174 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Birkner, Archie Grover, IV
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Music Education, Music
Committee Chair:
ROBINSON,RUSSELL L
Committee Co-Chair:
WAYBRIGHT,DAVID ALLEN
Committee Members:
WATKINS,JOHN M,JR
BABANIKOS,JAMES

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
conducting -- student-conducting -- student-conductor
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Music Education thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
For almost 75 years, the Florida Bandmasters Association (FBA) has included a student-conductor assessment as part of the Music Performance Assessment (MPA), during which the student conducts his/her school band in a performance of a predetermined work. While this activity has been truly innovative and has likely encouraged many future music educators, some challenges still exist.The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the validity of a high school student conductor curriculum that clearly articulates and addresses specific educational outcomes. The researcher designed an eight-week web-based curriculum for high school student conductors. Seven experts in wind band conducting and five high school band directors were surveyed regarding validity of the Researcher Designed Student Conductor Curriculum (RDSCC). Additionally, five high school band directors and their student conductor participated in a trial run of the curriculum. Teachers' and students' perceptions of the curriculum were documented through three time-lapsed interviews.The wind band conducting experts, as well as the participating high school band directors, found the RDSCC to be valid. Additionally, the participating band directors and student conductors exhibited several changes in perception regarding the student conductor activity over the course of the eight-week curriculum.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Archie Grover Birkner.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2014.
Local:
Adviser: ROBINSON,RUSSELL L.
Local:
Co-adviser: WAYBRIGHT,DAVID ALLEN.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2014
System ID:
UFE0046525:00001


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CREATION AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT CONDUCTOR CURRICULUM By ARCHIE GROVER BIRKNER, IV A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2014

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2014 Archie Grover Birkner, IV

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To my w ife

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the many people that assisted me with this research and the completion of my doctorate. First I express my sincerest gratitude to my supervisory committee. I thank Dr. David W aybright for the countless lessons and opportunities he has given me throughout my life. His generosity, superior musicianship, and friendship have been invaluable to me. I thank Dr. Russell Robinson for serving as chair of my supervisory committee, and for his mentorship through my time at the University of Florida. Thank you to Professor Jay Watkins, a true friend and colleague. Our many years working together have meant a great deal to me. I also thank Dr. James Babanikos for his willingness to serv e on my committee. Thank you to Dr. Charles J. Vaughan for his constant support and guidance over the course of this study. His passion for research is truly inspiring. Thank you to the individuals who volunteered to participate as curriculum evaluators and participants in this study. Their time and talents are truly appreciated. I would also like to thank the many band graduate assistants that have been a part of the UF Band family in recent years The collegiality and camarade rie Band Hall has made working there a great joy. I am thankful to have receive d a first rate music education in El Paso, Texas. I am thoroughly grateful to have been in the outstanding band programs of Barbara Lambrecht and Richard Lambrecht and the orchest ras of Ida Steadman. I would like to thank my mother, Betty Brigham for her endless love and support of my musical pursuits. I also thank my father Archie G. Birkner III and stepmother Peggy Birkner. My two wonderful sisters Ashley and Alexis, have been a much needed source of love and levity. I am very thankful for them.

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5 Finally, my deepest gratitude goes to my lovely wife, Mary and our beautiful daughters Elizabeth and Amelia. I am so thankful for our family, and going through this journey with anyone else.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF ACRONYMS/TERMS ................................ ................................ ..................... 13 ABSTRA CT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 16 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 19 Research Que stions ................................ ................................ ............................... 19 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 19 Delimitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 20 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 22 Philosop hical Rationales ................................ ................................ ......................... 22 Theoretical Rationales ................................ ................................ ............................ 23 Conductor Training ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Conducting Textbooks ................................ ................................ ............................ 29 Research on Conducting Pedagogy ................................ ................................ ....... 31 Video Enhanced Conducting Instruction ................................ ................................ 34 ................................ ................................ ........................... 39 ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 Perceptions of Web Based Learning ................................ ................................ ...... 44 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 47 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 49 Development of the RDSCC ................................ ................................ ................... 49 Home Page ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 49 Instructional Cont ent Pages ................................ ................................ ............. 50 Organization of Educational Experiences ................................ ......................... 51 Score Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 51 Gestural Training ................................ ................................ .............................. 52 Conducting Practica ................................ ................................ ......................... 53 Journal Reflection ................................ ................................ ............................. 53 Assessment of Objectives ................................ ................................ ................ 53 ................................ ..... 54 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 55

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7 Procedures (Phase One) ................................ ................................ .................. 56 Data Collection (Phase One) ................................ ................................ ............ 57 Procedures (Phase Two) ................................ ................................ .................. 57 Data C ollection (Phase Two) ................................ ................................ ............ 58 Reliability Procedures ................................ ................................ ....................... 59 Data Analysis (Phase One) ................................ ................................ .............. 59 Data Analysis (Phase Two) ................................ ................................ .............. 59 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 61 Data Collection (Phase One) ................................ ................................ .................. 61 Data Collection (Phase Two) ................................ ................................ .................. 61 Presentation of Results (Phase One) ................................ ................................ ..... 62 Results (Phase One) ................................ ................................ ............................... 63 Content Area 1: Instructional content ................................ ............................... 63 Statement 1: The purposes and goals of this curriculum are clear and easily understood. ................................ ................................ ................... 63 Statement 2: The instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. ................................ ................................ ................................ 64 Statement 3: The instructional content related to score study/preparation is accurate. ................................ ................................ 66 Statement 4: The content is clearly presented and easily understandable. ................................ ................................ ...................... 68 Statement 5: The content of this curriculum adequately covers the band conducting. ................................ ................................ .................... 69 Statement 6: The sequencing of instructional material is logical. ............... 70 Statement 7: The sequencing of learning activities (assignments, etc.) is logical. ................................ ................................ ................................ 72 Statement 8: The content included in this curriculum is developmentally ap .. 73 Content Area 2: Assessment ................................ ................................ ............ 75 Statement 9: The assessment method for this curriculum (verbal presentation and conducting performance) is clearly described. ............ 75 Statement 10: The verbal presentation is an adequate method by which ................................ ....................... 77 Statement 11: The conducting performance is an adequate method by ................................ 78 Statement 12: The combined assessment (verbal presentation and conducting performance) provides an accurate overall measure of the student's learning from this curricul um. ................................ ................... 80 Content Area 3: Additional Questions ................................ .............................. 81 Statement 13 (for experts): A high school student conductor activity can be a productive and worthwhile activity. ................................ ................. 81 Statement 14 (for experts): The state in which I reside offers a high school student conductor assessment. ................................ ................... 82

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8 Statement 15 (for experts): Please add any additional commentary regarding this high school student conductor curriculum. ....................... 83 Statement 13 (for band directors): I have previously mentored a high school student in the Florida Bandmasters Association Student Conductor Activity. ................................ ................................ .................. 84 Statement 14 (for band directors): Please add any additional commentary regarding this high school student conductor curriculum. .. 84 Presentation of Results (Phase Two) ................................ ................................ ..... 86 Student Interview 1 ................................ ................................ ........................... 86 Band Dir ector Interview 1 ................................ ................................ ................. 89 Student Interview 2 ................................ ................................ ........................... 95 Band Director Interview 2 ................................ ................................ ............... 10 1 Student Interview 3 ................................ ................................ ......................... 108 Band Director Interview 3 ................................ ................................ ............... 116 Su mmary of Results ................................ ................................ .............................. 126 Validation by Experts ................................ ................................ ...................... 126 ................................ ................................ ................ 127 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 129 Data Collectio n ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 129 Discussion of Research Questions ................................ ................................ ....... 130 Issues ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 141 Implications for Music Education ................................ ................................ .......... 142 Future Research ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 145 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 145 APPENDIX A CURRICULAR MAP OF RD SCC ................................ ................................ .......... 147 B EXAMPLE WEEKLY CONDU CTING CHECKPOINT ................................ ........... 148 C EXAMPLE WEEKLY TRANSPOSITION PRACTICE ................................ ............ 149 D INSTRUCTIONS FOR PRESENTATION OF SCORE SUMMARY ....................... 150 E WIND BAND CONDUCTING EXPERT SURVEY ................................ ................. 151 F HIGH SCHOOL BAND DIRECTOR SURVEY ................................ ...................... 152 G WIND BAND CONDUCTING EXPERT CONSENT ................................ .............. 153 H HIGH SCHOOL BAND DIRECTOR CONSENT ................................ .................... 155 I PARENTAL CONSENT ................................ ................................ ........................ 157 J INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ................................ ................................ ..................... 159

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9 Student Conductor Perceptions (1 ST Interview) ................................ ..................... 159 Band Director Perceptions (1 ST Interview) ................................ ............................. 160 Student Conductor Perceptions (2 ND Interview ) ................................ .................... 161 Band Director Perceptions (2 ND Interview ) ................................ ............................ 162 Student Conductor Perceptions (3 RD Interview ) ................................ .................... 163 Band Director Perceptions (3 RD Interview ) ................................ ............................ 165 K REVISED STUDENT CONDUCTOR ASSESSMENT SHEET .............................. 167 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 169 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 174

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10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Descriptive Statistics and Independent t N =7) and Band N =5) Validation Survey ................................ ............................ 85 4 2 Descriptive Statistics and Independent t ( N= 5) and Stude N the RDSCC ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 115

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 ................................ ......... 18 4 1 ether the purposes and goals of the curriculum are clear and easily understood. ................................ ....................... 63 4 2 opinions on whether the purposes and goals of the curriculum are clear and easily understood. ............................. 64 4 3 opinions on whether the instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. ................................ ................................ ...... 65 4 4 Percentages of high school band di instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. ......................... 66 4 5 opinions on whether the instructional content related to score study/preparation is accurate. ................................ ............................... 67 4 6 Percentages of high school b instructional content related to score study/preparation is accurate. .................. 67 4 7 Percentages of clearly presented and easily understandable. ................................ .................... 68 4 8 Percentages of hig instructional content is clearly presented and easily understandable. ................ 69 4 9 Perc introduction to band conducting. ................................ ................................ ......... 70 4 10 of this curriculum adequately covers the necessary content areas for high ................................ .............. 70 4 11 material is logical. ................................ ................................ ............................... 71 4 12 sequencing of instructional material is logical. ................................ .................... 72 4 13 activities is logical. ................................ ................................ .............................. 72

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12 4 14 sequencing of learning activities is logical. ................................ ......................... 73 4 15 developmentally appropriate for high school students. ................................ ....... 74 4 16 of this curriculum is developmentally appropriate for high school st udents. ....... 75 4 17 clearly defined. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 76 4 18 assessment methods are clearly defined. ................................ .......................... 76 4 19 ................................ ............ 77 4 20 .............. 78 4 21 ure. ........................... 79 4 22 conducting performance is an adequate way to conducting gesture. ................................ ................................ ............................ 79 4 23 provides an a ........................ 80 4 24 comb learning. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 81 4 25 er the student conductor activity can be a productive and worthwhile activity. ................................ ...................... 82 4 26 state that offers a high school student conductor activity. ................................ ................................ .................. 83 4 27 Percentages of high school band directors that have mentored an FBA student conductor. ................................ ................................ .............................. 84 4 28 Number of students mentored in the FBA student conductor activity. .............. 125

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13 LIST OF ACRONYMS/TERMS Band Director Expert an individual currently teaching high school band in the Florida public schools an individual who has had a distinguished career as a music educator as well as conductor educator FBA Florida Bandmasters Association FMEA Florida Music Educators Association MPA Music Performance Assessment sponsored by the Florida Bandmasters Associati on NASM RDSCC National Association of Schools of Music Researcher Developed Student Conductor Curriculum Student Conductor A high school student selected by his/her band director to participate in the FBA student conductor activity

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14 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy CREATION AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT CONDUCTOR CURRICULUM By Archie G rover Birkner, IV May 2014 Chair: Russell L. Robinson Cochair: David A. Waybright Major: Music Education For almost 75 years, the Florida Bandmasters Associati on (FBA) has included a student conductor assessment as part of the Music Performance statewide adjudication process for music ensembles). The student conductor assessment occurs at the annual district level Music Performance Assessment (MPA) during which the student conducts his/her school band in a performance of a predetermined work. While this activity has been truly innovative and has likely encouraged many future music educators, some challenges still exist. The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the validity of a high school student conductor curriculum that clearly articulates and addresses specific educational outcomes The researcher designed an eight week web based curriculum for high school student conductors. Seven experts in win d band conducting and five high school band directors were surveyed regarding the curricular content validity of the Researcher Designed Student Conductor C urriculum (RDSCC) Additionally, five high school band directors and their student conductors participated in a pilot test of the

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15 th r ough three time lapse interviews. The wind band conducting experts, as well as the participating high school band directors, found the RDSCC to be valid. Additionally, the participating band di rectors and student conductors exhibited several changes in perception regarding the student conducting activity over the course of the eight week curriculum.

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16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION For almost 75 years, the Florida Bandmasters Associati on (FBA) has included a student statewide adjudication process for music ensembles). The student conductor assessment occurs at the annual district level Musi c Performance Assessment (MPA) during which the student conducts his/her school band in a performance of a predetermined work. While this activity has been truly innovative and has likely encouraged many future music educators, some challenges st ill exist To move the student conductor activity forward, consideration needs to be given to the design and implementation of a curriculum that clearly articulates and addresses specific educational outcomes. Education philosophers have long stressed the importa nce of curricular design grounded in learning theory and educational psychology (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009) Ralph Tyler identified four fundamental questions to address in the development of any curriculum. These were: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether the se purposes are being attained? (Tyler, 1949, p. 1) Application of the Tylerian rationale to the FBA Student Conductor Activity, as it exists today highlights significant shortcomings. The FBA, through it s website or printed publications, does not identify specific purposes for the student conductor

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17 activity. The FBA also does not clearly specify desired le arning outcomes for the student conductor, nor does it suggest educ ational experiences for student c onductor training. In fact, the sole document providing information regarding the FBA student conductor activity is the assessment sheet used by adjudicators at the MPA. Therefore, curricular scope and sequence are relegated to the discretion of the stud director. In the interest of time, most directors focus their instruction on the basic conducting gestures necessary to conduct the selected piece. While gestural training is a fundamental aspect of conductor development, a more holis tic stude nt conductor training sh ould include several additional concepts. The current assessme nt tool provided to FBA student conductor judges is a form wherein students are assigned a grade A E for each of three sub topics ( Figure 1 1) Column sub topics are: ( 1) conducting fundamentals, (2) gestural vocabulary, and (3) musical effect. Columns 1 and 2 contain basic proficiencies in physical conducting. Column 3, however, contains content areas that are unrelated to the general ly accepted role of the student co the assessment fo rm presupposes that the student conductor is in some way responsible for the ensembl a concept that creates numerous confounding variables. Rehearsal technique and error detection are certainly valuable content areas for conductors in training, but to include them in a high school student conductor activity would require far more instructional time than is typically available. Also, if the assessment included these content areas in a statewide and standardized format, a much more complex assessment tool would be necessary.

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18 Figure 1 1. Current FBA Student Cond

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19 To address the many aforementioned concerns, the present study sought to develop an online student conductor curriculum specifically for the FBA Student Conductor Activity. Purpose of Study The purpose of this study was to develop a curriculum for the high school student conductor activity and to investigate its validity and relevance based on the perceptions of experts, high school band directors, and high school student conductors. Research Questions 1. To what extent does the Resea rcher Developed Student Conductor Curriculum ( RDSCC ) appropriate high school student conductor preparation? 2. To what ex tent does the RDSCC align with high school band d appropriate high school student con ductor preparation? 3. the RDSCC? 4. What are the high school band d and outcomes in the RDSCC? Significance of the Study The student conductor activity can provide a valuable opportunity for high school students to develop rudimentary conducting skills and score study/reading techniques. This format of authentic context learning could potentially strengthen the partic interest in the music education profession (Paul, Teachout, Sullivan, Kelly, Bauer, & Raiber, 2001) Band directors should actively encourage such activities and seek to refine their implementation. It is widely under would be difficult to ask a band director to add several hours of instructional time to

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20 his/her schedule for implementa tion of an enhanced FBA student conductor curriculum. However, as Florid a band directors have been engaging in this act of mentorship since 1939, a level of commitment has been exhibited such that a formulated curriculum is warranted. P articipation in the FBA student conductor activity is completely voluntary. Band directors choose whether or not to participate based on their perceived benefits of the invitation to be mentored based on their perceptions of the activity. Therefore, the band importance. The findings from this study will help determine the validity and relevance of the RDSCC. Additionally, the findings from this study will determine the Delimitations of the Study This study took place during the Fal l semester. As the FBA Student Conductor Activity takes place each Spring semester, generalizing the findings from this study ipant in the actual FBA Student Conductor Activity will be approximately 4 5 months older than he/she would have been as part icipants in this study. As previously stated, participation in the FBA student conductor activity is completely voluntary. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the relevance of ng gains from the RDSCC were not measured.

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21 In addition to the high school student conductor activity, the FBA sponsors a student conductor activity for middle school students. Also, the Florida Orchestra Association sponsors a similar activity However, the scope of this study focuses specifically on high school band students.

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22 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and relevance of the RDSCC, based on the perceptions of experts, high school band directors and high school student conductors. This chapter consists of a review of literature pertinent to this study. The researcher developed a curriculum for high school student conductors. Therefore, this chapter includes a review of literature regarding ph ilosophies and theories of curricular development as well as literature on conductor training. The RDSCC was designed as a web based platform. Therefore, a review of literature regarding web based learning is included. The FBA student conductor activity is completely voluntary. As such, its existence is wholly dependent on directors and opinions/perceptions of the curriculum vitally important. Therefore, a review of literature regardi ng perceptions of curriculum is included. The chapter concludes with a summary statement on how the literature relates to the study. Philosophical Rationales David Elliott, in h stated understood in relation to the meanings and values evidenced in actual music making (1995, p. 14) A fundamental aspect of the RDSCC is th in frequent music listening and self evaluation sessions, musical movement instruction, activiti es will benefit the students toward better synthesis of content addressed in this training.

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23 opportunity to make music in the context of (2) an authentic musical situation that, by definition, surrounds the student with (3) musical peers, goals, and standards that serve (1995, p. 264). The RDSCC culminates with an assessment designed to provide an authentic experience in which to demon involved a change of thinking with regard to curricular development. As a reaction to the perceived overemphasis on subject matter and cognitive le arning, educators sought understanding, personalize and (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009, p. 49) Humanism goals, and beliefs of students drive and sustain their thinking, then the enacted curriculum would encourage student expression and examination of their beliefs along with other perspectives (McNeil, 2006, p. 21) A major focus of this study is the evaluation of the RDSCC from the student perspective. Theoretical Ration ales Curricular development should involve purposeful decision making, informed by recognized and valid theories on both curricular development as well as learning (Taba, 1962) Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instru ction outlined his curricular development theory in four steps: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

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24 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? (1949, p. 1) the RDSCC Content and activities were included based on specific information and skills necessary for a successful introduction to instrumental music conducting. The sequence of lessons, quizzes, and evaluations were organized such that each week progresses in dif ficulty. Furthermore, the sequencing of course content accounts for curricular continuity through repetition of important content and activities. The learning assessments, summative and formative, were designed to provide opportunities to evaluate whethe r or not the learning objectives have been attained. Jerome Bruner, in his learning theory described the cognitive process as consisting of three steps: acquisition, transformation, and evaluation (Olson, 2007) Information is Information is then reworked to form new schema. The evaluation phase occurs at the point in which students make decisions on how and when to employ new knowledg e to a particular set of task s. the content of the RDSCC has been sequenced. Successful participation in the training necessitates a level of prior musical knowledge and experience. Therefore, acquired information is aut omatically assimilated with prior learning. This is taken into account in the sequencing of content and activities. Instructional content progresses in a manner ary instrument. For example, conducting

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25 les sons progress from basic music concepts, such as time signatures, to more complex concepts, such as phrasing. The RDSCC is based on a subject matter design. Lessons include content relevant to Fine Arts and artistic expression in a more general sense; h owever, this course was designed by an instrumental music education professional and consists of the specific fundamental knowledge needed to function as a conductor of instrumental music. For example, the scope of instructional content consists of concep ts toward improving musicianship and musical expression, but these topics are addressed in a manner in which the student is placed in the role of conductor acquiring and developing skills such as conducting technique and score study concepts unique to in strumental conduc ting. Larry J. Bailey described career development education. . CCDP seeks to provide an educational setting wherein individuals may develop broad arrays of basic skills that would endow them with a great deal of conviviality and potentia l for career self (Schaffarzick & Hampson, 1975, p. 189) The successful student in this curriculum will develop specific fundamental skills necessary of an instrumental music e ducator. Many aspects of the curriculum can be categorized as experience centered design. Students will engage in live conducting practice with fellow students. On experience centered designs, Ornstein and Hunkins (2009) state d construct (p. 199) This is most evident in the relationship between conductor and mus ician(s). The musicians will either respond appropriately or inappropriately to gestural information delivered by the conductor thereby providing direct feedback.

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26 The conducting sessions within this course place the students in an environment of cooper ative learning and application of concepts. This type of learning was described by Lev Vygo By participating in a broad range of activities and using tools with others . learners appropriate the outcomes produced b (Hoy & Hoy, 2009, p. 126) Students participating in the RDSCC will experience cooperative learning situations that are authentic to the work setting of an instrumental music educator. Formative a (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012, p. 252) Additionally, formative assessments can knowledge, they can assume more management and refining of their learning (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012, p. 25 3) Summativ e evaluations are utilized to evaluation has been implemented carefully, summative evaluation should indicate that the program has enabled students to attai (p. 253) The RDSCC culminates in a summative assessment modeled after a lecture recital. T he lecture recital is a widely used summative assessment for musician scholars. The Eastman School of Music describes the lecture to bring to bear his or her accumulated skills and knowledge on a presentation demonstrating an ideal synthesis (Eastman School of Music)

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27 On ce a curriculum is established, the process of c urricular evaluation must take place. Ornstein and Hunkins (2009) stated: Does the program have worth and merit? Throug hout the process, educators must evaluate the worth and merit of the (p. 275) Stated another wa y, Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1995) offered seven guidelines for determining the quality of a curriculum. representative, contem porary, relevant, and learnable (pp. 278 280) Conductor T raining In order to investigate the validity and relevance of student conductor curriculum designed for high school students, it is important to understand conducting pedagogy in a larger sense. Furthermore, there is a vo id in research regarding high school student conductor training. Therefore, research on introductory conducting courses at colleges and universities presents the closest link. What is the current situation for the training of conductors? What, if any, a re the problems associated with traditional conductor training? What are the emerging trends in conductor training? The development of conductor training began with individuals aspiring to develop their skills in positions as assistant conductors with s ymphony orchestras or coach/pianists at opera houses (Keene, 1982) Alan Lee Baker (1992) described current conductor training meth Since the end of World War II, the responsibility for training conductors has shifted to academic degree (1992, p. iv) According to Hanna Weir (2013) the growth of university based conductor Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accreditation requirements that encourage the study of conducting for music majors and require it for those in some particular degree

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28 (p. 6) While university based conductor training has dramatically increased the volume of conducting students, the scope and sequence of introductory courses varies widely. As Hanna Weir ( 2013) described: the art of conducting is complicated, variable, often improvisatory, and highly personal. How does one communicate this in its most basic elements to a novice in ways that they can digest and then use as the building blocks to create thei r own personal condu cting style ? (p. 7) As with all artistic endeavors, conducting includes a large element of subjectivity. However, there are generally agreed upon traits of a successful conductor with regard to musicianship an d gestural technique. As the empirical philosopher might suggest, set evident in successful conductors and therefore necessary of the conducting student ( Ables, Hoffer, & Klotman, 1995) The university professors are considered experts in the field, and groom their students according to their own expertise. Furthermore, university ific information and another tenet of empirical philosophy (Ables, Hoffer, & Klotman, 1995, p. 54) While a general consensus exists with regard to expected skills and techniques of a conductor, similar consiste ncy is not evident in the practical training of the conductors. One possible explanation, according to Farberman (2003) was: At the same time that conservatories were starting to teach conducting, a new impediment to conductor training formed. The most brilliant of the Bulow, Nikisch, and soon Toscanini and Stokowski were morphed into Ubermenshen or supermen. With this celebrity came the notion that conducting was a magical gift; a mind set that i s damaging to all conductors and has severely hampered conductor training (p. 252) (1943, p. 217) Perhaps the perception, held by many professional conductors, that a structured

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29 conductor training would not adequately produce a successful conductor propagated a level of ambiguity in academically centered conductor training. Baker (1992) identified another concern with development of conductor training. ere, until recently, (p. 6) He asserted that communicative faculties such as facial expression, eye contact, and body movement were not stressed due to the o (p. 40) According to Baker, this type of training resulted in young conductors whose performances were purposefully devoid of self involvement. Conducting pedagogy of this nature resulted in a deficiency in decision making abilities with regard to performance (Baker, 1992) Conducting Textbooks College and university training of conductors typically consists of one class of basic conducting technique with one or more subsequent classes that delve further into a specific medium band, orchestra, or choir. A study conducted by Romines (2000) included a survey sent to National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accredited schools with 200 or more music majors. The responses indicated that the three most widely used texts for undergraduate conducting courses Basic Conducting Techniques The Art of Conducting Modern Conductor An examination of these commonly used texts present an overview of topics addressed in a typical under graduate introductory conducting course.

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30 Labuta (2000) covers baton technique in depth. There are numerous musical examples with very brief descriptions on how to navigate specific baton techniques. The score analysi s section reduces the process to three steps: 1) acquiring a conception development of an aural concept of the score through a structural and expressive analysis of the music; 2) anticipating problems of conducting location of specific trouble spots fo ensemble and rehearsal have a plan to address anticipated trouble spots for the ensemble. The book concludes with several appendices covering topics such as student evaluations, transpositions, an d counting drills for uneven meters. Hunsberger and Ernst (1992) divide their text into four sections: basic principles and techniques, special topics and techniques, an anthology of musical excerpts for class performa nce, and appendices of additional information. The first section covers basic conducting competencies. However, unique to this text, is the inclusion of an musical evalua tions during and after class sessions. The score study portion of this text divides the process into three phases: 1) title page and overview; 2) structural features formal design, melodic development, harmonic organization, rhythmic development, textur e, text, conducting problems; 3) interpretation. The second section of The Art of Conducting includes topics such as conducting the band as accompaniment to a soloist, contemporary music (notation, conducting techniques, logistics, etc ), music theatre, an d jazz ensemble conducting. Section three is an anthology of musical excerpts used as exercises for the cond ucting student. Interestingly, a large portion of excerpts in this textbook is taken from the band literature. The fourth and final section of th is text is a

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31 collection of appendices meant to serve as resources to the young conductor and conducting teacher. Topics include: the typical undergraduate conducting course (with example syllabus), daily exercises/warm ups, seating charts, program checkli st, conductor evaluation forms, and recommended readings. The Modern Conductor (1997) features two sections. Part one is comprised of conducting technique (patterns, style, expression, left hand, etc ) Part II is entitled score study and includes topics such as transpositions, conducting different ensembles (orchestra, band, choir), musicianship, and score memorization. The appendices include information on seating arrangements, instrumentation, bowi ng techniques, etc. Research on Conducting Pedagogy Hanna Weir (2013) compiled and analyzed conducting course syllabi and materials from twenty throughout North America (p. 70) His findings revealed current trends in university based conductor education highlighting areas of convergence as well as variance in course scope and sequence. According to Hanna Weir, the two essential elements universally found in all texts on condu cting and introductory level conducting syllabi was manual technique and score study. Beyond these topics, Hanna Weir found large variation in the scope of the courses. Areas of variation included: rehearsal techniques, score preparation, error detection critical listening, open score reading at the keyboard, and internal hearing of the score (2013) Structurally, conducting courses showed considerable alignment with regard to number of meeting times, number of conduc ting sessions per student, and use of a laboratory ensemble for conducting sessions. Significant variations were evident in the use of various textbooks and repertoire.

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32 Hanna Weir offe red to (2013, pp. 7 8) would then speak directly to his/her ap proaches and values. Stalter (1996) developed a conducting course process model for use as a curricular organizing factor for undergraduate conducting courses. This model consists of five major stages: 1) score study, 2) preparation, 3) rehearsal, 4) performance, and 5) evaluation. His research included interviews of twelve teacher/conductors as well as (1996, p. 161) With regard to conducting texts, Stalter found the process model was not articulated in a clear, logical manner even though components of the model were present throughout the text. He noted the texts placed gre ater emphasis on physical technique than on score study as evidenced by the sequencing of sections as well as time spent on each topic. Stalter said: I t is possible that students could perceive score study as secondary in importance and physical techniqu e as primary, when, in reality, teacher/conductors felt that the physical technique is a natural response to score and high level of personal musicianship skills (1996, p. 164) Stalter asked his twelve teacher/conductors how a conductor should evaluate his/her own conduc t ing in rehearsals and performance. The teachers identified the following meth ods: 1. Videotape gesture (9 of 12 teacher/c onductors) 2. Audio Tape sound (5 of 12 ) 3. Colleague (5 of 12) 4. Self evaluation without the aid of someone or something else (4 of 12) 5. Feedback from ensemble members (1 of 12) (1996, p. 169)

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33 Finally, Stalter asked his teacher/conductors to evaluate conducting textbooks. Several teacher/conductors agreed that the texts should be supplemented with on the CD ROM rather than two dimensiona (Stalter, 1996, p. 170) Manfredo (2008) studied the current practices of introductory and advanced conducting classes. A survey was sent to individuals identified as instructors of introductory conducting courses, advanced conducting courses, or both. Participants were selected from 26 school s in the Midwest United States. Prior to completing the survey, respondents were asked to self identify as a conductor/performer, music educator, or a combination of both. Results indicated that the introductory conducting basic conducting patterns of 2, 3, 4, and one to the bar, while little to no emphasis was placed on more advanced conducting patterns. Advanced conducting courses placed equal emphasis on advanced conducting patters as basic conducting patterns. Additio nally, both introductory and advanced courses releases, ictus, and rebound. Participants were also asked to rate the importance of several sub topics included 1) types of scores, 2) transpositions, 3) clefs, 4) score marking, 5) arranging/orchestration, 6) historical background of composition, 7) analysis (phrasal, formal, harmonic). Results indicated that within the introductory course, there was significant variance on the importance of the score study sub topics. For example, within the introductory courses ced conducting courses rated most of the

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34 score study sub instructors that self of meters and conducting patterns, while those self larger variation. In the area of score study, there was no agreement across any group (2008) study implied that there still does not exist an (p. 56) Video Enhanced Conducting Instruction Yarbrough (1979) ecorder as a practical educational tool has made the systematic observation and analysis of all (p. 104) Given that the RDSCC exists as an online platform, a review of literat ure regarding video enhance conducting instruction is warranted. Additionally, previous research indicates success in the use of video recordings for self evaluation and assessment of learning (Keller, 1979) Each participant in the RDSCC is expected to video record his/her conducting sessions for self assessment and reflection. The following studies represent research regarding use of video in content delivery as well as assessment/self reflection. Jordan (1980) researched the effectiveness of videotape instruction as a supplement to instruction in introductory conducting. Sixty subjects, from two major universities in Illinois, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Both groups received identical in class instruction and printed materials to guide the videotapes for reference in conducting practice. Bo th groups were post tested using an expert validated conducting assessment. Results indicated that the videotape

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35 gesture. Additionally, all subjects (control and experimental) completed questionnaires o n their opinions of videotape supplements for conducting instruction. Subjects in the (p. 79) Also, roughly 50% of experimental subjects suggested an expanded use of videotapes in instruction (Jordan, 1980) Fleming (1977) evaluated the effect of guided practice materials used with videotape recordings on the development of conducting skills. Twenty two students enrolled in an introductory conducting course at a major university were used in the experiment. A control/exp erimental group pretest/posttest design was used. The experimental group was treated with practice materials for use in preparation for in class conducting sessions. Among these materials were: score study assistance and a self evaluation guide for use in analyzing videotaped individual practice. The control group also partici pated in the in class conducting sessions, but did so without the score study assistance and self evaluation guide/videotaped practice. Results of the study indicated that guided practice materials and use of a videotape recorder had beneficial nducting skill. However, this study did not disaggregate the effects of each aspect of the treatment on the dependent variable (conducting skill). Subsequent research has delved more deeply into the specific effects of video recording and guided practice materials (Yar borough, Wapnick, & Kelly, 1979; Yarbrough, 1987) In a similar study, Scott (1996) investigated the effect of conducting skills diagnostic instruction on the acquisition of basic conducting skills The subject pool, comprised of 36 students enrolled in an introductory conducting course a major Midwest

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36 university, were randomly assigned to a either a control group or experimental group. Both groups were pretested for conducting skill as well as di agnostic skills with regard to conducting techniques. The pretest included a written test as well as a conducting test. Over the course of 5 weeks, the control group watched videotapes containing lectures/demonstrations of specific conducting techniques. The experimental group watched videotapes containing the same lectures/demonstrations but with added content on diagnostic skills. Diagnostic content included video examples of improper conducting techniques followed by prompts for the student to diagno se errors through multiple choice questions. Posttest results indicated a significant improvement in written test scores for both groups. Results further indicated that diagnostic skills instruction did not have a statistically significant effect on cond ucting ability. However, Scott found a notable increase in conducting scores in the group scoring lowest in the pretest and argued this represent ed evidence of merit in this teaching method. y which new modes of (Bandura, 1969, p. 118) Leppla (1989) researched the effects of guided vs. unguided modeling on the acqu isition of basic conducting skills. Thirty one Ohio State undergraduate students enrolled in the introductory courses were divided into two experimental groups. Students in Group A viewed videotapes containing basic conducting skills demonstrated by mode ling only (no verbal guidance). Group B viewed the same videotapes but with added verbal guidance. Students were exposed to their treatments for six weeks. At the conclusion both student groups were post tested for conducting effectiveness using a pa nel of experts. Results indicated no significant difference between modeling with verbal

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37 guidance and modeling without verbal guidance. The researcher hypothesized the low significance might have been due to the experts inability to ascertain success in the multiple skills simultaneously. Also, Leppla argued the possibility of confusion with regard to desired conducting execution due to lack of consistency between modeling videotapes and in class instruction. A final concern found by the researcher was the perceived difficulty in motivating students to view the videotapes. Leppla argued that in lower participation in videotape viewing (p. 63) Tjornehoj (2001) investigated the effectiveness of video modeling and self evaluation as pedagogical tools in the lear ning process of conducting techniques. Twelve pre service music teachers were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Both groups were pretested and post tested for conducting expressiveness, as determined by a panel of three experts. Addi tionally, all subjects were asked to self evaluate their conducting performances of the pretest and posttest using a provided printed materials while the experimental group received additional material in the form of video modeling examples. Results indicated that the use of video modeling resulted in significant improvement in expressive conducting. The control and experimental groups agreed on the high value of self evaluation of the conducting videos while using between the pre service teachers self evaluation and that of the experts, with self evaluations being notably higher.

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38 As illustrated in the aforementioned studies, research supports the notion that basic conducting competencies can be learned through video. However, Yarborough, Wapnick, & Kelly (1979) noted that current conduc of feedback from an experienced conductor teacher, a variety of conduc t ing textbooks, and repeated viewing with instructor feedback of videotaped conducting examples for (p. 105) Yarbrough et al. compared the effects of traditional instructor feedback versus self observation form feedback of videotaped conducting sessions. Subjects ( N =34) were students enrolled in an introductory conducting course at Syracuse University. Students were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Additionally, two control groups were assigned to control for testing effects and maturation. Over the c ourse of one semester, each subject video recorded two conducting practicums, after which they were asked to review their videotapes for 30 minutes. During the videotape reviews, subjects in the first experimental received feedback from a conductor teache r who identified conducting problems, modeled appropriate techniques, and made suggestions for improvement. Subjects from the second experimental group reviewed their videotapes while using a guided crit ique form (Yarborough et al. 1979, pp. 105 106) Following the feedback sessions, all subjects completed a critique of their experiences. Results indicated there was no statistically significant difference between the two feedback techniques, suggesting there is evidence to support systematic self observation as an alternative to traditional teacher feedback. Price (1985) replicated this study and found similar results.

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39 Yarbrough (19 87) further studied the use of video in self assessment. Eighty five students in introductory conducting course at Syracuse University participated in the study. Students each conducted and videotaped six conducting practicums. Following each condu cting session, participants reviewed and critiqued their conducting using an re searcher compiled data from the observation forms and computed the reliability for the groups revealing coefficients of .82 and .84, respectively. Additionally, following two of the conducting sessions, the students were asked to complete a self critique using data from the previous videotaped observations. Yarbrough compared the critiques with a posttest of his/her conducting skill. Results indicated that critiques were accurate 80% of the time. Implications of this study support previous research regarding potential for behavioral assessment through self observation. process. Unfortunately, in many curriculum projects, t eachers are seen merely as the (Ben Peretz, 1980) Ben Peretz (1980) conducted a study in which six teachers from socioeconomically diverse schools where involved in a curriculum development project that placed the teachers in the role of curriculum writers. Following the curriculum development, the researcher conducted exit interviews of each participant. The participants indicated that the subsequent curriculum, in addition to being pedagogically sound, was more flexible in

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40 curriculum functioned more appropriately in terms of teaching material s needed. The about practical problem situations demands their being assigned a primary role in the (Ben Peretz, 1980, p. 54) Ben Peretz research indicates that curriculum developed by teachers is more satisfactory to teachers. What, then, would increase the number of teachers requesting to be involved in the c urriculum writing process? Young (1985) researched 15 randomly reason indicated by the study subjects was the desire to be involved in decision making. classroom teachers who find their hierarchical subordination conflicts with their (p. 407) role as a professional educator fosters an increase in self efficacy (Young, 1985) Another important area of research in teacher perception is teacher stress a nd potential burnout. Kokkinos (2007) described burnout as a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion and chronic stress. Research has shown that some of the most frequently reported sources of teacher stress and burnout are workload, time pressure, and the lack of support/resources provided (Hawkes & Dedrick, 1983) High school band directors can be particularly prone to burnout due to their multitude of responsibilities and demandin g schedules. Heston, Dedr ick, Raschke, & Whitehead (1996) surveyed 120 high school band directors addressing their job satisfaction and levels of stress associated with their job. Results indicated that the most frequently

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41 com munity, 2) workload, 3) lack of student commitment, and 4) busywork or non (p. 323) Interestingly, teachers indicated that adding the responsibility of teaching individual lessons provided a unique source of job satisfaction, not increased stress. Teachers expressed that this medium provided an opportunity to develop closer relationships with their students and influence positive behaviors (Heston et al.). A similar study conducted by Sche ib (2003) resulting from their perceived role(s). The researcher conducted case studies of four music educators in one midwestern high school. Each teacher was observed and interviewed over the course of the fall semester. The participants expressed that the most common contributors to role related stress were role conflict and role overload. The researcher believed that these two categories were closely linked. Scheib (2003) stated: Meeting the demands of teaching, directing performing ensembles, and maintaining a personal life apart from the responsibilities of work proves quite challenging for these teachers. Sometimes this tension does not com e necessarily from a conflict of roles, but a sense that no role can be overload. (p. 132) Job related stress and burnout contribu tes significantly to teacher attrition. As Heston et al. (1996) original job description would undoubtedly overload an already hectic work schedul (p. 325) Therefore, successful implementation of a student conductor curriculum necessitates a thoroughly planned out integration into the existing curriculum with minimal impact on the participating band

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42 Ornstein and Hunkins (2009) development. Their input is important in its own right, but allowing them to participate in curriculum development also empowers them and encourages them to take responsibility for matters that concern (p. 241) Ambrose, Bridg es, DiPietro, Lovett, & Norman (2010) expressed a similar opinion : to students, but rather something st udents themselves do. It is the direct result of how students interpret and respond to their experiences conscious and unconscious, past (p. 3) ch indicating an increased emphasis on student perception in curricular planning (Brooker & Macdonald, 2010) As Levin (2000) (p. 156) A perception. Beane and Lipka (1986) identified several learning constructs with regard to self perception. Among them are: The way in which individuals perceive themselves affects the perception of what is worth learning. The most desirable learning is that which grows ou t of the salient dimensions of self. Self perceptions of ability account for some degree of variance in learning. The degree to which individuals have confidence in their ability to learn may influence the degree to which learning actually takes place. Self perceptions are most likely enhanced when individuals knowingly assume responsibility for their own learning. Activities in which learners assume greater responsibility and in which they are aware of personal efforts in this regard add to personal me aning and satisfaction. Self perceptions are most likely to be enhanced when high priority is placed on interaction. Those learning situations in which individuals have opportunities to try out new roles, test ideas, and get feedback from others are mos t congruent with the interactive nature of self perception development (pp. 92 93)

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43 ( Moehle, 2005; Cook Sather, 2006 ; Yonezawa & Jones, 2009). Kohn (1993) offered that the student voice was a fundamental factor in motivation, and that depriving students of self determination effectively deprives them of motivation. Kohn stated: Students ought to help determine the criteria by which their work will be judged and then play a role in weighing their work against those criteria. This achieves several things at once: it gives students control over their education, it makes evaluation feel less punitive, and it provides an important learning experience in itself. (p. 6) This level of student involvement in the learning process has its roots in constructivist learning theory (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009) According to the tenets of constructivism, the learner should be actively engaged in the process of thinking and learning. a (2010) conducted research outlining several difficulties in capturing the authentic student perspective with regard to curriculum. Teachers and stud ents at eleven different physical education curriculum. The researchers identified various problems with the ation of the interviews was determined by the researchers creating potentially confounding variables considering time of their choosing. Also, interviews were co nducted in group settings, effectively (p. 94) part of curriculum making authorities both to challenge the dualistic acceptance of (p. 96)

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44 Richards (2006) explored various teacher stud ent relationships and their effects seven high school students enrolled at six different schools were used as subjects. Each subject participated in one on one interviews consisting of questions rega rding the relationship between teachers and students and the subsequent impacts on student learning. Results indicated that students overwhelmingly felt that the teacher student relationship was the single most important factor in their learning (Richards, 2006) Also, interview results views of the te acher student relationship (p. 170) Perceptions of Web Based L earning The internet has increasingly gained acceptance as a curricular supplement, and in many cases, as the singular mode of instruction (Pfundstein, 2003 ; Richardson & Swan, 2003 ). Research has also shown that, in some cases, students prefer web based learning to traditional in class learning due to increased flexibility with their schedule, and a perceived increase in control of their ow n learning (Pfundstein, 2003) Marin Marquez (2003) compared the academic achievement and learning style preferences of students receiving on campus instruction ( N = 27) to those receiving o nline instruction ( N = 7) All students were registered in the Graduate Business School at the Universidad del Turabo, Puerto Rico. Dependent measures for the study were a posttest for the course, final grades, an instrument designed to measure student p (p. iv) Results indicated no statistically significant difference in learning achievements as measured by posttest results and final grades. However, the researcher noted that a number of

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45 students in the on Marquez suggested this might have been a result of a lack of individualized at tention, as the on campus course had many more students than the online course. Also, results indicated no statistically significant commitment, students in the on cam (2003, p. 148) The online students registered no such complaints. The researcher suggested this might be due to implications regarding what type of students would likely function best in an online classroom environment. (1993) indi cated, success of a curriculum is largely dependent on the level at which the students feel connected to the course. This factor is potentially magnified in non traditional classroom situations (Luciano & Testa, 2011) Richar dson and Swan (2003) Participant s for the study were 369 students enrolled in an online course offered at Empire State College, New York. The researcher chose Empire State College as the program, attemp ting to limit the complications that typically affect studies of this type (Richardson & Swan, 2003) Results indicated that students who perceived their social presence within the course as being high also perceived their lea rning gains to be

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46 greater. Also, students who expressed high satisfaction with their instructor believed they learned more than those with low instructor satisfaction. A portion of the study involved interviews of the students regarding activities they p erceived as being most beneficial to their learning. Students expressed the importance of teacher involvement in projects/assignments prior to the due date (p. 80) The findings from this study indicate the i mportance of a strong connection from the student to the online platform. Findings also indicate that students perceive their learning outcomes to be greater when the course instructor maintains an active presence over the duration of the course. Pfunds tein (2003) studied the effects of web based versus web enhanced regulatory skills. The subject pool was comprised of thirty eight students enrolled in a Unit ed States Government course at a Midwest suburban high school. Students were divided into web based instruction ( N = 21 ) and web enhanced instruction ( N = 17). The reported findings indicated that mode of instruction (web based or web enhanced) did not a commented that this might be due to the nature of the subject pool. This study took place in an affluent suburb, where students are typically considered high achievers base d on state scores. However, all students, whether identified as low performing or high performing (based on pretest), showed similar gains in learning outcomes. Results did indicate a significant amount of variance in learning outcomes with regard to sel f ion, cognition, metacognition, [and] resource management skills could be indicators for students to consider prior to taking an e (p. 129)

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47 Summary school students a unique experience in gaining insight into the practices of a wind band conductor. The literature reviewed in this chapter hi ghlights some important concepts and themes in the development of a web based curriculum for high school student conductors. Systematic training of the instrumental conductor is a relatively new development (Baker, 1992) Howeve r, with the adoption of university based instruction, conductor pedagogy has developed rapidly. Several research studies have added to the literature regarding acquisition of fundamental conducting skills as well as innovative uses of technology. Specifi cally, video modeling and self evaluation using video recordings have shown particular effectiveness. Research regarding web based courses indicates large successes when students feel empowered in their learning process and connected to the course. A wel l designed web based course can provide educational opportunities equal to, and in some cases, greater than those available through traditional means (Pfundstein, 2003) The RDSCC exists as a web based curriculum, providing st udents and teachers with increased flexibility in scheduling through 24 hour access to instruction. (Ben Peretz, 1980 ; Kohn, 1993) The successful implementation of any curriculum, particularly one in which participation is voluntary, is highly dependent on the experiential perceptions of the students and teachers.

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48 This examination of literature highlighted important historical and p edagogical concepts in conductor education, key concepts in curricular development and implementation, and several uses of educational technology all pertinent topics to the creation and validation of a Researcher Designed Student Conductor Curriculum.

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49 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and perceptions of a Researcher Developed Student Conductor Curriculum. First, the researcher developed a web based curriculum for high school conductors. Second, the researcher sought validation of the curriculum from expert conductor educators as well as professional music educators in the secondary schools. Third, the researcher sought perceptions of the curriculum from the participating band directors and their student conductors. The following chapter describes the methodology used in this study. Development of t he RDSCC philosophies identified in his Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949) The researcher: 1) identified specific educational purposes, 2 ) identified educational experiences toward attainment of those purposes, 3) organized the experiences, and 4) developed a method to determine whether the purposes had been m et. Once a curricular philosophy was established, the RDSCC was created using a p opular blog creation platform, allowing for easy upload and modification of text and videos. The RDSCC is comprised o f nine webpages on one website and can be found at http://www.fbastudentconductor.blogspot.com. Home Page The home page functions as an introduction page that begins with the following stated purpose of the curriculum: The purpose of this website is to provide instruction and educational opportunities for students interested in the basic fundamentals of band conducting. Additionally, this curriculum is

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50 designed to prepare students for the student conductor assessment administered by the Florida Bandmasters Association (Birkner, 2012) Additionally, the introduction page includes : a welcome/intr oductory video by the researcher a list of materials needed for the successful participation in the pages (WEEK 1 WEEK 2, etc ). Each of the eight pages represents one full week of instruction. The RDSCC was designed as an 8 week curriculum, as most Florida Public Schools resume classes (after the holiday break) in the first week of January, leaving an average of eight to nine weeks before the FBA MP a student who begins the RDSCC in the first week of the spring semester will theoretically complete the curriculum just prior to the FBA Instructional Content Pages The RDSCC is comprised of spec ific content and educational experiences relevant to a beginning band conductor. This includes: gestural training, score reading, transpositions, and score study. While there are several other skills necessary for success as a band director the research er chose to focus the scope of this curriculum specifically on that which is fundamentally necessary as a band conductor taking into account that which is realistically attainable for a teristics of the intended learners are all that is necessary for the blueprint of expected (McNeil, 2006, p. 106) In addition to gestural training, t he RDSCC was designed to include concepts of scor e study through training in

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51 music theory and music history. As Wayne Bailey (2009) must provide an informed interpretation of the music through his own knowledge of musical style and performance p ractice, compositional style of the composer, (p. 3) Many of the conducting (2006) textbook, Basic Conducting Organization of Educational Experiences The educational experiences presented in the RDSCC were organized for (Tyler, 1949, p. 84) Activities are presented in a gradual progression from basic physical conducting gestures (i.e. posture, arm positions) to more complex physical conducting gestures (i.e. cu e ing, fermatas, style). Additionally, the curricular content related to score study/score reading progresses from basic identification of components of a musical score (i.e. key signatures, instrument list) to more complex aspects (i.e. instrument transpositions). The concept of refers to the purposeful (1949, p. 85) As such, each progressive level of content ll experience as a student conductor. For example, following instruction on basic identification of components in a musical score, the student is instructed to apply this information directly to the st udy of his/h er selected student conductor piece. Score Study the curriculum. The student is instructed to identify basic co mponents of the

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52 score: composer, title, instrument list, locati on of instruments within the score, key signature(s), time signature(s), tempo(s), and repeats. In WEEK 2, students are instructed to research the composer of their selected piece. Students are asked to write a 250 word biographical sketch including birt hplace/date, musical training, influences, additional works, etc. In WEEK 3, students are introduced to concepts regarding treble clef and bass clef as well as transposing instruments commonly found in a band score. Students are instructed to identify ma jor style characteristics of the piece, as well as to identify and define musical terms/markings found in their score. Additionally, students are instructed on basic fundamentals of marking the musical score. WEEK s 4 7 include instruction on transpositio n for instruments pitched in keys of Bb, Eb, and F. Content includes a list of instruments typically pitched in each key, a detailed explanation of each transposition, and transposition etudes for practice. Each subsequent week contains answers to the pr WEEK 4 7, students are instructed to compose a 250 300 word essay on the student conductor piece including information on the composer as well as information on the specific piece. Gestural Training In WEEK 1 3, students are introduced to basic conducting fundamentals through instructional videos, brief conducting etudes, as well as formative evaluations (Birkner, 2012) The instructional videos feature the researcher, as well as Graduate Students in the instrumental conducting program at the University of Florida, modeling and explaining basic conducting techniques. In several videos, the researcher chose to provide

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53 several camera angles from v arious viewpoints, including from the viewpoint of the conductor, to clearly illustrate the appropriate execution of each gesture. Additionally, where applicable, the instructional video(s) include(s) the conducting instruction. Each week concludes with a Conducting Practica During WEEK 4 7 students are instructed to, in consultation with their band d irector, schedule 2 3 times he/she will conduct the band on the student conductor piece. Students are instructed to set up a video recorder in the back of the band room, focused on the conducting podium, to video record each conducting session for self ev aluation. Journal Reflection Students are instructed to keep a journal through the entirety of the RDSCC. The researcher included this aspect of the curriculum as it provides an important resource for self expression, critical thinking on the learner Assessment of Objectives Throughout the RDSCC, students are expected to complete formative advised to utilize his /her band director to check homework and assignments. The RDSCC culminates with a summative evaluation using the lecture recital format The student conductor is instructed to, using his/her prepared written score summary, prepare a brief two to three mi nute oral narrative on the

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54 historical and theoretical analysis of the composition. In preparation for this activity, the student conductor is instructed to: 1. Look over your 250 300 word summary once again. Make any final adjustments necessary. 2. Read your summary aloud. Use a strong speaking voice. 3. Be sure to practice making eye contact with the imaginary audience. Don't have your head aimed at your essay. 4. If you choose to memorize the summary great If not, consider making note cards to keep you on track and the presentation moving. It's not necessary that you recite your essay word for word. The objective is to present your material in an organized and fluid manner. 5. Practice your presen tation for friends and family. (Birkne r, 2012) Students are given the latitude to incorporate brief performance excerpts (from his/her ensemble) for examples. F ollowing the narrative, student conductors are required to conduct his/her ensemble through a full performance of the compositio n. The narrative and conducting performance represents the culminating event of the RDSCC. For the purposes of this study, the narrative and performance is delivered to a concert audience. If the RDSCC were to be adopted by the FBA as the formal asse ssment for the student conductor a ctivity, the oral presentation would be delivered to the assigned FBA adjudicator. Additionally, given the various differences between the RDSCC and the current FBA student conductor activity, a revised asses sment sheet w ould be necessary. A curriculum map is provided as Appendix A Validation and of the Curriculum The implementation of a curriculum should include a careful evaluation of perceived strengths and weaknesses (Bebell, 1974) Thorough curriculum

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55 evaluation includes multiple facets ranging from instructional content to mode of instruction (Lewy, 1977) Also, a more holistic curriculum evaluation is compris ed of input from mult iple stake holders (e.g. experts, teachers, students) (Brooker & Macdonald, 2010) Hence, the evaluation portion of this study was divided into two phases: 1) validation, and 2) Phase one (validation) consisted of a curriculum evaluation of the RDSCC by selected experts in the field of wind band conducting as well as current high s cho ol band ) consisted of a collection and comparison of studen three different stages of instruction. A qualitative research design was chosen for this study in order to provide for open ended questioning and to gain a deeper experiences and perceptions (Creswell, 2002) Four research questions were addressed: 1. To what extent does the RDSCC align appropriate high school student conductor preparation? 2. To what ex tent does t he RDSCC align with high school band d opinions of appropriate high school student conductor preparation? 3. outcomes in the RDSCC? 4. What are the high school band di erceptions regarding the learning activities and outcomes in the RDSCC? Participants In both phases of the evaluation portion of this study, participants were purposefully sampled. The researcher consulted with a leading conductor/music education expert to identify 10 leading experts in the field of wind band conducting to act as curriculum evaluato rs. Also for Phase One, five high s chool

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56 band directors were selected as addition al curriculum evaluators. The high s chool band directors were sampled for location, FBA classification, and director experience (Creswell, 2002, p. 194) High s chool band directors selected as participants for Phase One of the study were retained for Pha se Two. Procedures (Phase One) Following the development of the RDSCC, the researcher developed two surveys. One survey was designed specifically for wind band conducting experts ( Appendix E ) The second survey was designed specifically for h igh s chool band directors ( Appendix F ) Both surveys were comprised of Likert scale items. Each item included a statement followed by a five point rating system, requiring participants to indicate the degree to which they agree d or disagree d with the provided statement (e.g. strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree). Following each survey item, participants were given the opportunity to include additional comments. The survey designed specifically for wind band conducting experts included three categories: instructional content, asses sment, and additional questions. The survey de signed specifically for h igh s chool band directors was section. The h igh s choo as that topic was covered in greater depth in Phase 2. Also, as it is known that each of the high s chool band dire ctors surveyed are employed in Florida, the

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57 item regarding in which state they reside was replaced by the dichotomous (true/false) item: I have previously mentored a high school student in the Florida Bandmasters Association Student Conductor Activity. Data Collection (Phase One) The researcher emailed an introduction letter and explanation of the study to the ten selected wind band conducting experts and the five selected high s chool band directors. Included in this letter were website links to both th e online curriculum and the survey with which to evaluate the curriculum. Seven experts responded affirmatively as did five high s chool band directors. Subsequently, each respondent was mailed a letter of consent (Appendix G and Appendix H ) via email. Procedures (Phase Two) The high s chool band directors selected for Phase One of the study were retained for Phase Two. In addition to completing the curriculum ev aluation survey, each of the five band directors volunteered to participate as a mentor to a high school student conductor in their band program using the RDSCC. Band directors were asked to select a student for participation in the RDSCC using the same selection criteria they would normally use for participation in the FBA Student Conductor Act ivity. Consent forms were mailed to the band directors for distribution to the Appendix I ). assent, agreed to: 1) select a piece for their student conduc tor to study. ( The researcher requested that the piece be of similar style(s)/difficulty as the pieces

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58 listed in the FBA Student Conductor repertoire list (i.e. Grade 4) ); 2) commit to an 8 week time period in the Fall semester of 2013 in wh ich to partici pate in the RDSCC; 3) provide the student conductor a performance opportunity at the conclusion of the 8 we eks as outlined in the RDSCC; and 4) participate, and facilitate their student audio recorded interviews conduc ted by the researcher. Data Collection (Phase Two) An interview format of data collection was chosen for Phase Two of the study. The interview format can be used to obtain a deeper understanding of the through the careful motiva tion of the subje ct and maintenance of rapport, [the interviewer] can obtain information that the subject (Borg & Gall, 1983, p. 436) E ach participating band director and his/her student conductor were contacted on three occasions: prior to beginning the RDSCC, approximately halfway through the RDSCC, and at the conclusion of the RDSCC. This method of time series data collection was used to periodically measur potential changes in perception over the course of the 8 week curriculum (Campbell & Stanley, 1963) On each occasion, the interviewee was informed that the interview was being recorded, but that names would not be used in any as well as their perceptions regardi ng the RDSCC (Appendix J ).

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59 Reliability P rocedures Two members of the conducting faculty at the University of Florida conducted a pretest of the survey instruments. Additionally, interview questions were previewed by a conducting faculty member at the University of Florida as well as an outside reviewer holding a PhD in Music Education with an emphasis in Instrumental Conducting. Based on these reliability procedures, changes were made to both the survey instruments and interview questions to improve the capability of collecting pertinent inform ation on the validity and perceptions of the RDSCC. Data Analysis (Phase One) Following the collection of survey responses, the researcher computed descriptive statistics for each survey question, including mean and standard deviation. The Then, the researcher conducted independent t tests to determine if there were significant differences between the means of responses betw een the experts and the band directors. Additionally, open ended comments were analyzed for more detailed opinions from the curriculum validators. Data Analysis (Phase Two) Each interview was transcribed and analyzed for emerging themes The researcher documented themes related to 1) overall perceptions of the student conductor activity; 2) changes in perceptions over the course of the RDSCC; and 3) differences in perception between groups (i.e. students, band directors). Additionally, participants pro vided opinions (via rating scale questions) regarding

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60 computed and analyzed

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61 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and perceptions of a high school student condu ctor curriculum. The study was divided into two phases: 1) validation, and 2) Phase one (validation) consisted of a curriculum evaluation of the RDSCC by selected experts in the field of wind band conducting as well as current high s chool band directors. The researcher contacted ten wind band conduc ting experts and five high s chool band directors to evaluate and v alidate the curriculum using a researcher designed survey. Phase two ( ) consisted of curriculum at three different stages of instruction. The high s c hool band directors selected for Phase One of the study were retained for Phase Two. After completing the curriculum ev aluation survey, each of the five band directors volunteered to participate as a mentor to a high school student conductor in their band program using the RDSCC. Band directors were asked to select a student for participation in the RDSCC using the same selection criteria they would normally use for participation in the FBA Student Conductor Activity. Data Collection (Phase One) The re searcher contacted ten wind band conducting experts S even completed the survey Five high school band directors completed the survey. Data Collection (Phase Two) The researcher conducted three phone interviews with each band director as well as their student conductor. Each of the five band programs started the eight week curriculum on a different date. However, the researcher was able to

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62 interview each band director/student combination at the appropriate time relative to their specific start date ( i .e. prior to th e start of the curriculum, half way through the curriculum, at the c onclusion of the curriculum). Generally interviews were co nducted during the school day. On two occasions, band directors asked to be interviewed outside of school hours due to scheduling conflicts. Most band director/student combinations chose to conduct their interviews separately from one another. The resea rcher did not stipulate privacy for the interviews. Instead, the researcher suggested the student and teacher create an intervie w environment in which they felt most comfortable. The researcher transcribed all interviews. Presentation of Results (Phase One) The following presentation of results consists of each statement from the validation survey followed by brief statistical representation of results. The survey was divided into three categories: 1) instructional content, 2) assessment, 3a) ad ditional comments about the student conductor activity, 3b) additional comments about the curriculum. Each survey statement provided the participant with an opportunity to add additional comments regarding that specific topic. When provided the addition al comments are included. To preserve anonymity, each participant was assigned a generic title (e.g. Expert 1, Expert 2, Band Director 1, Band Director 2, Student 1, Student 2, etc.). Each band director number corresponded to a student number (i.e. Band Director 1 was band director).

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63 Results (Phase One) Content Area 1: Instructional content The first section of the survey was designed to have the survey participants indicate the strength to which they agree or disagree with statements reg arding the instructional content of the RDSCC. The first section contained eight statements. Statement 1: The purposes and goals of this curriculum are clear and easily understood. Experts: One expert (14.29%) agreed with this statement while six experts (85.71%) strongly agreed ( Figure 4 1) Figure 4 whether the purposes and goals of the curriculum are clear and easily understood Band Directors: All five of the band directors (100%) strongly agreed with this statement (Figure 4 2) arly designed with a logical progression of skills and necessary musical development 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 85.71% 14.29% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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64 and information so students can follow easily. Figure 4 2. Percentages of high school ba purposes and goals of the curriculum are clear and easily understood. Statement 2: The instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. Experts: Five experts (71.43%) strongly agreed with this statement while two experts (28.57%) agreed ( Figure 4 3) descriptions, as well as videos, are easy to understand. The videos allow h the videos, especially added: Some minor concerns: Volume is inconsistent from one video to the next. I really like the demos. Well done. However, I would make sure all men are professionally dressed. Being an old gu y I like the shirt and tie! I would add a video re: conducting area and conducting plane. That is always an area that creates problems (i.e. gestures that are too high or too low, gestures that extend the horizontal plane outward too far ) Have you ever tried using a table or other flat surface to demonstrate the ictus rebound? I studied conducting with Donald Mattran at Hartt School of Music and he used a table to get me to strike the same level for the ictus. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 100% 0 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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65 It also encourages a slight flick of the wrist at the ictus. I think a darker background behind the conductor might make the video easier to read. Figure 4 related to conducting gesture is accurate. Band Directors: F our band directors (80%) strongly agreed with this statement while one band director (20%) agreed (Figure 4 4) Band D irector 1 Accurate and well prese D irector 3 added: Great video presentation of conductors at all levels. I would recommend spreading out the videos throughout the lectures. Besides ensuring that they're continually practicing, it'll also increase chances of students actually finishing the course sinc e the videos will draw them in. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 71.43% 28.57% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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66 Band D This program gives a great platform from which to start Figure 4 instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. S tatement 3: The instructional content related to score study/preparation is accurate. Experts : Six of the experts (85.71%) strongly agreed with this statement while one expert (14. 29%) agreed (Figure 4 5) Expert 5 stated: eeks. Also, somewhere it needs to be stated that all of the beat patterns need to be practiced until they become automatic. It might be a good idea to focus on one beat pattern after having introduced 2, 3 and 4 beat patterns. Have the student focus on only one that they will use in the performance with their high school band. I would think that somewhere around the third week the student should choose a piece that they will conduct and then focus their work on one of the beat patterns and the transposi tions. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 80% 20% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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67 Figure 4 related to score study/preparation is accurate. Band Directors: Four band directors (80%) strongly agreed with this statement while one ban d director (20%) agreed (Figure 4 6) Band D irector 5 [The researcher] has given the students a good balance of information and practice that allows the participant to be successful. A spiral curriculum technique is necessary for this study and the program seems t Figure 4 instructional content related to score study/preparation is accurate. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 85.71% 14.29% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 80% 20% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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68 Statement 4: The content is clearly presented and easily understandable. Experts: Six of the experts (85.71%) strongly agreed with this statement while one expert (14.29%) agreed (Figure 4 7) Expert 5 stated: Stress in example one that the up and down speeds are the same. T his would also apply to conducting a 3/4 tune in one beat per meas ure. I also liked the fact that you used the up and down movement (similar to conducting in one beat per measure) to introduce the movement of the arm, hands, and baton. Figure 4 is clearly presented and easily understandable. Band Directors: All five band directors (100%) strongly agr eed with this statement (Figure 4 8) Band D By simply scrolling from one video to the next, the participant/student can easily se e the next portion of the 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 85.71% 14.29% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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69 Figure 4 instructional content is clearly presented and easily understandable. Statement 5: The content of this curriculum adequately covers the conducting. Experts: Six of the experts (85.71%) strongly agreed with this statement while one expert (14.29%) agreed (Figure 4 9) I strongly agree and would hope that the student's band director follows the curriculum. Who knows what he or she might learn! 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 100% 0 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 85.71% 14.29% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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70 Figure 4 curriculum adequately covers the necessary content areas for high school students Band Director s : Four band directors (80%) strongly agreed with this statement while one band director (20%) agreed (Figure 4 10) Band D irector 2 The content more than adequately covers the necessary skills asse ssed D consider including a few short excerpts of some master band and orchestra D students should at l east have a basic understanding of approaching a piece of music for assessment. The other materials needed for the assessment can easily Figure 4 whether the content of this curriculum adequately covers the necessary content Statement 6: The sequencing of instructional material is logical. Experts: Four of the experts (57.14%) strongly agreed with this statement Two experts (28.57%) agreed with this statement. One expert 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 80% 20% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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71 (Figure 4 11) Expert 2 added: Week 3 seems a bit disjointed. Perhaps the fermata exercise could follow the crescend o/decrescendo exercise then followed by cueing. Figure 4 instructional material is logical. Band Directors: Four band directors (80%) strongly agreed with this statement while one ban d d irector (20%) agreed (Figure 4 12) Band D irector 3 As discussed earlier, the theory information, while great, may work better D above, the sequencing in the program is 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 57.14% 28.57% 14.29% 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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72 Figure 4 sequencing of instructional material is logical. Statement 7: The sequencing of learning activities (assignments, etc.) is logical. Experts: Five experts (71.43%) stro ngly agreed with this statement while two experts (28.57%) agreed (Figure 4 13) I miss having videos in the later sessions; however, I don't know how you would integrate them for that material. Figure 4 13. Percentages learning activities is logical. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 80% 20% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 71.43% 28.57% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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73 Band Directors: All five band directors (100%) strongly agr eed with this statement (Figure 4 14) Band D Assignments seem to be appropriate and match the l Figure 4 sequencing of learning activities is logical. Statement 8: The content included in this curriculum is developmentally ntroduction to band conducting. Experts: Four of the experts (57.14%) strongly agreed with this statement. Two experts (28.57%) agreed with this statement. One expert (Figure 4 15) Expert 1 added: his is really great! Many band and orchestra directors would benefit greatly from this. Maybe the adults will learn along with the students. I hope this will be available soon. I want to use it with our teachers here. Thanks for all of your hard ould suggest that you make the j ournal mandatory if, for no other reason, it requires student self examination. [The] j 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 100% 0 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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74 Figure 4 content of this curriculum is developmentally appropriate for high school students. Band Directors: Four band directors (80%) strongly agreed with this statement while one ban d director (20%) agreed (Figure 4 16) Band D irector 2 added: I think it is developmentally appropriate for high school as well as the first year of conducting in undergraduate school. Topics such as transposition are great if they know but it is not addressed by the FBA. Yes it does help in conducting a rehearsal b ut how would it be assessed? Band D irector 5 added: This program will serve all musicians in a high school band well. Maybe after viewing the curriculum and completing the assignments, a band student can better understand conductor gesture s and interpret the music in rehearsals/performances with greater ease thus improving their musicianship. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 57.14% 28.57% 14.29% 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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75 Figure 4 opinions on whether the content of this curriculum is developmentally appropriate for high school students. Content Area 2: Assessment The second section of the survey was designed to have the survey participants indicate the strength to which they agree or disagree with statements regarding the assessment method(s) of the RDSCC. The second section contained four statements. Statement 9: The assessment method for this curriculum (verbal presentation and conducting performance) is clearly described. Expert s: Four experts (57.14%) strongly agreed with this statement. One One expert (14.29%) disagreed with this statement (Figure 4 17) Expert 2 stated: Assessment methods should be listed in either the introduction or week one and should be more descriptive. What kind of rubric will be used? How will the student be rated? This information should be presented at the beginning of the module and perhaps restated throughout. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 80% 20% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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76 Figure 4 methods are clearly defined. Band Directors: All five band directors (100%) strongly agr eed with this statement (Figure 4 18) Band D The assessment metho ds were ea Figure 4 assessment methods are clearly defined. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 57.14% 14.29% 14.29% 14.29% 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 100% 0 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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77 Statement 10: The verbal presentation is an adequate method by which to Experts: Four experts (57.14%) strongly agreed with this statement while three experts (42.86%) agreed (Figure 4 19) Figure 4 presentation is an ad Band Directors: Four band directors (80%) strongly agreed with this statement while one band dir ector (20%) was neutral (Figure 4 20) Band D Great idea, more valuable than a written prese ntation for use irector 2 added: I am not sure if the presentation gives everyone a chance to adequately demonstrate their score st udy in part due to some student s inability to speak in front of others. It is one thing to talk to people but another entirely to present information. Some students may have difficulty with [that] aspect. I agree it is necessary to communicate clear objectives in rehearsal, but some will struggle with this. Band D with verbal presentation is to 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 57.14% 42.86% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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78 Figure 4 study. Statement 11: The conducting performance is an adequate method by Experts: Five experts (71.43%) strongly agr eed with this statement while one expert ( 14.29 %) agreed. O (Fig ure 4 21). Expert 5 added: The performance does not indicate whether the student actually understands the transposition and score study part. In essence, they could just be in front of the group waving their hands like a lot of band directors do (but I'm being sarcastic). 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 80% 0 20% 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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79 Figure 4 gesture. Band Directors: All five band directors (100%) strongly agr eed with this statement (Figure 4 22) Band D Strongly agree with this question the conducting performance was a fantastic assessment to see how all of the student conductor skills came together. Figure 4 ions on whether the conducting gesture. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 71.43% 14.29% 14.29% 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 100% 0 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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80 Statement 12: The combined assessment (verbal presentation and conducting performance) provides an accurate overall measure of the student's learning from this curriculum. Experts: Six of the experts (85.71%) strongly agreed with this statement while one expert (14.29%) agreed (Figure 4 23) Figure 4 whether the combined learning. Band Directors: Four band directors (80%) strongly agreed with this statement while one ban d director (20%) agreed (Figure 4 24) Band D irector 1 Outs D better way to assess the student 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 85.71% 14.29% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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81 Figure 4 s overall learning. Content Area 3: Additional Questions The third section of the survey was designed to provide survey participants with opportunities to respond to general statements regarding the student conductor activity and the RDSCC. In this secti on, statements designed for experts differ ed from those designed for band directors. Statement 13 (for experts) : A high school student conductor activity can be a productive and worthwhile activity. Three of the experts (42.86%) strongly agreed with this statement. Four of the experts (57.14%) agreed with this statement (Figure 4 25) Expert 1 added: I strongly agree and with your curriculum the experience could be enhanced greatly. The real issue of course is the extent to which they are given the opportunity to conduct. That, however, cannot be within the scope of your curriculum. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 80% 20% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disgree Strongly Disgree

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82 Figure 4 activity can be a pro ductive and worthwhile activity. Statement 14 (for experts) : The state in which I reside offers a high school student conductor assessment. One expert (28.57%) indicated that he/she resides in a state that offers a high school student conductor assessment Six experts (71. 43%) indicated that they reside in a state that does not offer a student conductor assessment (Figure 4 26) There is never enough time to thoroughly teach the students, so they end up (usually) doing the best they can to look like their director. That can be good or that can be not so good. I am in Oklahoma, and I do not know if this is a part of high school band/music programs across the state. I do not believe so. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 42.86% 57.14% 0 0 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

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83 Figure 4 26. Percentages of school student conductor activity. Statement 15 (for experts) : Please add any additional commentary regarding this high school student conductor curriculum. Frankly, the program as I viewed it would be beneficial to many collegiate 101 type courses for beginning Expert 4 stated: You have done a great service to not only Florida, but to all other states who have such. It would seem to me that this would be publishable. The format is perfect for young p eople, for it is web based. Good luck. Expert 5 stated: I'm currently the Executive Administrator for the National Band Association an d we're in the process of constructing a new website that will involve a variety of areas that will be of help to band directors at all levels of teaching experience. Would you be interested in us putting your project in our Video Clinics area so that dir ectors could use it to teach student conductors (and maybe help the younger directors a little with th eir conducting)? Let me know. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 28.57% 71.43% Yes No

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84 Statement 13 (for band directors): I have previously mentored a high school student in the Florida Bandmasters Association Student Conductor Activity. (Figure 4 27) Figure 4 27. Percentages of high sch ool band directors that have mentored an FBA student conductor. Statement 14 (for band directors): Please add any additional commentary regarding this high school student conductor curriculum. Band D irector 1 stated: I am very thankful that [the resear cher] has put this curriculum together. Too often, high school conductors have been left "to their own devices" when mentoring their student conductors, with mixed results. This curriculum afforded me the opportunity to sequentially take my student condu ctor through a rigorous, pertinent method with outstanding overall results. The experience was worthwhile for everyone involved. Band D irector 2 stated: I feel this curriculum has been a great deal of thought and more than adequately addresses the needs for the FBA Student Conductor category for assessment. The curriculum also builds on the basics of conducting with more theory knowledge than is assessed by the FBA making for a stronger musician and 0% 50% 100% 100% 0 Yes No

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85 conductor. A person completing this curriculum would hav e an advantage going into undergraduate conducting classes. Band D irector 3 stated: The Florida Bandmasters Association is great for including the student conductor in its assessments. However, without any guidelines for the student, the process was quit e vague. I feel this is a great way to prepare students for a successful performance and experience, which provides studen ts with the time that most band directors can't realistically give. Band D ovide a tremendous resource to the band director in preparing students for the Student Table 4 1 presents descriptive statistics comparing survey statement responses from the expert group to that of the band director group. Results indicated that none of the twelve survey statements yielded a statistically significant difference between the groups. Table 4 1 Descript ive Statistics and Independent t Test Results of ( N =7) and N =5) Validation Survey Experts Band Directors Survey Statements M SD M SD df t p 1. The purposes and goals of the curriculum are clear and easily understood. 4.86 0.35 5.00 0.00 6 1.06 0.33 2. The instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. 4.71 0.45 4.80 0.40 9 0.36 0.72 3. The instructional content related to score study/preparation is accurate. 4.86 0.35 4.80 0.40 7 0.27 0.80 4. The content is clearly presented and easily understandable. 4.86 0.35 5.00 0.00 6 1.06 0.33 5. The content of this curriculum adequately covers the necessary content introduction to band conducting. 4.86 0.35 4.80 0.40 7 0.27 0.80 6. The sequencing of instructional material is logical. 4.43 0.73 4.80 0.40 9 1.13 0.29 7. The sequencing of learning activities (assignments, etc.) is logical. 4.71 0.45 5.00 0.00 6 1.71 0.14

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86 Table 4 1 continued Experts Band Directors Survey Statements M SD M SD df t p 8. The content included in this curriculum is developmentally appropriate for high conducting. 4.43 0.73 4.80 0.40 9 1.13 0.29 9. The assessment methods for this curriculum (verbal presentation and conducting performance) are clearly described. 4.14 1.12 5.00 0.00 6 2.03 0.09 10. The verbal presentation is an adequate method by which to assess the 4.57 0.4 9 4.60 0.80 6 0.07 0.94 11.The conducting performance is an adequate method by which to assess the 4.57 0.73 5.00 0.00 6 1.56 0.17 12. The combined assessment (verbal presentation and conducting performance) provides an accurate from this curriculum. 4.86 0.35 4.80 0.40 7 0.27 0.80 Mean scores calculated on a 5 point scale. Presentation of Results (Phase Two) Phase Two consisted of interviews of the band directors and their students. Each individual (n=10 ) was interviewed three times: prior to beginning the curriculum, at the midpoint of the curriculum, and after the curricu lum had concluded The following presentation of results contains themes that emerged from the student as well as themes that emerged from the band director experiences Each theme is supported by direct quotes from the interviews. Student Interview 1 perceptions of the student conductor activity. Additionally, students were asked questions regarding their participation in a curriculum designed spec ifically for

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87 studen t conductors. T wo t hemes emerged from the first student interview. The t wo themes we re: 1. Understanding of the s tudent c onductor activity 2. Areas and levels of excitement/interest Understanding of the student conductor a ctivity Prior to beginning the curriculum, most s tudents expressed a general understanding of the purposes and activities of a high school student conductor. S everal s tudents used the phrase and Student 5 used the phrase: to spark an inter est student conductor is basically to lead and conduct the band, but more so to learn and be influen nd musical interpretation as activities associated with student conducting. However Student 3 expressed a more l feel the role of the student conductor would be to keep the time for the drumline The st udents expressed various opinions regarding prior skills and knowledge that are important for a student conductor. Students 1 and 5 believed definitely important to have been an ens emble player . before getting up in Student 4 believed her background in AP Music Theory would be beneficial saying t he theory behind ed a more basic Three of the students felt that having been drum major at their respective high

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88 schools would help them in the student conductor activity. Areas and levels of excitement/interest All five students expressed a level of excitement to be involved in the student conductor curriculum. Comments regarding excitement included very specific topics such as most Student 3). Some students expressed how, in the most simple way, to transmit the [musical] idea . to the ensemble about how you int Student 4 about how to improve it, and how to go along with the band, and adapting to Students also expressed low levels of excitement and interest regarding certain areas of the student conductor activity Student 3 said he is least excited identified expectations as a source of apprehension saying: probably end up needing the most work when it comes to learning how to fix things in music. . [My band director] always knows what to go to next. . I feel like that is probably going to be my issue. Student 2 referred to the amount of practice that is needed of a student conductor:

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89 There are a lot of small nuances that come into any of the physical movements and gestures . and [this will] involve a lot of practice just to get them to look the way that you intend them to look. To c onclude the interview, students were asked if, at this point, they were interested in a career that involves music conducting. Student 1 responded: Band Director Interview 1 The first band director interview was designed to examine the band student conductor activity as administered by FBA. In total the band director group has mentored over 40 students in the FBA student conductor activity. Therefore, their perceptions regarding the overall concepts of a student the studen t conductor activity, were based on vast experience. Four themes emerged from the band were : 1. Current structure of the FBA student conductor activity 3. Reasons for participation 4. Expecta tions of the student conductor 5. Concerns with participation in the student conductor activit y Current structure of the FBA student conductor activity On the topics of purposes, learning activities, sequencing of learning activities, and evaluation of learning, the band directors expressed a general disappointment with the level of structure as defined by the FBA. Four of the five band directors

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90 felt that the purposes of the FBA student conductor activity were not made clear. lly expand on why we even do the student Band Director 2 He continued by expressing that he felt as though the FBA had begun to deemphasize the student conductor activit y by removing it from the state level assessment, saying: If the student has worked, prepared, and conducted the piece at a successful level, they should be given the opportunity to do that at p ar ticipating. See you next time. All five band directors agreed that the FBA did not identify learning activities or sequencing of activities Director 4). Band Director 1 expressed: Specific to the conductor, there are no learning activities. Even the student conductor pieces are limited to four Grade 3 selections. I equireme nts and guidelines for the student conductor are very limited in scope. I Band Director 5 felt that the information provided by FBA regarding

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91 Band Director 2 agreed on the lack of pr ovided learning activitie s, but felt it an issue. He said: is to provide a structure and framework and a set of activities for students to participate in and the bylaws and rule s associated with those activities. But as far as providing anything other than a best curriculum. assessment of the that, probably, is w adjustments to the rating sheet an d training of the judges. Band Director 4 said: sheet. I feel those are accurat le performance errors and conductor errors, saying: take into account enough of the conductor vs. the ensemble. The conductor might have done exactly what he addressing ensemble issu es as opposed to what the student conductor is doing on the podium. Band Director 4 and Band Director 5 agreed that weaknesses in the assessment included a lack of rubric and judge training. Band Director 5 said: done it, the judge student conductor. Well, let me dig out that piece of paper. expressed: There is no rubric associated with it. I feel that it can be very very ly given much

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92 conductor at all. I know you get trained in concert and sight judging the student conductor. Reasons for participa tion The most prominently expressed reason for participation amongst band directors was the opportunity for their students to gain experience that would be beneficial to them as future music educators and future music conductors. I think one [purpose] is to help prepare . kids for the opportunity to get in front of an ensemble before Band Director 2 stated: We encourage certain kids in our programs to pursue music education at a higher level because we feel like they would be a credit to our profession, or that they would have something to contribute to the live s of kids. But without a student conductor of an ensemble ensemble at least a handful of times to know whether or not this profession is for them. Too often we send kids into the profession who like band they like band. They find out that teaching responsibilities, conducting responsibilities, score what they liked about band. Band directors also mentioned t them more of an overall musical experience being on the other side of the students actively using their ears in rehearsal. Because the stuff they do on the podium they can [now] Additionally, Band Director 4 and Band Director 5 fel t that their bands benefitted from having a different conductor in front of them.

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93 a student can actually relate to the other students in the ensemble better and maybe explain some things in a way that maybe the directo Band Director 5 identified character development as a primary reason for participating in the student conductor act ivity. He st developm ent, and getting them confident in front of their peers. Leadership I opportunity, how different I would have been eight weeks later Expect ations of the student conductor Each band director identified several musical and non musical expectations of their student conductor Band Directors 1, 2, and 4 identified improvement in conducting gestures as an expectation. Band Directors 2, 3, and 4 identified developme nt of score reading skills as an expectation. Band Director 2 expected down a score and understand how transposition works, how the notes on the sical hierarchy: melody, countermelody Band Directors 1, 3, and 4 mentioned that they expect ed the initial rehearsal processes, but after that I let them bring out w hat they want Director 2 did not expect his s tudent to gain rehearsal skills: that is part of it. It could be seen as part of it. Bu t, being an

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94 effective conductor and being an effective rehearser/educator are two very different things. . I just want them to be able to get from the beginning to the end of the pi e ce successfully while communicating with th e ensemble through gestures. They can learn to rehear se at another point in time. Band Director 5 expressed that he expected to see a growth in musical cu riosity from his student. There needs to be that inherent interest in delving into things on a de eper level. Obviously, now we re not just looking at beat pattern. page. Now I have to show that through conducting. . I think that requires a certain level of intellect and curiosi ty. Among the most prominent n o n musical expectations were aspects of character development able to notice a measurable quantifiable difference in her confidence level and how she is interacting with is not going to ever conduct again in their life, this whole experience is going to Band Director 3 identified peer leader obviously has to maintain a professional but communicative relationship with the Concerns with participation in the student conductor activity Four of the band directors expressed concern over having enough time to devote to the student conductor activity. Common concerns included the band directors to work one on one with the students as well as not providing the student wit h enough time on the podium. Time is the biggest concern right now just because

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95 looking at the whole academic and musical year and realizing how busy w e are . . Band Director 5 expressed: concern f or band directors: We always feel we need that one more rehearsal for that assessment. Doing the student conductor takes away time from that rehearsal. Being able to regularly schedule time for that student conductor to not only work on the conducting b ut also work on the student conductor piece. . All of it is just scheduling and appropriate planning for rehearsal. Student Interview 2 The second student interview was comprised of two sections. The first section was designed to reexamine the student student conductor activity. Questions 1 5 were retained from the first interview to activity had changed over the first four weeks of the curricul um. Section two was perceptions as participants in the RDSCC. Six themes emerged from the second student interview. The six themes were: 1. Changes in perception of the student conductor activity 2. Areas and levels of excitement/interest 3. Perceptions of outside of class activities 4. Perceptions of c onducting experiences 5. Time management 6. Changes in perception regarding music as a career Changes in perception of the student conduc tor activity Through their responses to the second interview, the students exhibited expanded perceptions on the purposes and activities of the student conductor. Prior to

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96 beginning the curriculum, Student 3 stated the primary role of the student conduc the band to have them understand the dynamics, tempos of the piece, all of the ferma tas, [and] key ch Student 1 referenced the previously unmentioned knowledge of music and what an ensemble should sound like. How every voice Student 4 ex pressed a change in perception regarding a non musical responsibility Areas and levels of excitement/interest Students shared their opinions r egarding aspect of the curriculum that were exciting and interesting to them as well as aspects that were less exciting and less interesting. Some s tudent s exhibited changes in perceptions between the first interview and the second interview. In the firs t interview, Student 1 expressed that he was excited to conduct He was much more specific in the second interview, Created. There [are] no set fermatas, but there are pauses So, I take pauses now] most interested in conducting ballads, because I feel those are the most powerful music and the hardest to play. Students 2 and area of role

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97 Student 5 showed no change in what excited her about student conducting (conducting concert band music) When asked to identify an area of student conducting he was least excited use. . iced concern: reflect different styles or passages, tion to take in and actually be able to practice. Students 4 and 5 referenced areas of nervousness. Student 4 expressed an area she was least excited about. Similarly, Student 5 sai d she was least excited Outside of class activities The students articulated the average amount of time they spent per week on the out of class conducting activities described in the RDSCC The activities were: conducting gesture practice, score study, transposition practice, and journal reflection. Time spent varied between students as well as between activities. Conducting g esture practice Students 3, and 4 spent between two and three hours per week on conducting gesture practice. Student 2 practiced conducting gestures for one hour per week, and Studen

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98 Score study On average, students spent less time on score study than on conducting gesture practice Students 1, 2, and 3 spent between 45 minutes to an hour on score study, while Student 5 only spent twenty minu tes. Student 4 had not spent any time on score Transposition practice There was significant variance between students on how much time was spent on transposition practice. Student 3 spent the most time ( five hours). Students 2 and 3 indicated spending 30 minutes on amount of time on transpositi on, resp a lot of time on that Journal reflection Journa l reflection was another area with variance. 3, and 4 spent between one and two hours per week on their journal reflections. Student 1 appeared to be the most involved in his journal reflection, saying: [ I spend] a lot of time. I do more than the questions. I take notes in my documents. . The students were also asked to indicate to what extent they involve d their band director in their out of class activities (i.e. checking work, asking questions, one on one conducting help). Student 1 said: I was confused about transposing in the key of Bb, so we spent about fifteen to twenty minutes going over transposing on the about how I can improve my technique of conducting.

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99 Stu discussed with him and continue to do so fairly frequently. Almost every few season, things are still a little Conducting experiences The students were asked to indica te how many times, and for how long each time, they conducted their band during the first half of the RDSCC. They were also asked if they felt this amount of time was sufficient. Additionally, the students were asked to comment on the extent to which the y felt the out of class activities affected their conducting sessions. responded: I wish I could spend the whole time going over it with them so I can truly understand. Every time I start working on it with the piece or with the ensemble. When asked to what exten t the outside of class activities had on his T his [conducting] course has Student 2 said that between conducting warm drum major conducting in this answer. Student 2 felt that this time was een

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100 understanding and defining basic technical skills. Transposition practice has actually come up a few times in use. The journal reflection definitely helps to see Student 3 indicated that he conducted his band a total To the question of the out side of class activities affecting his conducting sessions, t ime changes, fermatas, cut Student 4 stated that she has conducting her ban try to apply it to my conducting, so I do Student 5 responded that she has conducted her band a total of three times. o planning to When asked to what extent the outside of class activities had on his conducting sessions, Student 5 Time management Students we re asked to comment on the extent to which it was difficult to include participation on the RDSCC into their personal schedules. Students 1, very challenging considering

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101 curricular ac tivities. So, it is really difficult to include this. But, at the same time, I always make sure that I the RDSCC into their personal schedules. Student 2 stated: Not to o difficult, honestly. I can get a lot of practice conducting either in class or outside rehearsals. As far as other schoolwork, I spend a few hours a week working on academic classes, but it still leaves more than enough time to work on the conducting c urriculum. Changes in perception regarding music conducting as a career Similar to the first interview, students were asked if, at this point, they were interested in a career that involved music conducting. Students 1 and 2 again previously indicated that he was interested in a music conducting career, uninterested in a career involving music conducting. Band Director Interview 2 The second band director interview was comprised of two sections. The first section was d esigned to reexamine the overall perceptions of the student co nductor activity. Questions 1, 3, 4, and 5 were retained from the first interview to examine the extent to which the perceptions of

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102 the student conductor activit y had changed over the first four weeks of the curriculum. Section two was designed to compile detailed information on the experiences and perceptions as participants in the RDSCC. Six themes emerged from the second student interview. Th e six themes were: 1. Changes in expectations of their student conductors 2. Changes in perception of what skills and knowledge are important for student conductors to de velop 3. C on cerns of participation in RDSCC 4. Perceptions 5. Perc eptions of outside of class activities 6. Suggestion s for improvement of the RDSCC w eeks 1 4 Changes in expectations of their student conductors After participating in the first four weeks of the RDSCC, three band directors experienced changes in perception regarding their expectations of the student conductor. Band Director 1 shared that his expectations of his student have piece, but like a b and director in training, learni ng transposition, and taking a Director 2 felt that his expectations had lowered: I spent all last season trying to get [the student conductor] to emote, to show energy and emotion through body language and teenagers can be successful conductors from a technical standp energetic conductors, due to the natural inhibitions of the age group. Band Director 4 conveyed that his expectations have not necessarily changed, but are more defined as a result of partici pation in the first four weeks

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1 03 Changes in perception of important student conductor skills and knowledge Band Direc tor 4 expressed a change in perception regarding study and the music theory part of it. Previously, I was really just preparing my tinued saying that now he stresses the Band Director 5 said that he had one change in perception: There really needs to be some sort of component that really addresses more While Band Director 2 did not necessarily exhibit a change in perception regarding important skills and knowledge for a student conductor, his response in the s to cue on any beat, different patterns, standard tempos, ability to internally subdivide to maintain tempos, to be able to do rubato and accelerando through internal subdivision Concerns of participation in RDSCC Time management remained a concern for two band directors. Band Director 1 expressed a concern similar to conductor stuff it always fee A lot of it is time management. Finding time for it without putting other things at . . Fin ding the time to be sure that our music in

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104 Band Director 4 acknowledged that time management could be problematic, but felt that I feel that the [tim how to provide a good balance to my band program where it other directors, especially younger directors, may not be able to provide the acc urate time management that is needed to make sure that the student conductor process is also benefiting their band. I think the feeling is this is just going to benefit the student conductor e class, and I truly feel like that is not the intention of this at all. I really feel that the entire program should benefit, not just the student conductor. In the first interview, devote enough time to the student conductor activity His response in the second interview changed to : N o concerns whatsoever. I consider it a critical part of the overall band package. In order to have a healthy band program you have to be able to offer everything that programs typically offer, and that includes [the] student conductor. Band Director 5 also offered a different perspective, saying he was and importance of it. It feels l podium time The band directors were asked how many times, and for how long each time, their student conducted the band during the first four weeks of the RDSCC. Additionally, the band directors were asked the extent to which they felt this allotment of ti me was adequate. Band Director 1 reported that his student conducted the band two to three times

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105 week for twenty to twenty doubling our efforts in the next we ek. Ideally it would have been twice a week for time on the podium to be adequate. Band Director 4 reported his student received two to three sessions per week for approxima tely five minutes each trying to get down some basic patterns and styles (legato vs. staccato). I think continually be r with Band Director 2 reported that during the first four weeks of the RDSCC, his This represents a significant discrepancy between Band Director 2 and the other four band directors. This discrepancy could potentially be explained by the combination of two assumptions : 1) the student conductor is also their marching ajor, and 2) the band di rector perceives drum major conducting as relevant to the RDSCC. Perceptions of outside of class activities The band directors were asked to indicate the extent to which their students involved them in the ir outside of class activities Additionally, the band directors were asked for their

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106 perceptions on the extent to which those activities affected their conducting sessions with the band. Only Band Director 1 felt as if his student involved him in the outside of of class activities s really He in the outside of class activities. Band Director 2 commented that his student Band Director 3 state participating in [the outside of class Band Directors 4 and 5 reported similar theories as to why their students did not involve them more. d me because she probably sees on s felt as though the out of class act ivities were benefitting improve d. She is not just conducting. S

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107 r 4). Band flute part for dear life as she watches i t go across the score, like first couple of times in front of the ensemble. No question about it. I think now, some of rehearsal or not, I think she goes into rehearsal feeling like she has more tools in her toolbox to build what needs to be built. I think the curriculum activities just give her confidence. Band Director 5 also commented on some concerns he had with the outside of class activities. While he believed his student had made [Student 1] about the ocean, or taking her to see it Band Director 5 also mentioned having difficulty with the tutoring environment: on one. It can be a get so comfortable with the mater ial because of the awkwardness. else feels so hypothetical. Suggestions for improvement in the RDSCC weeks 1 4 The band directors were asked to provide suggestions for improvement in the RDSCC for weeks 1 though 4. Band Director 1 suggested more prescribed involvement from the band director: [suggest] more engagement from the band director through some type of take a backseat and check in every once and a while.

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108 Band Director 3 suggested adjusting the weekly content with regard to the amount of gestural instruction versus music theory instruction: The first part of the curriculum is technique heavy and the second the beginning and then going on to theory later . mixing up the curriculum for each of the weeks. Band Director 5 suggested adding activ ities that helped students get comfortable being in front of a group: You might need exercises that really stretch you, especially as a kid. Getting them comfortable in an emotional sense in front of their peers. When I was in high school, I would have been shaking do you accelerate that process? Public speaking. Get them to break down their barriers. Student Interview 3 The third, and final, student interview was comprised of three sections. the student conductor activit y. Questions 1 5 were retained from the first and student conductor activity had changed over the final four weeks of the c urriculum. Section two was designed to compile de tailed information on the 6 10 were retained from the second interview to examine the extent to which the final four weeks. Eight themes emerged from the final student interview. The eight themes were: 1. Changes in perception of the student conductor activity 2. their participation in RDSCC 3. Perceptions of outside of class activities

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109 4. Perceptions of c onducting experiences 5. Time management 6. Perceptions of online format 7. Perceptions of the assessment 8. Effect(s) of RDSCC on future involvement in music Changes in perception of the student conductor activity The students continued to exhibit changing perceptions of the purposes and activities of a student conductor. The most common change in perception was related to the role of t he student conductor. Three of the five student conductors cited Students stated very few changes in perception regarding the areas of student conducting in which they were least excited about and with a lowered level of excitement in this area, Student 4 was quick to acknowledge her improvement: I think over this process, my ability has their participation in RDSCC All five of the student conductors identified areas of their personality that affected their participation in the RDSCC. Student 2 identified himself as an

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110 Student 4 referenced an extra musical activity that president of the speech and debate club. So, I k now how to speak to people. I Conversely, one student conductor expressed that participation in the RDSCC had an effect on his personality. However, he expressed that participation in the RDSCC actually improved his helped me break the barrier and become more up Perceptions of outside of class activities The students were again asked to articulate the amount of time spent on specified outside of class activities. The activities were: conducting gesture practice, score study, transposition practice, journal reflection, and dev elopment (writing/revision) of their score summary. spent on each activity to similar reports made in the second interview. Conducting gesture practice Student 1 reported the most amount of time spen nd 4 reported spending between one and two hours per week on conducting gesture. Student Score study Regarding score study, Students 1, 2, 3, and 4 reported spending between 1 and 2 hours, while Student 5 reported les s time (twenty to thirty minutes). Students 1, 2, and 3 reported spending approximately one hour

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111 practice with that because I was in AP Music Theory. So, [I practiced] about t Journal reflections There was large discrepancy between students on amount of time spent on journal reflections. Student 2 indicated the largest amount of t 1, 3, and 5 each reported spending thirty minutes or less per wee k on their journal reflections. Development (writing and revision) of score summary There was also large discrepancy be tween students on time spent on the development (writing and revision) of their score summary. Student 4 reported the largest amount of time (two hours per week). Students 1 and 2 reported similar amounts of time (1.5 hours per week). Student 1 added: When I first wrote it, it took me about an hour and a half. That was writing it and proof reading it. From there, every week, the more I would work with the ensemble, I would either add more or take away from what I previously wrote because I felt like t he more I got into it, the more I needed to put into it because I understood the piece more. Student 3 reported spending thirty minutes per week on the score spend that much ti Involving their band director Similar to the second interview, the students were asked to indicate the level to which they involved their band director in the out of class activities. Student the most part, a lot. .

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112 ing practice I had was with him. I got a lot of conducting feedback and opportunities Student 3 indicated that he wished he had more time with the from in Student 5 also expressed that she wished she had involved her band director more. and not back to normal in the c oncert band setting. School work, for me, Perceptions of conducting experiences The students were asked to indicate how many times, and for how long each time, they conducted their band during the second half of the RDSCC. They were also asked if they felt this amount of time was sufficient. Additionally, the students were asked to comment on the extent to which they felt the out of class activities affected their conducting sessions. Student 1 stated that h When asked to what extent the out of class activi ties affected his conducting sessions, he replied: Every time I conducted before doing research on the conductor, I would just conduct it on auto. But, from doing some background checks on the piece and the composer, I was able to portray, in my opinion, Student 2 stated that he conducted his band for approximately two hours

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113 Additionally, Student 2 expressed that the outside of clas s activities affected his individual time just working on the smaller nuances of conducting and the journal reflection to really determine what my progress was each day and eac h week He felt that this was adequate, and that the score study and transposition exercises helped him the most during his conducting sessions. Student When asked to what extent the outside of class activities had on her conducting sessions, Student 4 replied: Tha Welsh Rhapsody I realized something that I was practicing in score study which was the oboe part going along with the clarinet part, and I was able to cue it in and tell the oboe what to do right t hen. sessi highlight, and had me make notes to myself of what I needed to do, and I think I improved a lot from doing that (Student 5). Time management The s tudents were again asked to comment on the extent to which it was difficult to include participation in the RDSS into their personal schedules, taking into account other s choolwork and other possible extra curricular activities. Students 2 and 3 conveyed that it was not difficult to

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114 found time for studying conducting. On days where I thought I wo all since I had some opportunities in class to conduct. As far as the [outside of class] activities, a couple of hours each week, split up across the d too 4, and 5 conveyed having a more difficult time integrating the RDSCC into their personal schedules. Student 5 Perceptions of online format The s tudents were asked to share their they were comfortable with the online format, each having had previous experiences with online courses. Student 2 expressed: It definitely made it more convenie nt. I could access it any time. . I would go back to the website throughout the day or evening if I might only have access to them at a certain time. She re study and I have to look back 5 conveyed mixed feelings regarding the online platform. While she stated that t of the online Perceptions of the assessment The student conductors were asked if they felt the discussion/performance was an appropriate way to show what they

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115 learned as a student conductor. All five students responded affirmatively. Student 1 said: In looking back from where I was in week one knowing nothing about conducting, to the end of week eight with my summary of the composition and with th e composer, for me personally, it showed my growth in learning about student conducting and performing with an ensemble. as the skills all Additionally, the students were aske d to rate the helpfulness of specific aspects of the RDSCC in preparing them for the discussion/performance using a 10 point rating scale, ranging from 1 ( not helpful at all ) to 10 ( very helpful). Conducting sessions with the band ( M = 9.4) and review ing videos of my own conducting ( M = 9) were identified as the most helpful. Transposition practice ( M = 5.8) and journal reflections ( M = 7.2) were identified as among the least helpful (Table 4 2 ). Table 4 2 Descriptive Statistics and Independent t Test Results of Band N= 5) and N educational activities in the RDSCC Band Directors Students Educational Activities M SD M SD df t p 1. Instructional videos 10.00 0.00 8.80 1.47 4 1.82 0.14 9.40 0.80 7.80 1.47 6 2.14 0.08 3. Transposition practice 8.80 0.98 5.80 2.48 5 2.52 0.05 4. Conducting sessions with the band 9.60 0.80 9.40 0.80 8 0.40 0.70 5. Reviewing video(s) of your own conducting 9.50 0.87 9.00 1.10 6 0.76 0.48** 6. Writing the score essay 7.40 1.74 7.40 1.62 7 0.00 1.00 7. Journal reflections 8.20 0.98 7.20 0.98 8 1.61 0.15 Mean scores calculated on a 10 point scale. ** One of the band directors did not score this activity. Therefore, statistics for this activity were calculated using N = 4 for the band director group. Effect(s) of RDSCC on future involvement in music The s tudents were asked to what extent participation in the RDSCC has affected their interest

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116 de to pl ay in the band. So, I was kind of Finally, the s tudents were aske d to indicate what exten t participation in the RDSCC affected their interest in a career that involves music conducting. Student 1 responded: A lot. Doing this has given me the opportunity to work with an ensemble and helped me kind of gauge my feelings on if I want to continue to do this, and I do. This course has really helped me decide what I want to do with my career. Student 2 remained c onsistent in his plans for considering music conducting as a career: I was already planning on going into music education. It was useful in college. I feel like it gave me a step up on this experience. Student 3 was the only student to express a change in perception regarding a potential career in music conducting. In the first interview, he In the second interview, his r esponse Band Director Interview 3 The third, and final, band director interview was comprised of four

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117 perceptions of the student conductor activity. Questions 1 4 were retained from perceptions of the student conductor activity had changed over the final four weeks of the curriculum. Section two was designed to compile detailed the RDSCC. Questions 5 9 were retained from the second interview to examine over the final four weeks of the curriculum. Section three consisted of three questions designed to obtain the band directors activities of the RDSCC. Section four consisted of four question designed to offer the band directors an opportunity to give concluding perceptions on the validity and relevance of the RDSCC. Nine themes emerged from the s econd third interview. The nine themes were: 1. Perceptions of student conductor purposes/expectations 2. 3. Perceptions of outside of class activities 4. Perceptions of online format 5. Difficulties of participating in the RDSCC 6. P erceptions on the assessment(s) in the RDSCC 7. Suggestions for improvement of the RDSCC 8. Perceptions of mentoring student conductor with the RDSCC and without the RDSCC 9. Perceptions of student conductor purposes/expectations Generally speaking, all five band directors expressed consistent opinions regarding the

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118 purposes of the student conductor activity. However, Band Director 2 was more direct in his response: You cannot know what this job i s about without sitting in front of a group, leading them through a piece of music. Kids that go into this because this is nothing of what we do. I think student conductor is one compone nt of the overall package that should prepare interested students for a future in music education roles. And, not of those rolling around out there taking jobs and ruining programs. With reg ard to expectations of the student conductor, Band Directors 1, 2, and 3 remained consistent with the ir opinions expressed in the se cond interview. Band Director 4 the band, I think my expecta tions broadened [compared to] the past years. . I Additionally, Band Director 4 expected his student to be involved in rehearsal Band Director 5 shared his expanded expectation of leadership from his student: We have weekly officer meetings througho ut the course of the year. Is she taking a more active and vocal role in those officer not so much the case now. Perceptions regarding the skills and knowledge required of a student conductor also changed. Band Director 1 expressed a more varied list of required skills compared to his first and second interviews. In his final interview, he said: Pois e in front of an ensemble. They need to have a concrete idea of what they want to hear. They need to lead the band instead of the band leading them. They need to have clearly defined

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119 their body. The y [need the] willingness to experiment. [They need a] lack of fear of looking silly in front of an ensemble. Band Director 5 also expressed a more varied list of required skills than in his previous interviews He stated: There needs to be an inherent am ount of self confidence . . I think you have to be a good musician. . You have to have somebody up there know how to fix it. . You have to have a very pleasant, even kee led personality. The band directors were asked to comment on how many times, and for how long each time, their students conducted the band. Additionally, the band directors were asked if they felt this amount of time was sufficient. Band Director 1 said his student school ficient. Band Director 4 rehearsing a choral e rector 4 said that he felt this time was not sufficient. Band Director 5 shared that his student conducted three or four times per week

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120 He r level of comfort and execution grew exponentially in about one week or one and a half weeks before she conducted at the concert. I noticed it and the kids noticed it. It was something that suddenly started to become much more natural. . The kids w ere noticing it, and the environment that we have is such that the kids felt comfortable complimenting her and her not taking it as an insult for how she had been before. She would get done with a movement, for the kids themselves to see she was a whole different conductor than she was when she started. Perceptions of outside of class activities The band directors were asked to indicate the extent to which their students involved the m in their outside of class activities during weeks four through eight of the RDSCC Additionally, the band directors were asked for their perceptions on the extent to which those Director 1 did feel as though the outside of think it gives him a lot to think about. . Typically, we give our kids a piece and rehearse the piece but I think the outside activities, because it was not designed for a specific piece, gives him a broader idea of content. sional questions, but [Student 2] is self guided. He wants to go into the profession. That absolutely of class activities, Band Director 3 said: [Student 3] would ask me about techniques and what he should do so the students were clear about what to do musically. He would

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121 go through the techniques on the videos and as k questions about how to apply it to the piece and our band. Additionally, Band Director 3 felt the outside of class activities caused allowed him to get a little data on of class activities helped : B and Director 5 indicated that Student 5 involved him in the outside of class I initiated the conversation certainly as much as she With regard to the extent to which the outside of class activities affected St But, I certainly could guide and give direction to what she was going to do. I think the [outside of class activities] gave her a course heading. . It was hard to tell if the improvement came solely from the one on one sessions or from individual work. As [the performance] was getting closer, I think she was putting in more time outside of it. . Just her gesturing seemed significantly different and more comfortable in the last little bit. Perceptions of online format The band directors were asked to comment on the extent to which the online nature of the RDSCC affected their cated that their students had prior these days are pretty knowledgeable on navigating online courses. Half of my

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122 students are involved in online activities at some point througho Band Director 2 said: think the fact that [the RDSCC] is online is a very valuable resource. . The ability to go and review lessons that are already presented, as oppos ed to catch it onc I Band Director 5 expressed: I would say it was very very helpful. Even more so than my one on one sessions with her. . She would have maybe twenty to thirty minutes with me, but that was something she had access to and as a resource whenever she wanted it. So, I think that may be even more significant. Difficulties of participating in the RDSCC Similar to the perceptions shared in their second interviews, several band d irectors identified the main Band Director 5 shared this opinion, but referenced not only th e difficulty in scheduling rehearsal time for the student conductor, but also scheduling one on one time: The only difficulty was time. It was just making time to give [Student 5] time in front of the students. Just figuring out the time to work with he r individually, and not fill that time up with returning emails and phone calls and all the stuff that comes with this job. Perceptions on the assessment(s) in the RDSCC The band directors were asked to share their opinions on the appropriateness of th e discussion/performance as an assessment tool for the student conductor activity. Band Directors 3 and 4 believed that t he discussion/performance was tailored to what a conductor

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123 discussion/performance was an effective method of assessing the student there could be a question/answer session with the adjudicator. The judge could Director 2 offered a similar [would] get asked questions Band Director 5 commented that hi s student did not prepare a score method] you suggested should have been done. The only thing I would have done differently would be to have her speak to the experience and the pi Additionally, the band directors were asked to rate the helpfulness of specific aspects of the RDSCC in preparing their student for the discussion/performance using a 10 point rating scale, ranging from 1 (not helpful at all) to 10 (very helpful). Instructional videos ( M = 10.0 ) and conducting sessions with the band ( M = 9 .6 ) were identified as the most helpful. Writing the score essay ( M = 7.4 ) and conducting ( M = 7.6 ) were identified as among the lea st helpful (Table 4 2 ). Suggestions for improvement of the RDSCC The band directors were asked for suggestions toward improving weeks five through eight of the RDSCC. techniques through video. .

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124 Band Director 2 suggested : introducing some advanc ed concepts in conducting. The types of kids that are going to be involved in this type of curriculum are going to be near the top before going right into conducting the piece. Maybe having a specific Bach chorale Harmony in Bb to have the kids build their confidence in being in front of Perceptions of mentoring student conductor with the RDSCC and without the RDSCC Combined, the five band directors have mentored over forty student conductors in the FBA student conductor activity (Figure 4 28 ). Each band director was asked to compare the experiences of mentoring a student conductor without the RDSCC to mentoring a student conductor with the RDSCC. Band D afterthought. This curriculum here prepares not just the arms and techniques, but also the thought processes that go on behind the scenes. Band Director 2 sier with the curriculum. Band Director 3 Director 4 expressed: nice for the student to have a resource to go to so they can work at home. In the past, you can thorough. [Student 5], from a conducting perspective, achieved at a higher level

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125 Figure 4 28. Number of students mentored in the FBA student conductor activity. Perceptions of the student condu The band directors were asked to comment on the extent to which the RDSCC has prepared his student for further study in music (e.g. college/university level). All five band directors expressed that the RDSCC had helped in this regard. Band Director 1 stated: studio musician, so I think the extra thought and consideration far as tea ching, conducting and managing ensembles. Band Director 2 commented: kids who have abilities before they walk in the r oom are the kids who are successful in the classroom. Band Director 3 expressed: It allowed [Student 3] to relate to what we do as educators. It well, make music, and be forced to show w hat he wants of the game. 0 5 10 15 20 12 16 3 5 6 Band Director 1 Band Director 2 Band Director 3 Band Director 4 Band Director 5

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126 Band Director 4 shared a similar opinion: he does decide to do this in the future, which I certainly hope she does, she will be much more prepared than many other students entering a music education curriculum. Band Director 5 also felt as if the RDSCC helped prepare his student for future study the things we did in college. [Student 5] would definitely be ahead of most of Summary of Results Validation by Experts The researcher compared the band director group using a n independent t test None of the items revealed a statistically significant difference between groups, indicating a strong congruence in validation of the RDSCC fo r high school stude nt conductor training In terms of curricular scope, the experts and high school band directors overwhelming agreed that the curriculum was appropriate for high school students. In terms of sequence, suggestion s for improvement included further integration of instructional videos throughout the eight week course and earlier integration of music theory concepts. The experts and high school band directors also validated the assessment methods of the RDSCC. A nearly significant difference ( t (6) = 2.03, p = 0.09) was found between groups on item 9. The assessment methods for this curriculum (verbal presentation and conducting performance) are clearly described One suggestion for improvement was to add the form.

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127 Perceptions Perceptions of the student conductor activity, and specifically the RDSCC, were obtained through several interviews over the duration of eight weeks. Several themes emerged from each interview. An analysis of themes reve aled four over arching themes: Purposes and expectations of the student conductor activity Throughout the RDSCC, students and band directors experienced changes in perceptions regarding the purposes and expectations of the student c onductor activity B statements indicated a growth in expectations with several directors adding rehearsal techniques/skills as an expectation of their student. The purposes and expectations of the student conductor progressing from basic Perceived importance of curricular activities Students and band directors indicated their perceptions of the importance of the curricular activities presented in the RDSCC in various ways (e.g. reported time spent on eac h activity, comments regarding activities, etc.). Results indicated that s ome perceptions changed over the duration of the study. Additionally, each participant used a rating scale to rate on the d iscussion/perfor mance. Each item from the band director group was compared to that of the student group the using a n independent t test There was a nearly statistically significant difference ( t (5) = 1.82, p = 0.05) in mean ratings between groups (band directors: M = 8.80, students: M = 5.80) on only one item:

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128 transposition practice All other items revealed no statistically significant differences. Difficulties in participation in the student conductor activity Students and band directors expressed various conc erns with participation in the FBA student conductor activity. All five band directors voiced disappointment in the structure of the activity as administered by the FBA However, t ime ma nagement was the largest concern with participation in the student c onductor activity from both band directors and students. All student conductors expressed increased interest in participating in music after high school. Students that initially indicated an interest in a career that involves music conduct ing (in the first interview) expressed higher levels of interest than those All five band directors in the RDSCC strongly prepared their student for further study in music.

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129 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the validity of a high school student conductor curriculum that clearly articulates and addresses specific educational outcomes. The researcher designed an eight week web based curriculum for high school student conductors. Seven experts in wind band conducting and five high school band directors were surveyed regarding validity of the Researcher Des igned Student Conductor Curriculum (RDSCC). Research has shown that a robust curriculum validation inc ludes input from multiple stake holders (e.g. experts, teachers, students) (Brooker & Macdonald, 2010) Hence, f urther valid ation of the curriculum involved obtaining the perceptions of those taking part in the curriculum (i.e. teachers and students). T he student conductor activity is typically extra curricular a nd voluntary on the part of the band director and student, thereb y adding extra credence to the band for the activity F ive high school band directors and their student conductors participated in a trial run of the curriculum. of the curriculum were documented through three time lapse interviews. This chapter contains a summary of the data collection pro cess followed by a discu ssion of the research questions. Finally, relevant issues, implications f or music education, and potential future research are discussed. Data Collection Seven experts in wind band conducting and five high school band directors evaluated the validity of the RDSCC using an electronic survey. The survey was comprised of three c ontent areas: 1) instructional content, 2)

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130 assessment, and 3) additional comments. The survey included Likert scale items in which the participant was asked to indicate the level to which they agree with a given statement on the curriculum (e.g. 1 = stron gly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). Each item included an area for participants to add additional comments. This data collection method was beneficial in gathering numerical data as well as accompanying commentary in a quick and efficient manner. The qua litative analysis of comments made in the validation process was highly beneficial in presenting a more detailed evaluation of the RDSCC. E ach participating band director and his/her student conductor were contacted on three occasions: prior to beginning the RDSCC, approximately halfway through the RDSCC, and at the conclusion of the RDSCC. Interview perceptions of the s tudent conductor activity in general, as well as their perceptions regarding the RDSCC ( Appendix J ) The interview timeline had a possible impact on the results of the study. The study was conducted in the fall concurrent with high school marching band activities. T he student conductor activity as administered by FBA, takes place in the spring, thereby relieving some of the time constraint s associated with marching band. In this study, band managemen t were possibly skewed as a result of extra time commitments from marching band activities. Discussion of Research Questions The findings of this study provided the following answers to the four research questions:

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131 1. To what extent does the Researcher Developed Student Conductor Curriculum ( RDSCC ) appropriate high school student conductor preparation? As previously stated, the FBA has not used a formalized curriculum for the mentorship of the student conductor. A primary focus of this study was to develop such a curriculum that will strengthen and sustain this activity for the high school students of Florida, as well as in other states. Therefore, it was critical to gain validation from wind band conducting ex perts in order to present the RDSCC as a worthwhile curriculum. Based on results of the survey, it is evident that t he seven identified wind band conducting experts found the curriculum to be valid and in alignment with appropriate high school student con ductor preparation In total, the survey statements produced 95.51% of responses in the categories. Additionally, t he experts found the RDSCC to have strong validity for teaching student conductors beyond the FBA student condu ctor activity. Expert 5, current ly the Executive Administrator for the National Band Association, expressed interest in including the RDSCC as a resource for all teachers belonging to the national organization. Based on this feedback, the RDSCC could be used not only for training student conductors, but also for current band directors wishing to improve their own conducting skills. Only one survey statement r Expert 2 expressed that the assessment methods for the curriculum should be presented earlier in the curriculum and a rubric for evaluation should be provided. These suggestions could be implemented in a revision of the RDSCC, resulting in a stronger curriculum.

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132 Further e xamination of the o verall expert data revealed an interesting albeit slight, discrepancy in responses. The majority (70.33%) of total expert survey category. However, when asked if the student conductor activity can be a productive and worthwhile activity more It appears as though while the experts strongly validated the RDSCC as a means of preparing a student conductor, they were slightly less confide nt in the overall need for the student conductor activity. As only 28.57% of the experts reside in a state that promotes a student conductor activity, t his could be due to a relative lack of familiarity with the activity. Perhaps with the successful impl ementation of the RDSCC, more wind band conducting experts would feel strongly that a student conductor activity could be a productive and worthwhile activity. As Expert 1 The strong levels of validation from the wind band conducting experts presents compelling evidence that the RDSCC will provide an enriching experience for high school student as well as their conducting mentors. 2. To what ex tent does the RDSCC align with high school band d irecto opinions of appropriate high school student conductor preparation? As previously stated, participation in the FBA student conductor activity is highly pertinent. Therefore, prior to implementation of the student conductor curriculum, the researcher thought it vital to gather the opinions of current high school band directors on the appropriateness of the RDSCC. In total, the five participating band directors have mentored over forty students in the FBA student conductor activity. According to the ir survey responses, t he band directors identified the

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133 RDSCC as a valid curriculum for the high school student condu ctor and in alignment with their opinions of appropriate high school student conductor preparation All aspects of the curriculum (instructional content sequenc ing, and assessment methods) were deemed appr opriate for high school student conductor prepar ation. In total, the survey statements produced 98.33% of Th ese level s of agreement produce a strong statement from current band directors that the RDSCC is highly appropriate and fitting with thei r expectations of a student conductor activity The researcher compared survey results from the expert group to that of the band director group. None of the twelve validation statements yielded a statisticall y signifi cant difference between groups. Thi s data indicates a strong congruence amo ngst the curriculum validators regarding these specific aspect s of the RDSCC. Furthermore, this data, along with the open ended comments, provides confirmation that the RDSCC is firmly in alignment with conducting e expectations of a student conductor curriculum. 3. outcomes in the RDSCC? Over the eight week curriculum, the students shared their experience s, successes, and difficulties as participants in the RDSCC. Overall, the students expressed satisfaction with the curriculum and appreciation for their involvement. Their interviews helped to provide a more thorough evaluation of the learning activities outcomes, and online format of the RDSCC. As the study results indicated, the student voice provided the emergence of themes, changes in

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134 perception over time, as well as differences between student perceptions and band director perceptions. Initially the students spent the largest amount of time on the activities of transposition practice and journal reflections, and less time on the a ctivities of conducting gesture practice and score study During the latter half of the curriculum, the students indicated a stark change, spending the largest amount of time on conducting gesture practice and score study and the least amount of time on transposition practice and journal reflections I t is possible that once students felt comfortable with transposition techniques, they felt less inclined to practice them. It is also likely that as students approached the discussion/performance, they felt more pressure to spend time on the activities t hat would be more easily assessed. One participant (Student 5) spent significantly less time on the outside of class activities than the other participants. Additionally, she did not complete the discussion/performance assessment as outlined in the RDSCC This is possible evidence of her perception of the importance of the activities and their relevance to her goals as a participant in the RDSCC. vities in preparing them for the discussion/performance. perceptions. When describing rceptions, it is important to outline the difference between statistical significance and practical significance. On statistical significance, Gall, Gall, and Borg (2010)

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135 p value of .05 generally is considered (p. 197) However, as Gall et al. described, practical significance is not determined by the p (p. 559) Given these parameters, t he only item to show a nearly statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) was transposition practice However, the practical significance of this data is evident in the difference in mean scores. It is, indeed, noteworthy that t he students ( M = 5.80) viewed transposition practice as far less helpful than the band directors ( M = 8.80) This could be attributed to ing of the usefulness of transposition skill s To address this discrepancy, perhaps the RDSCC should include more information on the importance and usefulness of transposition. Additionally, t he re was notable, although not statistically significant ( p = 0.08) discrepancy between the M M = 7.80) on directors found more value in the formative evaluations than the students The practical significance of this data is illustrated by the development of the following question: What methods of formative evaluation would the students find most helpful? Overall, students rated the activiti es involving gesture ( conducting sessions with the band ( M = 9.40) reviewing video(s) of your own conducting ( M = 9.00) and instructional videos ( M = 8.80)) as the most helpful. This is not surprising, in that students likely feel more pressure to be well prepared for the conducting responsibilities than they do the score preparation aspects. Also, the

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136 conducted the ensemble. That likely added elements of peer pressure a nd expectation that drove the student conductors to value gestural practice more than score study. All five students agreed that the online platform was a key component to successful participation in the RDSCC. Typically, an individual chosen by the band director to be a student conductor is an outstanding student in the band program. Not surprisingly, he/she is usually a high a chiever in several other areas (advanced academic course loads, extra curricular activities, etc.) The participants in the study indicated that the constant availability of the RDSCC, via the online platform, was a necessity in fitting the curriculum into their personal schedules. Each student commented that his/her interest in music study beyond high school was increased a s a result of participation in the RDSCC. Two students expressed an increased interest in majoring in music education as a result of participation in the RDSCC. These comments, along with similar affirmations made by the wind band conducting experts and band directors indicate that the RDSCC has merit as a preparatory course for music education majors. The topic of peer leadership emerged over the course of the RDSCC Initially, only Students 2 and 4 specifically identified peer leadership as a relevan t topic for the student conductor. By the third interview, four of the students had referenced peer leadership when describing the student conductor activity. t hat leadership qu alities were necessary for success as a student conductor activity. Others, following the conclusion of the RDSCC, expressed that a

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137 fundamental purpose of the activity was to teach them leadership skills. Only Student 5 refrained from ment ioning leadersh ip in any form. At the conclusion of the study, students shared their perspectives on specific leadership qualities that were enhanced f rom participation in the RDSCC. Students expressed improved confidence levels, public speaking ability, and increased involvement in organizational meetings (i.e., band leadership). This supports the notion that a student conductor activity has benefits in addition to musical advancement. As referenced in the related literature, it is valuable to capture the authentic student perspective in a curriculum (Brooker & Macdonald, 2010) Over the course of the eight weeks, the students were given several opportunities to share their opinions and perceptions of the RDSCC. As the ge of the student conductor activity grew, their perceptions regarding the activity changed and expanded to include broader musical topics as well as extra musical topics. The overwhelming consensus was an expression of sat isfaction with their participatio n Their perceptions as participants contribute d to a more robust analysis of the validity of the RDSC C 4. What are the high school band d activities and outcomes in the RDSCC? The band directors were asked to first validate the curriculum as an outside evaluator, then again as a participant. As participants, the band directors exhibited only two changes in perceptions rega rding the validity of the RDSCC: 1) one band director expressed a desire for more materia ls specifically for the band director; 2) two band directors changed their perception regarding the discussion/performance.

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138 The majority of band director responses regarding the format of the RDSCC indicated an appreciation for the self guided structure. However, Band Director 1 expressed a desire for specific instructions and guidelines for the participating band director throughout the curriculum. While the RDSCC was per haps some materials for the band directors would enhance the curriculum. Addi tional materials could include recommended methods for reviewing students outside of a recommended time line for conducting sessions, and a rubric for evaluating the M = 4.86) with the discussion/performance as an appropriate method of evaluating the students overall learning from the RD SCC. However, at the conclusion of the study, two of the band directors comments indicated a slight change in perception. Band Directors 1 and 2 agreed that the discussion/performance was an effective ing, but offered similar suggestions for changes to the summative assessment. Both band directors agreed that a question/answer format, administered by the student conductor adjudicator, would be a more effective assessment method. The band directo rs expressed satisfaction with the learning activities in the RDSCC Each director felt the outside of class activities positively affected the and overall learning as a student conductor fulness of educational activities in preparation for the discussion/performance

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139 student group in all categories. This is not surprising, given their increased understanding of how helpful the various activ ities are to the overall student conducting experience. Overall, the band director group rated the activities One possible explanation for this would be that the band direct ors viewed the conducting gesture portion of the curriculum as the most important, thereby attaching more importance to those activities designed for gestural improvement. An alternative explanation would be that the band directors were impressed by unimpeded access to gestural instruction. It is worth noting that i nitially, none of the band directors mentioned th e learning of rehearsal techniques in their descriptions of a student conductor activity. However, over the course of the RDSCC, t hree of the band directors had incorporated rehearsal techniques in to the curriculum. While rehearsal techniques are not cov ered in the RDSCC, the concepts introduced in the RDSCC do help to establish the necessary foundation for such advanced concepts. Student conductors, having learned score study techniques and transpositions, will likely be better prepared for rehearsal tec hnique instruction. The band directors indicated that the online platform of the RDSCC greatly assisted in the time management of the s tudent conductor activity. Band Director 5 referenced the RDSCC thereby relieving him of the time it would take to develop a plan of instruction.

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140 s creating a better prepared and more focused conducting experience. student conductor activity was to provi de conducting opportunities to potential music education major s All five band directors expressed that participation in Furthermore, several band directors suggested that, as a result of the RDSCC, their students would be far ahead of other freshmen music maj ors. B and director s reported additional benefits to their students, such as : enhanced musical expression, development of leadership skills, development of public speaking skills, and strengthened teacher/student relationships. feedback, the researcher will make the following changes to the RDSCC. 1. Clearly defined/described assessment method(s) with accompanying evaluation rubric(s). 2. Detailed information linking the importance of score study activities to the ducting gesture abilities. 3. Teacher resource page consisting of d etailed roles/responsibilities/guidelines for the band director The suggestion of an alternative summative assessment consisting of a question/answer format between the adjudi cator and the student conductor will not be implemented. The researcher believes that to successfully prepare the student for a question/answer format, the student would need to be provided with a list of pote ntial questions. Prescribing exact areas of s core study for the students to address would very likely limit the depth and quality of research the

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141 student s conduct. The current method of a prepared essay gives the student conductor a more realistically broad score study experience. Issues This study highlighted some issues and concerns common amongst high school band directors. The most prominent concern in participation in the student conductor activity is the perceived lack of available time. As Band Director 1 stated, he has the most difficulty without putting other things at is evidence of the stress experienced band directors, administrators, and parents, improperly bal ances the band While the five band director participants in this study believe in the importance of the student conductor activity, not all high school band directors agree. It is possible that those who choose not to men tor a student conductor do so because of a perceived lack of benefit to the program as a whole. Another commonly expressed issue regarding the student conductor activity was the lack of structure and information provided to the participants. Florida b an implied statement on the low importance of the activity. This concern was a primary impetus behind the present research study. The creation and validation of the RDSCC was meant to p rovide a formalized and sequential method by which to learn clearly defined gestural techniques and score study methods for the student conductor activity. The assessment activity, as currently administered by FBA, is another source of confusion for parti cipants. As

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142 previously mentioned, the current FBA student conductor assessment tool addres ses content areas that are only applicable if the student has been responsible for musically preparing the ensemble for performance an unsafe assumption, as this i s not presently a clearly articulated requirement for the participants. Florida band directors have expressed various opinions on whether or not rehearsal skills/techniques should be included in a student conductor experience Generally speaking, th is sho uld be the decision of each individual band director. He/she takes into account the level of musicianship and skill set of the student conductor and decides whether training in rehearsal techniques would be warranted/beneficial. In this study, three of the five band directors incorporated rehearsal techniques into the student conductor activity. The RDSCC was designed to allow for this type of customization. With respect to the student conductor activity as administered by the FBA, the researcher sugges ts removing any assessment criteria dealing with rehearsal of the ensemble. In doing so, the researcher further suggests implementing a revised student conductor assessment tool (Appendix K). Implications for Music Education T he current educatio n climate places assessment of learning at the forefront. Therefore, for an activity such as the student conductor activity to be successful, the curriculum must have clearly identified objectives, learning activities designed to meet those objectives, an d assessment methods designed to thoroughly validated in these aspects. Now, with the successful implementation

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143 of the RDSCC, the student conductor activity has an opportunity to be signifi cantly enhanced learning opportunity for Florida high school musicians. The FBA website has documentation of a student conductor assessment dating back to 1939 (Florida Bandmasters Association) Over the past 75 years, this act of mentorship has likely influenced numerous high school band students to cons ider a career in music The five student conductors in this study each indicated that their plans to participate in music after high school wer e strengthened by participation in RDSCC. Two of the student conductors specifically stated an increased interest in music education as a potential college major. With teacher education programs on the decline the importance of programs that create inte rest in the field of music education cannot be understated (Freedberg) Based on the results of this study, time management is a primary deterrent for students and band directors from participation in the student conductor activity Therefore, successful implementation of the RDSCC could significantly increase the number of participants Band directors usi ng the RDSCC would benefit from decreased workload with respect to mentoring their student conductor. Students would g ain access to conducting instruction available to them at their convenience, making it easier to include student conducting into their personal and academic schedules. The potential benefits derived from the student conductor activity stretch well beyond t he musical growth of the student conductor. Band directors who elect to mentor a student conductor commit to relinquishing the podium to the student conductor for a certain amount of time. This can make many directors

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144 uncomfortable, feeling as though the y are losing valuable preparation time on the three concert band pieces to focus on one student. However, there are several benefits to stepping off the podium and allowing your ensemble to be led by another conductor. The student conductor taking the p odium presents a prime opportunity for the director to walk around and through the ensemble monitoring posture, technique, and behavior. The adventurous director might even pick up his/her primary or secondary instrument and perform with the ensemble. Mu ch can be Each member of the ensemble can learn a great deal from witnessing the student conduct or training. While the student conductor gains valuable gestural instruction, the ensem ble too learns about the specifics of conducting gestures relative to desired musical responses. This heightens their conductor awareness and sensitivity to gestures, including those of the director. Directors should frequently solicit mus k on the student There are no opinions more valid than those of the musicians from whom the conductor is attempting to elicit responses. The student conductor training can and should be a collaborative learning experience for a ll musicians in the ensemble. The RDSCC could very easily be adapted for use outside of the FBA. The curriculum would be appropriate and beneficial to any high school band program across the United States. The discussion/performance could be administere d by a local university ensemble conductor or similar. Additionally, an expanded version of the RDSCC could be offered in Advanced Placement or

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145 International Baccalaureate programs course offering college credit to ad vanced high school musicians. Also t he RDSCC could be adapted for use as supplementary material for introductory conducting courses at the university level. College students could benefit from the practice materials as well as the video modeling of gestural techniques. Future Research The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and relevance of the RDSCC through perceptions of experts as well as curriculum participants. Future research in this area could include the following: 1. A study comparing learning gains from students participating in the RDSCC with students mentored through traditional means. 2. A longitudinal study on the correlation between RDSCC participation and completion of a music education degree. 3. A study investigating the correlation between participation in the RDSCC and quality of the band program as measured by music performance assessments. 4. Development of comparable curricula des igned for high school orchestra students and choral students. Conclusion s The student conductor activity provides a remarkable experience for high school musicians. Students gain valuable insights into the activities of a music conductor, potentially increasing their desire to pursue a career in music education. U nfortunately, most band directors do not participate, citing various reasons The RDSCC was designed to address these concerns. Based on the results of this study, the RDSCC has been found to be a valid curriculum for high school student conductors. Wind band conducting experts and high school band directors found the instructional content,

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146 sequencing of learning activities, and assessment methods to be appropr iate for high school musicians. Additionally as cited in the related literature, to truly understand how a curriculum functions, it is important to gain the perspectives of those closest to the instruction: teachers and students (Brooker & Macdonald, 2010) The present study suggests that participants in the RDSCC experienced an educationally sound and user friendly curriculum that resulted in enhanced learning. Thus, the perspectives of the participants further bolstered the curriculum validity previously established by the wind band conducting experts. It is inc umbent on music educators to seek out and promote activities that strengthen interest in our field. The mentoring of student conductors is one such activity and it deserves every effort to ensure that it not only survives, but thrives in the coming gener ations.

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147 APPENDIX A CURRICULAR MAP OF RDSCC Score Study Gestural Training Learning Activities Week 1 Obtain a copy of the student conductor piece. Identify basics of a musical score (composer, title, instrument list, key signatures, time signatures, tempi, etc). posture, stance, conducting area, the beating plane, define ictus, conducting in 1 starting, sustaining, stopping sound the l eft hand conducting exercises 1 3 (Ap pendix B ) journal reflection Week 2 Write a 250 word essay on the composer (musical background, training, influences). conducting in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 patterns conducting legato style and staccato style Share 250 word essay with band director. journal reflection Week 3 Identify instruments in treble and bass clefs. Identify transposing instruments. Identify form, styles, key areas, recu rring rhythms, melodies. Translate all foreign language musical terms. conducting various dynamic levels, crescendo/decrescendo, accented notes left hand independence: cuing and dynamics conducting fermata Conduct your band through a portion of the daily warm up or chorale. journal reflection Week 4 Discuss and practice Bb transpositions. (Appendix C ) Write a 250 word essay discussing form, instrumentation, styles, key areas, recurring rhythms, melodies, et c. Continue practicing conducting gestures. eye contact Conduct the Student Conductor Piece (2 sessions). Record, watch, and critique conducting videos. journal reflection Week 5 Review Bb transpositions. Discuss and practice Eb transpositions. Identify areas (in score) in need of better communication. Play/sing through melodic lines at the piano. Review Week 4 videos. Practice areas in need of work. Compose (and practice) new conducting exercises. Conduct the Student Conductor Piece (2 sessions). Record watch, and critique conducting videos. journal reflection Week 6 Review Eb transpositions. Discuss and practice F transpositions. Revise the 250 300 word score summary as needed. Review Week 5 videos. Practice areas in need of work. Conduct the Student Conductor Piece (2 3 sessions). Record, watch, and critique conducting videos. journal reflection Week 7 Review F transpositions. Revise the score summary as needed. Practice presentati on of score summary. (Appendix D ) Review Week 6 videos. Practice areas in need of work. Conduct the Student Conductor Piece (2 3 sessions). Record, watch, and critique conducting videos. journal reflection Week 8 Make final revisions of your score summary. Review Week 7 videos. Practice areas in need of wo rk. Deliver your discussion/performance journal reflection

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148 APPENDIX B EXAMPLE WEEKLY CONDU CTING CHECKPOINT

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149 APPENDIX C EXAMPLE WEEKLY TRANSPOSITION PRACTICE

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150 APPENDIX D INSTRUCTIONS FOR PRESENTATION OF SCORE SUMMARY

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151 APPENDIX E WIND BAND CONDUCTING EXPERT SURVEY 1. The purposes and goals of the curriculum are clear and easily understood. 2. The instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. 3. The instructional content related to score study/preparation is accurate. 4. The content is clearly presented and easily understandable. 5. The content of this curriculum adequately covers the necessary content areas conducting. 6. The sequencing of instructional material is logical. 7. The sequencing of learning activities (assignments, etc.) is logical. 8. The content included in this curriculum is developmentally appropriate for nducting. 9. The assessment methods for this curriculum (verbal presentation and conducting performance) are clearly described. 10. The verbal presentation is an adequate method by which to assess the student's score study. 11. The conducting performance is an a dequate method by which to assess the 12. The combined assessment (verbal presentation and conducting performance) provides an accurate overall measure of the student's learning from this curriculum. 13. A high school student con ductor activity can be a productive and worthwhile activity. 14. The state in which I reside offers a high school student conductor assessment. 15. Please add any additional commentary regarding this high school student conductor curriculum.

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152 APPENDIX F HIGH SCHOOL BAND DIRECTOR SURVEY 1. The purposes and goals of the curriculum are clear and easily understood. 2. The instructional content related to conducting gesture is accurate. 3. The instructional content related to score study/prepa ration is accurate. 4. The content is clearly presented and easily understandable. 5. The content of this curriculum adequately covers the necessary content areas for 6. The sequencing of instructional material is logical. 7. The sequencing of learning activities (assignments, etc.) is logical. 8. The content included in this curriculum is developmentally appropriate for high 9. The assessment methods for this curriculum (verbal presentation and conducting performance) are clearly described. 10. The verbal presentation is an adequate method by which to assess the student's score study. 11. The conducting performance is an adequate method by which to assess the conducting gesture. 12. The combined assessment (verbal presentation and conducting performance) provides an accurate overall measure of the student's learning from this curriculum. 13. I have previously mentored a high school student in the Florida Bandmasters A ssociation Student Conductor Activity. 14. Please add any additional commentary regarding this high school student conductor activity.

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153 APPENDIX G WIND BAND CONDUCTING EXPERT CONSENT Informed Consent Protocol Title: An Evaluation o f an 8 week High School student conductor training program Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to evaluate t he validity and perceptions of a high s chool student conductor training program. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to review a webpage designed to pro vide instructional content for high s chool student conductors. You will be asked to complete a survey designed to solicit your feedback on instructional validity. Time required: 1 hour Risks and Benefits: There are no risks to you for participating in this study. We do not anticipate that you will benefit directly by participating in this ex periment. Compensation: You will not be compensated for your participation. Confidentiality: Should you indicate a desire to do so, your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file in my office. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. Voluntary participation:

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154 Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Archie Birkner, Assistant Director of Bands, University of Florida, 110 SBH, Newell Dr ., Gainesville, FL 32611, phone 352 373 3170. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure des cribed above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: __________________________________ Date: _________________

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155 APPENDIX H HIGH SCHOOL BAND DIRECTOR CONSENT Informed Consent Protocol Title: An Evaluation o f an 8 week High School student conductor training program Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to evaluate t he validity and of a high s chool student conductor training program. What you will be asked to do in the study: You wi ll be asked to review a webpage designed to provide instruct ional content for high s chool student conductors. You will be asked to complete a survey designed to solicit your feedback on instructional validity. Additionally, you will be asked to assist i n the imple mentation of the 8 week student conductor curriculum. The curriculum is designed to be, in large part, self guided. That is, the student will receive instruction/assignments/etc from the website. However, additional instruction, mentoring, an d assignment checks will be at your discretion. Obviously, a fundamental aspect of this activity is the provided opportunities to practice conducting the ensemble. Success of the curriculum is contingent upon your willingness to afford the student said o pportunities. Time required: 8 weeks Risks and Benefits: There are no risks to you for participating in this study. A potential benefit from this study could be your adoption of th is organized/sequential student conductor curriculum. Compensation: You will not be compensated for your participation. Confidentiality:

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156 Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file in my office. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions ab out the study: Archie Birkner, Assistant Director of Bands, University of Florida, 110 SBH, Newell Dr., Gainesville, FL 32611, phone 352 373 3170. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, Univers ity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: __________________________ _________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________

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157 APPENDIX I PARENTAL CONSENT University of Florida School of Music 110 SBH, Newell Dr. University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 Dear Parent/Guardian, I am an Assistant Instructor in the School of Music at the University of Florida, conducting research on high school student conductor training under the supervision of Dr. David Waybright. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity and o f an 8 week high school student conductor curriculum. With your permission, I would like to ask your child to volunteer for this research. I have designed a website containing the 8 week cu rriculum. The curriculum is designed to provide instruction for students in preparation for the Florida Bandmasters Associatio Conductor Assessment. Students will be expected to (outside of their regularly scheduled school day) view brief instr uctional videos, read instructional content, complete occasional assignments, and practice conducting gestures. The website can be viewed at www.fbastudentconductor.blogspot.com Participating st udents will progress through the 8 week curriculum under the supervision of their high school band d irector. I will interview your child immediately prior to beginning the 8 week program, approximately ha lf way through the curriculum, and at the conclusion of the curriculum. The interview questions will include learning expectations, comfort level with curricular material, perceived successes/difficulties with curricular material, etc. Interviews will be audio recorded for transcription/analysis. At the end of the study, the audio recordings will be erased. Although the children will be asked to identify themselves at the beginning of each interview for matching purposes, their identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. I will repla ce their names with fictitious names. Results will only include fictitious names. Participation or non participation in this study will not affect the children's grades or placement in any programs. You and your child have the right to withdraw consent f or your child's participation at any time without consequence. There are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offered for participation. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at 35 2 273 3170 or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Waybright, at 352 273 3146. Questions or concerns about your child's rights as research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392 0433.

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158 Arc hie Birkner I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child, _________________, to participate in Archie conductor training. ____________________________ ___________ Parent / Guardi an Date

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159 APPENDIX J INTERVIEW PROTOCOL Student Conductor Perceptions (1 ST I nterview ) PERCEPTIONS OF OVERALL ACTIVITY 1. What do you feel is the role of the student conductor? 2. What skills and knowledge are important for a student conductor? 3. What areas of student conducting are you the most excited about/interested in? 4. What areas of student conducting are you the least excited about/interested in? PERCEPTIONS OF RDSCC 5. What skills/knowledge do you have that y ou feel will he lp you with the student c onductor activity? 6. What do you hope to learn from the RDSCC? 7. work? OTHER PERCEPTIONS 8. Are you interested in a career that involves music conducting?

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160 Ban d Director Perceptions (1 ST I nterview ) PERCEPTIONS OF OVERALL ACTIVITY 1. What do you feel is the purpose of a student conductor activity? 2. What criteria do you use in selecting your participant for the student conductor activity? 3. What are your expectations of the student conductor? 4. What skills and knowledge are important for a student conductor to develop? 5. What are your concerns about your participation in the student conductor activity? PERCEPTION OF STUDENT CONDUCTING ACTIVITY AS CURRENTLY ADMINISTERED BY FBA 6. What is your opinion on the information provided by FBA regarding: a. purposes b. learning activities c. sequencing of learning activities d. evaluation of learning

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161 Student Conductor Perceptions (2 ND I nterview ) PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO THE OVERALL ACTIVITY 1. W hat do you feel is the overall role of the student conductor? 2. What skills and knowledge are important for a student conductor to develop? 3. What areas of student conducting are you the most excited about/interested in? Why? a. How would you describe your le vel of ability in that area? 4. What areas of student conducting are you the least excited about/interested in? Why? a. How would you describe your level of ability in that area? PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO RDSCC 5. What prior skills/knowledge do you have that you feel are helping you with the RDSCC? 6. Approximately how much time per week do you spend on the following outside of class activities?: a. conducting gesture practice b. score study c. transposition practice e. journal reflection 7. To what extent have you involved your band director in the outside of class activities (c hecking work, asking questions, 1 on 1 conducting help, etc )? 8. Approximately how many times (and for how long each time) have you conducted your b and during the first four weeks of the RDSCC? a. Do you feel this was adequate? Less than adequate? More than adequate? 9. To what extent do you feel the outside of class activities have affected your conducting sessions? How? 10. To what extent is it difficul t to include participation in the RDSCC into your personal schedule (school work, other extra curricular activities, etc.) Please describe. OTHER PERCEPTIONS 11. Are you interested in a career that involves music conducting?

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162 Band Director Perceptions (2 ND I nterview ) PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO THE OVERALL ACTIVITY 1. What do you feel is the overall purpose of a student conductor activity? 2. Have your expectations of the student conductor changed? 3. What specific skills and knowledge are important for a student conductor to develop? 4. the student conductor activity? PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO RDSCC 5. Approximately how many times (and for how long each time ) has your student conducted the band during the first four weeks of the RDSCC? a. Do you feel this was adequate? Less than adequate? More than adequate? 6. To what extent has your student involved you in the outside of class activities (c hecking work, asking questions, 1 on 1 conducting help, etc )? 7. To what extent do you feel the outside of class activities have affected 8. What difficulties, if any, have you experienced in implementation in/participation in the RDSCC? 9. What other suggestions/improvements do you have regarding the first four weeks of the RDSCC?

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163 Student Conductor Perceptions (3 RD I nterview ) PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO OVERALL ACTIVITY 1. What do you feel is the overall role of the student conductor? 2. What skills and knowledge are important for a student conductor? 3. What areas of student conducting are you the most excited about/interested in? Why? a. How would you describe your level of ability in that area? 4. What areas of student conducting are you the least excited about/interested in? Why? a. How would you describe your level of ability in that area? PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO RDSCC 5. What prior skills/knowledge do you have that you feel helped you with the RDSCC? 6. Approximately how much time per week did you spend on the following outside of class acti vities?: a. conducting gesture practice (not in class) b. score study c. transposition practice e. journal reflection d. development (writing revising) of score summary 7. To what extent did you involve your band director in the outside of class activities (c hecking work, asking questions, 1 on 1 conducting help, etc.)? 8. Approximately how many times (and for how long each time ) did you conduct your band during weeks 5 8 of the RDSCC? a. Do you feel this was sufficient? 9. To what extent do you feel the outside of class activities affected your conducting sessions? How? 10. To what extent was it difficult to include participation in the RDSCC into your personal schedule (school work, other extra curricular activities, etc.) ? 11. To what extent did you feel the RDSCC h elped prepare you for the final discussion/performance? 12. Do you feel the discussion/performance is an appropriate way to assess your learning as a student conductor? Please discuss. 13. On a scale of 1 10, please rate the helpfulness of the following aspects of the RDSCC (1 being not helpful at all; 10 being very helpful) on preparing you for the discussion/performance: a. instructional videos b. c. transposition practice d. conducting sessions with the band e. reviewing video(s) of your own conducting f. writing the score essay

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164 g. journal reflections 14. Overall, to what extent did you feel the RDSCC helped prepare you for the final discussion/performance? 15. What other thoughts/comments do you have regarding the RDSCC? 16. To what ext ent has your participation in the RDSCC affected your interest in participating in band after high school? 17. To what extent has participation in the RDSCC affected your interest in a career that involves music conducting?

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165 Band Director Perceptions (3 RD Interview ) PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO OVERALL ACTIVITY 1. What do you feel is the overall purpose of a student conductor activity? 2. What are your expectations of the student conductor? 3. What specific skills and knowledge are important for a student conductor to develop? 4. the student conductor activity? PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO RDSCC 5. Approximately how many times (and for how long each time ) did your student conduct the band during weeks 5 8 of the RDSCC? a. Do you feel this was sufficient? 6. To what extent did your student involve you in the outside of class activities (c hecking work, asking questions, 1 on 1 conducting help, etc.) ? 7. To what extent do you feel the outside of class activities affected your students conducting sessions? 8. learning? 9. What difficulties, if any, have you experienced in implementation in/participation in the RDSCC? 10. W hat other suggestions/improvement do you have weeks 5 8 of the RDSCC? 11. Do you feel the discussion/performance is an appropriate way to assess 12. On a scale of 1 to 10, please rate the helpfuln ess of the following aspects of the RDSCC (1 being not helpful at all; 10 being very helpful) on preparing your student for the discussion/performance: a. instructional videos b. c. transposition practice d. conducting sessions with the band e. re viewing video(s) of his/her own conducting f. writing the score essay g. journal reflections 13. Overall, t o what extent do you feel the RDSCC helped prepare the student for the discussion/performance? CONCLUSIONS 14. How many students have you mentored through the F BA Student Conductor Activity?

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166 15. How would you compare the experience of mentoring a student without the RDSCC and with the RDSCC? 16. To what extent do you feel the RDSCC has prepared your student for further study in music, perhaps at the college/university level? 17. What other thoughts/comments do you have regarding the RDSCC?

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167 APPENDIX K REVISED STUDENT CONDUCTOR ASSESSMENT SHEET Florida Bandmasters Association STUDENT CONDUCTOR Name:_ __________________________________________________________ School:__________________________City:_____________________________ Selection Conducted:_______________________________________________________ Score Study Narrative Historical perspectives __ composer __influences __style Theoretical perspectives __form __phrasal analysis __chordal analysis Content delivery __speak with appropriate volume __maintains appropriate pacing of narrative __identifies important concepts __clarity of ideas (circle one) A B C D E Conducting Fundamentals __Baton grip is appropriate __Posture erect, poised, relaxed, confident, commanding __Maintains appropriate eye contact with ensemble __Correct patterns utilized (circle one) A B C D E Gestural Accuracy __Preparatory beats properly executed __Conducts appropriate dynamics __Conducts appropriate articulations __Appropriate cues given __Phrasing indicated through gesture __Demonstrates left hand independence __Uses appropriate facial expression __General freedom from conducting errors (circle one) A B C D E

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168 Officials will include a + or by the subdivisions, which mean they are noticeably good or noticeably needing improvement as related to the letter grade assigned. The absence of any marks indicates a performance consistent with the letter assigned. After completing the previous, circle an A, B, C, D or E to indicate the level of performance in each category. Recommended for:______________________ (Superior, Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor ) _____________________ Write out Final Rating

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169 LIST OF RE FERENCES Ables, H. F., Hoffer, C. R., & Klotman, R. H. (1995). Foundations of Music Education, 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Thomas Schirmer. Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How Learning Works: Seven res earch based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Bailey, W. (2009). Conducting: The art of communication. New York: Oxfor d University Press. Baker, A. L. (1992). Creating Conductors: An analysis of conducting pedagogy i n American higher education (PhD dissertation) Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Database. (UMI. 9234040) Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Beane, J. A., & Lipka, R. P. (19 86). Self Concept, Self Esteem, and the Curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press. Bebell, C. (1974). Evaluation and Curriculum Development. In D. A. Payne, Curriculum Evaluation. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company. Ben Peretz, M. (1980). Teachers' role in curriculum development: An alternative approach Canadian Journal of Education 5 (2), 52 62. Birkner, C. (2012). Retrieved from FBA Student Conductor Training: http://www.fbastudentconductor.blogspot.com Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. D. (1983). Educational Research: An introduction (4th edition ed.). New York: Longman. Brooker, R., & Macdonald, D. (2010). Did we hear you?: Issues of student voice in a curriculum innovation Journal of Curriculum Studies 31 (1), 83 97. Cam pbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and Quasi Experimental Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company. Cook Sather, A. (2006). Sound, Presence, and Power: "Student voice" in education research and reform. Curriculum Inquiry 36 (4), 359 390. Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Columbus: Merrill Prentice Hall.

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170 Eastman School of Music. (n.d.). Retrieved February 07, 2014, from Academic Poli cy Handbook: https://www.esm.rochester.edu/registrar/?id=06.03.06 Elliot, D. J. (1995). Music Matters: A new philosophy of music education. New York: Oxford University Press. Farber man, H. (2003). Training Conductors. In J. A. Bowen, The Cambridge Companion to Conducting. New York: Cambridge University Press. FBA. (n.d.). Florida Bandmasters Association Student Conductor Adjudicator's Comment Sheet. Fleming, R. J. (1977). The eff ect of guided pra c tice materials used with the vi d e otape recorder in developing choral conducting skill (PhD dissertation). Retrie ved from ProQ uest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI. 7724759) Florida Bandmasters Association (n.d.). Retrieved Jan uary 28, 2014, from http://flmusiced.org/fba/dnn/Performances/MPA Results and Programs/Archive 1939 to 2000. Freedberg, L. (n.d.) Ed Source. Retrieved January 28, 2014, from http://edsource.org/today/2013 enrollment in teacher preparation programs plummets/39380 Gall, M.D,. Gall, J.P., & Borg, W.R. (2010). Applying Educational Research (6 ed.). Boston: Pearson. George Leonard Jordan, J. (1980). Videotape supplementary instruction in beginning conducting (PhD di ssertation). Retrieved from ProQ uest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI. 8017958) Green, E. A. (1997). The Modern Conductor, 6th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pentice Hall. Hanna Weir, S. (2013). Developing a personal pedagogy of conducting (PhD dissertation) Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3590622 ) Hawkes, R. R., & Dedrick, C. V. (1983). Teacher Stress: Phase II of a descriptive study. NASSP Bulletin 67 (461), 78 83. Heston, M. L., Dedrick, C., Raschke, D., & Whitehead, J. (1996). Job Satisfaction and Stress among Band Directors. Journal of Res earch in Music Education 44 (4), 319 327.

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171 Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (2009). Instructional Leadership: A research based guide to learning in schools. Boston: Pearson. Hunsberger, D., & Ernst, R. E. (1992). The Art of Conducting, 2nd ed. New York: McGra w Hill, Inc. Jordan, G.L. (1980). Videotape supplementary instruction in conducting (PhD dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis Database. (UMI. 8017958). Keene, C. (1982). Conductor. Music Educators Journa l 69 (2), 47 48. Keller, J. C. (1979). The effects of video tape feedback on the a cquisi tion of s elected basic conducting s kills (PhD di ssertation). Retrieved from ProQ uest Dissertation and Thesis Database. (UMI. 8009299) Kohn, A. (1993). Choices for Children: Why and how to let students decide. Phi Delta Kappan 75 (1), 8 20. Kokkinos, C. M. (2007). Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology 77 (1), 229 243. Labuta, J. A. (2000). Basic Conducting Te chnique, 4th edition. Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall. Leppla, D. A. (1989). The Acquisition of Basic Conducting S kil ls by B eginning C onductors: A comparison of the effect s of guided and unguided videotaped modeling (PhD di ssertation). Retrieved fro m ProQ uest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI. 9001987) Levin, B. (2000). Putting stud ents in the center in education reform. International Journal of Educational Change 1 (2), 155 172. Lewy, A. (1977). Handbook of Curriculum Evaluation. Paris: UNESCO. Luciano, E. M., & Testa, M. G. (2011). Exploring the influence of affiliation motivation in the effectiveness of web based courses. International Journal of Web Based Learning and Teaching Technologie s 6 (4), 19. Manfredo J. (2008). Factors influencing curricular content for undergraduate instrumental conducting courses. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education (175), 43 57.

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172 Marin Marquez, C. M. (2003). Cyberstudents' academic achievement: a compari son between on line and on campus MBA courses at Universidad Del Turabo in the Ana G. Mendez University system in Puerto Rico (PhD dissertation). Retrieved from ProQ uest Disse rtations and Theses Database. (UMI. 3383733) McNeil, J. D. (2006). Contem porary Curriculum in Thought and Action. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Moehle, M. R. (2005). Student perceptions of band: the missing component of curriculum design (Maste r's thesis). Retrieved from ProQ uest Dissertations and Thesis Database. (U MI. 1428886) Olson, D. (2007). Jerome Bruner: The cognitive revolution in educational theory. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2 009). Curriculum: Foundations, P rinciples, and issues. Boston: Pear son Education, Inc. Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2 012). Curriculum: Foundations, P rinciples, and issues. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Paul, S. J., Teachout, D. J., Sullivan, J. M., Kelly, S. N., Bauer, W. I., & Raiber, M. A. (2001). Authentic Context Learning Activities in Instrumental Music Teacher Education. Journal of Research in Music Educatio n 49 (2), 136 145. Pfundstein, T. E. (2003). The effects of web based versus web enhanced learning on high school students' learning ou tcomes and self regulatory skills (PhD di ssertation). Retrieved from ProQ uest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI. 3108221) Price, H. E. (1985). A competency based course in basic conducting techniques: a replic ation. Journal of Band Research 21 (1), 61 69. Richards, K. W. (2006). Teacher student relationships and enhanced student learning: an interpretive ethnography of high school student perception (PhD dissertation). Retrieved from ProQ uest Dissertations and Thesis Database. (UMI. 319 9778) Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students' perceived learning and satisfaction. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 7 (1), 1 21. Romines, F. D. (2000). Undergraduate instrumental conducting curricula: a survey of the operational curriculum and pedagogical techniques relative to balance, blend, and intonation (PhD Di ssertation). Retrieved from ProQ uest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI No. 9988356)

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173 Schaffarzick, J., & Hampson, D. H. (1975). Strategies for Curriculum Development. Berkley: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. Scheib, J. W. (2003). Role Stress in the Professional Life of the School Music Teacher: A collec tive case study Journal of Research in Music Education 51 (2), 124 136. Scott, D. E. (1996). Visual diagnostic skills development and college students' acquisition of basic conducting skills. Journal of Research in Music Education, 44 (3), 229 239. Stalter, T. J. (1996). The Conductor's process model and its presentation in current conducting materials and methodologies (PhD Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI No. 9622498) Stokowski, L. (1943). Music for All of Us. New York: Simon and Schuster. Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum Development: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. Tjornehoj, K. A. (2001). A n investigation into the use and effectiveness of video modeling of conductin g for pre service music educators (PhD dissertation). Retrieved from ProQ uest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI. 9994530) Tyler, R. W. (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Waybright D. A. (2006). Basic Conducting. Gainesville: David A. Waybright. Yarborough, C., Wapnick, J., & Kelly, R. (1979). Effect of videotape feedback technique on performance, verbalization, and attitude of beginning conductors. Journal of Research in Mu sic Education 27 (2), 103 112. Yarbrough, C. (1987). The relationship of behavioral self assessment to the achievem ent of basic conducting skills. Journal of Research in Music Education 35 (3), 183 189. Young, J. H. (1985). Participation in curriculum development: an inquiry into the responses of teachers. Curriculum Inquiry 15 (4), 387 414.

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174 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Archie G. Birkner IV was born in Amarillo, Texas. He received his Bachelor of 2001. He continued his studies at the University of Florida, receiving his Master of Musi c in Percussion Performance in 2003. Mr. Birkner studied percussion with Dr. Kenneth Broadway and conduc ting with Dr. David Waybright. Upon graduation, Mr. Birkner began his public school teaching career in Houston Texas. From 2003 to 2006, he held ban d director positions in La Porte Independent School District, Tomball Independent School District, and Conroe Independent School District. In 2006, Mr. Birkner was appointed the Assistant Director of Bands at the University of Florida where his duties incl uded directing the University Concert Bands and Gator Pep Bands. He was the Associate Director of the Pride of the Sunshine Marching Band, t aught courses in music education, and observed student teachers Since 2009, Mr. Birkner has also served as an Ac ademic Advisor for the Professor Birkner remains active as a guest conductor and clinician throughout the southeastern United States His professional affiliations include the National Association for Music Education, Collegiate Band Directors Association, Florida Music Educators Association, Florida Bandmasters Association, and Phi Mu Alpha Professional Music Fraternity. In addition, Professor Birkner holds honorary membership s in Kappa Kappa Psi and Tau Beta Sigma.