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ASSESSING HERITAGE VALUES FOR ADAPTIVE USE PLANNING: A FRAMEWORK FOR PRESERVATIONISTS By KARA J. LITVINAS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS F OR TH E DEGREE OF MASTER OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2013 Kara J. Litvinas
To my loving family
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS During my time at the University of Florida I have been fort unate to have had challenging, but extremely rewarding opportunities presented to me. Thank you to my chair, Marty Hylton, for those opportunities and for the chance to participate in projects that have expanded my range of knowledge beyond my own expecta tions. Also, thank you for your dedication and support throughout this thesis process. Thank you to my cochair, Kay Williams, for your insight ful critiques and guidance Jeanne Lambin, thank you for showing me how much fun preservation can be. Thank yo u to the community of Apalachicola and our project partners for your participation in this study. I would like to thank my friends and classmates for t heir support, advice, and the laughs along the way I appreciate it beyond words. Finally, thank you t o my family. Without you and all the support in which you so generously give, I could not have completed this step in my career.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 2 ASSESSING H ERITAGE VALUES IN PRESERVATION PLANNING .................... 24 Values centered Preservation Theory ................................ ................................ ..... 25 Participatory Action Research ................................ ................................ ................. 30 Approaches for Assessing Values in Communities ................................ ................. 36 REAP ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 37 ................................ ................................ ................ 42 Other Community Participation Methods ................................ ................................ 46 Strategic Planning ................................ ................................ ............................ 46 Visioning ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 47 Charrette ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 47 Games ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 48 Workshops ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 48 3 THE CHAPMAN SCHOOL AND ADAPTIVE USE ................................ .................. 51 Apalachicola and the Chapman School ................................ ................................ .. 51 Adaptive Use Process ................................ ................................ ............................. 58 Feasibility Assessment ................................ ................................ ..................... 61 Economic evaluation ................................ ................................ .................. 62 Site evaluation ................................ ................................ ........................... 63 Physical analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 63 Significance assessment ................................ ................................ ............ 64 Stakeholder evaluation ................................ ................................ .............. 64 Project Planning ................................ ................................ ............................... 64 Project Implementation ................................ ................................ ..................... 66 Preservation of Historic Schools ................................ ................................ ............. 67 4 PROPOSED FRAMEWORK ................................ ................................ ................... 77 Values Centered Preservation and Adaptive Use ................................ ................... 77 Stra tegy for the Chapman School ................................ ................................ ........... 78
6 Phase One ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 80 Phase Two ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 83 Phase Three ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 86 5 DATA RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 93 Phase One ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 93 Phase Two ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 95 Phase Three ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 100 6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ...... 106 Chapman Adaptive Reuse Project Assessment ................................ ................... 107 Framework Assessment ................................ ................................ ....................... 111 Further Research and Considerations ................................ ................................ .. 114 APPENDIX A NATION AL REGISTER EVALUATION CRITERIA ................................ ............... 125 B ................................ ................................ ... 127 C EXAMPLE OF AN EXISTING CONDITIONS ASSESSMENT FORM ................... 129 D APALACHICOLA HERITAGE VALUES SURVEY ................................ ................ 131 E INFORMED CONSENT FORM ................................ ................................ ............. 135 LIST OF REF ERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 137 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 142
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Phase Goals and Methods ................................ ................................ ................. 90 4 2 Identified Themes of Survey Results ................................ ................................ .. 91 5 1 Ranking of Apalachicola Community Values ................................ .................... 104 5 2 Proposed Use Analysis ................................ ................................ .................... 105 6 1 Analysis of Chapman School Adaptive Use Project Findings ........................... 122 6 2 Framework Con siderations for Use in Other Projects ................................ ....... 123
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Diagram illustrating the cyclical steps o f PAR ................................ ........................ 50 3 1 Apalachicola City Plan ................................ ................................ ........................... 74 3 2 The renovated 1915 Chapman School (on the left) and the 1934 building together shor tly after completion ................................ ................................ ....... 74 3 3 Example of the custom ext erior cast cement ornamentation ................................ 75 3 4 Interior first floor diagram ................................ ................................ ....................... 75 3 5 Dr. Alvin Wentworth Chapman. ................................ ................................ .............. 76 3 6 The site as it exists today ................................ ................................ ....................... 76 4 1 Participants engaging in dis cussion groups ................................ ........................... 92 4 2 Participants documenting their activity respons es on a board ............................... 92
9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for th e Degree of Master of Historic Preservation ASSESSING HERITAGE VALUES FOR ADAPTIVE USE PLANNING: A FRAMEWORK FOR PRESERVATIONISTS By Kara J. Litvinas December 2013 Chair: Morris Hylton III Coch air: Kay Williams Major: Historic Preservation Since the establishment of the National Register of Historic Places the types and amount of resources in which American preservationists are entrusted has expanded greatly. In response to the overwhelming a mount of significant resources it is important to ask how they can be used to meet the needs of the communities that value them when considering preservation approaches As a solution preservationists often utilize adaptive use as a tool to promote comm unity growth and development while simultaneously protecting heritage resources This thesis aims to serve professionals engaged in adaptive use projects by providing a framewor k for the reuse planning process. The approach focuses on an assessment of hol istic values that inform contemporary community needs through participatory research methods Values assessment for community development pro ject s such as adaptive use is important because it expands the criteria expressed in traditional significance asse ssment to include site specific considerations that take s into account the values of as many stakeholders as poss ible, not just expert opinion.
10 The methodology to inform the developed framework provided in this thesis consisted of the selection, summariza t ion, and analysis of existing assessmen t approaches and methods used in social science research. The research of these approaches w as combined with the theories of values centered preservation and P articipatory A ction R esearch to inform the framework Th e framework was implemented in a case study for the reuse of the historic Chapman School in Apalachicola, FL and resulted in a list of cons iderations for professionals who wish to implement this approach in other contexts.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In a sma ll city on the Gulf of Mexico, a historic school building from 1934 stands empty. It is an atypical symbol of progress a forgotten byproduct of innovat ion and new development that stands next to its predecessor. This situation occurs in many communities across the United States Each year a n estimated one billion square feet of existing building stock is demolished and replaced by new development. 1 Older structures are often owners and comm unities. Unfortunately, although there are a multitude of values encompassed in historic structures, it can be hard to look beyond the peeling paint deterioration, and frequent code compliance issues when making decisions about whether to retain and adap tively use a building or rep lace it with new construction. In response to negative perceptions and the loss of historic fabric through demolition or neglect, preservationist s and sustainability experts advocate the benefits of adaptively reusing heritage resources. While most historic preservation action occurs on resources that boast to be the method for the everyday. This idea contrast s the standards for preservation restoration, or reconstruction which emphasize the interpretation of historic significance through the continuance of or replication of a resource as it once was 2 older buildings 1 ht tp://www.usgbc.org/articles/green building facts 2 Secretary of Interior Standards., a ccessed October 29, 2013. http://www.nps.gov/hps/tps/standguide/restore/restore_standards.htm
12 3 Development includes physical changes to a structure in order to accommodate a new program or use. The process is especially relevant for resources that are perceived as not important enou gh to restore, but too important to demolish. Motivations for choosing adaptive use over demolition include benefits such as an increased tax base and tax deduction incentives, positive environmental impacts, community growth, and economic development. 4 Reuse creates new opportunities for seemingly common resources by highlighting and creatively repurposing their existing attributes. This process of reincarnation is a preservation method that not only saves a resource, but provides it with the stewardshi p that is needed for survival into the next generation. Once the flexibility of a historic resource has been proven through the installation of a use other than what the design originally intended, stewards can continue to adapt the structure to evolve wi th contemporary needs as they change over time. It is important to note that the adaptive use of a building is as much of a process as it is a result. Although guidelines exist for the planning and implementation of adaptive use projects, the unique chara cteristics of each site make it difficult to create or apply a standard set of rules. Adaptive use is often disregarded as a potential development method because of the de sign challenges and costs that are associated with the retention and refurbishment o f existing character defining features while introducing a new use into an old space and the significant amount of investment that 3 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use: Development Economics, Process, and Profiles (Washington: Urban Land Institute), 1978, 3. 4 David G. Woodcock et al. (eds.), Adaptive Reuse: Issues and Case Studies in Building Preservation (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1988), vii i.
13 must occur on the front end of such projects. 5 Adaptive use projects are generally approached on a case by case basis becaus e of the variety of resou rces and participants at play. There are many people who can contribute in the adaptive use process ranging from public agencies to private developers to non profit organizations. Usually, adaptive use pr ojects occur i n one of two way s: 1.) As part of a large scale revitalization or redevelopment plan initiated by a private developer or government agency, or 2.) By smaller communities, non profits, or grassroots organizations that work for a single building to be reused in their ne ighborhood. 6 The smaller groups may be aided by a public agency or later partner with private companies, but the pr oject initiation is generally a grassroots idea. Often one of the reasons that smaller organizations pursue the adaptive use of a structure is because the resource is collec tively important to their larger community How the resource is significant however, may vary. Since the passing of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966, preservationists in the United States have used the crit eria for eligibility for the National Register as a foundation for determining significance of historic sites (Appendix A ) Those criteria are based on facts, histo ry, aesthetics, and objective data. 7 The lo cal designation of some sites may easily be def ined through this type of evaluation, but identifying the values of smaller scale resources that are essential to a specific group may be more complex compared to 5 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 4. 6 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use, 5. 7 September 10, 2013, http://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb 15/nrb15_2.htm
14 understanding the monuments that hold national significance listed on the National Register o f Historic Places. reason why it 8 It may stem from deeply engrained cultural traditions, beliefs, or history It may also define is sacred or important in the comm unity based on feelings or experiences, versus the strict objective criteria that a n expert traditionally uses to define significance Although this interpretation of significance is still evolving, it can be referenced in a number of international preser vation doctrines. The Burra Charter of 1976 an Australian preservation doctrine emphasized intangible values a s primary goal s of preservation as opposed to fabric based assessments of values. 9 In 1994 the Japanese hosted a n international conference that focused on th e definition of authenticity in relation to the varying types of significance. The Nara Document of Authenticity was created as a result of the conference It states that : All judgments about values attributed to cultural properties as well as the credibility of related information may differ from culture to culture, and even within the same culture. It is thus not possible to base judgments of values and authenticity within fixed criteria. On the contrary, th e respect due to all cultures requires that heritage properties must be considered and judged within the cultural context to which they belong. 10 Randall Mason, a fundamental contributor to the Getty Conservation (CGI) Report in 2000 on Values a nd Heritage Conservation and a preservation leader on the 8 Cultural Resource Management Journal 3, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 32 33, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.archweb.metu.edu.tr/arch493/img/Theoretical_a nd_Practical_Arguments.pdf 9 10 ICOMOS Nara Conference on Authenticity Nara, Japan: ICOMOS, 1994
15 topic of heritage values, explains more realistically to the values that other stakeholders see, we believe we are making preservation a more 11 Today, preservation theory based on significance, or values centered preservation, is more frequently appearing in the United States. This evolution in the practice of preservation is important for community projects because it refocuses efforts to take into consideration the views and values of as many stakeholders as possible, not just expert opinion. Understanding the values of all participating stakeholders helps define the context and impeding circumstances that directly affect adaptive use projects. As David not exist. Beyond every property line is a vast operating environment that continuously interacts with the project sit 12 The author explains that in the pursuit of maintaining neighborhood continuity and sense of place the context and environment of a site holds as much importance as the resource itself. Woodcock elaborates: The essential ingredient in a successful ne ighborhood plan is the an urban living room bounded by buildings that have grown, changed, and buildings and are as interdependent as a human family. As they grow older their functions may change, but their potential for contributing to the overall good remains. 13 This statement also supports the notion that the quality and perception of a neighborh ood is largely dependent on the stakeholders who are shaping the physical environment. 11 ical and Practical Arguments for Values 12 Woodcock et al, Adaptive Reuse, 49 13 Ibid. viii.
16 Over the years, a disconnect has occurred between experts and the general public about what is significant in preservation. This is a problem since the intention of pr eservation is to sustain environments that are a benefit to all people, not just a select few. 14 Dr. Jeremy Wells an authority on contemporary heritage values, explains that experts base their decisions on doctrine while other people base their significan ce on 15 In a response to this trend and as it can been seen in the study of preservation doctrines values centered preservation evolved to compensate for the limitation of traditional assessment criteria to fully reflec t the variety of stakeholder opinions associated with a site. Values them in policies and plans for 16 The core of the process is focused on determining significance through a variety of values, incorporates the participation of multiple stakeholders, and includes the collaboration of those stake holders with preservation professionals. 17 The theory takes into account that values are fluid and continue to change with contemporary societies. Values centered preservation is important because it provides an alternative set of 14 School of Architecture, Art, and Historic Preservatio n Faculty Papers. Paper 22. (2010): 2, accessed September 1, 2013, http://docs.rwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1021&context=saahp_fp 15 16 32. 17 Ibid., 30 32.
17 standards that better re flects the values of the contemporary population, not just the opinions of preservation professionals or their doctrines. 18 Some values commonly identified in planning projects are specifically generated from the buil t environment such as economic and re al estate values. 19 Traditionally, these objective that lead to specific neighborhood development organizations, zoning, land use plans, or historic districts. 20 Categories of significa nce that are measured through values centered preservation are more associated with quality of life and sustainability of heritage. Researchers that follow the concepts of community action planning or Partic ipatory Action Research (PAR) use methodologies that focus on the empowerment of local communities to impart change in their own neighborhoods. 21 They have embraced values centered methods under the PAR theory for incorporating user needs and expectations into the planning phases of their design or deve lopment projects. For example, Randy Hester, a notable landscape architect, developed a mapping, interviews, and surveys to identify significant places in a community. Aft er map that identifies where and to what degree publicly approved development may 18 19 Woodcock et al, Adaptive Reuse, 52. 20 Ibid. 50. 21
18 occur. 22 Another way of assessing heritage values on a tight timeline that is appropriate 23 This process uses the triangulation of multiple data collection methods and uses collaboration techniques to ensure that local people are part of the research team. 24 Although these examples show established techniques or methods used by planners that have proven to be successful in large scale holistic planning projects, these approaches have yet to be adapted specifically for the adaptive use of a single resource. Preservation a pproaches that introduce community members and their values in the planning process such as values centered preservation and those listed above are important because communities are no longer accepting decisions made for them and their resources 25 With this shift, it is appropriate to use social science methodologies in preservation, specific ally when p lanning adaptive use. Projects like the adaptive use of a historic structure are commonly of importance to a large group of p eople or a whole neighborhood. They can be public buildings owned by the government or structures that have a large presence in a neighborhood. Historic schools, as is the case with the Chapman School in Apalachicola, often fall into this 22 Places Vol. 2, no. 3 (1982): 10 22, accessed August 1, 2013, http://plac es.designobserver.com/media/pdf/Subconscious_L_129.pdf. 23 Human Organization 61, no. 1 (2002): 80, accessed August 1, 2013, http://ww w.theoryofchange.org/wp content/uploads/toco_library/pdf/2002_ _Taplin_ _Rapid_Ethnographic_Assessment_in_Urban_Parks.pdf 24 Ibid., 81. 25
19 category. They are public buildings that have a large presence in a community, but can be quickly replaced in favor of modernization. 26 The adap tive use of schools comes with its own set of challenges ranging from ownership and accountability, funding, and difficulty in converting their utilitarian designs. Schools have important significance within a community. Because of its role as a social a symbol of continuity and stability from one generation to another can have a negative 27 Inversely, the reuse of an abandoned building such as school can help spur revitalization and positive community development. It is important when embarking on these types of projects to take into consideration local values since the majority of changes will literally be occurring in If communities are invited to participate in the planning and implementation of adaptive use projects they have the opportunity to negotiate the type and amount of change that will occur. This thesis provides guidance for preservationists and other prof essionals who are called upon by communities or grassroots organizations to help with the planning of an adaptive use of a public project. The research conducted within the scope of this thesis is intended to help professionals recognize the importance of contemporary comm unity values in developmental planning and explores methods in which those values can be assessed. Because of this holistic values assessment, a better understanding of the needs of a community can be reached. The research of this thesi s 26 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 166 27 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 166
20 informed a strategic framework that uses a participatory approach to be used by preservationists as a guideline for incorporating values into the adaptive use process The framework combines existing social science methods under the umbrella s of values centered preservation and PAR theory in order to better understand how current community values associated with the site can inform reuse ideas. This strategy is exemplified in the case study of t he aforementioned school on the Gulf of Mexico called Chap man High School, an Art Deco Revival style building in Apalachicola, Florida, beloved by its community but currently wit hout a proper use. Those community members invited the University of Florida to participate in the process of establishing a new use f or the school. Involvement with the City of Apalachicola began through the identification of key stakeholders and their values. Unfortunately, strategies or frameworks for the implementation of values centered preservation for the specific use of informi ng adaptive use projects have not been extensively developed. The research of this thesis focuses on the analysis of existing frameworks to inform a strategy that specifically answers this problem. As of 2006, Mason integration of value assessment in the planning of a site. Furthermore, acquiring the knowledge of all the types of values requires so much training and interdisciplinary e method for 28 This problem describes the need for flexible situational guidelines to be developed for adaptive use planning that center on the assessment of community values. This thesis aims to develop those guid elines by 28
21 asking the following: what is an appropriate framework that preservationists and others can use to assess community values to inform the adaptive use of a heritage site? In regards to the case study of this thesis the University of Florida was approached with the Chapman School adaptive use project by a local Apalachicola ique historic resource. The resource had not been used to its full capacity since the 1970s when a new school building was built on site Although currently stable, without intervention in the near future, deterioration will begin to take its toll on the historic structure. Even from initial interactions, it was clear early on that any steps taken would have to include the number of local residents who were deeply concerned with the future of the school. A framework informed by PAR and social scien ce methods was developed to identify a new use for the Chapman School that engaged those community members. The framework u sed wa s a community assessment and engagement project that wa s divided into three phases, with the information gained from each individual phase informing the next. This type of iteration was based on process of observation, re flection, planning, and action and was expressed in the overall strategic framework I nformation was gathered through obs ervation, analyzed, presented, and implemented by participants in one phase to inform the activities of the following phase. Phase on e identified traditional, objective values and information about the community and site through archival research, site visits, and conversations with key stakeholders Those key stakeholders were preservation minded people in the community with a dedicat ed inter est to the local historic sites. That information was used to inform a survey that directly involved the participation of more community
22 members. The goal of the survey was to identify additional subjective or non traditional values of the commun ity and the site. It also asked participants to explore potential ideas for the reuse of the building. The third and last phase utilized the data from the survey to inform a workshop The workshop consisted of three activities with the goals of identify ing the most important community value, exploring the potential of suggested new uses, and defining the next steps to be taken in the adaptive use process. The results of data collected in the three phases of the framework showed that r esidents identified the most valued aspects contributing to their quality of life in Apalachicola. They also explored and developed the idea of reusing the Chapman School as a public, multi functional space for the community to host a number of educational and cultural events to support their community needs The analysis of the suggested framework and its application in the Chapman School resulted in a list of considerations that should be taken in account in order for this framework to be used again in other situations. Overall, the suggested framework provided by modifying social science approaches and their methods successfully engaged the Apalachicola community in the initial planning phase of the Chap man School rehabilitation Adaptive use is important because it is a preservation method that accommodates contemporary user needs, and stewards a resource into the future for the use by new generations. A values assessment approach that includes the v ariety of stakeholder opinions and engages the local community is an essential step to a successful adaptive planning process. Chapter 2 of this thesis explains values centered preservation and Participatory Action Research theories as well as participat ory social
23 science approaches It also includes the description of the methods for assessing values used in those approaches as well as other engagement techniques C hapter 3 describes the adaptive use process and the context of the Chapman School in su pport of its function as the case study in which the proposed framework in tested. Here information is provided on the background and evolution of the site and the commu nity of Apalachicola. Chapter 4 describes how values centered preservation, PAR, and social science approaches informed a framework for assessing values in adaptive use planning that was used in the case study of the Chapman School It also describes the goals and activities of each phase of the strategic framework After an analysis of the data collected from each phase of the case study is presented in Chapter 5 the conclusion and p roposals for further research are stated in C hapter 6 The results of this thesis and the Chapman School case study show how other professionals can use a similar approach in other communities. Chapter 6 includes a list of these considerations for application of the suggested framework in future projects.
24 CHAPTER 2 ASSESSING HERITAGE VALUES IN PRESERVATION PLANNING Reflection on the preservation movemen t reveals how the types of resources that are preserved have evolved. The early years of the preservation movement in the United States focused on the creation of an inventory and the establishment of protection for the historic resources that had accumul ated T he range of resources protected has expanded from national monuments and icons to locally significant resources, cultural landscapes, and intangible heritage. As a result, the inventory of landmarked properties has inc reased significantly. The diversity in the recognition of significant resources represents the progressive evolution of the field, but it does not come without criticism. Preservationists are now often viewed by their critics as inhibitors of change with a goal of preserving anything and everything. 1 The author David Lowenthal explains: The sheer magnitude of tangible mementos and documentary traces inhibits creative action. Worship of bloated heritage invites passive reliance on received authority, st ifles rational inquiry, replaces unpleasant reality with feel good history, and saps creative innovation. And all too often it ignores the needs of local inhabitants whose involvement is essential. 2 Lowenthal identifies problems in the preservation indust ry such as a lack of innovation, effects of nostalgia, and the overwhelming volume of resources Chapter 2 ad dresses how social science method s, study of community values, and development through adaptive use may solve some of the se issues 1 Giving Preservation a History: Histories of Historic P reservation in the United States edited by Max Page & Randall Mason (New York: Routledge, 2004), 39. 2 Ibid., 39.
25 The need in contemporary preservation practice for an assessment system that reflects the interests and needs of current communities through an analysis of their values is explained through the concepts of values centered preservation. Also describe d are complimentar y social science approache s that are used for assessing values, and the methods in which they are impl emented. The review of these approache s and their methods in C hapter 2 shows that preservation of historic structures can not only meet contemporary need s while protecting local heritage, but can also promote creative solutions and social innovation. Values centered Preservation Theory The Getty Conservation Institute (CGI) defines heritage as objects or resources that have expressed values that elevate th eir importance over other resources. 3 The Institute explains that the ultimate aim of conservation is not to conserve material for its own sake but, rather, to maintain (and shape) the v alues embodied by the heritage with physical intervention or treatme 4 In this respect, h eritage values a re the terms in which credibility and legitimacy of a resource is defined. Values are also the criteria in which groups use to measure the importance of a physical resource o r an intangible custom to their cultural identity. Dr. Jeremy Wells organizes t he multitude of values associat ed with cultural into three general categories: fabric based, constructed, or phenomenological (Appendix B ) 5 Fabric based values follow objective criteria 3 Erica Avramt, Randall Mason, and Marta de la Torre, Values and Heritage Conservation Research report, Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 200 0, 7. 4 Ibid. 7. 5 5.
26 traditionally used by experts or professionals in the designation process. In this category, qualities such as history, artistic design or aesthetics, the rarity of the resource, or its ability to provide information about a specific period of time are valued. 6 These values are expressed through the conservation of physical material. Methods used to classify fabric based values consist of high level of detachment between the researcher and the resource in order to a void bias or emotional judgment. 7 Often, the greater number of facts that can be assessed and associated with a resource will result in a higher determination of significance. Fabric based values are used to determine eligibility for resources to be list ed on the National Register of Historic Places. A resource is described to have constructed authenticity when its value is presented through the meanings symbolized in the resource rather than through its physical fabric. Values exhibited in this category are symbolic, technical, educational, 8 This includes rituals and practices that are not necess arily dependent on or associated with a physical resource. The third category of values focus on the emotional relationship individuals have with historic sites. This category, phenomenological authenticity, describes the values s age and the concept of place attachment. Wells explains that place attachment is a result of the way a person interacts with a place and their reaction 6 7 Ibid., 3. 8 Ibid., 5.
27 to environmental cues at a site. 9 Although it can be associated with aesthetics and may be an uncons cious association, place attachment is an effect of a strong connection to the intangible qualities of space. It appears as a deeply rooted emotional value that some groups may be unable to define its exact meaning or origin. Of t he three general categori es of values fabric based authenticity is the most widely used method for determining significance among experts and professionals 10 However, Wells warns tha t an im proper assessment of experience based and socio cultural values in addition to fabric base d evaluation 11 He explains that holistically capture the v efforts for the preservation of resources that are largely ignored by the traditional, positivistic classification system. 12 Wells proposes the need for a more holistic approach to values assess ment that uses socio cultural and experiential values to supplement fabric based assessments. 13 In the 1990s, the GCI began a study on values and the benefits of heritage conservation in contemporary society in order to better understand the future of the p reservation movement. 14 Amo ng the overall themes found in the G C 9 10 Ibid., 4 11 Ibid., 7 12 Ibid., 1. 13 Ibid., 7 14 Avramt et al., Values and Heritage C onservation, 1.
28 the need to include contemporary, situational contexts in the study of physical resources the values people draw from them, the functions herita ge objects serve for society, th e uses to which heritage is put are the real source of the 15 report goes on to state that as our societies change, so must the way prese rvationists think of the role of conservation in accordance to contemporary social agendas and values. 16 In congruence with the results o for a more holistic values assessment approach, va lues centered preservation is a theory that can guide fu ture preservation efforts. This theory recognizes culture as a dynamic process that evolves with changing societies. 17 As societies have changed, so have the meanings of significance for local communities. With values centered pre servation, the augmented by means for dealing with different cultural interpretations, competing political d emands, and economic influences 18 as well as other challenge s or threats that have recently ari sen in the preservation field. Understanding of the three general types of contemporary, community values is important to combat the wide range of threats that compromise heritage today Fabric based authenticity is dire ctly endangered by physical deterioration and aging. The 15 Avramt et al., Values and Heritage Conservation, 4. 16 Ibid., 4. 17 Cultural Resource Management Journal 3, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 30, accessed September 1 2013, http://www.archweb.metu.edu.tr/arch493/img/Theoretical_and_Practical_Arguments.pdf. 18 Ibid., 28.
29 Athens Charter from 1931 is an internationally accepted preservation doctrine that focuses on protection of the physical fabric of historic resou rces The Charter outlines guid elines for intervention based on studies of the physical fabric. 19 For example, the Charter approved the use of modern or contemporary materials for the restoration or repair of historic monuments. 20 This established doctrine acts as a guideline for the pr otection of the values associated with the physical aspects of a resource. In 1964, the Athens Charter was revisited and expanded upon with the creation of the Venice Charter. Updates to the charter acknowledged the increasing complexity of preservation approaches as the movement as a whole developed. 21 Beyond the conditions that threaten the physical attributes people value, there exists a set of cultural threats that must be addressed as stewardship passes from one generation to the next. Mason states t hat factors such as threaten the socio cultural and experiential val ues described previously 22 of current conditions of so ciety not necessarily directly related to the preservation field, but are influential nonetheless. 23 An example of this can be seen when cities and governments abandon schools because of a lack of funding or consolidation. Values 19 20 Charter for the Restoration of First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments. Athens: ICOMOS, 1931. 21 Res of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Venice: ICOMOS, 1964 22 alues 23 Ibid. 27.
30 centered preservation com bats those intangible forces by better reflecting community needs at the current time and can promote preservation through new use programs such as the conversion of the school space into a hub for small businesses 24 The principles of values centered pres ervation outline why we preserve what we do today. It is a theory that refle cts the ideas of significance of contemporary society. Unfortunately, the values of communities today and the types of resources preserved are muc h more complex than in the past The majority of the socio cultural and experiential values described above are qualitative, can be difficult to measure, and therefore, even more challenging to integ rate into the planning process Although the proper recognition of these values has been established in preservation theory, it still remains difficult to implement them successfully in practice. The implementation of values centered preservation can be influenced by a review of approaches and methods that rely on contemporary community valu es for determining significance. Participatory Action Research Participatory Action Research (PAR) is an approach in which researchers and and community action. 25 It is not specifically a methodology, but more of an umbrella theory that informs methods used. It emphases the existing strengths a community has and also, the potential that a community has to resolve their own social issues or problems. By working with expert researchers, communities build their own social capital until they reach a point in which the prof essional is no longer needed. PAR 24 25 Journal of Epidemical Community Health 60 (2006): 854.
31 informs an approach in which the main components are action, iterative reflection, and blurred lines between th e researcher and the researched 26 PAR shifts away from positivistic theory in social science and follows the principles of subjective and qualitative research. As far back as the 1960s, researchers have questioned the concepts of positivism. This is the belief that answers to research problems could be found through data collection and research through objectivity and with little interpretation This approach was inadequate when the objective of the research was to understand qualitative or subjective me anings. 27 Researchers began to focus on methodologies that would have more practical impacts on the particip ants being studied. As a result researchers in disciplines such as history, anthropology and sociology adopted ethnographic methods of study that embraced cultural immersion and the analysis of qualitative information. 28 organized, unl 29 Q ualitative research took a long time to develop because it was generally seen as a unpredictable and difficult to measure. 30 Because the proces s itself was hard to evaluate, measurements of its success and legitimacy were even harder to define. PAR is an appropriate research method in situations where 26 ticipatory Ac 27 28 Ibid., 2. 29 30 Ibid., 855.
32 the understanding of the history, culture, context, and social relationships is essential to so lving a legitimate problem in a community. 31 The methodology recognizes that although personal experiences are not separate from the objective world of science, the same quantifiable methods cannot be used to research them. 32 PAR is used when there is a nee d to enable action and solve a problem. It participants) develop goals and methods, participate in the gathering and analysis of data, and implement the results in a way that will 33 The awareness that a community works to achieve in order to learn the abilities to change their own circumstances. 34 Participation in PAR asks people to do mor e than complete a survey or offer an professional team in the research process and identification of goals or courses of action. In this method, participation is defined a the researcher and the participant, but the variety of personalities and positions of people within the participant group. 35 This approach reflects a goal of PAR to empower those who participate in the process to aff ect change. Empowerment in this process is 31 32 Ibid., 856. 33 Journal of Counseling Psychology 52.2 (2005), 187. 34 Ibid., 188. 35 Ibid., 189.
33 such that the relationship tends toward equity by reducing inequalities and power 36 Th e methodology focuses on including perspectives that are generally not involved in decision making processes or those who are generally disregarded within a larger community. Whatever the reason for their general exclusion, PAR provides the opportunity fo r groups to claim ownership and i mprove their own circumstances. PAR is useful in situations in which there is power differences in access to resources 37 When u si ng an action methodology it is ideal when initiation of the project is brought by community members so as to enforce the idea that they are equal research partners and not just participants being studied The PAR process begins through the identification and validation of a problem within the community that is hindering progressive change or development. The second step is to accumulate the general knowledge about the problem, its context, and its relevant history to the community. This information is ga thered through data collection methods such as observation, surveys, public meetings or forums, and dialogue with participants. Reflection on the data gathered in this first step informs a plan. That plan is then implemented through community action. Ac tion is the implementation of the 38 Where PAR differs from other me thodologies is that t he cycle reiterates itself after action is taken Observation and analysis of the action is conducted with respect to the goals of 36 37 Ibid., 855 38
34 the original research question and another rotation of the process then begins ( Figure 2 1) Action in association with PAR some impediment that hampers the growth of a group of people, be it structural or 39 Whether the problem is a social inequality or a physical development project, action taken must be geared to cyclical format of the methodology allows participants to break down this process into iterative steps. Each time the cycle of data collection, analysis, and action takes place the group is closer to reaching a resolution of the identified problem, as well as any additional conflicts that may be discovered in the process. A successful researcher using PAR has the potential to facilitate fundamental changes in a community. The researcher benefits by the wealth of knowledge gained directly from the source of study and immersion in a specific social context. 40 Social capital, or the ability of residents to collectively utilize their existing resources for the accomplishment of consensual, defined goals, is an imp ortant factor in community development that is created through the PAR process. 41 The process has the potential 42 39 40 Ibid., 191. 41 Rhonda Philips and Robert H. Pittman, An Introduction to Community Development (New York: Routledge, 2009), 6. 42
35 Although the advantage and motivation to use PAR is a large scale there are quite a few challenges to the process. Many of the disadvantages or criticisms of PAR arise from the general nature of the type of research in whic h it was created for. Difficulty in establishing validity, such as the case in other qualitative methods, has caused skepticism within the professional research field. While the triangulation of multiple perspectives can check for discrepancies within th e data collection, the difficul ties that the researcher faces with this methodology are not easily addressed. Due to the emphasis on equality between researcher and participant and the collaborative nature of the process, difficult situations can influenc perspective on the project. Issues may include disagreements between participants on identification through the amount of immersion that takes place. 43 Since the underlying agenda of the proc ess is to contest power relationships, conflict among participants and between participants and the researcher is a constant threat. 44 The relationship between the researcher and the participants is a particularly sensitive area since the goal of PAR is to support grassroots or bottom up growth Overall, PAR in the health profession has influenced community development projects in the United States and internationally. As Baum, McDougal, and Smith found: With support from the research team community member s are acting as 43 44
36 PAR process of reflection and action, which incorporates participant observation, informal discussions, in nts as contributing to their self reported increased sense of self awareness, self confidence, and hope for the future. 45 In the field of preservation PAR can be used as an approach that allows communities to identify and preserve resources whose values di ffer from the opinions of preservation experts or professionals. The following section describes project planning approaches that have utilized the theories of community action research, exemplified in the PAR process, and their methods of community engag ement. Approaches for Assessing Values in Communities As the subject matter of preservation has changed, so have the methods in which it is evaluated. Wells explains that cultural and historical themes are used when defining significance but traditionally those themes are seen through the lens of the past. Experts often try to discover what was important to the society that created the everyday people, at this very moment, think, feel, and behave in relation to historic 46 Today, communities write their own history by selectively choosing resources they want to preserve for not only for the next generations, but for themselves. This section reviews social science methods that have previously been used to successfully identify values within a community and can be adapted for use in the field of historic preservation. 45 46 School of Architecture, Art, and Historic Preservation Faculty Pape rs. Paper 22. (2010): 1, accessed September 1, 2013, http://docs.rwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1021&context=saahp_fp.
37 REAP an applied research method that is used to identify cultural values in a time frame that complies with realistic project commitments. In short, it is ethnography compressed into a time frame of a few or ge nerate theory but to reach more rational decision making processes in real life 47 REAP is used to gather qualitative data from certain user constituencies to inform project planning where there is sensitivity to the local community. 48 Rapid A ssessment P rocedures (RAP) developed in response to a lack of permanent research staff due to the rise in consultancies and because of the demand for methodologies that could be used in rapidly changing contexts. 49 Researchers had to develop methods in whi ch qualitative research could be done quickly, without the need for extensive training of field workers or the extra expense. This fast paced research process was developed separately but simultaneously in the agricultural development and public health fi elds in the 1980s. Because of the need for detailed social and cultural information in order to create successful plans for the context at hand, these fields adopted a research methodology from anthropology. This appoach 47 Human O rganization 61, no. 1 (2002): 81, accessed August 1, 2013, http://www.theoryofchange.org/wp content/uploads/toco_library/pdf/2002_ _Taplin_ _Rapid_Ethnographic_Assessment_in_Urban_Parks.pdf 48 Ibid., 80. 49 Ibid., 81.
38 was used for projects in these fi elds such as rural development initiatives and for the development of disease control programs abroad. anthropology, a value explicit approach that works to achieve self within local communities. 50 With the development of REAP in the 1990s, they created a methodology to better serve community goals through a process that identified qualitative data that could be utilized in the planning of real life projects. The importa nt concept behind this methodology is the acknowledgement of the validity of user opinion REAP includ es other social science methods such as phenomenology and historical or interpretative methodology. 51 52 In other words, it is a philosophical study that attempts to explain subjective opinions of places or sites through the study of personal experiences. Wells e significance can be described as a disconnect between the objective values of experts 53 Social science methods can be used in preservation t o help close this gap in qualitative data. According to Wells, as of 2010 REAP was the only social science method whose sole purpose was to assess heritage 50 51 52 Ibid., 5. 53 Ibid., 2.
39 values. 54 The REAP approach professionals a nd managers understand the complexity of social relations and cultural 55 An example of this approach in planning is the 2002 study by Setha Low in association with the Nation Philadelphia. Although the park had been redefined in the 1950s through an urban renewal project, the 20 00 2002 intervention concerned new communities that had formed associations with the site since then. The research team wanted to understand the relationship of the park with surrounding communities and discover the potential conflicts or opportunities th at could arise from the redevelopment of the site. After identifying the local groups that to work as collaborators, multiple methods of engagement were initiated and analyzed to redefine goals that better reflected the needs of the locals. Methods involv ed in REAP are heavily dependent on the collaboration between professionals and local people on the research team. 56 The research team is usually compromised of multiple disciplines in order to support a tight time frame and triangulation. The collaborati on of various disciplines helps avoid observer bias during the data collection and analysis. Methods include activities that require the research team and the community groups to learn from each other in equal respects. This meant that involvemen t in the process would also be beneficial to them. For example, 54 55 Ibid., 7. 56
40 they were given the opportunity to make suggestions on the future use of the park in ways that would benefit their own community group 57 Much of the education takes place through transect wa lks, semi structured interviews, focus groups, behavior mapping, and historical research. In the context of Independence National Park, the goal was to ensure that each of the collaborators would share information that would be of use to the other resulti ng in the education of locals of the planning process and information for planners to inform the decision making process. 58 identification of groups that have an established cultura l identity and relationship with identified through permit applications. 59 As previously stated, the goal of REAP is to involve groups who were not already involved in the planning process. The planners of Independence Park already had information from vocal stakeholders that are traditionally involved in heritage projects such as the government, tourism groups, and other concerned citizens. The methods carried out in the REAP process were geared towards constituencies that may not be officially organized, specifically ethnic groups, and could consequently have a harder time voicing opinions. 60 Validity of the gathered data is established using the theories of triangu lation and iteration. Triangulation or the use of multiple data collection methods, checks for validity through cross examination and comparative analysis of the results of each 57 58 Ibid., 86. 59 Ibid., 85. 60 Ibid., 85.
41 method. Iteration is the process in which summative findings are reevaluate d each time new information is obtained. The reexamination of research questions through this process ensures that each new discovery is processed and applied in compliance with time restraints 61 A major benefit of REAP is that enough information is gath ered about a potential problem in the planning process as well as for solutions for mitigation within a short period of time. Another identified benefit is the empowerment of community members through the collaboration process. Low believes that empowerm ent comes from a making process, the visibility of their influence in project plans, and through working alongside city officials and researchers. 62 Lastly, REAP allows for identified community values to be directly translated into planning program. 63 The question of validity remains an issue in this methodology despite efforts made through triangulation. Mostly this is due to the rapid timeframe in which the process in conducted. With other methodologies there is more time to check for discrepancies in data. Also, although the methodology is appropriate for identifying major themes or patterns that exist within communitie s, there is a risk of stereotyping a relatively accurate picture of the prevalence of a phenomenon, attitude, perception, or 61 62 Ibid., 82. 63 Ibid., 83.
42 behavior pattern, but not its extent or pe 64 The methods run the risk of collecting bias from the most vocal of a select group whose opinions may not reflect the concerns of the overall cultural population. In general the methodology results in a wide range of qualitative informatio n in a reasonable amount of time to make practical planning decisions that benefit a larger o produce consistent findings to a degree of validity. In the 1980s Randy Hester, an established landscape arch itect, was hired to mitigate the effects of increased tourism on the island town of Manteo, South Carolina. Manteo was facing t he loss of their cultural identity and threats to their physical h istoric resources as it began to cater its economy to seasonal visitors. 65 As a result, he sub 66 The approach uses various methods to identify significant places through the discovery of values wit h in a community. The findings are then presented to developers or planners for consideration in community planning thr ough the Sacred Structure map. The map was 64 65 Places Vol. 2, no. 3 (1982): 11 accessed August 1, 2013, http://places.designobserver.com/media/pdf/Subconscious_L_129.pdf 66 Ibid., 15.
43 a physical plan that identified specific places essential to the character of Manteo and woul d be detrimental to its identity if lost. The case of Manteo was a story of a small, tight knit community in need of a mitigation plan for heavily increased its natural beauty and quaint character made touri sm a possible revenue producing industry. Residents established that they wanted and needed new development, but they were worried about the negative effects tourism might have on their quality of life. Hester set out to identify specific characteristics or elements of the physical environment that were integral to that quality of life. The result of the project was a prioritized list of identified sites that were important to keep amidst the developmental changes that were occurring because of tourism. recognized through traditional pre servation value criteria, but mostly were sites and the activities that occurred there that would have otherwise been overlooked. This methodology helped residents advocate for these sites by collectively organizing them, prioritizing their significance, and establishing their legitimacy. 67 Subjects for the study were residents of Manteo who were not typically involved in community planning. Analysis of th e residents reflected opinions of the daily users of spaces versus tourists whose interaction with the town was l imited. To develop the Sacred S tructure, Hester gathered qualitative data from surveys, behavior mapping, and a newspaper questionnaire. The surveys consisted o f random interviews in resident s 67
44 homes and focused on broad community concerns. 68 It also identified community values and characteristics that residents wanted to preserve. Behavior mapping was conducted by Hester and researchers in va rious locations to document what people did in town and where. 69 The newspaper questionnaire asked residents to rank a list of places identified from the survey and behavior mapping in order of their personal significance. 70 This process identified sites i n town that residents would be willing to life. This data was analyzed and presented in a series of maps that specifically outlined potential areas of protection or development. Without it, planning discussions support many of their gut feelings about d 71 This method of planning allows for the incorporation of new development and economy with historic significance and preservation of a sense of place. ation feasible. 72 The methods may not be appropriate for a larger scale city where the numbers of participants and sites is multiplied greatly. Also, the Sacred Structure is not a legally binding document and has no legitimacy for retribution if disregard ed in 68 69 Ibid., 12. 70 Ibid., 13. 71 Ibid., 16. 72 Ibid., 11.
45 development projects. 73 It is only intended to serve as a guideline for community planning and development. In some cases, the Sacred Structure could reinforce the continuation of negative community life styles. 74 It is important to collect data fro m all residents in order to avoid the promotion of established segregation or social injustices. 75 The significant implication of this study was among other things, it recognized the importance of experiential values and the emotional connections residents had to a place It emphasized the well being of community members as an important value to be integrated into planning and policy decisions. 76 For example, the designers of the Manteo planning project knew to look for places where daily interactions and conversations occurred between community members in their behavior mapping informal friendliness of the town as an important quality D many places they knew the corner store or a gravel parking area. 77 This study allowed residents to preserve their lifestyle and the interactions that contributed to the friendliness of the town by le gitimizing those vernacular places to public officials and developers 73 74 Ibid., 21. 75 Ibid., 22. 76 http://www.pps.org/reference/rhester/#contact 77
46 Other Community Participation Methods The PAR based approaches of Low and Hester use a variety of techniques to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. Generally, quantitative information can be collected through methods such as surveys and interviews. Although this is a successful way to gather information helpful in familiarizing a researcher with a community, there are other engagement techniques that can provide information that the researcher may not have expected. The engagement activities described below are examples of methods that allow community members to have more control of the types of questions being asked. In these methods, sometimes the researcher has little r ole in the process besides observer or facilitator. They are beneficial to the researcher because they have the potential to reveal values that the researcher may not have thought to ask about or could not have discovered through quantitative methods. S trategic Planning The goal of strategic planning is to determine how an organization or group should operate in respect to their overall vision or mission. 78 The decisions a group te communication and participation, accommodate divergent interests and values, and 79 The process is participatory and t he key is to involve employees in decisions they care about and to demon 80 78 Henry Sanoff, Community Participation Methods in Design and Planning (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000), 33. 79 Ibid., 39. 80 Ibid., 35.
47 Strategic planning is used when there is a specific goal to be achieved or an emanating threat that needs to be addressed. Onc e a plan is created, groups use their own identifi ed values to measure the success and appropriateness of their actions in accordance the identified goals. Visioning Visioning is a creative group process that asks participants to imagine the future in an ideal setting, usually without the impediments of a current problem or situation. 81 It centers on a vision statement upon which a realistic framework that outlines necessary steps and actions is constructed in order to reach a final goal. A benefit of the visioning process is that the positive focus on th e potential of a community or Participants are asked in the beginning of the process to predict their own future by results, creativity and open mindedness are needed in the visioning process. Charrette When a specifically defined problem is in need of a design solution or strategy, a charrette can be a successful method for setting goals A charrette is both a process and a product, consisting of idea generation, decision making, and proposals. 82 The process, which can last only a few hours or a couple days, is a complete summary of a project from start to finish. The goal of a charrett e is to energize an idea and begin action so as to meet a deadline or fulfill a sense of urgency. 83 Unlike strategic planning 81 Sanoff, Community Participation Methods, 43. 82 Ibid., 50. 83 Ibid., 48.
48 or visioning exercises, the outcomes of a charrette will directly influence a proposal for implementation. Games Games are appropr iate participation techniques when there is something to be learned through the simulation of a real situation. As a learning tool, Sanoff explains communication function gives participants a better understanding or themselves and 84 created to educate students about its architectural style, materials, and conditions. Within the simulation, stu dents were asked to consider techniques and preservation methods that would be appropriate for the church. 85 A game can also be used as an icebreaker to help participants become more comfortable speaking or expressing their opinions within the group. As a n activity presented at the beginning of a workshop or group meeting, a game can help excite the group and begin to set the tone for the topic at hand. Workshops understanding of their 86 Strategic planning, visioning, charrettes, and games are all techniques that can be utilized in community participation workshops. The goal of a workshop is for participants to learn about each other while pursuing a 84 Sanoff, Community Participation Methods, 76. 85 2013, http://www.rit.edu/research/other_story.php?id=81 86 Sanoff, Community Participation Methods, 104.
49 common goal. Sanoff s for their inability to achieve agreement in group problem 87 This is an issue with community and preservation planning since the processes concern a wide variety of people and beliefs, each with their own opinions. The most important element of a workshop is the development of group cohesion. 88 The se community engagement methods are just a few ways to collect data and assess heritage values that can be used in association with a values centered preservation approach. In the case study of the Chapman School, a framework that emphasizes the relationship of values centered preservation as a core theory to the implementation of Participatory A ction Research is proposed. V ersi on s of most of the method s described above w ere used to inform a framework for the adaptive use project described in Chapter 4. C hapter 3 describes the context of the project in Apalachicola in which the framework was tested. 87 Sanoff, Community Participation Methods, 78. 88 Ibid., 80.
50 Figure 2 1. Diagram illu strating the cyclical steps of PAR. Image created by author.
51 CHAPTER 3 THE CHAPMAN SCHOOL AND ADAPTIVE USE The case study building for this thesis is the Chapman School. Constructed from 1929 1934, the structure is the third educational building on its site in a residential neighborhood of Apalachicola, Florida. Use of the structure as an operating schoo l was discontinued in the 197 0s when replacement facilities were constructed on the campus. Despite periods when the structure was unoccupied, the 193 4 structure has had a continued presence in the community. Chapter 3 outlines the historical and contemporary contexts of the site and its community in order to better understand the case study. It also gives a detailed description of the adaptive use pro cess, and explains the considerations that must be made in the preservation of historic schools. Apalachicola and the Chapman School The City of Apalachicola became one of the largest cotton ports on the Gulf of nded in 1831, the city was a manufacturing depot for merchants from southern states such as Alabama and Georgia to ship their raw materials for processing. Finished products were then sent to retailers in northern states. During this time, many warehous War was detrimental to the small but thriving city. After the war, residents scrambled to find another economic generator be sides cotton to manufacture so they could maintain industry in the port city. An era of lumber harvesting ensued as residents took advantage of the pecky cypress found locally in the region. The economy then expanded to take advantage of the surrounding Gulf and began to rely on the seafood
52 industry for economic revenue. The reputation of Apalachicola as a major producer of seafood and oysters is still known today. Apalachicola, within Franklin County, is protected from the Gulf by a small barrier island square mile grid with intermittent squares, the largest of which was center ed in the middle of town ( Figure 3 1) The plan was inspired by the original layout for the City of Philadel phia. occurred along the waterfront on which its economy depended. This resulted in the concentration of businesses and warehouses along the shores of Apalachicola Bay, not around the center square as designed. As the rest of the city developed, the grid system became disrupted and streets cut through the squares by 1858. 1 The Chapman School was constructed in the northwest section of town on one of the five original squares at the intersection of Avenue E and 12th Street. The first school building to appear on this site was a wooden structure built before the turn of the twentieth century. 2 It was replaced by a larger, more permanent brick structure in 1915. As the town o utgrew the brick schoolhouse, plans were made to construct a second complimentary building. Town officials approved of the proposal of architect Robert E. James created in 1929 after reviewing another school he had designed and built in Bartow, Florida. 3 His design called for an additional structure to be built to the west of the existing 1915 building. Although the new classrooms, administrative offices, and 1 Willoughby Marshall, Apalachicola: Economic Development Through Historic Preservation (Tallahassee: Lithohaus Printers, Inc., 2009) 2 3 Apalachicola Times, May 2, 1931.
53 auditorium were being placed in a separate building, a corridor connecting the two structur es ma de it a joint facility. As part of the construction process, interior renovations of the existing building were made that included updates to systems and general improvements to the facility. To ensure continuity of the old structure with the new, the 191 5 brick structure was stuccoed and detailed to match the exterior of the new building ( Figure 3 2) The the first of its kind in 4 The construction technique was a cast on site cement comprised of local limestone that when finished had the appearance of marble. The method allowed for custom pieces to be premade and assembled in their correct location, or for larger blocks to be cast in place. It was also a material that could be used to cast decorative friezes and ornamental blocks that were essential design elements. exhibited in the custom cement work. On the exterior a frieze of cr abs and Florida fauna encircles the building. Inside, a custom bas relief above the auditorium stage depicts a pre Columbian scene with Native Americans, the arrival of Spanish ships, and lastly, the founding of the Chapman School. Pelicans line the stai rway to the second floor and sunburst patterns line the interior corridor of the classroom wing. An educational theme is also displayed in casts of owls and images of open books over the classroom doors ( Figure 3 3) All of the custom cement work and many the Art Deco style. The design trend, which had become popular in Florida during the 4 Apalachicola Times February 14, 1931.
54 Internationale de Arts Decoratifs in Paris in 1925 motifs. 5 fauna, flora, nautical references, beach moti fs, and bright colors. 6 Specifically in Miami, inspired forms mixed with Art Deco on South Beach. Characteristics of the style are symmetrical designs, ziggurat rooflines, gl ass block, decorative sculpture panels, and curved edges, among others. 7 Th is The school is a two story buildin shaped plan ( Figure 3 4) The primary entry and stair hall are located at t he center of the building, and the connecting walkway to the 1915 building would have been on the east side. The primary entry divides the building into two wings. The east wing, or the classroom wing, consists of four classrooms arranged around a centra l corridor on each floor. The west wing houses the double height auditorium and stage. Originally intended to host gatherings of over five hundred people, the seating in the auditorium today holds only approximately three hundred. The original doors ar e a board and batten type made of local pecky cypress. The doors originally had a natural finish. The pe cky cypress can be found in elements 5 13, http://www.artdecopb.org/whatis.html. 6 http://www.mdpl.org/about us/about miami beach design styles/what is art deco/. 7 Ibid.
55 throu ghout the building, including the exposed wood truss ceiling of the auditorium. The north and south walls of the auditorium have three bays of two story windows and are separated by decorative, backlit cast screens. The windows are original with alternating tinted lights of stained glass. The space is open to the second floor landing of the central stair throu gh a series of arched openings. The building was estimated to cost $65,000 and construction was to last only six attractive and less expensive building, pointing out th at the savings in upkeep and depreciation, together with a lower insurance rate, justifies a larger original 8 Florida as it embodies the best in design and the latest and most advanced processes 9 Unfortunately, both the construction completion date and cost proved to be too ambitious for such a new, labor intensive process and for the Great Depression. Although the remodeling of the existing school progr essed well, construction of the new building that was to take only six months continued on until 1934. In February of 1933 James reported that not enough progress was being made for the amount of money being spent. 10 By January of 1934, the original contr actors, the A.D. Lawson Construction Company of Port St. Joe, Florida stopped work and, after a brief period of inactivity, construction was restarted by the Franklin County Civil Works Administration 8 Apalachicola Times April 25, 1931. 9 Apalachicola Times, April 4, 1931. 10 Apalachicola Times, March 18, 1933.
56 (CWA). 11 Construction was paused again when the CWA was discontinued and replaced by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). Work was finally completed by FERA and the class of 1934 held the first graduation ceremony in the Chapman Auditorium that year. 12 The Civil Works Administration and the Fede ral Emergency Relief Administration New Deal. The WPA continued work on the Chapman School campus with the construction of a gymnasium and music building in 1940. 13 The Cha pman School gets its name from a notable nineteenth century scientist who made the City of Apalachicola his home. Dr. Alvin Wentworth Chapman, known for over fifty years as the leader in southern botany, came to the city with his wife in 1847. 14 Chapman b ecame very active in city politics and between 1866 and 1870 he held multiple positions including Mayor, County Judge, and Collector of Customs. 15 Beloved by the residents, the town chose to honor the doctor and scientist by naming their educa tional facili ty after him ( Figure 3 5) Today, the building is still known as the Chapman School, but the only educational program on site is the Apalachicola Bay Charter School. In 1957, the 1915 brick school building was demolished and replaced with a series of one story 11 Apalachicola Times January 6 1934. 12 Apalachicola Times May 12, 1934. 13 Apalachicola Times, January 10, 1941. 14 The Florida Historical Quarterly 21 (1943): 289 302, accessed January 19, 2013, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30138464. 15 Apalachicola History 2 (2010): 2, accessed January 19, 2013, http://www.apalach icolahistoricalsociety.org/file/Newsletters/AAHSNewsletterSpring2010.pdf
57 rectangular buildings that stretched to the north end of the campus. 16 Those structures were replaced in 1972 by the current building adjacent to th e historic Chapman School ( Figure 3 6) The Franklin County School Board had used the classroom wing for their administrative offices until 2009 and the Charter School, until recently, used the Chapman Auditorium for assemblies and special events. 17 More recently, some of the and medical facility. The large upfront expenditure for the construction of the school helped create a durable structure. The effects from any of the problems that plague the building now are still reversible if action is taken in the near future. A leak y roof has caused interior surface damage in the auditorium. Improper use of the classroom wings has led to the reconfiguration of floor plans and material changes. Insensitive bathroom additions have disrupted the processional entry space and massive ai r conditioning units and ductwork covers the entire east wall of the auditorium. Since 1983, the Franklin County School Board has received a total of $356,336 in grant money for the building that they have used to repair and stabilize the structure. 18 As a contributing building in the Apalachicola Historic District designated in 1980 the Chapman School has recognized significance. The city itself is unique in that it has a large collection of historic properties of various styles, but there are no other s tructures within the area that compare to the Chapman School. The invested interest by the Franklin County School Board shows that there is an appreciation and 16 17 18 Ibid
58 acknowledgment of the potential for the school in the future. Also, in an effort to promote th e preservation of the school, the building was nominated and selected for the wil l bring about renewed enthusiasm for preservation of the building and will elevate its 19 future of economic stability on the curre nt industries of Apalachicola has been called tourism to the cities on the Gulf of Mexico due the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill sparks the need for conversations ab out other income producing industries. 20 Many historic towns that have faced similar economic adversaries have looked towards preservation and the possibility of developing their economy with heritage tourism. As Apalachicola discusses its future economic possibilities, it can continue to use historic 21 Adaptive Use Process When does adaptive use become an app ropriate option for the preservation of a structure? Within the past few decades a shift away from the traditional methods of 19 Apalachicola Times, May 23, 2013, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.apalachtimes.com/news/local news/chapman listed as endangered site 1.147575?ot=hmg.PrintPageLayout.ot&print=photo 20 Tampa Bay Times June 18, 2010, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.tampabay.com/features/humaninterest/bp oil spill affecting apalachicola bay oyster harvest from afar/1103305 21 ay, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.apalachicolabay.org/.
59 restoration, recreation, and stabilization has occurred. This is largely due to the fact that investors are interested in preser vation as an economic tool and traditional preservation does not attract the same potential for income as new development. As economic recession encompassed the United States and funding for new construction became scarcer, developers began to recognize t he benefits of utilizing the existing fewer large for creative developers. 22 The Advisory Counc il for Historic Preservation completed a survey in 1976 that showed in many cases adaptive use was a less costly alternative to new construction. 23 This statement alone does not have enough creditability to become the leading argument for adaptive use, but when put into a context of economic recession, availability of excess existing building stock, and the inclusion of demolition and material costs, adaptive use is a more convincing option 24 The concepts behind adaptive use have been prevalent since early American construction. When materials were scarce, it was commonplace to reuse structural members, reconfigure spaces, and alter existing structures to meet a contemporary need. As a preservation tool adaptive use has gained more popularity in the last q uarter of the twentieth century. 25 Contenders for adaptive use projects are usually 22 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use: Development Economics, Process, and Profiles (Washington: Urban Land Institute), 1978, 1. 23 Ibid., 10. 24 Ibid., 10. 25 Ibid., 2.
60 structures which exhibit signs of life under a faade of age and neg ve the potential to be an economic generator. 26 In the state of Florida alone, the rehabilitation of historic properties is a multi billion dollar business that revitalizes communities and attracts tourists. 27 It is important to not only seek physical stru ctures that could benefit from an adaptive use strategy and project, but also to study communities that have a substantial building stock that can benefit from this type of intervention and reuse. An adaptive use project can help with the development of c ommunities through the improvement of physical, environmental, cultural, social, political, and economic features. 28 A project that successfully engages a community in its decision process also increases social capital, or the extent to which members of a community can effectively work together to develop and sustain strong relationships, solve problems, make group decisions, plan, set goals, and get projects completed. 29 Adaptive use falls under the Secretary of Interior Standards for Rehabilitation. It d iffers from other methods of preservation in that it allows for the evolution of a site and encourages it to adapt to contemporary needs while still maintaining its historic continuity. The Standards describe Rehabilitation as an appropriate treatment whe n 26 Urban Land Institute, A daptive Use 3. 27 Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida prepared for Florida Department of State, Center for Government Responsibility, Frederic G. Levin College of Law, University of Florida, and Center for Urban Policy Research, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University, Gainesville, September 2002: 7. 28 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 6. 29 Rhonda Philips and Robert H. Pittman, An Introduction to C ommunity Development (New York: Routledge, 2009) 6.
61 additions to the property are planned for a new or continued use; and when its depiction 30 Within this process, the id entification and preservation of character defining features, materials, spaces, or finishes is strongly encouraged. 31 The adaptive use process can be broken down into three phases: Feasibility Studies, Project Planning, and Project Implementation. Feasibi lity Assessment Feasibility reports determine the practicality of a project and are the basis for helping determine the amount of work that will need to be done. The assessment outlines the perceived benefits and weighs them against the potential costs. Feasibility is assessed in terms of economics and market evaluation, location, structural concerns, 32 Studies should be completed by a variety of experts including architects, engineers, planne rs, contractors, attorneys, real estate economists and preservationists. 33 This will provide for a holistic beginning stage of a project is a costly step sometimes seen as a disadvantage by those in favor of new construction projects. 34 It requires a competent team of creative professionals to gather the necessary data to create a feasibility study, but its 30 http://www.nps.gov/hps/tps/standguide/rehab/rehab_approach.htm 31 32 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 12. 33 Ibid., 10. 34 Ibid., 10.
62 completion will significantly increase the likelihood of a succe ssful undertaking and is well worth the upfront investment. conditions. This includes documentation and analysis of the conditions of the building, its site and location, the surrounding community, and the identification of its current owners or renters. 35 This information is usually fairly easy to obtain initially and can be further elaborated on once the project has been officially adopted. Also during this phase inform ation may be gathered concerning the needs of the community that may have critical influence on potential uses and feasibility of adapting the building. The combination of experts listed above combined with representatives from the local community and the building owner is ideal for a development team. People or agencies that can provide funding should also be included. A private developer may also be beneficial to the team as long as their investment agenda is in line with the goals of the other stakehol ders. Economic e valuation A local market survey should be conducted and analyzed to understand the 36 In general, the subjects of economic evaluations are population trends, employment, household income, retail s ales, and recent development trends. 37 The survey gauges what kinds of programs are more likely to be successful within a given population at a given time. After an overall 35 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 11. 36 Ibid., 13. 37 Ibid., 13.
63 understanding of the local economic characteristics is assessed, existing and futu re market trends are compared to assess the proposed uses for a specific resource. S ite evaluation The site of an adaptive use project is specifically important to consider because a program must compliment that fixed location, unlike new construction in w hich there is flexibility for development of a program in other areas. 38 An established site has a number of factors that influence an incoming use most of which concern the level of infrastructure available. This includes access to public transportation, parking, overall neighborhood safety and security, and the quality of programs in surrounding structures. 39 Fortunately, this infrastructure is usually already established in and around historic structures. Since the surrounding area probably has a prede fined feel and character careful consideration must be taken to ensure that the new use is appropriate for the established context of the existing environment. Physical analysis A major obstacle in the reuse of a historic property is that it cannot structu rally meet the needs of a new program. Although historic materials have a higher rate of durability, years of neglect and lack of maintenance may compromise their integrity. 40 Also, it may be challenging to physically adapt older structures to the more st ringent standards of building and life safety codes today. Structural analysis and an 38 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 14. 39 Ibid. 14. 40 Ibid. 14.
64 Significance assessment Typically, a preservati onist or architectural historian is commissioned to complete an architectural and historical evaluation of a property. This is understandable in that one of the main reasons for proposing the reuse of a structure is usually because of its architectural an d historical integrity. Recently, factors have been added to the list for evaluating significance that reflect a wider variety of community va lues, as apparent in Chapter 2 of this thesis. A proper significance assessment will identify the motivating for ces that will attract support for a project. Stakeholder evaluation In association with significance assessment, stakeholder evaluation identifies who plays what role in the adaptive use process. Alain de Botton poetically described the many people behind 41 This is important to recognize because without support of the stakeholders, the project will lose credibility and is l ess likely to reach the implementation phase. Project Planning Steps in the adaptive use process that occur after the feasibility assessment and establishment of the development team focus on detailed evaluations of contributing factors, esta blishing project goals, and creating development plans. The researcher and the research project for the adaptive use plan is one small part of a much larger operation. This phase requires a large team of participating stakeholders and relevant profession als. During this phase, ownership of the property is secured or 41 Frank Peter Jager (ed.), Old & New: Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings (Basel: Birkhauser GmbH, 2010), 7.
65 clearly established. The next steps are to develop financing, begin the schematic and programmatic designs, and obtain the proper public approvals. 42 Financing for adaptive use projects can b 43 It can be hard to convince lending agencies or investors that the obvious risks and challenges of adaptive use proje cts can result in economically viable projects. Special steps have to be taken, even in the stage of feasibility assessment, to make sure the most cost effective and practical planning methods are utilized. There are multiple types of funding sources tha t can be taken advantage of for adaptive use projects, but each depends on the current economic situation, both locally and federally. One benefit of working with publically owned buildings is that there are a variety of opportunities to apply for governm ental grants or public funding. In the past, Community Development Block Grants, revolving funds, or combinations of private and public funds have successfully funded adaptive use projects. 44 Obtaining private funding in small communities where there is a lso land available for development may be more difficult than in larger cities where resources are rarer or where adaptive use projects have been successfully implemented in the past. 45 The reuse of historic buildings demands creative solutions and designer s who 42 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 16. 43 Ibid., 18. 44 Ibid., 8. 45 Ibid., 30.
66 ve the integrity of the building; and 3.) maximize the efficiency of the structure and its relationship to its context. 46 The schematic design should closely follow the limits that the feasibility studies suggest. Architects should use the feasibility stu dies and the buildings inherent features to guide their design process. Public approvals to be addressed early on in this phase include meeting building code requirements, zoning regulations, and obtaining insurance. 47 If there is any type of historic desi gnation on the structure, whether on the local, regional, or federal level, the proper review process for any changes must be filed and approved. It is important begin this process, as well as the process of obtaining any permits or attempts for zoning re classification, as early as possible because they may otherwise cause expensive delays later on in the implementation process. Project Implementation The final phase of the adaptive use process is the actual transformation of the building, its presentation to the public, and the introduction of a management plan. The implementation phase puts all of the planning and preliminary work to the test, but one of the most important factors of this phase cannot be planned for. Because of the uniqueness of each pr oject, unforeseen situations may arise during the physical rehabilitation process. Whether they are difficult challenges or pleasant surprises that may make construction tasks easier, it is important to have an experienced contractor and project manager o n site overseeing operations that can properly assess these 46 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 18. 47 Ibid., 28.
67 types of circumstances. 48 Experienced management needs to extend beyond the actual rehabilitation process and into the day to day operations of the site. A maintenance plan should begin as soon a as well as its economic vitality. 49 One advantage an adaptive use project has over new construction in the implementation phase is that the marketing process for prospective tenants or users ca n begin very early on. Since the main infrastructure is already in place, users can get a good idea of what to expect in terms of spatial layouts and marketing experts can use the numerous positive impacts of an adaptive use project in its strategy to att ract renters or users. 50 Preservation of Historic Schools Many examples of successful adaptive use attempts have been the redesign of historic schools. Rehabilitating a school can be a challenging endeavor, but the positive benefits weigh heavy against th e disadvantages. In the most simplistic terms, a building is reused, but on the large scale of implications, the success of an adaptive use of a school has positive impacts on community development, environmental continuity, economic and business investme nt, and the relationship between citizens and governments. School closings are often a sign of declining enrollment or consolidation due to shifting residential patterns. 51 Closings became such a large problem in the United 48 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive Use 34. 49 Ibid. 35. 50 Ibid. 35. 51 Ibid., 166.
68 States that the National Trust f or Historic Preservation added the category of Historic Neighborhood Schools to their 1 1 Most Endangered Historic Places List in 2000. 52 Other efforts for the Johnny Walk to School: Sustaini 53 This program advocated for money needed for repairs to historic schools, attempted to alter perceptions within school districts that newer is better, spoke against sprawl caused by construction of new school s outside established residential areas, and promoted public policies that encouraged adequate and necessary maintenance of school buildings. 54 Since their locations are usually in prime development areas, and the government does not receive any revenue fr om the taxation of a public building, demolition and replacement can be the initial reaction to an abandoned school. 55 Nevertheless, their symbolism as a nucleus of a residential community remains and their degradation reflects the overall health of the ne ighborhood. Reusing a structure with such influence on an area can be the first step in rev italizing an entire community. Because the frequency of their location in residential neighborhoods, the most common adaptive uses of historic school buildings are housing, offices, community centers, and mixed use commercial spaces. 56 52 Forum News 15, No. 5 (2009), accessed October 22, 2013, http://www.preservationnation.org/forum/library/public articles/making the most of t he 11.html 53 Ibid. 54 Constance E. Beaumont and Elizabeth G. Pianca, Neighborhood Schools in the Age of Sprawl (Washington D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2002) 5. 55 Urban Land Institute, Adaptive U se 72. 56 Jenny Buddenborg, "New Life Through Adaptive Use: Saving Our Historic Schools" (paper presented at the National Trust for Historic Preservation Saving Places Conference, Denver, Colorado, 2010),
69 Arguments against the reuse of schools derive from a number of perspectives. Schools as a building type involve a large number o f stakeholders, each with their own opinions and agen das. Communities like to see government investment in physical development and the construction of new schools. Teachers and students want high performing facilities with modern amenities and technology. School districts have standards for life safety a nd security that are constantly being raised. 57 Public policies such as land use and zoning regulations of public school buildings make it difficult to find a new use that can follow the strict, established regulations. 58 The collaboration of all of these stakeholders may be challenging for agencies and groups that are accustomed to working individually, but a successful project means positive outcomes for a larger constituency. Sometimes a passion for preservation may overcome an advocacy group and unreal istic demands for a building are made. Emotions of a community can be extraordinarily sensitive when dealing with a school or a project that residents know intimately due to their close proximity. Therefore, it is important for project leaders to promote a practical but open mind about preservation possibilities. Residents must also acknowledge that preservation or the reuse of the structure may not be a possibility and should keep in mind alternative interpretation or mitigation methods. accessed September 6, 2013, http://www.phlf.org/wp content/uploads/2011/02/spc_2010_handout_f1_buddenborg.pdf 57 National Trust Forum, (May/June 2006): 3, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.phlf.org/wp content/uploads/2011/02/mpp may june_forum_schools_policy_insert.pdf. 58
70 Often, the sugg estion of adaptive use is presented too far into the degradation process. Severely damaged and deteriorated buildings are subject to demolition because of a lack of intervention while the building was still in use. 59 One possibility is to start discussio n of reuse or other mitigation early on. For example, in Philadelphia, a city that has been plagued with a surplus of historic public schools due to consolidation, has held public forums and meetings to discuss possibilities for the preservation of German town High even before the school officially closed its doors. The impending shutdown of the high school, an architecturally and publically accepted significant school, was the last straw for residents witnessing a steady social and economic decline in the ir neighborhood. Residents decided that the school was a good place to begin holistic revitalization efforts to redirect the future of their community. 60 This strategy of early planning can motivate action within a community while the resource is still fr esh in their minds. Some key considerations to keep in mind when contemplating the reuse of a historic school are the numerous challenges perceived by stakeholders. In reference to the disadvantages described above, there are ways to combat negative situa tions through strategic planning. Many of the strategies for adaptive use projects in general apply to the reuse of schools, but the National Trust for Historic Preservation (NTHP) lists the following suggestions specifically for school rehabilitation pro jects: Keep schools as center of community Identify and protect important historic schools 59 60 NBC10 Philadelphia August 29, 2013, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.nbcphiladelphia.com/news/local/District Changing Shuttered Schools Sale Process 221537391.html.
71 Require feasibility studies 61 Additionally, they encourage the creation of policies that source a combin ation of public and private funding. 62 It is important to unite school boards with other community agencies since they share the mission of serving the public. Together, the agencies can evaluate the overall needs of the community in their quest for a prog ram that will be appropriate for the reuse of the school. They also increase the availability of funding opportunities and can utilize federal and public grants. Florida specifically asks school boards and local governments to establish a process for col 63 addresses specific public facilities and collects recommendations from applicable agencies. Historic schools are often identified as important places within a community because of their outstanding survival through time. There are few other buildings than schools that multiple generations of people can share and call their own. This continuity is rare for a large group of people to share. The NTHP suggests creating a process that identifies public buildings that possess a shared significance in order to give them formal political recognition. 64 One way to do this is to use the existing policies such as Section 106 of th e National Historic Preservation Act as a model Section 106 requires 61 62 63 Ibid., 1. 64 Ibid., 2.
72 that any project that proposes changes to a federally owned property that is listed or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places must be given the opportunity to be reviewed by the Advisory Council for Historic Preservation. 65 A similar policy to Section 106 can be established on state or local levels to ensure a level of protection for historic government owned properties. Although it may not guarantee the preservation of a property, implementation of this policy would require local governments to inventory and keep tract of historic properties in its possession. 66 Enacting a public policy that requires a feasibility study of a school building should be essential to any plann ing guideline. A feasibility study determines realistic outcomes or expectations which can be helpful in identifying attainable goals. Without it, a lot of work and discussion may be wasted on a project that is not structurally, pragmatically, or economi cally viable. On the other hand, it may prove that a project has more possible development pot ential than previously believed Lastly, in line with the goals of this thesis, the NTHP suggests public participation in all phases of the project. During plan ning, design, and construction processes the integration of public input helps an idea become reality. 67 It also increases accountability and establishes community pride when residents take the work on as their own responsibility. This can further enhance the school as the center of a community and its role as a uniting force bringing the residents together. 65 Stephen Kass, Judith LaBelle, and David Hansell, Rehabilitating Older and Historic Buildings (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985), 132. 66 67 Ibid., 2.
73 In order to study possible approaches to preserve historic schools through adaptive use under the theories of values centered preservation and Partici patory Action Research, the framework described in Chapter 4 was tested within the context of the Chapman School and Apalachicola.
74 Figure 3 1. Apalachicola City Plan. Willoughby Marshall, Apalachicola: Economic Development Through Historic Preservati on (Tallahassee: Lithohaus Printers, Inc., 2009) 89. Figure 3 2. The renovated 1915 Chapman School (on the left) and the 1934 building
75 Figure 3 3. Example of the custom exterior cast cement ornamentation. Photo by the author. Figure 3 4. Interior f irst floor diagram. Diagram by the author.
76 Figure 3 Figure 3 6. The site as it exists today. A.) Chapman School and Music Building (1934) B.) Gymnasium (1940) C.) Apalachicola Bay Charter School (1972). Photo courtesy of Google maps.
77 CHAPTER 4 PROPOSED FRAMEWORK Values Centered Preservation and Adaptive Use Historic Preser vation as an industry in the United States was created in part as a response to the demolition of entire neighborhoods in the 1950s community development program known as urban renewal. 1 Today, despite conflicting interests in the past, preservation is us ed as a tool to foster community development and the two programs share similar agendas. Community development aims to produce assets that improve an area, attract businesses, and increase social capital. 2 Similarly, the objectives of preservation throug h adaptive use are job creation, economic growth, increased community stability, revitalization of businesses, and improvement of the visual environment in addition to saving a historic building or site. 3 With these shared objectives, the combination of p reservation and community development through adaptive use protects the significance of communities while meeting the needs of current and future residents. Values centered preservation is an appropriate theory to inform adaptive use projects that aim to support larger community development goal s because it helps identify the values of a community. Through values identification, the contemporary contexts that surround heritage resources are defined, contexts, the values p eople draw from them, the functions heritage objects serve for 1 Rhonda Philips and Robert H. Pittman, An Introduction to Community Development (New York: Routledge, 2009) 4. 2 Ibid., 11 3 David G. Woodcock et al. (eds.), Adaptive Reuse: Issues and Case Studies in Building Preservation ( New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1988), viii.
78 society, the uses to which heritage is put are the real source of the meaning of 4 By engaging community members in the process of the identification and assessment of contemporary c ommunity values, preservationists are considering how one project may affect larger community development trends. In the case of Apalachicola, the reuse of the Chapman School is just one example of a type of catalyst project that could spark positive comm unity growth. Although values centered preservation places emphasis on the study of intangible data, it remains a holistic process that encourages a researcher to incorporate all types of information. The holistic assessment includes the physical ph enomena representing intangible social and cultural milieu, as well as the ambient, tangible 5 The Chapman School is not just a singular building but a project with much larger representational context that can be described through the implementation of values centered preservation. The proposed framework for the implementation of values centered preserva tion described in C hapter 4 encourages a more holistic approach to adap tive use planning. It utilizes v alues centered preservatio n based on Partici patory Action Research theory to engage a community in the identification and assessment of many types of values and using that information to inform an action plan. Strategy for the Chapman School The methodology for this thesis consis t ed of the selection, summarization, and analysis of existing values assessment approaches and their methods specifically 4 Avramt et al., Values and Heritage Conservation, 4. 5 Woodcock et al, Adaptive Reuse, 49.
79 R apid E thnographic Assessment P rocedures and Randall The information gathered in the literature review on these approaches informed a framework for the assessment and integration of community values into the adaptive use process. T he framework also integrates other methods or tools that are reliant on stake holder participation that are frequently used in soc ial science fields The goals of the framework, which are similar ly sought in the planning processes of many adaptive use projects, was to identify community values and needs, document the existing conditions of the Chapman School building and its site, a nd to collaborate with local partners and the community to identify potential new uses for the building. This framework differed from other reuse planning approaches in that utilized the cyclical approach of PAR and incorporated a wider variety of stakeho lder opinions that traditionally used. Apalachicola and the Chapman School were considered an appropriate case study for many reasons. The case study revealed rehabilitation, as opposed to a restoration or reconstruction, as an appropriate strategy for th e Chapman School because there is a need for economically viable opportunities within the community in which adaptive use can provide. 6 First, the city has recently been experiencing industry hardship and is looking for alternative economic generators. D ue to changing conditions in the Apalachicola Bay and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf community leaders to consider other economic opportunities such as increasing 6 29, 2013. http://www.nps.gov/hps/tps/standguide/restore/restore_standards.htm
80 heritage tourism. 7 A n expanded heritage tourism economy would be supported by the in style and significance. 8 Also, the threat of unwanted development had become a reality in 2012 when Progress Energy despite overwhelming protest installed obtrusive 9 These challenges and the valuable resources of the city requir e community activism The strategy for this case study includes three phase s, each with its own goals and methods for data collection informed by social science approaches (Table 4 1). The phases built upon each other, using the information gathered to inform the next steps in the process. T he cyclical steps of Participatory Action Research ( PAR ) are reinforced by structuring the framework in this manner (Figure 2 1). Phase One The research of Phase On e was conducted by a team of one doctoral and two masters of historic preservation graduate students including the author, from the University of Florida (UF) The assessment team began research on Apalachicola and the Chapman School as an independent st udy course in January 2013. Research was supervised by the d irector of the UF Historic Preservation Program The goal of Phase O ne was to gather informat ion about the community and school through archival 7 Apalachicola Times June 13, 2013, accessed October 10, 2013, http://www.apalachtimes.com/editorial/columns/gu lf restoration calls for science community support 1.158250 8 City of Apalchicola Historic Architectural Review Board, A Guide to Rehabilitation and New Construction (Apalachicola: Apalachicola City Commissio n, 2006) 12. 9 Apalachicola Times January 8, 2013, accessed October 10, 2013, http://www.apalachtimes.com/news/local news/progress poles tower over apalachicola 1.75555
81 research, site visits and assessments and conver sations with key stakeholders. Also in this phase, objective values associated with the historic community and site as defined through the National Register Evaluation Criteria were identified (Appendix A). The majority of the research in the first phase was completed in less than five months. Archival sources used to identify historical information about the site included the National Register Historic District nomination form for the City of Apalachicola from 1975, an architectural and engineering surve y for the school lot completed in 1974, newspaper articles, and scrapbook created by graduates of the Chapman School. Information was also obtained about previous grants that had been awarded to the county school board for repairs and restorations to the building. Other information about the development of the city was found in literature and online. Th e key stakeholders were preservation minded people in the community with a dedicated interest to the local historic sites. This group was organized by an individual who approached the University of Florida with the Chapman School project, and who i s These stakeholders provided information about the site and the city throug h oral histories as well as through informal conversations about recent events. Some of the people involved in this first initial group were members of the local historic society, political officials, and representatives of public agencies such as the cit y library and county building s department. Some of the organizations that they represented were established as project partners and included the Apalachicola Bay Chamber of Commerce, Franklin Co. Planning and Building Department, Apalachicola Historical So ciety, and the Ap alachicola Bay Charter School.
82 An existing conditions assessment of the site was completed during this time. The importance of this step in the study wa s to determine the overall feasibility of a rehabilitation project at the site. After visiting the site with an architect experienced in preservation t he assessment team divided into pairs to record the current conditions of the interior and the exterior of the building. Each space of the interior was assessed individually and broken dow n by ceiling, elevation, and floor. The assessment included photographs and notes on the configurations of spaces, character defining features, materials, systems, and any damages or signs of decay. The exterior assessment looked at the condition of the roof system, each elevation, and the foundation. Also noted were signs of decay, weather ing, or structural damage, and character defining design features. An example of a completed conditions assessment form can be seen in Appendix C. All the relevant in formation gathered in Phase One was compiled into a Historic Structure Report (HSR) A HSR 10 The compilation of this information helped reveal mod ifications made and the development of the building over time. The HSR use of 11 T he existing conditio ns were reviewed by the assessment team, and considerations for its reuse were identified. This included a list of repairs, suggestions for the restoration of character defining features, and requirements for code compliance and handicap accessibility. 10 National Park Service, Prese rvation brief 43 http://www.nps.gov/tps/how to preserve/briefs/43 historic structure reports.htm 11 Ibid.
83 Also during this phase, F 11 Most Endangered Historic Places List was completed and accepted. The decision to nominate the School to the list was suggested by the University of Florida Historic Preservation Program Board of Advocates a nd was supported by the initial stakeholder group. Members of the assessment team used the informat ion from the HSR to complete the nomination. The experts or grassroots members can use to promote awareness of a project or a threatened historic site. 12 Overall, t he data collected in this phase was primarily factual and fairly objective. Except for opinions presented in conversations with the key stakeholder group, the assessment team recorded data that would support the National Register Evaluation Crit eria. The next phases incorporated methods that would assess other, more subjective values associated with the site and the community. Potential ideas for the reuse of the Chapman School were also e xplored From this point on, research was conducted only by the author and aided by the program director as per requirements for this thesis Phase Two During Phase Two which lasted from May to September 2013 community members were involved in events th at promoted the Chapman School project outside of the scope of this study. The Florida Trust for Historic Preservation held their annual board meeting in Apalachicola, and included a tour of the School in the schedule of their events. Franklin County hos ted a focus group meeting about tourism expansion and 12 http://www.floridatrust.org/endan gered sites
84 diversification, and the county Department of Buildings also submitted a grant application to the state the community were working to att ract attention to the school and surrounding community. A goal of Phase Two and Phase Three was to engage even more stakeholders in the exploration of the values of Apalachicola residents and how the Chapman School might be rehabilitated in reference to t hose values. The second phase of the study was initiated by a community presentation in May 2013. The history and conditions of the city and school discovered during Phase One were presented at this time in a PowerPoint About 15 people attended the pres entation which was held in the Chapman School auditorium. Representatives from par tner organizations and agencies were included in the attendance. The goal of the presentation was to inform the community members of the research that had been completed to date. Also, the presentation provided the opportunity to discuss with the attendees the feasibility of the rehabilitation project. After a review of the existing conditions and considerations for rehabilitation, it was agreed among the stakeholders that the reuse of the Chapman School was possible. The other information gathered from Phase One and the creation of the HSR influenced a community survey conducted during this phase (Appendix D) The HSR provided the context information in order for the surv ey to be created, analyzed and interpreted. Without this information, the survey would have had to been much more extensive and would have depended on the residents to provide the majority of the information needed to complete this study. Because of the research completed in Phase One, the survey was able to focus on the assessment of additional subjective or
85 non traditional values that community members associated with the community of Apalachicola and the Chapman School. It also asked participants to consider potential ideas for the reuse of the building. The survey was a short questionnaire consisting o f 15 questions that focused on four categories: demographics, community values, values associated with the school and potential use ideas (A ppendix D ) Questions concerning demographics were multiple choice and intended to help the researcher gain a better understanding of the people who were interested in the project. Most of the questions about values were open ended and allowed participants to answ er freely. This approach was used so that answers would not be limited by suggestions made by the researcher. A goal of the survey was to identify as many different types of values as possible. If specific answers were given to the participant to choose from, there would be a risk of missing important values that were not considered by the researcher. Printed copies were distributed at the public presentation to be filled out immediately or returned to the author by mail. The survey was also avai lable online and promoted by project partners, social media, and an article in the local newspaper. The article also recapped the information discussed at the presentation. Only residents of Franklin County were eligible to complete the questionnaire because t he intended audience of the study was permanent community members Non residents such as tourists or seasonal visitors were excluded because the goal of values centered preservation is to in itiate action within the local community. The survey method was a ppropriate as an initial step because it provided a general description of the current condition s and attitudes of the residents It provided
86 both quantitative data as well as qualitative information in a format that could easily be compared and analyzed. Some examples of the survey que stions included: What are your three most favorite things about living in Apalachicola? About the Chapman School building, its site, its history, or it meaning? What are your three least favorite things? What changes would you like to see made in your community or at the school? Do you have any ideas for a new use of the building and its site? After four months, the answers to the surveys were collected and results were organized through content analysis Results were so rted into themes per opened ended question and ranked by their frequency of appearance (Table 4 2) An analysis of this informat ion is presented in Chapter 5 Phase Three The third and last phase utilized the data from the survey to inform a community wor kshop. The workshop consisted of three activ ities with the goals of confirm ing the most important community value s exploring the potential of suggested new uses, and defining the next steps to be taken in the adaptive use process. The workshop began with a PowerPoint presentatio n of a summary of the research and phases completed to date. The workshop was hosted again in the Ch apman auditorium, lasted about two hours, and was attended by 11 p eople. The author and UF Historic Preservation program d irector facilitated the workshop. The role s of the facilitator s were to ask initial questions and to help the groups stay focused on the specific topics during discussion. The workshop utilized a gaming method and discussion groups to collect data. For example i nstead of listing the survey results in the summary presentation, a game was used to validate the responses during the workshop by asking the same questions from the survey Validation or confirmation of
87 data is important when collecting qualitative da ta because of the risks described by Setha Low and the REAP approach. Three activities within the workshop were used to discuss the information collected in the survey (Figure 4 1). The first activity was a game that asked participants to identify the val ues of the community by asking the survey question: The survey responses to this question were compiled into 8 general themes : people, natural environment, built environment seafood restaurants and shops, activities and events, economy, and safety (Table 4 2) The themes represented the types of values survey participants associated with the community. These themes were written on cards posted upside down on a large board. Participants took turn s guessing the themes and answers were revea led by flipping over the card. The value themes were then used to inform the next workshop activity. This activity also served as an icebreaker activity to excite the group and encourage interaction. For the second activity, the participants were r andomly divided into groups of three or four Each group gave themselves a team name and was asked to rank the eight identified values in order of importance. Participants were asked to discus s within their own groups why one identified value was more important than another. Each group was given a board with blank spac es numbered one to eight and a set of cards with one community value written on each. Groups then stuck the cards into the app ropriate spot on the board in order of their decided preference. After each group finished ranking their values, they were asked to explain their decision making process to the rest of the participants.
88 The goal of this activity was to develop a consensus among the participants for the most important community value that should be protected in the face of change. This process resembled Randall community ranked their favorite places in town. He explains that t he benefit of this and landscapes into a focused and specific debate about what sites should be kept or 13 The first two activities helped develop a consensu s among the group as to which aspects of the community were most important to their identity. Information discussed reasons why a building or place should be preserve d, why it is meaningful or useful, and 14 With an established set of values for Apalachicola, the next step was to focus on the potential of the school and its role within the community. In the last activity gro ups were asked to explore the possibilities of a specific potential use idea (Figure 4 2) Groups chose one reuse idea from a set of three cards. T wo groups were given proposed uses identified from the survey. Those ideas were an educational facility co nsisting of a museum or library space and a performing and visual arts center with the capability of hosting a number of different community events. The third choice was a wild card with an option to propose another use not identified in the survey. The idea to use a wild card came from the multitude of proposed use ideas in 13 Places Vol. 2, no. 3 (1982): 16, accessed August 1, 2013, http://places.designobserver.com/media/pdf/Subconscious_L_129.pdf 14
89 the survey that were difficult to generalize into a single program. The group that picked the wild card chose to expl ore the idea of converting the S chool into governmental office sp ace. The groups were then asked if the v alues associated with the school, i ts history, aesthetics, loca tion, and personal significance aligned with the proposed new use. Next, groups discussed the following: Strengths of the proposed use idea Challenges of the proposed use idea Next steps or actions needed to taken to make the idea a reality Potential partners who should be involved in the project A project name that helped relay a broad vision or idea for the schoo l Each group wrote their responses to t hese discussion topics on a large board. A representative of each group then presented the pr o posed use analysis to the attendees and together they discussed what they felt was feasible or appropriate for the school. Appropriaten ess was argued based on t he correlation of the proposed use idea with the values identified for the community and the school building. The discussion and the consideration of next steps then concluded the workshop. The workshop activities in Phase Three were based on the results of the survey from Phase Two. The survey questions in Phase Two were informed by the data gathered from the HSR and Phase One. Overall, the framework used the information gathered from the previous phase to inform the next steps in the engagement process ues centered preservation and Participatory Action R esearch The three phase engagement process ultimately led to an action plan developed by the participants. Those actions and the results of the framework phases are described more in depth in Chapter 5
90 Table 4 1. Phase Goals and Methods Phase Goals Method s 1. Identify traditional, objective values of community and site Gather information about the site and building feasibility assessme nt Site visits Conditions assessment Conversations with key stakeholders Archival r esearch 2. Identify additional subjective values of community and site Identify community needs Identify potential reuse ideas for the Chapman School Public presentation Su rvey 3. Explore how identified values could inform potential use ideas Develop consensus of most important values Develop consensus on most appropriate reuse idea Work shop (consisting of a game and discussion groups )
91 Table 4 2. Identified Themes of Su rvey Results Question Category Themes (Listed by frequency of appearance) List your three favorite things about living in Apalachicola. Community value People Natural environment Built environment Seafood restaurants and shops Activit ies and Events Economy Safety List your 3 least favorite things about living in Apalachicola. Community need Lack of resources Issues with leadership/political conflict Lack of economic diversity/job opportunities Lack of activities Threats to natural and built environments Tendency to cater toward tourists Other Unenforced ordinances/laws What are improvements or changes you would like to see made in Apalachicola? Community needs Diversified economy and more job opportunities Beautification and improved infrastructure More resources Improved leadership and law enforcement/community activism List three things you like most about the Chapman School building, its site, its history, or its meaning. Values of s chool Aesthetics Personal meaning or significance Location History Potential for reuse List three things you would like to change about the Chapman School and its site. Needs for school Physical renovation New program/use Removal of inappropriate use Additional parking Do you have any ideas for a new u se of the building and its site? Potential use Educational facility Arts facility Event site Museum Research facility Government use Other
92 Figure 4 1 Participants engaging in discussion groups. Photo by author. Figure 4 2 Participants document ing their activity responses on a board Photo by author.
93 CHAPTER 5 DATA RESULTS In the first two phases of the proposed framework, a variety of values were identified. The goal of Phase One was to identify objective values. Phase Two identified addit ional subjective values and new use ideas Phase Three assessed the values in relation to the proposed use ideas identified from the survey and explored in the workshop The values identified in this study represented a majority of Jeremy es of contemporary heritage values, which include s the traditional National Register Evaluation Criteria. It can be determined that a holistic representation of the majority of different types of values was identified by using the proposed framework. The results of each phase were collated by the facilitator and assessed separately through content analysis an d then used to inform the subsequent phase. From the content analysis themes were used to describe the variety of values and data that was collected The success of each phase was determined by comparing the results of each phase to the original goals described in Chapter 4 (Table 4 1) Overall, the framework was critiqued by analyzing the outcomes of the phases in regards to the cyclical model of P articipatory Action Research (PAR) Phase One The goal of Phase One was to obtain as much factual and historical information as possible through archival research, conversations with k ey stakeholders, and the site asses sments described in Chapter 4 The re search conducted during Phase One primarily resulted in the identification of objective values of the Chapman School a nd the City of Apalachicola and reflected the information available without the assessment
94 of stakeholder opinions. The assessment team w as able to identify the following themes of values associated with the City of Apalachicola : Value associated with National events: Apalachicola represents American development trends in the South as a cotton port heavily influenced by the effects of the C ivil War Value associated with people: the city is home to a number of influential visionaries such as Dr. Chapman, among others Artistic/design value : the city has a collection of architectural styles representing a number of period trends and technology Rarity value: the isolation of the city from other places has kept many of its resources intact unlike places that are more susceptible to outside development The following values found were associated with the Chapman School: Value associated with people : t he Chapman School is named after Dr Alvin Chapman, an influential leader in the city of Apalachicola and in the field of Botany Value embodied distinctive characteristics : the School is a representation of the Art Deco style specific to the United State s and Florida Informational value: Construction of the school utilized a custom cast concrete method that reflected building technology in the late 1920s Rarity value: the Art Deco building is only one of a few buildings of this type within the region The se values are based on the definitions of significance as provided by the National Register Evaluation Criteria, although Dr. Jeremy Wells does acknowledge them in his list of contemporary heritage values (Appendix A and B): Result s from the conditions ass essments as part of the Historic Structure Report were also analyzed at this point. This was a practical assessment that helped determine the feasibility of a rehabilitation project at the School in accordance with the adaptive u se process outlined in Cha pter 2 It was determined that in order for any new
95 use to be introduced to the building considerable adjustments must be made. Most importantly, current fire, safety, and building codes need to be updated to addressed For example, a lthough the first f loor is partially accessible, there are few cost effective or simple solutions for Americans with Disabilities Act accessibility to the second floor. Lastly, the integrity of the roof and its active leaks compromise interior features such as the original Beaverboard ceiling, pecky cypress trusses, and cast cement ornamental pieces. However overall the durable materials and structural integrity have remained intact. Unfortunately, insensitive adaption of the classrooms into medical offices has compromise d the original interior floor plan. Also, the exterior conditions assessment revealed leaks in the roof system that has caused water damage, specifically in the auditorium. Many of the other suggestions for reuse in the Historic Structures Report are cos metic and include adjustments that will depend on the proposed program. Phase Two The second step in the outlined framework for the Chapman School case study was to identify subjective values associated with the community and the site in order to complete the holistic approach to values assessment. Also, in relation to the adaptive use project, community needs and potential use ideas were identified. Information in this phase was primarily collected through the survey method (Appendix C ). This survey hel ped provide a preliminary understanding of the residents who displayed interest in the project and their values. The survey was distributed at a public pr esentation and was also available online. The distributed survey had a result of n= 35 completed respo nses from May to September 2013. Questions were broken down into the following categories: demographi cs, values associated with the C ity of Apalachicola and the surrounding
96 area, values associated with the Chapman School, and potential adaptive use ideas for the school building and site. A goal of the survey was to identify more subjective values and also, potential use ideas. Only residents of Franklin County were asked to participate in the survey. The majority of respondents, over sixty percent, have lived in Franklin County for over 20 years and are very familiar with the school and its site. The median age group was between 55 and 64 years old, and 28% more females responded than males. A lack of cultural diversity of participants was eminent as 9 3% of respondents were Caucasian. Although a few respondents claimed Franklin County was their second home, 93% were permanent residents and 23 people also owned businesses in the area. After the section that focused on demographic questions, participants were asked about the va lues associated with the community of Apalachicola. In order for the were simply asked to list three things you like about living in Apalachicola. were categorized into the following themes: quality of life People (Former and current residents) Natural environment and location Built environment Seafood restaurants and shops Activities and events Economy Safety The goal of this question was to define specific features of the community that should be protected. Answers were sorted by similarities into the following categories and are listed by frequency of appearance: Overall, residents rem arked that the quality of life
97 of place, authentic mixture of New England influence, southern values, and Florida accordi ng to one respondent Other responses described Alternately, participants were also asked to list their three least favorite things about living in Franklin County. The intent of this question was to identify the needs of the community. These responses reflected problems that have arisen due to community values not bei ng met. The themes identified from this question were: A lack of resources, such as medical facilities and quality shopping Issues with political leadership A lack of economic opportunities and jobs A lack of activities, specifically for youth The danger of threats to the natural and built environments T endency of local leaders to cater tourists Negative attitudes of outsiders who come to Apalachicola Un enforced laws and ordinances Among top responses was the lack of necessary resources such as first rate educational, medical, and shopping facilities du e in part and small population Many of these issues reflect o, among other possible factors, were concerned about the low retention rate of full time residents due to a lack of economic and career prospects as well as inadequate educational and extracurricular opportunities for youth. Other items listed as things residents did not like were potential threats to the natural and built environments cause d by un enforc ed ordinances and tourism management While sixty nine percent of participants agreed or strongly agreed that changes to the community could be exciting and help the city grow, some residents
98 stated that t hey were worried about the effects those changes could have on their or improvements th at are not i evident from the responses residents feel it is important that their opinions are heard and that the amount of changes to support and expanded tourist economy should be limited. When asked about any improvem ents or changes that should be made in Apalachicola respondents answered with ideas for a diversified economy, improved leadership, beautification and improved infrastructure ( Table 4 2) The survey also asked participants to identify three things they lik ed about the Chapman School building, its site, its history, or its meaning. This helped identify the values that community members associated with the school. Respondents stated they liked the following: Aesthetics, architecture, and design Personal me aning or significance Location Potential for reuse History The values identified with the school included common attributes of a historic site such as its aesthetics, location, and history. The open ended format of the survey questions allowed for partic ipants to describe other values such as personal meanings they associate with the site. One respondent described the school as the heart and soul of the potential the sit always center to our lives, our town
99 Participants were also asked to describe how familiar they were with the site. This helped identify some of the experiential and emot ional values people associated with the site. Responses described the relationships people had with the school and personal memories. Some had worked in the building while others had parents or family members graduate from the school. Even those without a direct associa tion to w it from other events held at the site or just from its highly visible location in town. An important objective of this survey was to identify an appropriate new use for the School. Participants were ask ed to list three things they would like to change about the site as it is today and what changes or improvements they would like to see made in Apalachicola. This information identified rehabilitation actions that would occur no matter what program was ch osen. Ideas for actions proposed were: Physical renovations such as building stabilization and landscaping Introduction of a new program Parking additions They were then asked if they had any ideas for a new use for the building or site. Potential use ideas ranged from programs for education and research to facilities for the arts, events, and curatorial displays. Themes of reuse suggestions were: Educational facility/library Arts facility Event site Museum Researc h facility Government space Offices Along with the ideas for reuse, participants submitted suggestions for the renovation of the structure and improvement of the surrounding landscape. Overall, the suggested
100 uses were programs that would open up the Chap man School for public use while honor ing the history of the building and its site. In addition to the survey, i nformation during this phase was also gathered through conversations with the stakeholders who attended the public presentation. After presentat ions by the framework facilitators were made, discussions among the attendees provided other information about the site and the community. These conversations mostly answered questions about the building that appeared during the assessment of Phase One. It also gave the opportunity for some attendees to voice their opinions about the project or share their experiences with the school amongst the group. Phase Three The goal of the third phase of this study was to use the method of a workshop to explore how the values identified in Phase One and Two could inform potential use ideas. The workshop was designed to engage community members in activities that would encourage discussion and ultimately result in an action plan for the rehabilitation of the school. Before the relationship of values and potential uses could be explored, the identified values from Phase One and Two needed to be confirmed. This step was essential to establish validity, and was completed under the principle of triangulation. To establi sh the validity of the identified community values, t he first activity of the workshop used a game to confirm the reasons why people liked living in Apalachicola that were described in the survey. The work shop participants stated the same values that were identified in the survey and through Phase One. The second activity of the workshop asked participants to prioritize t hose val ues and rank them from numbers one
101 to eight ( Table 5 1). After groups discussed their rankings, they presen ted the results to each other. Prioritization of the values of the community was important because it helped participants define arguments for the protection of significant resources in the face of developmental threats or changes. All three groups identified the following four community values as their top priorities: Natural environment Built environment People, including the memory of former Apalachicola residents A consensus of the top priorities among all three groups was neede d in order to identify specific goals or areas to focus on during the adaptive use process. These items were identified as the most i mportant features to protect in the face of future changes or de velopment. The third activity focused on the final goal of this phase and was intended to allow participants to analyze the correlation of the proposed use ideas with the identified community and school values. After each group chose a proposed use, they were asked to consider the strengths, challenges, potential partners, and the next steps for th e idea ( Table 5 2) This activity also included a visioning exercise in which they were asked to create a name for their project that reflected the positive imp acts that the school could have on the entire community. Participants were also asked to consider how the values of the school identified in the survey would be affected by changes implemented by the new use. Topics of discussion included the relationshi p between
102 discussion session was to determine if the use could appropriately support those values associated with the physical school building. In the proposed use ana lysis activity, Group One explored the idea of using the Chapman School as government offices, an idea they created as a result of picking the wild card. While the other groups focused on the strengths of the building to support their proposed uses, they explored the strengths of their idea itself and the larger effects it would have on the community. Group Two who discussed the use as an arts and culture center, were unclear about the next steps that should be taken in the project. They left that secti on of their board blank, as did Group One with their Project Name. Groups Two and Three felt that the Chapman legacy should continue through the Potential partners listed were mostly g overnment age ncies and educational institutions although Group Three hoped for the benefit of a wealthy donor. The workshop concluded in a discussion to develop a consensus of the strongest proposed use idea Participants decided that a mixed use, publ ic facility that c elebrated history as an educational facility would be the most appropriate solution. The building and its auditorium could be developed to also host a number of educational and cultural events. The d iscussion continued to i dentify what the next steps for initiating the process of implementing the proposed use plan. Community members took the initiative to collaborate, discuss, and plan the necessary actions to rehabilitate the Chapman School. This discussion resulted in a immediate steps to be taken with an agreed upon new use in mind. The list or action plan included the following:
103 Organize a coalition to oversee rehabilitation activities, possibly under an existing non profit, c ommunity organization Establish partners, both organizational and fundraising Develop a detailed program that supports public, multi functional uses Create a schematic design and Master Plan Research benchmarks or successful examples of similar projects Re solve issues of property ownership Collaborate with a legal advisor The creation of this list gave completed the workshop and Phase Three of the Framework. The results from the framework phases showed a wide representation of values and themes. After the three phases of the framework were completed, the community members were left with a set of values to use as a reference in the next cycle of th e planning process. Although the University of Florida will continue to work with the community to develop a M aster Plan and schematic design, the residents are now equipped with an action plan to help get the adaptive reuse of the Chapman School und erway. Chapter 6 describes why this framework was successful in this case study issues that can be improved upon t o make it better, and considerations for its replication in other situations or different adaptive use projects.
104 Table 5 1 Ranking of Apalachicola Community Values Ranking Group One /Wise Owls Group Two /Chaps Group Three /Perky Pelicans 1. N atural location and environment People (tradition of visionaries) 2. Built environment Built environment (as a link to people from the past) History (architecture, social, city plan) 3. Natural environment and location Activities and events Uni que, diverse heritage 4. People 5. Activities and events People Natural environment and location 6. Economy (potential for small business and entrepreneurs) Safety Activities and events 7. Safety Seafood restau rants and shops Seafood restaurants and shops 8. Seafood restaurants and shops Safety Safety
105 Table 5 2 Proposed Use A nalysis Team/Use Group One /Wise Owls : County government offices Group Two /Chaps : Arts and Culture Center Group Three /Perky Pelicans : Educational Facility Strengths Save money for taxpayers Better public access & visibility Continuum of use (previously used as office) Secure permanent location Landscape Size Current floor plan Location/parking Proximity to current school Aesthetics Stru cture/security Location Auditorium Challenges ADA Partial use (only classroom space) How would it integrate with other uses Does not provide dedicated source of funding for maintenance or fund roof repair Property ownership Fundraising for maintenance and restoration Project leadership Strategy/master plan Grant writing Funding Educational Values Size of Buildin g Partners County supervisor of elections Sea grant office Board of County Commissioners A palachicola B ay C harter school University of Florida Hi storic society (local/regional) Forgotten Coast Coalition UF & Higher Ed ucation A palachicola B ay Charter school City Library Historical Society State of Florida Wealthy Donor Project Name Chapman Community Center Chapman Center for Culture Next Steps Es tablish existing lease terms Determine ADA modifications Get partners on board Carry out reno vation Move in Steering committee Adaptive use study
106 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION This thesis aimed to develop an appropriate framework that preservati onists and others can u se to assess community values to inform the adaptive use of a heritage site. Traditionally in historic preservation, values are assessed through presumably objective data following the criteria necessary to be listed on the National Register for Historic Places or a local register. The overall goal for this thesis derived from the need for a method in which a wide range of stakeholder values and needs could be assessed and then implemented in the planning of an adaptive use project This thesis recognizes the importance of values centered preservation and utilizes qualitative, social science methods to assess a wider range of subjective and emotional values. The case study of the Chapman School was an opportunity to test the propos ed values assessme nt framework outlined in this thesis The proposed framework consisted of three phases, and utilized multiple methods of data collection in an attempt to holistically represent the views of as many of the community members of Apalachicola as possible. Each phase of the framework was informed by its pr cyclical process of observation, reflection, planning, and action The goal of Phase One was to identify traditional, objective va lues through observation methods. Phase Two focused on the engagement of community members to identify more subjective values and potential use ideas. Phase Three also used engagement methods for data collection, but also focused on the development of an action plan. Chapter 6 summarizes the outcomes of the case study of the Chapman School project. It also analyzes the strengths of the proposed framework, as well as limitations
107 that could be improved upon. Finally, it presents considerations for reade rs that wish to implement this framework in other situations or studies. Chapman Adaptive Reuse Project Assessment The findings from the Chapman School case study that tested the framework for the integration of values centered preservation in the adapti ve use planning process are organized into four main outcomes or themes (Table 6 1 ) These themes represent how the Apalachicola residents viewed their city, the school, and the future of both. icola residents identified the sense of place as a valuable asset. The first identified theme was that among the variety of values identified in the study, among the most important to the participants was an intangible feeling. Although heavily supported by the built and natural envir onments quality of life that they felt should be protected. Without the implementation of values centered preservation and a holistic approach for the identifi cation of contemporary val ues, this aspect may have been overlooked The second theme represents the overall changes that are occurring within the community of Apalachicola. These changes are the result of larger trends such as industry hardships and a By October of and main source of income had hit 1 Although actions by the state government focused on refueling local oyster business es struggling in the area, residents acknowledged in the Phase One survey the impo rtance of shifting focus onto other economic option s stating: 1 Associated Press, Gainesville Sun, October 25, 2013.
108 t he future of t his town is tourism! Embrace it. Enthusiasm for economic development through increased touri sm was, however, offset by demands for the protection of lifestyle s could easily be disrupted by an influx of tourism, the survey helped identify specific as pects important to manage in order to protect the natural and built environments The third theme came from the demands for growth opportunities in the education sys tem better resources, and increased cultural events and activities Residents requested opportunities that could attract n ew businesses to urists, and residents, and also prevent existing locals from having to leave Apalachicola in search of better educational and economic opportunities. As another respondent stated: [We need] some type of industry for our young people to look forward to wh en they graduate other than seafood, corrections, etc. Most of our kids have to leave Franklin Count y to make a future for themselves and until een center [could be created] that will help put hope in our kids to create a vision for the future here in our lovely Apalachicola Among other suggestions for creating a hopeful future for current residents w as a call for community activism and improved leadership that suggested residents be proactive in t heir own community development. The Chapman School bui lding itself is a local landmark the residents believe has the potential to improve their quality of life. The fourth theme from the study was the p erception of the school as a gateway to the city. monument is strongly perceived and cherished by the residents. As a survey Because of its prominent location on a main roads through town, it is one of the first structures that welcome visitors coming into the City of Apalachicola from the West The Chapman
109 school is the first im pression of the city to those visitors and can heavily influence their ove rall perceptions of the community. Some suggestions for changes desired in the community did not correlate with new use ideas for the school. For example, a lthough many survey respondents expressed a desire for more medical facilities, many felt that the current p artial occupancy of the school by C ontinued use as a d New use ideas did not specifically focus on ways to stimulate the local economy or create jobs, even though this was a popular topic when asked about desired changes to the community. Analysis of the proposed uses in the community workshop of Phase Three also largely ignored the connection of new use and the identified, larger scale community issues. From this tren d it seems that residents had a difficult time imag in ing the potential of the reuse of the Chapman School to solve larger, well known preservation action directed by the assessment of contemporary heritage values of communi ties is to be followed, it is important to help community members see how the reuse of existing, historic building stock can help solve larger problems within a town Despite the many suggestions and ideas for reuse, there was little mention abo ut exactly who should be doing the actual work on the project. This was the last discovered trend in the analysis of the results. Potential partners were identified but participants neglected to organize themselves as the custodians of the resource. Wit hout a specific contact person or organization to go to when time comes to make decisions, the project will potentially fail. Other concerns that plagued the group were
110 sources of funding, maintenance costs and staff, issues with property ownership, the c ontinuation of inappropriate use, and the fear of insensitive restoration. Throughout this study, the residents of Franklin County expressed strong opinions about how the Chapman School and its site should be reused. Their proposed use ideas reflect their desire for the new use to benefit the entire community, not for just for private or governmental use. After comparing the results of the survey and the workshop, the most appropriate use identified was that of a public, multi functional community space t hat could host a number of educational and cultural activities. This type of facility would serve community members by progressing toward their community goals of improved educational facilities and increased opportunities for youth, and has the potential to foster economic development. As an added benefit, the retention and reuse of the Chapman School would also contributes to the heritage tourism economy The values identified in this study c orrelated with the proposed used idea. The site and its prime location in town influenced ideas for a community center. The resulted in the continuation of the Chapman Most frequently the personal meanings and significances residents personified in the school inspired a wide range of ideas including a performing arts center. Also noted during the workshop was a need for a venue of this si ze in the city. Other values identified in the survey that relate to the physical fabric of the school and its site will mostl y come into play when decisions for the schematic design are made
111 Framework Assessment Overall, t he based on Participatory Action Research and employing social science methods and approaches was successful in the initiation of planning the adaptive use of the Chapman School. Participants ultimately made connection s between the contemporary needs of the community accepted community values, and the potential of the historic site to meet those needs and values. This was largely due to the implementation of P articipatory A ction R esearch and values centered preservation theories. methods, in the gathering and analysis of data, and implement the results in a way that will raise critical 2 Although this study is still in its first cycle of the PAR process of observation, reflectio n, planning, and action, the community members have already begun to promote change at the Chapman School. Grants applications have been submitted to restoration efforts and residents are promoting the Chapman School rehabilitation as an integral part of a larger state economic development project. There were multiple factors that contributed to the success of this framework in Apalachicola. First, as emphasized in PAR, the Chapman School project was initiated from within the community This avoided any conflicts stemming from feelings of unwelcomed outside involvement. Second, there was already an established appreciation for historic preservation within the community. The Apalachicola Historic District consists of a wide variety of architectural resou rces reflecting multiple styles and time periods. Many residents live or work in preserved or restored historic buildings and 2
112 the history of Apalachicola is evident throughout the city. In places where preservation is not so engrained in the community, i t may be more difficult for a preservationist to generate interest or attract participants. Third, all the public presentations and the workshop were held on site in the Chapman School auditorium. This was important because it allowed participants to rel ate the information being presented directly. Attendees were able to point out specific design features or signs of damage as th e y were discussed Establishing this relationship with the building early on helps inform more practical design decisions late r in the process. Fourth, the University of Florida will continue its involvement with the Chapman School beyond the completion of this study. Often, a criticism of engagement studies is that researchers begin the process but leave before implementation begins 3 Although the researcher may change, the institution of the University of Florida Director will remain the constant contact with Apalachicola. These factors are important goals to keep in mind when using this framework in other locations or setti ngs. Although this study was successful, l imi tations or areas for improvement of the framework were found First, t he amount of research and time committed to this study were within the co nfines of a graduate thesis. Roughly a year was spent on the resea rch methodology, definition of goals and framework process, and the application of the research to the Chapman School case study but more time could have helped improve the overall outcomes. With more time, an analysis of successful benchmarks or case st udies could have been completed to help inform this study. Also, a more detailed Historic Structure Report and drawings could have been created. 3
113 Second, w orkshop and public presentations were held on weekday mornings and may have limited the ability of wo rking professionals to attend. Also due to time and travel constraints, only two public sessions were able to be held. If time and distance permitted, much more research could have been conducted through extended immersion in the community. A researcher could potentially spend time researching the city without actually being there, but then there is the risk of never fully engaging with a community, or earning the trust of the residents. The third limitation was the difficult ly in the collection of dat a from all demographics in order to get a true understanding of the population. Surveys were distributed at the first public presentation and w ere advertised through the local newspaper and social media, but attendees were few and did not provide thorough representation of different groups of the community. Because this study looks to solve larger, community wide issues through the adaptive use of historic structures it is ideal to have a variety of participants that represent different age groups, races occupations, etc Those types of issues cannot be solved when only a portion of a community is represented. Also, sections of the population may not want to participate in the particular project because they do not feel attached to the building or site For example, the Chapman School was racially segregated until 1968 4 Because of this there may be fewer African Americans who are interested in the site since they may not associate themselves with its history Mentioned in interviews and in the survey of Phase One were undertones of political conflict and issues with local leadership. The fourth limitation of this study is the 4 Kevin McCarthy, Apalachicola Bay (Sarasota: Pineapple Press, Inc., 2004) 150.
114 deliberate avoidance of this topic in order to focus on the more specific issues of adaptive use planning in historic structur es. When implementing this framework in other projects, it is unlikely that this situation can be completely neglected In the case of the Chapman School, the suggested pr ogram is heavily reliant on collaboration between many groups within the county, an d conflicts between community members and political official s may hinder progress in the future Lastly, t here are limitations created by the relationship between the researcher and the community members. Results may vary depending on the level on immers ion that the researcher can afford to obtain. Expectations of the community members for what the researcher can provide for the town as far as outcomes or project deliverables should be expressed early on to avoid disappointment or dis satisfaction with th e process Although emphasis was placed on community participation and the importance for residents to build their own action plan, some participants had trouble relinquishing the traditional roles of the researcher and the researched. As a result, one g roup in the workshop had trouble defining the next steps to be taken to implement their proposed use idea. They felt uncomfortable making those suggestions since traditionally an expert or profes sional would lead the decision process Further Research an d Considerations An important step to confirm the validity and success of this framework would be to test the process in other locations. The framework is inherently flexible and designed to be adapted to site specific situations. Future research on the framework and underlying research of this study can be done in multiple areas. Some ques tions yet to be answered may ask h ow would the framework need to change for an adaptive use project in an urban environment or larger context? How can you use differe nt types of
115 methods to engage communities where participants are very diverse in age or in communities that have impeding social conflicts? Does the framework work in larger urban areas or is it best suited for smaller communities? The framework proposed in this thesis has the potential to inform various types of adaptive use projects through the assessment of the full spectrum of stakeholder values and significances. Perhaps in the future, it can inform a multitude of other preservation projects through out the country. The following are considerations for researchers to acknowledge wh en applying this framework to other adaptive use project s (Table 6 2 ) Fi rst this framework is intended to help resolve larger community development issues. Apalachicola is a community faci ng many developmental challenges such as industry collapse and economic hardship I n a changing community such as this one the adaptive use project studied should be a n initial catalyst that can help promote positive development direct ed by community members. This framework enables the adaptive use project to act as a catalyst to spark a much larger developmental process that extends far beyond the s cope of that singular project. T he reuse of a public structure can have multiple positi ve effects on a community but it is unlikely that a singular adaptive use project will resolve all the needs or problems of a community. The framework is intended to help solve larger community issues or problems, such as economic hardship. Because of the influence of Participatory Action R e search and its iterative cycl e, the framework can be applied to other reuse projects until these larger scale problems are solved. For example, it can be applied to other unused buildings in a community to generate economic investment or support the growth of a new industry. The framework does not
116 necessary have to be strictly applied to adaptive use, as long as it is used to foster community engagement in a larger development process. Encouragement of community activism through projects like th e Chapman School reuse may ensure that any changes made in the future will reflect the values and needs of the existing residents on a larger scale Second, in regards to Participatory Action Research, the invi tation for involvement in a community based adaptive use project should ideally come from within the community. This was the case in the Chapman School. This may not always happen and a researcher should be prepared to defend the importance of their pro ject to resistant communities Should a researcher attempt a project in a community in which they were not invited, there is a greater risk of lack of cooperation and a participatory approach may not be appropriate. It may be helpful for the researcher t o introduce themselves to the community members in one on one settings and try to understand the current conditions of the area through research and personal interactions before proposing the preservation project. After a familiarity between the researche r and the community is established, then a public proposal of the project may be better received. A s another supporting factor in Apalachicola the participating community members were already enthusiastic about the project before research began. Historic preservation and heritage tourism were already popular topics in the city amongst residents and public leaders. They also took initiatives for preservation outside the scope of this study by applying for grants to restore the School and to promote awaren ess through preservation organizations like the Florida Tr ust for Historic
117 Preservat ion. In areas without this appreciation for preservation already engrained, preliminary work might have to be considered before engaging in the planning process. This inc ludes workshops or seminars on preservation advocacy to help promote the Third it is important to assess whether t his proposed framework is appropriate for the type of the i nitial resource being studied. This can be determined mostly through a feasibility assessment, but other factors to consider are the size and conditions of the site, the size of the community, and the interest of community members to get involved. A feas ibility assessment should be conducted by the preservationist as well as other professionals such as architects, engineers, and real estate or market analysts. A determination should be made about the scale of the community and participating residents in respects to the size of the research team as well compliance with any apparent time restraints. Although it is possible for this framework to be implemented in larger contexts than the community of Apal a chicola, the manageable size of the building and its good condition were factors that made this framework feasible in the timeframe in which it occurred. Also, its history as a public building in a prominent location in the city made this project an interest of the general population. Other types of resou rces, such as a historic home, may not be appropriate for this framework which draws on the opinions of a larger constituency. Fourth, it is important to remain in contact with the community and allow research to be accessible by residents. I t is essentia l that a contact person or organization be established early on in order to information to disseminate from the researcher or institution into the community. This person or group should be responsible for providing
118 information to other residents about the project as it becomes available. They should also help assemble residents for future meetings, committees, or volunteer groups. In regards to this consideration, residents should have easy access to any study publications, survey or workshop results, an d other supporting articles. Information can be published and distributed, or available online on a project website. This information should be packaged in a way that is easy to the general public to understand. It should also available to inform future funding proposals or efforts to establish project partners. Also, the nature of this type of research and case study is to provide practical solutions for a community and aid in the adaptive use planning process. Because of this, it is important that the research is accessible and easily understood by the general public. For example, it may be beneficial to avoid industry terminology when possible. The research and results of the study should be formatted and published to use as reference as community m embers continue with the next steps of the process. This is important when members attempt to establish funding or organizational partners, are working with designers about the specifics of the reuse plan, or are referencing the project as part of another or larger development effort. Benchmarks or examples of successful projects in other areas, or even locally, would also helpful to include with this information. Fifth the range of stakeholders should be as diverse as possible in age, sex, race, occu pat ion, etc More successful projects will include the representation of an entire community, not just a select few. The invitation to participate should extend beyond those who are predicted to be interested in the project. The inclusion of all types of s takeholders will help eliminate dissatisfaction with the project once it is
119 completed. It is important to note that flexibility in the type of meetings, times, and locations are necessary to increase this diversity. For example, in Apalachicola, to bette r diversify survey participants it may have been beneficial to go to places where specific groups frequented To get the perspective of local fishermen directly affected by the changing natural conditions a trip to the local wharf may have been beneficial In regards to this idea, the data collection methods within the phase s are interchangeable. This case study only utilized a few community participation methods and techniques. Future research can be done to conclude if the variety or amount of engage ment methods influences the planning process. Different methods may be used to solve some of the limitations presented and to attract a more diverse range of stakeholders The sixt h consideration suggests that m ethods chosen should be appropriate and inf luenced by your audience or participatory stakeholders For example, if a key sta keholder group for a project is children, choose methods that will be easier to them to understand, and f un for them to participate in. Also, because the framework is a PAR based approach, the phases and the methods chosen should continue to build upon each other in the cyclical, reiterative format. As participants reveal information about a particular topic, efforts to better understand or explore that topic should be made in the next method or activity. Seventh, the triangulation of data collected in each phase is important to validate the values identified. To ensure that the information collected that informs the action plan is accurate, multiple methods must be used and then the results of each method should be compared. This will help filter discrepancies within the results. Triangulation help s confirm results by asking the same questions multiple times among various
120 stakeholder groups. A diversity of stakeholders is important in order for this method to work. Otherwise, results of data will presumably be repetitive only because the same question is always being presented to the same people. Eight h, an action plan helps keep the momentum of a project going after the researcher is removed Often, PAR is criticized because the researcher leaves the community before the project is completed. The Participatory Action Research model enables to community to devel op the capability to continue the planning process without t he influence of the researcher. The action plan and reiteration of the PAR steps is an important part of building that social capacity. phase, specific ideas or goals should have been developed as to the next steps in the reuse process. The plan should include specific tasks that need to be completed such as obtaining permits, identifying and contacting potential contractors or designers, or writing grant applications. Establishing a coalition, organization, or a lead er to administer those goals and oversee activities will help the project continue through to completion. These considerations are intended to help other preservation professionals, community leaders, and preservation minded developers appropriately integr ate the values of communities into an adaptive use project by using the suggested framework described in this thesis. The Chapman School values assessment project was successful in mu ltiple ways and t he residents of Apalachicola are immersed in the adapti ve use process The next step in the Chapman School project is to outline the specific requirements of the new program, develop a schematic design, and organize the details of a Master Plan. These steps will be informed by the research of this study
121 and the results of the workshop and survey can continue to be used as a measurement of appropriateness for any planned changes. The design of the interior and landscape will be completed by other graduate students from the University of Florida after this stu dy is finished. As Apalachicola addresses the economic and socio cultural changes that are approaching, the Chapman School with its new function can be a catalyst that inspires other community development. Preservation through adaptive use can be a major factor in the development of communities throughout the United States that face the same challenges as Apalachicola. Although it may seem counterintuitive to try to preserve something a declining environment, it must be recognized that preservation is as much as a development effort as new construction or urban renewal. The revitalization of communities, economic investment, and an increase in the quality of life for local residents can all be increased through a values assessment process within an adapt ive use planning project such as this
122 Table 6 1. Analysis of Chapman School Adaptive Use Project Findings Theme Significance Most important value identified was the quality of life Without the implementation of values holistic list of contemporary values, this point of significance may have been overlooked Apalachicola is facing community wide, developmental challenges There is a need for guidelines to be established to help protect the values residents feel are impor tant in the face of developmental changes Residents want more resources There is a desire for positive growth and increased social capacity within the existing community The Chapman School is a symbol of the overall community The School should reflect t he strengths of the residents and act as a resource facility for the community
123 Table 6 2. Framework Considerations for Use in Other Projects Considerations Steps 1. Adaptive use p roject should be a catalyst to solve larger community issues Identify o verarching communit y issues or problems (if problems are unclear use framework phases to identify community problems and development goals) Apply framework to initial adaptive use project Repeat phases of framework to identify other projects and building reuses that would support identified development goals until ultimate problem is resolved 2. Invitation for professional involvement should come from within the community Without an invitation from the community: Introduce yourself in a personal, non prof essional capacity Try to understand current conditions, feelings about preservation, and developmental concerns through personal interactions and research Establish groundwork needed for general preservation advocacy such as educational seminars to explain the benefits of preservation or adaptive use Announce project goals publically 3. Type of resource being studied should be appropriate for the proposed framework Conduct feasibility assessment which includes opinions of other professionals Ensure that sc ale of community, size of resource, and number of participating res idents is appropriat e for the number of researchers Identify impending time constraints Identify type of building ( publically owned or accessible will most likely have a larger effect on d evelopmental issues ) 4. Establish method of contact with residents Establish a community leader, member, or organization as a permanent contact person who can help disseminate information to the rest of the community Publish research or information as it becomes available through a project website, social media, or another local media outlet Present research and information in a manner that is easily understood by the general public (i.e. avoid using industry terminology) Provide project information (and b enchmarks) in a publishable format in which residents can use to promote the project or attract investors 5. Include a diverse range of stakeholders Host presentations or public meetings at various times and locations Use multiple methods of advertisement
124 Table 6 2. Continued Considerations Steps 6. Choose appropriate methods or activities based on stakeholder audience Direct activities and engagement processes toward the interests of various stakeholder groups Use results from previous activities to inform future events or sessions 7. Use triangulation method for verification of data Ensure success of triangulation method by including a diversity of stakeholder groups 8. Create an action plan that allows projects to continue after the research er is removed Identify next steps goals, and establish a timeframe in which to complete the next phases Establish a coalition, organization, or leader to administer the action plan
125 APPENDIX A NATIONAL REGISTER EVALUATION CRITERIA Cri teria for evaluation. The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, wor kmanship, feeling, and association and (a) that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or (b) that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or (c) that embody d istinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distincti on; or (d) that have yielded, or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history. Criteria considerations. Ordinarily cemeteries, birthplaces, or graves of historical figures, properties owned by religious institutions or used for religious purposes, structures that have been moved from their original locations, reconstructed historic buildings, properties primarily commemorative in nature, and properties that have achieved significance within the past 50 years shall not be consider ed eligible for the National Register. However, such properties will qualify if they are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria or if they fall within the following categories: (a) A religious property deriving primary significance from arc hitectural or artistic distinction or historical importance; or (b) A building or structure removed from its original location but which is significant primarily for architectural value, or which is the surviving structure most importantly associated with a historic person or event; or (c) A birthplace or grave of a historical figure of outstanding importance if there is no appropriate site or building directly associated with his productive life. (d) A cemetery which derives its primary significance fro m graves of persons of transcendent importance, from age, from distinctive design features, or from association with historic events; or (e) A reconstructed building when accurately executed in a suitable environment and presented in a dignified manner as part of a restoration master plan, and when no other building or structure with the same association has survived; or
126 (f) A property primarily commemorative in intent if design, age, tradition, or symbolic value has invested it with its own exceptional s ignificance; or (g) A property achieving significance within the past 50 years if it is of exceptional importance. [This exception is described further in NPS's "How To" booklet No. 2, entitled How to Evaluate and Nominate Potential National Register Pro perties that Have Achieved Significance Within the Last 50 Years ," available from NPS.]
127 APPENDIX B Types of expert/objective values associated with fabric based authenticity Historical positivism value: This value refers to a given historical association in a methodological framework that assumes these facts can exist independently of relativistic or pluralistic interpretation. For instance, one creates a National Register nomina tion by assembling historical facts that must prove that a property is associated with an event or person from the through explicating broad themes and patterns. The greater the number of these facts, such as a notable person lived in a house during a certain period of time, the more historically significant the property is. Informational value: The ability of historical objects to provide useful data on their origin, construction, or vario National Register. Artistic/design value: This value is especially associated with the academic contexts of art and architectural history, and to a more limited extent, urban s tudies or urban history. This value is associated Rarity value: As with any object, the fewer the number of examples of it there are, the more valuable it is as a unique embodiment of other values, such as infor mational or historical. Directions for preparing a National Register nomination, for instance, direct the preparer to of acceptance. Types of sociocultural va lues associated with constructed authenticity Symbolic value: This value represents objects or environments that embody and transmit important cultural meanings, such as the previously mentioned temples in Japan. Other examples include prominent buildings such as the White House or the Taj Mahal. Certain cultural landscapes may have symbolic value such as Central Park in New York or Ayers Rock in Australia. Technical value: Great achievements of the past are often admired for their genius and engineering p rowess that represent some of the greatest achievements of humankind. The Empire State Building is an example as are many of the massive concrete dams constructed across the country during the GreatDepression. Educational value: Historic places can offer much in the way of educational value, from learning how people lived in and designed buildings and places to learning how to respect contribution to world heritage. This value goes back to the earliest days of historic preservation in the the Old South Meeting House in Boston. Recreational value: The English Heritage describes recreational activities in historic places as Many heritage landscapes offer a variety of recreation activities. The grounds of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, for instance, are frequently utilized by large numbers of people. Spiritual/religious value: Certain places are connected w ith the religious beliefs of people. Usually associated with indigenous peoples, this value can be potentially applied to any cultural group. Use value: Perhaps one of the most important values to be ascribed to buildings and places, this value is defined as the ability of a building, place, or landscape to provide a benefit that is typically linked to an economically justifiable purpose.
128 Social capital/identity value: This value relates to the social uses of the historic environment, such as group gatheri ngs and ceremonial activities, which help to reinforce community identity and build social capital and foster social cohesion. Cultural attachment value: Environmental psychologists and geographers argue that phenomenon of place attachment fits best within a phenomenological framework and individual experience, but Setha Low claims that there is also a cultural dimension to place attachment. Attachment, therefore, can also form when individual experience aggregates at the group level liefs and practices Types of experiential values associated with phenomenological authenticity Age value: Over a century ago, Alois Riegl, a well of completeness, a 25 Concepts such as patina and decay are associated with age value. by the way materials change over time. Newness value: Riegl also discussed this value in diametric opposition to age value. With age Spat ial value: influenced valuation of spatial elements of landscape. Spatial value, while associated with aesthetics, is more effective in communicating its phenomenological relationship with place attachment. Attachment value: es a place based on certain environmental cues which are often provided in abundance in historic places. While there is a widespread belief that the first reaction to a building or a landscape is emotional, historic preservation doctrine actively discourag es a consideration of emotional connections to place to help define significance.
129 APPENDIX C EXAMPLE OF AN EXISTING CONDITIONS ASSESSMENT FORM Second Floor Central Corridor Notes The Central corridor connects the four classrooms on the second floor to t he landing at the west and has 2 exit doors (connecting to metal exterior staircase) at the east. Feature Description Condition Ceiling Exposed, cast concrete structure with rough surface and zig zag detail, painted (off white); beams run north south Cra cks at east and west end of corridor North Wall Cast concrete block with decorative clerestory grilles (sunburst with book) and decorative door surrounds, painted (cream with off white at cornice area) Damage at door surround to Room 201; Damage at door s urround to Room 203 (previous repair); Plexiglass over decorative clerestory grilles East Wall Exterior wall; Cast concrete block; 2 exit doors with decorative clerestory grilles (triangle with sunburst), painted (cream) Clerestory grilles covered over fr om exterior (stucco); Vent cut through north grille; Cut outs (for lights?) at door surround East Doors 2 Replacement board and batten style exit doors; laminate finish Hardware: automatic closer and panic bar South Wall Cast concrete block with decorati ve clerestory grilles (sunburst with book) and decorative door surrounds, painted (cream with off white at cornice area); bulletin board with cork Recessed light switch in door surround to Room 204 West Wall Cast concrete block; 2 doors with decorative cl erestory grilles (triangle with sunburst), painted (cream); openings at corners where north and south walls meet west wall Clerestory grilles covered over from interior; minor damage at corners West Doors 2 Replacement board and batten style doors; natura l finish Hardware: automatic closer Floor Nylon carpet (navy blue) over original? Worn; repair along south wall with different carpet Windows N/A Built ins N/A
130 Electrical 4 contemporary, fluorescent light fixtures (2, end to end); exposed conduit for outlets Plumbing Sprinkler system (4 heads) HVAC N/A Second Floor Central Corridor Photos Fig. 1: Doors to the Second Floor La nding Fig. 2: Door to Room 201 Fig. 4: Carpet is glued to original flooring Fig. 3: Piece of carpet that has been replaced
131 APPENDIX D APALACHICOLA HERITAGE VALUES SURVEY Apalachicola Heritage Values Survey (Circle one) 1. Do you live in Franklin Count y?.................................................................................................................... .. Yes/No If Yes, How long have you lived in Franklin County: (Circle one) 5 Years or under 6 10 Years 10 20 Years 20 Years or ove r 2. Do you own a business in Franklin County?................................................................................................... Yes/No 3. What is your occupation? ________________________________________________________________ 4. What is your gender?.......................................................................................... .. .. Male/Female 5. Indicate your age: (Circle) 18 or under 18 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 64 65 or older 6. Indicate your race or ethnicity: (Circle) Black/A frican American Asian Pacific Islander Caucasian Hispanic/Latino Bi racial/Multi racial/Multicultural Other I prefer not to respond. 7. List your 3 favorite things about living in Apalachicola:
132 a. _________________________________________________________ __ __________________________ _________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ _________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________ ________________ __________ _________________________________ 8. List your 3 least favorite things about living in Apalachicola: a. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ _________________________________ b. ____________________________ _______________________________ __________________________ _________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ _________________________________ 9. What are some improvements and changes you wo uld like to see made in Apalachicola? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ __________________________ ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ _______________________________ 10. Indicate your level of ag reement: (Circle a number)
133 New development in Apalachicola will negatively affect my day to day life. Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Changes to my neighborhood could be exciting and could help my community grow. Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Apalachicola is a unique and special place to live. Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree I wish that there were more opportunities to get involved in neighborhood development. Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Ag ree 11. How familiar are you with the Chapman School? Please explain: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ______ 12. How important is the Chapman School to you? Not Important 1 2 3 4 5 Very Important 13. List 3 things you like most about the Chapman School: a. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ _____________________ ____________ b. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ _________________________________
134 c. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ _________________________________ 14. List 3 things you dislike about the Chapman School: a. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ _________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________ _____ ____________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________ __________________________________ 15. Do you have any ideas about possible uses for the school?........ ............ ... Yes/No If yes, Please elab orate: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _______ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 16. Would you be interested in participating in a project t hat creates a new use for the Chapman School?..... Yes/No Thank you for your participation!
135 APPENDIX E INFORMED CONSENT FORM Apalachicola Heritage Values Survey Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Dear Participant: Your assistance is requested in assessing the heritage values Apalachicola residents associate with their community and the Chapman School. Only residents of Franklin County are asked to participate. I am a graduate student in Hist oric Preservation at the University of Florida researching survey you will be asked questions about living in Apalachicola and about the Chapman School (built in 1929 loc ated at Avenue E and 12 th Street ). The outcomes of the survey can potentially influence a strategy for the preservation of the Chapman School. The survey should take no longer than 20 minutes. You do not have to answer any question that you do not wis h to answer and although specific answers are appreciated, you may be as general as you wish. The results will be presented at a community event later this year in which you are invited to participate. The outcomes will be reported, analyzed, and publish ed as part of my thesis requirements. Your responses and your identity will remain confidential to the extent provided by law. There are no anticipated risks, compensation, or other direct benefits to you as a participant in this survey. You may discon tinue your participation in the survey at any time without consequence. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contac t me at 267.671.7308 or firstname.lastname@example.org or the director of Historic Preservation, Marty Hylton at 352.392.0252 o r email@example.com Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611; 352.392.0433 By participating in the survey, you are giving me permission to use your information for research purposes. A scanned copy of this disclaimer with the IRB approval stamp is available at your request. If you would like more information about the results of this survey or would like to participate in the next steps please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org This survey can be completed in person, at a later time and mailed in or completed online. To complete the survey online, please visit: https://ufl.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_8voT03mFLyEijZj
136 Please send compl eted surveys to the following address: 1228 SW 16 th Ave, Apt. C Gainesville, FL 32601 I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________ ________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________ Thank you for your participation. Sincerely, Kara Litvinas Master of Historic Preservation Candidate, Universi ty of Florida
137 LIST OF REFERENCES Apalachicola History 2 (2010): 2, accessed January 19, 2013, http://www.apalachicolahistoricalsociety.org/file/Newsletters/AAHSNewsletterSpri ng2010.pdf Apalachicola Bay Chamber of Commerce, September 1, 2013, ht tp://www.apalachicolabay.org/ Art Deco Society of the Palm Beaches. 2013, http://www.artdecopb.org/whatis.html Gainesville Sun, October 25, 2013. Avrami, Erica, Randall Mason, and Marta de la Torre. Values and Heritage Conservation. Research Report, Los Angele: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2000. Baum, Fran, Colin MacDougall, and D anielle Smith. Journal of Epidemical Community Health 60 (2006): 854. Beaumont, Constance E. and Elizabeth G. Pianca. Historic Neighborhood Schools in the Age of Sprawl (Washington D.C.: Na tional Trust for Historic Preservation, 2002) 5. Buddenborg, Jenny "New Life Through Adaptive Use: Saving Our Historic Schools" (paper presented at the National Trust for Historic Preservation Saving Places Conference, Denver, Colorado, 2010), accessed Se ptember 6, 2013, http://www.phlf.org/wp content/uploads/2011/02/spc_2010_handout_f1_buddenborg.pdf ______. Apalachicola Times May 12, 1934. ______. Apalachicola Times, January 10, 1941. ______. Apalachicola Times, May 23, 2013, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.apalachtimes.com/news/local news/chapman listed as endangered site 1.147575?ot=hmg.PrintPageLayout.ot&print=photo City of Apal a chicol a Historic Architectural Review Board, A Guide to Rehabilitation and (Apalachicola: Apalachicola City Commission, 2006) 12.
138 ______. Apalach icola Times February 14, 1931. Curenton, Marc. June 6, 2013. http://www.floridatrust.org/endangered sites 2007. Places Vol. 2 No. 3: 10 22 Hume, Harold H. The Florida Historical Quarterly 21 (1943): 289 302, accessed January 19, 2013, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30138464 ICOMOS Nara Conference on Authenticity Nara, Japan: ICOMOS, 1994 First International Congress of Architects and Techni cians of Historic Monuments. Athens: ICOMOS, 1931. International Council on Monuments and Sites Conservation and Restoration of monuments and Sites (The Venice Charter Technicians of Historic Monuments, Venice: ICOMOS, 1964 Jager Frank Peter (ed.). Old & New: Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings (Basel: Birkhauser GmbH, 2010), 7. Kass, Stephen, Ju dith LaBelle, and David Hansell. Rehabilitating Older and H istoric Buildings (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985), 132. Kidd Sean A., and Michael J. Kral. Journal of Counseling Psychology 52.2 (2005), 187. Economic Impacts of H istoric Preservation in Florida Government Responsibility, Frederic G. Levin College of Law, University of Florida, and Center for Urban Policy Research, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Publ ic Policy, Rutgers, the State University, Gainesville, September 2002: 7. Tampa Bay Times June 18, 2010, accessed September 1, 2013,
139 http://www.tampabay.com/features/humaninterest/bp oil spill affecting apalachicola bay oyster harvest from afar/1103305 District Chang NBC10 Philadelphia August 29, 2013, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.nbcphiladelphia.com/ne ws/local/District Changing Shuttered Schools Sale Process 221537391.html Human Organization 61, no. 1 (2002): 80, accessed August 1, 2013, http://www.theoryofchange.org/wp content/uploads/toco_library/pdf/2002_ _Taplin_ _Rapid_Ethnographic _Assessment_in_Urban_Parks.pdf Lowenthal, David. Giving Preservation a History: Histories of Historic Preservation in the United States edited by Max Page & Randall Mason (New York: Routledge, 2004), 39 Marshall, Willoughby Apalachicola: Economic Development Through Historic Preservation (Tallahassee: Lithohaus Printers, Inc., 2009) Places 2004: 64 71. Mason, Ran Centered Cultural Resource Management Journal 3, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 32 33, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.archweb.metu.edu.tr/arch493/img/Theoretical_and_Practical_Argume nts.pdf McCarthy, Kevin. Apalachicola Bay (Sarasota: Pineapple Press, Inc., 2004) 150. Miami Design Preservation League accessed January 28 2013, http://www.mdpl.org/about us/about miami beach design styles/what is art deco/ ______. Apalachicola Times, May 2, 19 31. ______. Apalachicola Times, March 18, 1933. http://www.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb15/nrb15_2.htm National Park Service, Preservation brief 43 http://www.nps.gov/ tps/how to preserve/briefs/43 historic structure reports.htm
140 National Park Service http://www.nps.gov/hps/tps/stan dguide/rehab/rehab_approach.htm Secretary of Interior Standards., a ccessed October 29, 2013. http://www.nps.gov/hps/tp s/standguide/restore/restore_standards.htm Apalachicola Times April 25, 1931. ______. Apalachicola Times January 6 1934. Payne, Jack. Apalachicola Times June 13, 2013, accessed October 10, 2013, http://www.apalachtimes.com/editorial/col umns/gulf restoration calls for science community support 1.158250 Philips Rhona and Robert H. Pittman. An Introduction to Community Development (New York: Routledge, 2009), 6. http://www.pps.org/reference/rhester/#contact Rochester Institute of Technology October 31, 2013, http://www.rit.edu/research/other_story.php?id=81 Forum News 15, No. 5 (2009), accessed October 22, 2013, http://www.preservationnation.org/forum/library/public articles/making the most of the 11.html Sanoff, Henry. Community Participation Methods in Design and Planning (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000), 33. Stevenson, Katherine. National Trust Forum, (May/June 2006): 3, accessed September 1, 2013, http://www.phlf.org/wp content/uploads/2011/02/mpp may june_forum_schools_policy_insert.pdf Swoboda, Lois. a Apalachicola Times January 8, 2013, accessed October 10, 2013, http://www.apalachtimes. com/news/local news/progress poles tower over apalachicola 1.75555 Unite d States Green Building Council. http://www.usgbc.org/articles/green building facts Urban Land Institute. Adaptive Use: Development Economics, Process, and Profiles (Washington: Urban Land Institute), 1978, 3.
141 School of Architecture, Art, and Historic Preservation Faculty Papers. Paper 22. (2010): 2, accessed September 1, 2013, http://docs.rwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1021&context=saahp_fp Woodcoc k, David G. et al. (eds.), Adaptive Reuse: Issues and Case Studies in Building Preservation (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1988), viii. Apalachicola Times, April 4, 1931.
142 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kara Lit vinas is a designer and preservationist from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Opportunities throughout her educational career have moved her from cities along the east coast to the other side of the world. She graduated from Pratt Institute in Broo klyn, New Y ork with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in interior d esign in 2010. Before graduation she was able to spend a semester in Copenhagen, Denmark studying Scandinavian design and exploring Europe. At the University of Florida s he has been fortunate enough to study preservation in Indonesia through the Global Heritage Studio Program and at the Preservation Institute: Nantucket. Her interest in researching the engagement of communities in the preservation process developed from these experiences. Kara gradu ated with her Master of H istoric P reservation in December 2013. She plans to return to Philadelphia to be with her family and begin her career in preservation.