This item is only available as the following downloads:
INTER MEDIA AGENDA SETTING AND SOCIAL MEDIA: UNDERSTANDING THE INTERPLAY AMONG CHINESE SOCIAL MEDIA, CHINESE STATE OWNED MEDIA AND U S NEWS ORGANIZATIONS ON REPORTING THE TWO SESSIONS By XUEMENG FU A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2013 Xuemeng Fu
To Tian Wu
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First of all I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my committee chair Professor Wayne Wanta. His valuable studies helped me develop my thesis idea. And I would not have been able to finish this thesis without his guidance and encouragement. I wou ld like to say thank you to my committee members as well, Doctor David Ostroff and Doctor Churchill Roberts. Their insightful feedback and thoughtful advices made great contribution to this study. I also want to express my appreciation to the professors w ho helped and encouraged me throughout the two year life at the University of Florida. The materials I read, the presentations I made, and discussions in class we had, all these things are helpful and means a lot to me. In the end, I owe many thanks to my family. My parents supported me to achieve my dream of stud ying abroad. And my boyfriend s companionship made my life in America happy and colorful.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 17 The International News Flow ................................ ................................ .................. 17 The Event Oriented Predictors ................................ ................................ ......... 20 Deviance variables ................................ ................................ ..................... 20 Involvement of the United States ................................ ............................... 21 The Context Oriented Predictors ................................ ................................ ...... 21 Relevance variables ................................ ................................ ................... 21 Location in the world system ................................ ................................ ...... 25 The Organizational Approach ................................ ................................ ........... 28 Circulation size/ Organizational size ................................ .......................... 28 Dependency on wire service ................................ ................................ ...... 28 Gatekeepers factors ................................ ................................ ................... 29 Inter me dia Agenda Setting & International News Flow ................................ .......... 29 Inter media Agenda Setting ................................ ................................ .............. 30 Online Media and Inter media Agenda Setting ................................ ................. 33 3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 4 METHOD OLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 36 Sampling ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 36 Time Lag ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 38 Time Frame ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 40 Coding ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 40 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 41 5 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 44 The Sina Micro Blog Agenda ................................ ................................ .................. 44
6 Th e Chinese State Owned Media Agenda ................................ .............................. 45 The U.S. News Media Agenda ................................ ................................ ................ 47 Pearson Correlations ................................ ................................ .............................. 48 Results of Cross lagged Correlation Analyses ................................ ........................ 50 6 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 59 Media Agendas ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 59 Inter media Agenda Setting Effect ................................ ................................ .......... 61 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 62 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 64 APPENDIX CONTENT ANALYSIS CODING SHEET ................................ ................ 66 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 67 BIOGRAPHIC AL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 72
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 5 1 Issue Agenda of Sina Micro Blog ................................ ................................ ........ 54 5 2 Issue Agenda of Chinese State Owned Media ................................ ................... 54 5 3 Issue Agenda of U.S. Media ................................ ................................ ............... 54 5 4 Issue Agenda Correlation Matrix ................................ ................................ ........ 55
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figu re page 4 1 Cross lagged Correlation Model ................................ ................................ ......... 43 5 1 Issue Agenda Correlations for Sina Micro Blog and State Owned Media ........... 56 5 2 Issue Agenda Correlations for Sina Micro Blog and U.S. Media ........................ 57 5 3 Issue Agenda Correlations for State Owned Media and U.S. Media .................. 58
9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CPPCC CPPCC is the abbreviation of the Chinese Political Consultative Conference It is a political advisory organization in the People s Republic of China. Its representatives are made up of members from different political parties as well as independent members. The conference usually gathers along with the N ational People s Congress NPC NPC stands for the National People s Congress. It is the highest legislative organization, the most powerful organ of state in the People s Republic of China. The Congress holds annual conference s along with the Chinese Poli tical Consultative Conference
10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass C ommunication INTER MEDIA AGENDA SETTING AND SOCIAL MEDIA: UNDERSTANDING THE INTERPLAY AMONG CHINESE SOCIAL MEDIA, CHINESE STATE OWNED MEDIA AND U S NEWS ORGANIZATIONS ON REPORTING THE TWO SESSIONS By Xuemeng Fu December 2013 Chair: Wayne Wanta Major: Mass Communic ation When examining inter media agenda setting effects among different media, a considerable body of study focuses on whether online media news agenda is influenced by other media, such as newspaper and TV network. With the boom of social media platform, this s tudy started to examine whether social media could act as an influencer. This study explored the inter media agenda setting effects among Sina Micro Blog, two Chinese state ow n ed news media People s Daily and Xinhua News Agency and two U.S. news organizations the New York Times and the Associated Press on covering the 2013 Two Sessions in China. Content analysis and cross lag correlation analysis were applied to determine whether evidence of inter media agenda setting influence s exist ed among the selected media channels. The results indicated that Chinese social media might set news agenda for Chinese state owned media throughout the whole examined time span. However, reciprocal effect was not found. T he propaganda tools of Chinese gov ernment seemed to have no impact on the news agenda of social media platform. In terms of the international news flow, U.S. news organizations had no influence on all the Chinese
11 media channels when covering this political event. However, both Chinese soci al media and state owned news media impact the agenda of U.S. news media th rough the first two time periods. The inter media agenda setting effects were partly supported.
12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION For Internet users, since the debut of Facebook in 2004 and launch of Twitter in 2005, the booming social media have significantly changed both the landscape of thr ee quarters of internet surfers had become social media users (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Breaking geographic boundaries, the boom of social media has now been an international phenomenon, which is not only taking place in the United States. In the most pop ulous nation, China, social media is playing a more and more influential role in Sina Mic 368 million in 2012, showing a rapid growth when compared with 6.03 million in 2009 (Sina Micro Blog, 2013). In addition, Micro Blog is playing a significant role especially in pro moting social change and international communication in China. For example, in 2012, an environmental protest took place in a small southwestern Chinese town of Shifang where the local government permitted Honda Company to build a copper refinery A ccordi Residents soon began to boycott this project by demonstrations since July 1 st fearing that the po llutants from the copper refining processes would cause environmental pollution and increase health risks. The demonstrations in a small town successfully gained national attention overnight because of social media in China. About 5.25 million
13 posts were o 400,000 photos and 10,000 video clips (Qian, 2012). Most of the voices on social media kdown toward protesters. These postings gained a large amount of attention from and got covered by both national and international news organizations. Finally, the go vernment officially announced it was terminat ing the copper plant project and releas ing de tained protesters (Bradsher, 2012). There are two points worth mentioning in this case. First, both protests occurred in undeveloped and rural regions which are usually ignored by news media. However, social media acted as the most influential platform o f disseminating information and helped local residents draw attention from large news organizations. Secondly, social media played a role as an important news resource for international news media. Large international news organizations BBC, CNN, The New York Times, Reuters, and The Wall Street Journal etc. participated in reporting the Shifang protests. Those news organizations utilized Sina Micro Blog as an access to understanding the developments of public opinions. Some of them, such as Wall Street Journal, also posted their relevant news reports on their Sina Micro Blog accounts. From an academic perspective, influence how the messages are disseminated and perceived. A s argued by McPhail (2010), the Internet now is a powerful mass medium where users uniting as a global communication environment From the Shifang protest case a question is raised whether international news organizations are impacted by social media. In other words, can social media set the agenda for international news organizations in international
14 news communication? Or, on the contrary, can social media be a window for Chinese people to know how international society interprets them? From this perspec tive, Chinese social media platforms may play a role in international news communication as well. The news reports of the incident show that in China, where news reports and information dissemination are strictly censored and controlled, social media have provided some opportunities for international news organizations to find newsworthy As for the relationship between national image and international news coverage, some schola rs have argued that international news coverage impacts national images. For instance, Wanta Golan, and Lee (2004) found that the more media coverage a nation received, the more important Americans would think this nation was. Similarly, the more negative coverage one nation received, the more likely Americans were to have a negative impression of this nation. In this way, understanding the role of Chinese social media may help understand and enhance the national image of China. Previous studies have begu n to examine the inter media agenda setting effects between online media and other media (Roberts, Wanta, & Dzwo, 2002; Ku, Kaide, & Pfau, 2003; Lee, Lancendorfer, & Lee, 2005; Lim, 2011). A study in 2002 found that news reports in traditional media were s ources for internet users to discuss on electronic bulletin boards (Roberts, Wanta, & Dzwo, 2002). In 2003, scholars found that news media (Ku, Kaide, & Pfau, 2003) Another study conducted in 2005 found that the newspaper would influence users of the Internet bulletin boards at the first level of
15 agenda setting; while in turn, the latter would have an impact on the former on the second leve l of agenda setting (Lee, Lancendorfer, & Lee, 2005) In general, previous research demonstrated inter media agenda setting effects between online media and other media. However, the 2002 study put online media in a relatively passive role which was influenced by traditional news media; while other studies examined online media as an active influencer, which transferred issue salience or attribute salience to other secondary media. The difference might result from the fast grow th and the rise of the Internet. Traditionally, print media and TV were major news providers for publics. In this way, people firstly got news from traditional news media, and then discussed them online. However, now publics more and more turn to online me dia to look for news reports. Thus, online media have begun to set agenda for traditional news media. However, none of the mentioned studies focus on the inter media agenda setting effects of social media. Nowadays the landscape of the Internet has changed dramatically with the boom of social media. Thus, it is nec essary to re examine the impact and influence Internet might have in the era of social media. The purpose of this study is to examine the inter media agenda setting effects between Chinese social media, Chinese state owned news organizations and U.S. first, it detects whether the media environment in China has changed; second, it configures how China, as an imp ortant nation, influences international news coverage; third, it examines potential ways for China to build and promote its national image. The author select ed ) of 2013. The Two Sessions, also known as Lianghui, refers to the
16 annual meeting of two highest organizations that make national level political decisions Political Consu ltative Conference (CPPCC). The democratic system in China is that Chinese people have the right to elect delegates to speak for them at different levels of consistes thousands of the leaders of the nation and make proposals to the government during the conference. CPPCC is a p olitical advisory organization in China. The members of this conference are from a wide range of political parties and organizations. covered by both U.S. media and state owned media in China. Additionally, it was actively discussed by netizens on social media as well. The author examine s whether transfers of salience would take place among Chinese social media platform ( Sina Micro Blog ), large state owned news organizations ( Pe and Xinhua News Agency ), and U.S news organization s (the New York Times and the Associated Press ) while cover ed these two events.
17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The International News Flow In the stream of research on international news coverage, scholars have noticed an uneven news flow of covering foreign nations (Masmoudi, 1979; Wu H. D., 2000; Golan G. J., 2010; Robinson & Sparkes, 1976; Golan & Wanta, 2003). Simply saying both scope and volume of international news coverage have been limited in a limited news media (Masmoudi, 1979). Not all nations in the world can get reported by news media in other countries. Professionals must make their own value judgment and select a few events as more newsworthy than others from the endless stream of international events, because of the limitation of time and space (Golan G. J., 2010; Wanta & Golan, 2010). In this way, news media in every nation depict a di storted image of the real world & Evans, 1984, p. 397) As early as the 1950s, scholars found that the international news agencies were binson & Sparkes, 1976). Weaver Porter, and Evans (1984) conducted a ten year analysis of international news and NBC networks distributed 32.4% of international news coverage on the Middle East; while other three regions in total Asia (9.5%), Africa (6.7%) and Latin America (6.2%) accounted for 27% of the international news coverage. Recent scholarship into international news flow indicated a changing scope and nature of global news coverage
18 (Golan G. 2006). According to a content analysis of more than twenty thousand newscast items, it was found that both the scope of international news coverage and the coverage of developing countries were decreasing. Furthermore, developing countries were mostly framed negatively (Riffe & Budianto, 2001). Another cont ent analysis indicated that among 1300 television newscasts in the United States, 20 nations took up over 80% of the international news coverage (Golan, 2003). Golan and Wanta (2003) examined all the elections between 1 January 1998 and 1 May 2000, and fou nd 102 elections were ignored by four major U.S. television newscasts and received no coverage at all. Wu (2000) studied the international news coverage in 38 countries. The conclusion indicated that the United States was the most covered nation in 23 of t he 37 countries (excluding the United States). By this token, the United States is the The nature of international news flow has drawn considerable attention from academics. The stream of international news coverage has received extensive research focusing on various aspects (Chang, Shoemaker, & Brendlinger, 1987; Wanta & Golan, 2010; Wu H. D., 2000). Within this research field, scholars pay much attention to the determinants or predictors of international news coverage (Golan G. J., 2010) To explore the determinants which predict whether a country or an event will be reported by international news organizations, scholars have found three approaches: The conte xt (Chang & Lee, 2010, p. 72) Variables such as location in the world system/prominence, rel evance to the home
19 country, international interactions were categorized under the umbrella of contextual variables (e.g. Chang T. K., 1998; Golan G. J., 2010; Wanta & Golan, 2010). The event oriented approach takes a look at the event itself, analyzes th e internal characteristics of an event which make it newsworthy (Chang & Lee, 2010) From this approach, factors such as normative deviance, potential for social change deviance, U.S. involvement were investigated (Chang, Shoem aker, & Brendlinger, 1987; Chang & Lee, 1992; Chang & Lee, 2010) The last one, organizational approach examines factors internal to news organizations. It argues that internal factors of news institutions will affect media coverage (Chang & Lee, 2010). Ch international news flow in the 1980s (Chang & Lee, 2010, p. 71) It was assumed that be predicted by some variables which were external to the media (p. 409). Based on this assumption, they news coverage. These independent variables were either context o riented or event oriented. The results showed that event oriented factors including normative deviance of an event, relevance to the United States, potential for social changes, and geographic distance were significant predictors. Though the geographic dis tance was a significant predictor of international news coverage, most of the contextual variables such as language affinity, press freedom, and economic system were poor predictors (Chang, Shoemaker, & Brendlinger, 1987). Since then, the theoretical frame work proposed by Chang Shoemaker, and Brendlinger was reexamined and expanded (e.g.
20 Chang & Lee, 2010). Scholars have concluded several event oriented The Event Oriented Predictors Deviance variables T he concept of deviance was first generated by Chang Shoemaker, and Brendlinger in 1986. A n event was deviant when it broke the norms of the United States Chang et al., 1987, p.403) of the United States. Based on this conception, there are normative deviance and potential for social change deviance that would predict the international news report. It was argued that the variable of deviance was an underlying construct of newswo rthiness ( Shoemaker et al. 1991) definition of the newsworthiness (Chang & Lee, 2010, p. 75) By comparing covered and uncovered events i discriminator between covered and uncovered events. In addition, comparing with other event oriented variables, normative deviance contribute d the most to the news selections (Chang, Shoemaker, & Brendlinger, 1987) A more recent study confirmed this result with the conclusion that events deviant from American values were more likely to be covered by U.S. news medi a; furthermore, the variable of deviance was more powerful than country oriented factors (Shoemaker, Danielian, & Brendlinger, 1991) However, as time goes by, scholars have found contradictory results. For example, when reexam ining the t heoretical framework of Chang Shoemaker, and Brendlinger strongest determinant in the original study, was no longer significant. Chang and Lee
21 offered two explanations to this con tradictory: firstly, what was deviant in 1984 might not be deviant to U.S. as time went by; secondly, the large number of deviant events took place in the world would make a single deviant event trivial to American news media (p. 84). Involvement of the U nited States An event was related (Chang et al., 1987) study found that relevance to the United States was part of the significant varia bles which distinguished covered and not covered events. Chang and Lee (2010) further divided the events carrying the attribute of U.S involvement into non threatening events relevant to U.S and threatening events relevant to U.S. Chang and Lee (1992) con ducted a national survey of 279 newspaper editors in the United States. The answers to the questions of "measuring the importance of different criteria in foreign news selection" showed that two relevance variables threat to the United States and U.S. in volvement were considered to be important in making choices. Editors would identify an event as important when American security and national interests were involved. The Context Oriented Predictors Relevance variables As mentio ned before, an event was coded as relevant when the United States was involved (Chang et al., 1987) However, further research by other scholars have expanded the notion of relevance and added more variables as subclasses under the umbrella of relevance. Unlike U.S involvement in an event, these sub variables were more context oriented than event oriented which focused on the relationship between
22 the host and home nations. Often investigated relevance variables are trade with home nation (Rosengren & Rikardsson, 1974; Wu H. D., 2000; Wu H. D., 2003; Golan G. J., 2008; Golan & Wanta, 2003) geographical distance/physical proximity (Chang, Shoemaker, & Brendlinger, 1987; Barnett & Choi, 1995; Kim & Barnett, 1 996; Chang & Lee, 2010; Wu H. D., 2000; Golan & Wanta, 2003), cultural affinity/cultural proximity (Golan G. J., 2008; Golan G. J., 2010; Wanta & Golan, 2010) Among the three relevance variables, geograph ical distance/physical proximity and trade with home nation were found to have mixed effects on international news coverage. Trade The influence of variable of trade differed according to different studies and approaches. Some scholars argued that trade variable was an important predictor of international news coverage. For example, Rosengren and Kikardsson (1974) found the relationsh ip between trade and news flow was closer than the relationship between population and news flow (p. 106). Wu (2000) examined the influence of several determinants on international news coverage in 38 countries and found that trade volume along with the pr compared the determinants of international news flow between developed and developing nations, finding that trade volum trade with the U.S. was one of two key predictors of covera ge of Africa countries. A nation with larger trade volume would be more likely to get covered from U.S. television networks. Interestingly, in another study the effects of trade were opposite. By analyzing
23 international elections on American network news, Golan and Wanta (2003) found that U.S media were focusing on nations which were relatively unknown to American publics. Thus, elections of countries with low trade with the US would be more likely to receive coverage from American network news. On the cont rary, some scholars argued that the influence of trade was either various or not powerful. As cited by Wu (1998), Cassara (1993) found economic connection not a decisive variable when U.S. regional newspapers decided which news from abroad were going to be covered. In another study, it was found that the roles of trade in shaping international news coverage were different in different countries (Robinson & Sparkes, 1976) Geographical distance Geographic Proximity was another s ignificant discriminator between covered and uncovered events in the field of international news coverage according to Chang Shoemaker, and Brendlinger s study (1987). However, the influence of geographical distance was mixed and contradictory according t o different research. Barnett and Choi (1995) suggested that physical distances could be calculated with the variables of latitude and longitude. Using regression analysis, they revealed that physical distance accounted for more than 17 percent of the int ernational telecommunications network structure. By the same approach, another study echoed their findings by arguing that the structure of international news flow was affected by the variables of language and geographical proximity (Kim & Barnett, 1996) However, Chang and Lee (2010) found that the effects of physical distances were not pervasive. Geographical proximity served only as the fourth determinant for network broadcast in the field of international news coverage. Its influence was not significant for newspapers.
24 On the contrary, some studies rejected the influence of geographic proximity. Golan and Wanta (2003) analyzed all 138 elections held between 1 January 1998 and 1 May 2000. Their findings were: on one hand, ele ctions in the Far East or Middle East regions were more likely to be covered than elections in some closer regions by U.S. media; on the other hand, Elections in Latin America, a region very close to the United States, received a significant amount of cove rage in America as well. This result showed that for the U.S. media, geographic proximity could not influence international news coverage. As cited by Wu (1998), he studied international news reporting in four of geographic distance on international Wu (2000) noticed that the effects of geographical distance in international news coverage might differ in developing and developed nations. He found that all the nations developing countries (p. 125). Wu (2003) investigated the determinants of traits of nation, interaction and relatedness, and logistics of news gathering and distribution. The results supported his previous study: population and geographic proximity were predictors only in developing nations. The different or contradictory findings might result from two reasons: firstly, the way of calculating geographical distance varied: some studies used dist ances between two capitals while some used rough estimated data. Secondly, these studies investigated different types of news topics (Wu H. D., 1998) Cultural affinity/Proximity The variable of cultural affinity/cultural prox imity includes factors such as the number of immigrants (Wanta & Golan, 2010) language
25 (Chang, Shoemaker, & Brendlinger, 1987; Golan G. J., 2010), religious composition (Golan G. J., 2010), and press freedom (Golan G. J., 2 010; Chang, Shoemaker, & Brendlinger, 1987). Though examined as a potential determinant of international news flow, cultural affinity was found to have little influence on global news coverage in most studies (Chang et al., 1987; Wanta & Golan, 2010). However, several studies supported the conclusion that cultural affinity would Canadian daily newspapers found a remarkable cultural affinity. Newspapers in French language, whose readers often saw themselves as French descendants and saw France as their homeland, produce more news reports on France. Similarly, newspapers in English selected more global news coverage on UK. (Kariel & Rosenvall, 1983) J ohnson (1997) collected data from thirty four American newspapers. It was found that the amount of coverage on Mexico was positively correlated with the percentage of Mexican heritage among audiences. Location in the w orld s ystem From the context oriented All the nations are not equal in the international communication. The world system theory provides a powerful explanat ion of the unevenness of international news flow. It are arrayed along a center extensive body of research is based in this theory. In terms of international news flow, the world system theory indicates that all nations around the world are located in three interactive zones of countries: core nations, semi periphery nations and periphery
26 nations. Countries which belong to core nations or western industrialized countries are covered by nations of the other two colleagues (McPhail, 2010; Chang T. K., 1998; Chang, Lau, & Hao, 200 0; Wanta & Golan, 2010). It is clear that significant unevenness exist s (McPhail, 2010) Core nations are frequently covered by the international In this research field, scholars have explored a cluster of different variables which world system. (Kim & Barnett, 1996, p. 344) In the field of international news flow, the structure of the world system is freedom and population (Kim & Barnett, 1996, p. 347) (Golan G. J., 2010, p. 133) A nation with a large amount of GNP, exports, military expenditure, population, and geographic size would be more likely to l (Golan G. J., 2010, p. 140) However, the result of this study was mixed. Though the variables of population
27 and military size had a significant posi tive relationship with media coverage, other variables failed to show stable influence on international news coverage. According to Chang (1998), the chances of core nations to be covered by news media were much higher than the other two kinds of co untries. For the semi peripheral nations, keeping close interactions with core nations would increase their possibilities of when the international communication just involved a few countries. Thus, the best chance for peripheral nations took place when the international communication involves some spotlight of core and semi peripher al nations. In addition, not only inequity existed between different kinds of nations, the imbalance also lay within a colleague of nations. Based on the international news reporting of U.S. news media, Wanta and Golan (2010) proposed a model of internati onal news coverage on the foundation of the world system theory. According to this study, at least three conclusions could be drawn: firstly, non core nations with closer international interactions with the United States would be treated as more newsworthy than other non core nations. Additionally, international trade with the United States and ancestral tied to the United States are attributes which could predict the amount of coverage a non core nation would receive. Secondly, butes would make some peripheral nations more newsworthy production, nuclear arms capability and military expenditures. Those nations which carried one or several inte rnational attributes significantly would draw more attention
28 The Organizational Approach The organizational approach explores how internal factors of a news organization impact international news reporting. Scholars hav e noticed that factors such as circulation size, reliance on wire services, gatekeepers might have influences on international news coverage. Circulation size/ Organizational size Scholars noticed that circulation size of a newspaper was one of the interna l factors which would influence the news space of global news (Lacy, Chang, & Lau, that the circulation size of a newspaper was one of the two strongest predictors of cover age on Mexico. Furthermore, circulation size was the only predictor of the length and source of news reports. Anal yzing 114 U.S. newspapers, Lacy Chang, and Lau s (1989) research found that large newspapers were more likely to publish international news, because they were able to afford the expensive cost of gathering foreign news. It was also argued that Lowrey et al., 2003, p. 41). Dependency on wire service media factor which impacts international news coverage according to past research. It was found that the more foreign news items received from the wire services the more foreign news would be reported by Indiana small newspapers (Weaver & Wilhoit, 1983) As mentioned before, besides the factor of circulation size, reliance on wire services was another strong predictor for news space assigned to global news (Lacy, Chang, & Lau, 1989)
29 Cho and Lacy (2000) conducted a study on local daily newspapers in Japan. They found that newspapers which depended on wire services assigned more space to international news and produced more international news stories on conflict and disaster; on the other hand, they argued that circulation size did not affect international news coverage. Gatekeepers factors It is professional news editors and reporters who determine which ne ws will be broadcasted or appear in print media (Wu H. D., 1998). Thus, the factors of gatekeepers might have an impact on international news coverage. Kim (2002) na tional networks and local television stations were different. National network journalists produced international news with diverse themes while local television reporters chose international news based on a local angle. It is worth noticing that gatekeep influenced by some extra media factors. For example, the size of the city/ the size of the community might influence the space of international news coverage (Lacy, Chang, & Lau, 1989) Johnson (1997) also found that the more Mexican heritage in population, selection would be influenced by factors such as timeliness, market/audience demands, and local relevance (Kim S. H., 2002) Inter media Agenda Setting & International News Flow Concluding the three approaches in examining the determinants of international news coverage, it shows that the newsworthiness of international news mainly results based or event
30 2006, p 323). Besides those gatekeeping factors mentioned before, some scholars have noted that inter media agenda setting is a possible influential factor that impact the internat ional news agenda of the morning New York Times and three evening television news programs. Significant correlations were identified, thus scholars argued inter media agenda setting should be considered to be an influential factor in determining internatio nal news coverage. Also focusing on international news coverage, the current study is aiming at examining the inter media agenda setting effect of Chinese social media on the Inter media Agenda Setting A (McCombs M. E., 1972, p. 176) to an issue from the amount and position of coverage the issue received from news media. There are two levels of agenda setting. (McCombs & Ghanem, 2001, p. 68) For over four decades, re search in agenda setting theory has expanded their scope from public agenda to the factors which shape the media agenda (Golan G. 2006) Inter Escobar et al 1998, p. 225). In other words, the core argument of inter media agenda setting theory indicates that salience can transfer from one medium to another. From the explanations of agenda setting theory, it is clear that medi a salience is (Kiousis, 2004, p. 71) How to
31 measure the variable of media salience? Kiousis (2004) proposed three core elements: attention, prominence, and valence inter approach to meas ure media salience on different platforms. Similar with agenda setting theory, inter media agenda setting also focuses on the transfer of salience; however, it has several differences with agenda setting theory. Vliegenthart and Walgrave (2008) pointed out three main differences: (1) agenda setting media agenda setting agenda for individuals; while it inter it was argued that scholars could not simply appl y the explanations for public agenda setting to inter media agenda setting. Several reasons were provided to explain why news media learn issue attention from each other. Firstly, Dearing and Rogers (1996) argued that when news professionals did not have much contact directly with their audience, they turned to iority from other news media. Secondly, when other media imitate a
32 news selecting decision is validated indirectly. That is to say, inter media agenda setting effect help (Vliegenthart & Walgrave, 2008, p. 860) Thirdly, due to the competitive environment of media markets, the decision has been proven to be popular and beneficial (Mathes & Pfetsch, 1991) A considerable body of studies has proved the influential role of inter media agenda setting on the media agenda. The effect of inter media a genda setting exists and differs in different fields of mass communication. The potential and power of setting agenda are different according to different types of media. In terms of health communication, when covering the drug issue, scholars found that newspapers had inter media agenda setting on television networks (Reese & Danielian, 1989) Protess and McCombs (1991) found that elite newspapers would influence the media agenda of local newspapers and television news program s. Another study identified significant correlations between local and national newspapers and television on the second level of agenda setting (McCombs et al., 2000). Generally speaking, when examining medium type and inter media agenda setting effect, it was argued that newspapers had stronger inter media agenda setting effects on television than the inter media agenda setting effects of television on newspapers (Vliegenthart & Walgrave, 2008) In the area of political campai gn, inter media agenda setting effect was confirmed by quite a few studies. It was noted that political advertising agenda established by political candidates had significant inter media agenda setting effect on coverage on election issues of both newspape rs and television news programs during the 1990
33 Texas gubernatorial campaign (Roberts & McCombs, 1994) This conclusion was confirmed by another stu dy. A study examined both the first and the second levels of the inter media agenda setting effect of political advertising in the 1995 Spanish Elections (Lopez Escobar et al., 1998) They supported the conclusion that political agendas in both firs t and second level of inter media agenda setting. Also focusing on political advertisements, Boyle (2001) analyzed 116 political advertisements, 818 newspaper stories, and 101 network stories during the 1996 presidential election in the United States. It w as found that major party candidate advertisements influenced during the 2004 presidential election, advertisement s did not impact the media agenda (S weetser, Golan, & Wanta, 2008) Online Media and Inter media Agenda Setting With the boom of online media, scholarship into inter media agenda setting also During the 1996 fall political campaign in the United States, Roberts and Santa (2002) found that related coverage from five news media showed an apparent inter media agenda setting effect on electronic bulletin boards. Another study conducted in South Kor ea also extended inter media agenda setting research into the environment of online media. Lim (2006) compared the issue agendas of two online newspapers and one online wire service in South Korea. The result indicated that the leading online newspaper inf luenced the secondary online newspaper and the online wire service at the first level of agenda setting. Lee Lancendorfer and Lee (2005) explored both levels of the inter media agenda setting effect of Internet bulletin boards on newspaper
34 coverage durin g the 2000 general election in South Korea. The results implied that the Internet not only set public agendas, but also affected media agendas. More specifically, during the election, newspapers had inter media agenda setting effects on Internet bulletin b oards at the first level; while the Internet bulletin board in turn set media agenda at the second level of agenda setting. Sweetser, Golan and Wanta (2008) found media h ad inter media agenda setting effect on campaign blogs. More specifically, in terms of the relationship between blogs and television news, a reciprocal inter media agenda setting effect was found. Another study focused on the inter media agenda setting eff ect between online media and print media in China. It was found that online chat room picked and responded to news stories reported by foreign international news agencies more quickly than traditional print media. Furthermore, online media could set media agenda for the newspaper (Li, Qin, & Kluver, 2003)
35 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS As mentioned before, websites, chat rooms, electric bulletin boards, etc. were often examined types of online media. However, though scholars have begun to media, they have not expanded their scope much to the social media yet. This study focuses on the effect of inter media agenda setting between Chinese social me dia Sina Micro Blog, Chinese state owned news media, and U.S news media. S pecifically, as examine the two research questions below: RQ1: What are the inter media agenda setting effects, if any exists, between Chinese social media (Sina Micro Blog) and state owned news media? RQ2: What are the inter media agenda setting effects, if any exists, between
36 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY This study aims at understanding the inter media relationship among Chinese social media ( Sina Micro Blog ), state owned news organizations ( and Xinhua News Agency ), and U.S news media ( the New York Times and the Associated Press ). Micro Blog postings and news coverage were gathered during four time periods. There is a 1 day time lag between each period. All the data were examined using content analysis, and the inter media agenda setting were measured wit h cross lagged correlation tests. Sampling According to the study design, three Chinese media social media Sina Micro Blog, newspaper and news agency Xinhua News Agency and two U.S. news media newspaper the New York Times and the Associa ted Press were selected. Sina Micro Blog, also known as Sina Weibo, was born in 2009. It has become the most popular micro blog platform in China. A statistical figure showed that in 2011, 40.2% internet users in China had at least one micro blog account (Lv, 2012) Among all the micro blog platforms, Sina Micro Blog is the most popular one. According to iResearch (2011) ket share on active users basis and 86.6% browsing registered users, and 46.2 million daily active users (Mozur, 2013) Sina Micro Blog often s (Mozur, 2013) Thus, the author assumed that this medium on one hand might have some inter media influe nce on other media; on the
37 agendas. is one of the most important propaganda tools of the Communist Party of China. Born in 1946, this daily paper is a part of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Thus, its articles are always thought to be consonant with the voice of the Communist Party of China. Established in 1931, Xinhua News Agency news agency (McPhail, 2010) It has been providing censored news articles to state owned newspapers and broadcast organizations for more than half a century. Now it has started its online business and provided news articles towards publics. T he contents provided both by and Xinhua News Agency have always been labeled as strictly censored by the Party and the government. In addition, these two media are active media users on the Sina Micro Blog. From this perspe ctive, understanding the inter media relationships between them and the social media, may shed some light on understanding how the Chinese government disseminates information and responds to public voices. As to U.S. news media, the New York Times and the Associated Press were chosen. The New York Times is one of the most examined newspapers in the scholarship of inter media agenda setting. Furthermore, strong evidence has been found to confirm that it has powerful agenda setting power on other media such a s other newspapers, television networks and electronic bulletin boards (Roberts, Wanta, & Dzwo, 2002; Golan G. 2006) The Xinhua News Agency was chosen as the sample of Chinese news agency, and the Associated Press (AP) was selected as the sample of
38 U.S. news agency. The Associated Press has its own Sina Micro Blog account with more than 90,000 followers and over 5,000 postings. Thus, it may be sensitive to the communication circumstances on Sina Micro Blog. From this perspective, I assume that the New York Times and the Associated Press social media platform Sina Micro Blog. To measure the media agendas of U.S. newspapers and two Chinese state owned news organizations, the unit of analysis is each news report that related to the database. Firstly, all the news reports which mentioned the Two Sessions, the Two Meetings, Lia Consultative Conference were picked out from the databases. Then, the articles whose main theme were not the Two Sessions -for example, articles reported President Xi visited Russia af ter the Two Sessions were filtered out. To measure the media agendas of Sina Micro Blog, each posting related to the topic is considered to be the unit of analysis. Sina Micro Blog publishes the lists of top 100 most influential postings and top 100 mos t discussed topics of the recent 24 hours every day. The data were collected at noon each day. In the two lists, all the postings and topics that related to the Two Sessions (Lianghui) were selected. Some postings/topics stayed on the list for more than on e day, these postings/topics were coded only once when the first time it appeared on the lists. Time Lag The time frame is one of the most essential factors when testing agenda setting effect (Wanta & Hu, 1994) According t o Winter and Eyal (1981), generally speaking, (Winter & Eyal, 1981) But scholars have
39 also noticed hat the optimum time lag varied according to different types of media. Wanta (19 97) stated the optimal time lag varied from four to five days for national network news to eight weeks for news magazines. Another study conducted by Wanta and Hu (1994) examined five news media. They found different optimal time lag for different media: f or national network newscast is one week, for local newscast is two weeks, for regional newspaper is three weeks, and the longest is eight weeks for national news magazines. Additionally, results showed that optimal time lags for all media were shorter tha n previous studies. In terms of inter media agenda setting, most previous studies used fixed lags and did not try to find out the actual lags in the inter media agenda setting process (Vliegenthart & Walgrave, 2008). But scholars believed that short time lags were more appropriate for inter for weeks before picking up an issue that received considerable attention in another However, several studies promoted an even sho rter time lag when online media platforms were involved in the inter media agenda setting process. Roberts Wanta and Dzwo G olan, and Wanta (2008) asserted that blogs decreased salience time lags, because blogs allowed for instant published reactions to media coverage. This characteristic of blogs is similar with social media such as micro blog. Another study on Korean election also assumed that the time span for examining inter media agenda effect should be shorter when examining inter media agenda setting effect between online media and traditional news media (Lee,
40 Lancendorfer, & Lee, 2005) Previ ous studies on online media adopted various time lags from one day to one week. However, as a rising type of media, the platform of social media enabled immediate information exchange and discussion. The author also noticed that after the two sessions ende d, the relative discussions were quickly replaced by other hot topics. Based on the unique characteristics of social media, the author assumes that the time lag should be very short. As a result, this study adopted a relatively short time lag one day t o examine inter media agenda setting effects among different media. Time Frame The time frame is another consideration when conducting agenda setting studies. According to Lee Lancendorfer and Lee (2005), when examining the inter media agenda setting eff ect between the Internet and newspapers, four time periods had stronger evidence than two time periods. Following this result, the time frame of this study was made up of four time periods which were around the duration of the Two Sessions. As mentioned be fore, the time lag examined in thi s study was one day. Thus, we d i vided a time span of 23 days into four time periods (Time 1, Time 2, Time 3, and Time 4). Time 1 is from Feb. 28 th to Mar. 4rd. Time 2 is from Mar. 6 th to Mar. 10 th Time 3 starts on Mar. 12 th and ends on Mar. 16 th .The last period Time 4 is from Mar. 18 th to Mar. 22 th Each time period lasts for five days. Coding After a preliminary examination of data, each unit of content analysis was coded into different categories based on its theme. In total there were seven categories: conference services and schedule, achievements, reform, social issues, leadership,
41 representatives and influences. Any unit which contains more than one theme was coded into only one category according to its main theme. To insure the reliability of the coding process, 25% of the data (25 social media postings/topics, 90 state owned media news articles, and 10 news reports from U.S. media) were randomly selected to test the inter coder reliability. Examples of each categ ory were provided to help coders categorize each analysis unit. Two independent coders, including the author, coded these selected data, and inter coder reliability was tested. The inter coder reliability was 86.4% in this study. The disagreements resulted from a considerable body of news articles with more than one theme. It was difficult for the coders to decide the central theme of the news story. For example, some news stories from Xinhua News Agency covered a proposal for reform/legislation made by fam ous representatives. It was difficult to decide whether this article should be classified in the category of representatives or reform. However, the inter coder reliability exceeded a desirable amount of 75% (Wimmer and Dominick, 2006), thus it was accepta ble in this study. Data Analysis In most traditional inter media agenda setting studies, scholars applied cross lagged correlation and Rozelle Campbell baseline to measure the influence of one medium on another (e.g Roberts & McCombs, 1994; Lopez Escobar e t al. 1998; Lee, Lancendorfer & Lee, 2005; and Lim, 2006). To assess consistency of issue agendas, Tedesco (2005) adopted Pearson correlations. Since these approach es proved to be reliable in previous research, this study will also adopt them to explore th e inter media agenda setting effects among different media.
42 Based on the time frame mentioned before, three cross lagged correlation analyses can be conducted: Time 1 Time 2, Time 2 Time 3, and Time 3 Time 4. The cross al inferences to be made from correlational (Lee, Lancendorfer, & Lee, 2005, p. 65) When examining the inter media agenda setting relationship between media X and Y from Time 1 to Time 2, researchers need to calcula te three types and six correlations: the synchronous correlations X1/Y1 and X2/Y2, the autocorrelations X1/X2 and Y1/Y2, and the cross lagged correlations X1/Y2 and X2/Y1 (Kenny, 1973) The theoretical model is shown in Figure 4 1 The Rozelle Campbell baseline set one of the criteria of correlations. I t refers to Lopez Escobar et al., 1998, p. 233). The formula for the Rozelle Campbell baseline is: (4 1) To test the inter media relationship by using cross lagged correlation and Rozelle Campbell baseline, two conditions need to be satisfied: firstly, the cross lagged correlation between influencing medium and influenced medium needs to exceed the autocorrelation of the influenced medium; secondly, the cross lagged correlation needs to ex ceed the Rozelle Campbell baseline (Tedesco, 2005) Simply speaking, when X1/Y2 > Y1Y2 and X1/Y2 > the Rozelle Campbell baseline, scholars can suggest the existence of inter media agenda setting effects of medium X at Time 1 on medium Y at Time 2. Similarly, medium Y at Time 1 set agenda on medium X at Time 2, when Y1X2 > X1X2 and Y1X2 > the Rozelle Campbell baseline.
43 Figure 4 1 Cross lagged Correlation Model
44 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS In total, 498 units of analysis were identified. 105 news articles and postings were found in Time 1. The amount of coverage reached a peak with 186 units in Time 2, and then slightly decreased to 163 in Time 3. In time 4, the amount of media attention droppe d sharply. Only 44 articles and postings were found. Generally, five days before its opening, the Two Sessions began to receive media coverage (Time 1). The greatest amount of media attention focused on the first half of the event (Time 2). And after the c onfe re nces ended, there was a rapid decline in the amount of media coverage which 5 1 to 5 3 shows the agenda of each kind of news media in each time period. The Sina Micro Blog Agenda A total amount of 100 postings/topics on the Two Sessions was found on the platform of the Sina Micro Blog. 23 postings/topics on the Two Sessions were in the top 100 lists in Time 1. The number reached a peak in Time 2 with 39 postings/topics In Time 3, media attention received by the Two Sessions on Micro Blog decreased to 28, and when the Two Sessions ended, only 10 postings/topics got great attention from Sina Micro Blog users. In more detail, in Time 1, Reform was the most concerned issue on social media platform, whose proportion got to 52.17%. More than half of media attention was on what changes might occur and what proposals might be discussed. Conference Services, Achievements, Representatives got the same amount of media attention. E ach of them took up 13%. In Time 2, Reform still got the greatest amount of attention from Sina Micro Blog users, with a proportion of 53.85%. Meanwhile, Representatives
45 and social issues came into public view. They took up 17.95% and 12.82% respectively. It indicated that the public started to become concerned about who were speaking for them and what social problems the nation was facing. In Time 3, 8 hot postings and 7 hot topics on Reform took up 53.57% of all the 28 hot postings/topics on the Two Sessi ons. During this time period, President Xi and Premier Li were elected to be the new leaders of the nation. Moreover, the new lineup of the State Council was endorsed by the NPC. Sina Micro Blog users began to discuss the transaction of power. Thus, the ca tegory of Leadership accounted for a proportion of 17.86%, becoming the second most Two Sessions faded out sharply. Social Issues, Achievements, and Influence received no med ia attention at all. However, the discussion on leadership stayed heated in Time 4. 50% of the selected postings/topics focused on the new leaders of the nation. Overall, Reform, Representatives, and Leadership were the most discussed issues on the s ocial media platform. These three categories accounted for 50%, 16%, and 12% of all the selected hot postings/topics respectively. On the contrary, the influence of this event received no media attention at all, since no hot postings or topics fell into this cat egory through all the four time periods. The Chinese State Owned Media Agenda There were 359 news reports on the Two Sessions from the Xinhua News Agency (161 news articles) and (198 articles). Similarly, the amount of news coverage peaked in the Time 2 period with 137 news reports in total. In the other three time periods, there were 76 (Time 1), 117 (Time 3), and 29 (Time 4) articles respectively.
46 Time 1 lasted from three days before the Two Sessions till the second day of the litical Consultative Conference. In this phase, the conference services and schedule drew lots of media attention from the state owned news organizations. 26 articles accounted for 34.21% of all the selected data in this period. The state owned news media also wrote a considerable body of news stories on those delegates who were speaking for Chinese people at the conferences and what changes might be brought after the conferences. As a result, the categories of reform and representatives respectively took u p 25% and 14.47% of all the state Two Sessions during this time period. In Time 2, reform became the most covered issue. 39 news articles were classified into this category with a proportion of 28.47%. However, unlike Sina Mic ro Blog whose attention was highly concentrating on the reform issue, the state owned news organizations also divided their attention to the social issues and the achievements which the government had made. News articles on social issues accounted for 27.0 1%. Slightly less than social issues, 30 news reports on achievements took up a proportion of 21.90%. In Time 3, almost half of the news reports (51 out of 117 articles) focused on the issue of reform. Social issues (20 articles) and conference services an d schedule (18 articles) ranked second and third. In the last time period, there was a significant decrease in the amount of media coverage. Leadership became the most covered issue. Its nine articles took up 31.03% of all the 29 articles. Throughout the f our time periods, reform was the most covered issue out of the seven categories, with 116 news reports from the state owned news media. This category took up 32.32% of all cov erage on the Two Sessions from this type of news
47 media channel. Following the cat egory of reform, social issues and conference services and schedule ranked as second and third most covered issues. Social issues received 61 news articles which accounted for a proportion of 16.99%. This proportion is much 57 news reports (15.89%) fell into the category of conference services and schedule. The U.S. News Media Agenda Two Sessions were much less than domestic media in China. 39 news articles were found in total. Unlike domestic media, whose number of news reports peaked in Time 2, U.S news media had the largest number of mews articles in Time 3 with 18 news stories. Time 1 only received 6 news stories. Time 2 and Time 4 received 10 n ews articles separately. In Time 1, social issues and leadership were the only two covered issues. Each took up 50% of the 6 news stories. In Time 2, reform, social issues and conference services and schedule got covered by the U.S. media. Half of the news reports focused on the reform which might take place during and after the conferences. 40% of the news reports covered the social issues and 10% was about conference services and schedule. In Time 3, the Two Sessions got the largest number of news reports from the U.S. news media. One third of them were focusing on social issues. Both reform and leadership got four news reports. Each of them took up a proportion of 22.22%. 5 news reports were found in Time 4. Both social issues and leadership took up 40% o f all the news articles in this time period. Reform got one piece of news coverage, which accounted for 20%.
48 Generally, social issues, reform and leadership were the most covered issues of the U.S news media. Social issues got 15 news reports, which was 38 .46% of all the 39 news reports. Reform was the second most covered issue with10 news stories, which took up a proportion of 25.64%. The third one was the leadership of China. 9 news articles accounted for 23.08%. On the other hand, the achievements that t he Chinese government had made and the representatives who attended the Two Sessions were the least concerned issues of the U.S. news media. Only 1 news article talked about the achievements of Chinese government. And the representatives received no covera ge at all. Pearson Correlations Table 5 4 shows agenda correlations between different types of media and between different time periods. Throughout the whole time span, 12 pairs of news agendas were tested to be strongly correlated. They are: the social me dia news agenda s in Time 1 and Time 2 (r=.951), in Time 1 and Time 3 (r=.867 ) in Time 2 and Time 3 (r=.942 ); the U.S. news agenda i n Time 1 and Time 3 (r=.772 ) in Time 1 and Time 4 (r=.923 ) in Time 3 and Time 4 (r=.908 );the social media news agenda in T ime 1 and the state owned media's news agenda in Time 3 (r=.912 ), the social media news agenda in Time 2 and the state owned media' s news agenda in time 3 (r=.870 ), the social media news agenda in Time 2 and the U.S news agenda in Time 2 (r=.769 ), the soc ial media news agenda in Time 3 and the state owned media' s news agenda in Time 3 (r=.822 ); the state owned media's news agenda in Time 2 and the U.S news agenda in Time 2 (r=.791 ), the U.S. news agenda in Time 2 and the state owned news media's agenda in Time 3 (r=.869).
49 As shown in Table 5 4, correlations of the Sina Micro Blog at Time 1 with Time 2 (r=. 951, p<. 01), Time 2 to Time 3 (r=. 942, p<. 01) were strongly significant. Though the correlation between Time 3 and Time 4 was not significant (r=.407 ), Sina Micro Interestingly, the agendas of Chinese state owned media were not consistent throughout the four time periods. The Pearson correlations Time 1 and 2 (r=.10 4), Time 2 and 3 (r=.710), and Time 3 and 4 (r=.141) were not significant. From this perspective, the news agendas of state owned media might be influenced by other factors. To examine Xinhua News Agency and separately, Pearson Correlation showed that Xinhua News Agency maintained a consistent news agenda from Time 2 to Time 3 (r=.812, p<.05). However, the correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 (r=.312), Time 3 and Time 4 (r=.345) were not significant. Correla tions of news agendas were not significant through all the four time periods. Within Xinhua News Agency and the correlation of Xinhua News Agency and were significant in Time 1 (r=.804, p<.05). In Time 3, the c orrelation between Xinhua News Agency and were strongly significant (r=.895, p<.01). It implied that the two state owned news media maintained similar news agendas in Time 1 and Time 3. In terms of the U.S. news media agenda, between Time1 a nd Time 2, the Pearson Correlation was 0.182. Between Time 2 and Time 3, the correlation was 0.732. Both of them were not significant, which showed that U.S. news agendas on the Two Sessions were not consistent from Time 1 to Time 3. However, there was a s trongly significant correlation between Time 3 and Time 4 (r=.908, p<.01). It indicates that U.S.
50 news media failed to maintain consistent agendas most of the time. There were two strongly significant correlations within the two U.S. news media. Between Ti me 3 and Time 4, news agendas of the Associated Press were strongly correlated (r= 966). Similarly, the correlation of the New York Times at Time 2 with Time 3 (r=.943) were strongly s ignificant, which showed that it kept consistent news agendas during th e event. Furthermore, in Time 1 the correlation between the Associated Press and the New York Times were strongly significant (r=1.000). In Time 2, the correlation between the two U.S. news organizations were significant (r=.806). It implies that at Time 1 and Time 2, U.S. news organizations kept similar news agendas on covering the Two Sessions of China. Overall, comparing the agendas of three different kinds of news media, Chinese social media maintained more consistent news agendas than state owned news media and the U.S. news organizations throughout the four time periods. Results of Cross lagged Correlation Analyses Research question 1 explores the inter media agenda setting effects between Sina Micro Blog and Chinese state owned news media. To answer this question, the cross lagged correlations were performed and the Rozelle Campbell baseline was calculated. The results of cross lagged correlation were shown in Figure 5 2. As mentioned before, when media X in Time 1 has inter media agenda setting eff ect on media Y in Time 2, the Pearson correlation of X1 with Y 2 must both exceed the correlation of Y1 with Y2 and the Rozelle Campbell baseline. As shown in Figure 5 2, from Time 1 to Time 2, the correlation between Sina Micro Blog in Time 1 and Chinese state owned media in Time 2 was 0.677. It exceeded both the autocorrelation of the state owned media (r=.104) and the Rozelle Campbell baseline (r=.404). Thus,
51 Sina Micro Blog in the first time period had inter media agenda setting effects on the state own ed media in the second time period. From Time 2 to Time 3, the cross lagged correlation of Sina Micro Blog in Time 2 with state owned media in Time 3 (r=.807) was larger than the autocorrelation of state owned media in the two time periods (r=.710). Meanwh ile, it exceeded the Rozelle Campbell baseline, which was 0.608 at this time. The researcher suggest s that Sina Micro Blog in Time 2 set the news agenda for the Chinese state owned media in Time 3. Similarly, from Time 3 to 4, the correlation between Sina Micro Blog agenda in Time 3 and Chinese state owned media in Time 4 (r=.337) was larger than the autocorrelation of Chinese state owned media (r=.141). It exceeded the calculated Rozelle Campbell baseline (r=.197) as well. The inter media agenda setting e ffects existed throughout the whole time span. The author conclude s that Sina Micro Blog had inter media agenda setting influences on Chinese state owned news media when covering the Two Sessions. To test whether the inter media agenda setting effects were reciprocal, the author analyzed whether Xinhua News Agency and set agenda for Sina Micro Blog. From Time 1 to Time 2, the cross lagged correlation (r=.308) exceeded neither the auto correlation of Sina Micro Blog (r=.951) nor the Rozelle Campbell baseline (r=.404). Thus, the inter time periods. Similarly, from Time 2 to Time 3 and from Time 3 to Time 4, the cross lagged correlations were smaller than both the autocorrelations of Micro Blog and the Rozelle Campbell baseline. Thus, there was no evidence showing that the state owned media impacted the news agenda of social media platform.
52 To sum up, the cross lagged correlation analys is provided evidence of Sina media agenda setting effects on Chinese state owned news media throughout the four time periods. The researcher suggest s that Sina Micro Blog set the news agenda for the Chinese state owned news media on cove ring the Two Sessions in 2013. However, the reciprocal influence was not found. Research question 2 concerned whether there was inter media agenda setting influence between Chinese social media (Sina Micro Blog) and U.S media. The results of cross lagged correlation analysis were shown in Figure 5 3. From Time 1 to Time 2, the cross lagged correlation of Sina Micro Blog in Time 1 with U.S. media in Time 2 (r=.727) exceeded the autocorrelations of U.S. media in Time 1 and Time 2 (r=.182). At the same time it exceeded the Rozelle Campbell baseline (r=.131). Thus, Sina Micro Blog in Time 1 had inter media agenda setting influences on U.S. media in Time 2. At the Time 2 to Time 3 period, Sina Micro Blog in Time 2 and U.S. media in Time 3 had a correlation of 0.299, it was smaller than both the autocorrelation of U.S. media and the Rozelle Campbell baseline. It indicated the inter Time 4 period, though the correlation of Si na Micro Blog in Time 3 with U.S. media in Time 4 (r=.303) exceeded the Rozelle Campbell baseline (r=.281), it was far less than the autocorrelation of U.S media (r=.908). As a result, no evidence proved the existence of any inter media agenda setting infl uence. The author also examined whether U.S media had any inter media agenda setting influence on Chinese social media. At Time 1 to Time 2 period, there was a negative correlation between U.S. media in Time 1 and Sina Micro Blog in Time 2 (r=
53 .197), whic h is much less than the autocorrelation of Sina Micro Blog (r=.951) and the Rozelle Campbell baseline (r=.131). During Time 2 3 period, the cross lagged correlation from U.S. media to Sina Micro Blog (r=.642) exceeded the Rozelle Campbell baseline (r=.463) But it was less than the autocorrelation of Sina Micro Blog (r=.942). At Time 3 to Time 4, the correlation of U.S. media in Time 3 with Sina Micro Blog in Time 4 (r=.183) failed to exceed the autocorrelation of Sina Micro Blog (r=.407) and the Rozelle Ca mpbell baseline (r=.281). The researcher conclude s that no evidence showed any inter media agenda setting effect from U.S. media to Sina Micro Blog. To answer the Research Question 2, according to the cross lagged correlation analysis, in most of the time there was no inter media agenda setting influence between Chinese social media platform and U.S. news organizations. However, during the Time 1 to Time 2 period, the Sina Micro Blog had inter media agenda setting influence on the U.S. media. Through the cross lagge d correlation analysis, the researcher suggests that among Sina Micro Blog, Chinese state owned news media, and U.S. news organizations, the Sina Micro Blog was the most powerful media in influencing the issue agenda of other news media. Thr oughout the four time periods, Sina Micro Blog was influencing the issue agendas of state owned news media on covering the Two Sessions. The agenda of Sina Micro Blog in Time 1 had inter media agenda setting effect on the agenda of U.S. media as well. On t he contrary, the other two types of news media seemed to have no inf luence on social media at all.
54 Table 5 1 Issue Agenda of Sina Micro Blog Sina Micro Blog Agendas 2.28 3.4 3.6 3.10 3.12 3.16 3.18 3.22 Social Problem 2 5 2 0 Conference services and Schedule 3 2 0 1 Achievement 3 2 2 0 Leadership 0 2 5 5 Representatives 3 7 4 2 Reform 12 21 15 2 Influence 0 0 0 0 Total 23 39 28 10 Table 5 2 Issue Agenda of Chinese State Owned Media Chinese State Owned Media Agendas 2.28 3.4 3.6 3.10 3.12 3.16 3.18 3.22 Social Problem 4 37 20 0 Conference services and Schedule 26 11 18 2 Achievement 7 30 13 3 Leadership 2 2 10 9 Representatives 11 14 3 0 Reform 19 39 51 7 Influence 7 4 2 8 Total 76 137 117 29 Table 5 3 Issue Agenda of U.S. Media U.S. Media Agendas 2.28 3.4 3.6 3.10 3.12 3.16 3.18 3.22 Social Problem 3 4 6 2 Conference services and Schedule 0 1 2 0 Achievement 0 0 1 0 Leadership 3 0 4 2 Representatives 0 0 0 0 Reform 0 5 4 1 Influence 0 0 1 0 Total 6 10 1 8 5
55 Table 5 4 Issue Agenda Correlation Matrix Micro Blog T1 Micro Blog T2 Micro Blog T3 Micro Blog T4 State Owned Media T1 State Owned Media T2 State Owned Media T3 State Owned Media T4 U.S. Media T1 U.S. Media T2 U.S. Media 3 U.S. Media T4 Micro Blog T1 1 .951 ** .867 .003 .559 .677 .912 ** .040 .384 .727 .188 .018 Micro Blog T2 .951 ** 1 942 ** .157 .382 .635 .870 .082 .197 .769 .299 .174 Micro Blog T3 .867 942 ** 1 .407 .211 .490 .822 .337 .066 .642 .328 .303 Micro Blog T4 .003 .157 .407 1 .133 .407 .049 .473 .404 .141 .183 .470 State Owned Media T1 .559 .382 .211 .133 1 .104 .469 .176 .619 .254 .192 .471 State Owned Media T2 .677 .635 .490 .407 .104 1 .710 .374 .003 .791 .448 .216 State Owned Media T3 .912 ** .870 .822 .049 .469 .710 1 .141 .071 .869 .534 .290 State Owned Media T4 .040 .082 .337 .473 .176 .374 .141 1 .064 .090 .090 .197 U.S. Media T1 .384 .197 .066 .404 .619 .003 .071 .064 1 .182 .772 .923 ** U.S. Media T2 .727 .769 .642 .141 .254 .791 .869 .090 .182 1 .732 .478 U.S. Media T3 .188 .299 .328 .183 .192 .448 .534 .090 .772 .732 1 .908 ** U.S. Media 4 .018 .174 .303 .470 .471 .216 .290 .197 .923 ** .478 .908 ** 1 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2 tailed).
56 .635 .822* .710 .942** .490 .807* Sina Micro Blog Sina Micro Blog Chinese State Owned Media Chinese State Owned Media T 2 T 3 The Rozelle Campbell baseline= .608 .822 *35 .473 .141 .407 .049 .337 Sina Micro Blog Sina Micro Blog Chinese State Owned Media Chinese State Owned Media T 3 T 4 The Rozelle Campbell baseline= .197 ** p < 0.01 p < 0.05 Figure 5 1 Issue Agenda Correlations for Sina Micro Blog and State Owned Media .559 .635 .104 .951** .308 .677 Sina Micro Blog Sina Micro Blog Chinese State Owned Media Chinese State Owned Media T1 T 2 The Rozelle Campbell baseline= .404 A B C
57 .384 .769* .182 .951** .197 .727 Sina Micro Blog Sina Micro Blog U.S. Media U.S. Media T1 T 2 The Rozelle Campbell baseline = .131 ** p < 0.01 p < 0.05 Figure 5 2 Issue Agenda Correlations for Sina Micro Blog and U.S. Media .769 .328 .732 .942** .642 .299 Sina Micro Blog Sina Micro Blog U.S. Media U.S. Media T 2 T 3 The Rozelle Campbell baseline = .463 .328 .470 .908** .407 .183 .303 Sina Micro Blog Sina Micro Blog U.S. Media U.S. Media T 3 T 4 The Rozelle Campbell baseline = .281 A B C
58 .619 .791* .182 .104 .003 .254 Chinese State Owned Media Chinese State Owned Media U.S. Media U.S. Media T1 T 2 The Rozelle Campbell baseline= .013 ** p < 0.01 p < 0.05 Figure 5 3 Issue Agenda Correlations for State Owned Media and U.S. Medi a .791 .534 .732 .710 .869* .448 Chinese State Owned Media Chinese State Owned Media U.S. Media U.S. Media T 2 T 3 The Rozelle Campbell baseline= .478 .534 .197 .908** .141 .090 .290 Chinese State Owned Media Chinese State Owned Media U.S. Media U.S. Media T 3 T 4 The Rozelle Campbell baseline= .237 B C A
59 CH APTER 6 DISCUSSION Media Agendas According to the content analysis, the most concerned issues were different according to different types of media. On social media platform, reform and representatives were the most discussed issues. It shows the opinion of social media users in China, whi ch was at least 46.2 million daily active users, towards the N PC l and C CPPCC Chinese people cared most about what changes might take place after the two conferences. In the category of reform, micro bloggers discussed a lot about the proposals which parli amentary representatives made to the government. Many legislative proposals, like legalizing gay marriage, were debated on social media platform, though NPC toward democracy. An example was the discussion on Jilan Shen, who had been a parliamentary representative ever since the 1st NPC During an interview, she said she was proud of never voting no in NPC After this interview was released, there was strong criticism on her on the Sina Micro Blog. During the discussion, the public began to think and debate who should be elected to the Two Sessions to speak for the public interest. According to the Chinese state owned media, the most covered issues were reform and social issues. Like Sina Micro Blog, state owned media paid great attention on reforms. But the second most c overed issue of state owned media agenda was different from social media platform. Xinhua News Agency and wrote a considerable number of news stories on what social issues the government needed to
60 deal with. Most of them implied that these i ssues would be discussed during the Two Sessions and actions would be taken to solve the problems. For the state owned news social issues. On the other hand, it indicated pote ntial social changes in the future. Thus, In addition, the proportion of coverage on achievements of the state owned media news articles (14.76%) greatly exceeded the social media platform s (7%) and the U.S. media s (2%) coverage on the same issue category throughout the whole time span. It implied that the Chinese state owned media were building a more positive image of the Chinese government than the other two types of media. From this pe rspective the news articles from state owned were still tools of the government to ease the social tensions For the U.S media, the category of social issues in China was the No.1 important issue in covering the Two Sessions, followed by the category of reform. On one hand, the U.S media wrote quite a few news stories to report the social issues and problems, such as pollution and corruption. On the other hand, the topic of achievements was mostly ignored by the Western media (only 1 news article thro ughout the time span) This imbalance is consistent with the findings of previous studies that in international news flow, the majority of stories about the Third World usually focused on negative new s (Masmoudi, 1979). N egative coverage of a nation often leads to negative perceptions of that nation (Wanta et al., 2004) This imbalance in news coverage might bring negative perceptions towards China from American viewers.
61 Inter media Agenda Setting Effect The result of RQ 1 implies that the social media nowa days in China may serve as an influential platform. It sets the news agenda for state owned media. This result is consistent with the conclusion of Lee Lancendorfer and Lee (2005), who argue that Internet affected media agendas during the 2000 general election in South Korea. There is a tendency that online platforms are becoming more and more influential. The result also revealed some practical implications for the media s ystem in China. Traditionally, Chinese state owned media were thought to be an organ of Chinese government, the voice of the government and the Communist Party of China. However, the result of this research showed that public opinions on social media could to some degree, affect the state owned media. From this perspective, the social media where the public may express their opinions can serve as a channel to facilitate the communication be tween government and the public When the public s opinion become s so important that the state owned media cannot ignore, the news stories from the state owned media will make the government aware of this public opinion. On the other hand, these news reports delivered the messages from the government as well In fact, n owadays major state owned media in China also have their Sina Micro Blog account. And their postings are usually interpreted as political implications by social media users. The result of RQ 2 showed that American news organizations can hardly influence th e Chinese social media platform. It is not difficult to understand. Since Sina Micro Blog was a platform with low entry barriers, most of the users were i l literate in English Sina Micro Blog users did not have the habit of reading news stories from intern ational news media. Moreover, the media censorship in China also played a role
62 in limiting the influences of foreign news media. Min Jiang (2010) identified four main deliberative cyberspaces in China: central propaganda spaces, government regulated commer cial spaces, emergent civic spaces, and international deliberative spaces. The forth one means that some websites and services which are hosted beyond China are blocked by Chinese government. In China, some New York Times news articles were filtered by the Great Firewall in China. Social media users could not get access to them, unless circumvention tools were applied. Thus, international news media can hardly influence any social media platforms nowadays. Interestingly, when examining whether U.S. news med ia were affected by Chinese social media platform, it was found that from Time 1 to Time 2, the correlation of Sina Micro blog in Time 1 with U.S. media in Time 2 (r=.727) exceeded both the autocorrelation of U.S. media (r=.182) and the Rozelle Campbell ba seline (r=.131). So did the Chinese state owned media. As showed in Figure 5 3, the within media correlation of state owned media in Time 1 with U.S. media in Time 2 (r=.254) was larger than the autocorrelation of U.S. media (r=.182) and the Rozelle Campbe ll baseline (r=.013). Since Time 1 was before the Two Sessions. The agendas of Chinese media might be a guide for the U.S. media professionals to know what would be newsworthy during the conferences. This finding also supported the findings of previous stu dies that gatekeepers would be a factor that influence the international news flow. Limitations This study has several limitations. First, t hough staticstical analysis suggest that social media in Time 1set news agenda for U.S. news media in Time 2, it is noticed that during Time 1 and Time 2, U.S. news media agenda was so concentrating on certain topics that quite a few issues received no coverage at all. The lack of variety might
63 inflate the correlation s between agenda of social media and agenda of U.S media and thus hurt the cross lagged correlations. Second, every unit of content analysis was coded into only one issue category according to its main theme. However, the author found that news stories fro m the U.S. news media were often quite long, containing more than one theme; on the contrary, messages from social media were quite short and concentrating due to the 140 characters limitation. Coding each U.S. media s news story into only one theme might result in neglect of important information. Some important issues covered by U.S. news media might fail to appear in the analysis of U.S. news agendas. And this limitation may also influence the results of statistical analyses. The study reveals some topic s of future research. For example, t he power of social media needs further examination. First this study examined only the inter media agenda setting at the first level. Though the social media news agenda influenced the agenda of state owned media, the attributes these media focused on might b e different. Also take Jilan Sh e n, a member of NPC as an example, on social media, public quoted and highlighted her saying that she was proud of never voting No during the conferences. However, the state owned med ia paid attention to her achievements on striving for women's rights. From this perspective, even on covering the same issue, social media platform and state owned media may adopt different tone emphasize different attributes of the issue. As a result, th e power of social media is limited. Second, the agenda of social media platform might be manipulated by the government. Since China is often thought to be a country with strict media censorship and lack of media freedom, it is possible for the government t o manipulate the hot
64 postings and hot topics on social media. Actually, sometimes sensitive messages in previous statistical analysis of 56 million messages from Sin a Micro Blog showed that 212,583 messages had been deleted (Bamman, 2012). To check whether all the voices on the Two Sessions were checked and tailored by the government, the author randomly selected a posting on March 14 th It was about the reform of the Ministry of Railways. The latest 100 comments were analyzed and classified into positive, negative, and neutral, according to their tones. The result shows that 47 of them were negativ e, 12 were neutral, and the remaining 41 were positive. The fact that t here were more negative comments than positive ones showed that social media did allow the public to express its dissatisfaction toward the government. However, though it indicates that the social media to some degree allow the freedom of speech, this sing le example cannot accurately define the freedom on social media platform. Further research could help determine whether there is a trend toward freedom in topic board Third this paper chose the Two Sessions as the topic. Further research is needed to find out whether social media still have inter media agenda setting influences on other media platforms when covering other types of issues. Conclusions This research examined the inter media agenda setting influences among Chinese social media platform Sina Micro Blog, Chinese state owned media, and U.S. news organizations, when these three types of media covered the 2013 Two Sessions of China. The findings showed that Sina Micro Blog influenced the agenda of Chinese state owned media. Most of the time, there was no evidence of inter media agenda setting effects between social media platform and the U.S. media platform, nor between
65 state owned media and the U.S. media. However, during the first half of the event, the news agenda of U.S. media was influenc ed by the other two media.
66 APPENDIX CONTENT ANALYSIS CODING SHEET Variable Instruction Code Article/Posting ID Consecutively number each news aticle/ Micro Blog Posting/Micro Blog Topic Coder The Coder s Name Media Source The media channel which made the news product 1=Sina Micro Blog 2=The Xinhua News Agency 3=People s Daily 4=The New York Times 5=The Associated Press Time The date on which the news product published 1=Time 1 2=Time 2 3=Time 3 4=Time 4 Issue Category Classify these news products according to their themes. 1= Social Issues (The social issues/problems that the Chinese government was facing. For example, air pollutions, corruption, human rights, etc.) 2= Conference Services and Schedule (For example, the schedule of National People s Congress on March 14 th ) 3= Reform (Reform plans that made by the government or proposal for social change made by representatives) 4= Achievements (The achievements that Chinese government had made. For exa mple, technological progress, Agricultural development, etc.) 5= Leadership (The leaders of the nation and the lineup of the State Council. ) 6= Representatives (News products focused on who was speaking at the conferences) 7= Influence (The national and i nternational influence of the event)
67 LIST OF REFERENCES Bamman, D., O'Connor, B., & Smith, N. (2012). Censorship and deletion practices in Chinese social media. First Monday 17(3). Barnett, G., & Choi, Y. (1995). Physical Distance and Language as Determ inants of the International Telecommunications Network. International Political Science Review 16(3), 249 265. Boyle, T. P. (2001). Intermedia Agenda Setting in the 1996 Presidential Election. Journalism & Mass Communication Quaterly 78(1), 26 44. Bradsher, K. (2012, 7 4). Bolder Protests against Pollution Win Project's Defeat in China Retrieved 1 15, 2013, from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/05/world/asia/chinese officials cancel plant project amid protests.html?_r=0 Chang, K. K., & Lee, T. T. (2010). International News Determinants in U.S. News Media in the Post Cold War Era. In International Media Communication in a Global Age (pp. 71 88). NY: Routledge. Chang, T. K. (1998). All Countries Not Created Equal to Be News: World System and International Communication. Communication Research 528 563. Chang, T. K., & Lee, J. W. (1992). Factors Affecting Gatekeepers' Selection of Foreign News: A National Survey of Newspaper Editors. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 69(3), 554 56 1. Chang, T. K., Lau, T. y., & Hao, X. (2000). From the United States with News and More: International Flow, Television Coverage and the World System. Gazette 62(6), 505 522. Chang, T. K., Shoemaker, P. J., & Brendlinger, N. (1987). Determinants of Inte rnational News Coverage in the U.S. Media. Communication Research 396 414. Cho, H., & Lacy, S. (2000). International Conflict Coverage in Japanese Local Daily Newspapers. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 77(4), 830 845. Dearing, J. W., & Rogers, E. M. (1996). Communication. In Communication concepts 6: Agenda setting Thousand Oaks. Golan, G. (2003). America's Narrow Window to the World: an analysis of network global coverage. International Communication Bulletin 38, 2 11. Golan, G. (2006). Inte r Media Agenda Setting and Global News Coverage: Assessing the influence of the New York Times on three network television evening news programs. Journalism Studies 7(2), 323 333.
68 Golan, G. J. (2008). Where in the World Is Africa? : Predicting Coverage of Africa by US Television Networks. International Communication Gazette 70(1), 41 57. Golan, G. J. (2010). Determinants of International News Coverage. In International Media Communication in a Global Age (pp. 125 144). New York: Routledge. Golan, G., & Wa nta, W. (2003). International Elections on US Network News: An Examination of Factors Affecting Newsworthiness. The International Journal for Communication Studies 65(1), 25 39. How China is Ruled. (n.d.). Retrieved Oct 10 http://news.bbc.co .uk/2/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/china_politics/government/html/7.s tm, 2013, from BBC NEWS. iResearch. (2011, March 30). Sina Commands 56% of China's Microblog Market. Retrieved 3 13, 2013, from Resonance: http://www.resonancechina.com/2011/03/30/sina comma nds 56 of chinas microblog market/ Johnson, M. A. (1997). Predicting News Flow from Mexico. Journalism & Mass Communication Quartarly 75(2), 315 330. Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of soci al media. Business Horizons 59 68. Kariel, H. G., & Rosenvall, L. A. (1983). Cultural Affinity Displayed in Canadian Daily Newspapers. Journalism Quarterly 60(3), 421 436. Kenny, D. A. (1973). Cross lagged and Synchronous Common Factors in Panel Data. In A. S. Golderberger, & O. D. Duncan (Eds.), Structural Equation Models in the Social Sciences (pp. 887 903). NY: Seminar Press. Kim, K., & Barnett, G. A. (1996). Determinants of International News Flow: A Network Analysis. Communication Research 23(3), 32 3 352. Kim, S. H. (2002). Gatekeeping International News: An Attitudinal Profile of U.S.Television Journalists. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 46(3), 431 452. Kiousis, S. (2004). Explicating Media Salience: A Factor Analysis of New York Times Issue Coverage During the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election. Journal of Communication 71 87. Ku, G., Kaide, L. L., & Pfau, M. (2003). The Impact of Web Site Campaigning on Traditional News Media and Public Information Processing. Journalism & Mass Communica tion Quarterly 528 547.
69 Lacy, S., Chang, T., & Lau, T. (1989). Impact of allocation decisions and market factors on foreign news coverage. Newspaper Research Journal 10, 23 32. Lee, B., Lancendorfer, K. M., & Lee, K. J. (2005). Agenda Setting and the Int ernet: The Intermedia Influence of Internet Bulletin Boards on Newspaper Coverage of the 2000 General Election in South Korea. Asian Journal of Communication 57 71. Li, X., Qin, X., & Kluver, R. (2003). Who Is Setting the Chinese Agenda? The Impact of Onl ine Chatrooms on Party Presses in China. In Asia.com: Asia Encounters the Internet London: Routledge. Lim, J. (2011). First level and second level intermedia agenda setting among major news websites. Asian Journal of Communication 21(2), 167 185. Lopez Escobar, E., Llamas, J. P., McCombs, M., & Lennon, F. R. (1998). Two Levels of Agenda Setting Among Advertising and News in the 1995 Spanish Elections. Political Communication 225 238. Lowrey, W., Becker, L. B., & Punathambekar, A. (2003). Determina nts of Newsroom Use of Staff Expertise: The Case of International News. International Communication Gazette 65(1), 41 65. Lv, F. (2012, June 24). 28th China Internet and Network Development Report Retrieved from People.com: http://media.people.com.cn/n/2 012/0724/c346290 18586296.html Masmoudi, M. (1979). The New World Information Order. Journal of Communication 172 185. Mathes, R., & Pfetsch, B. (1991). The Role of the Alternative Press in the Agenda Building Process: Spill over Effects and Media Opinion Leadership. European Journal of Communication 6, 33 62. McCombs, M. E. (1972). The Agenda Setting Function of Mass Media Public Opinion Quarterly 176 185. McCombs, M., & Ghanem, S. I. (2001). The Convergence of Agenda Setting and Framing. In S. D. Ree se, O. H. Gandy, & A. E. Grant (Eds.), Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World (pp. 67 81). Mahwah, NJ: Lowrence Erlbaum. McCombs, M., Lopez Escobar, E., & Llamas, P. (2000). Setting the Agenda of Attributes in the 1996 Spanish General Election. Journal of Communication 50, 77 92. McDonald, M. (2012). A Violent New Tremor in China's Heartland Retrieved 1 15, 2013, from New York Times: http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/04/a violent new tremor in chinas heartland/
70 McPhail, T. L. (2010). Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends (Third Edition ed.). Wiley Blackwell. Mozur, P. (2013, March 12). How Many People Really Use Sina Weibo Retrieved March 13, 2013, from China Real Time Report: http ://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/03/12/how many people really use sina weibo/?KEYWORDS=weibo Protess, D., & McCombs, M. (1991). Agenda Setting: readings on media, public opinion, and policymaking Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum. Qian, G. (2012, 7 11). Ch ina's malformed media sphere Retrieved 1 15, 2013, from China Media Project: http://cmp.hku.hk/2012/07/11/25293/ Reese, S. D., & Danielian, L. H. (1989). Intermedia Influence and the Drug Influence: Converging on Cocaine. In P. Shoemaker (Ed.), Communicat ion Campaigns about Drugs: Government, Media, Public (pp. 29 46). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum. Riffe, D., & Budianto, A. (2001). The Shrinking World of Network News. International Communication Bulletin 36, 12 35. Roberts, M., & McCombs, M. (1994). Agenda Setting and Political Advertising: Origins of the news agenda. Political Communication 11(3), 249 262. Roberts, M., Wanta, W., & Dzwo, T. H. (2002). Agenda Setting and Issue Salience Online. Communication Research 452 465. Robinson, G. J., & Sparkes V. M. (1976). International News in the Canadian and American Press: A Comparative News Flow Study. International Communication Gazette 203 218. Rosengren, K. E., & Rikardsson, G. (1974). Middle East News in Sweden. International Communication Gazette 99 116. Shoemaker, P. J., Danielian, L. H., & Brendlinger, N. (1991). Deviant Acts, Risky Business and U.S. Interests: The Newsworthiness of World Events. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 68(4), 781 795. Sina Micro Blog. (2013, 1 25). 2012 Sina M icro Blog Development Report Retrieved from Micro Blog Data: http://data.weibo.com/report/detail/report?fid=277796691&&vuid=18530395 Sweetser, K. D., Golan, G. J., & Wanta, W. (2008). Intermedia Agenda Setting in Television, Advertising and Blogs During t he 2004 Election. Mass Communication and Society 11(2), 197 216.
71 Tedesco, J. C. (2005). Intercandidate Agenda Setting in the 2004 Democratic Presidential Primary. American Behavioral Scientist 92 113. Vliegenthart, R., & Walgrave, S. (2008). The Continge ncy of Intermedia Agenda Setting: A Longitudinal Study in Belgium. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 85(4), 860 877. Wanta, W. (1997). The Public and the National Agenda: How People Learn about Important Issues Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Wan ta, W., & Golan, G. J. (2010). Coverage of Foreign Elections in the United States. In G. J. Golan, T. J. Johnson, & W. Wanta (Eds.), International Media Communication in a Global Age (pp. 109 124). Routlege. Wanta, W., Golan, G., & Lee, C. (2004). Agenda S etting and International News: Media Influence on Public Perceptions of Foreign Nations. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 81(2), 364 377. Wanta, W., & Hu, Y. W. (1994). Time Lag Differences in the Agenda Setting Process: An Examination of Five News Media. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 6(3), 225 240. Weaver, D. H., & Wilhoit, G. C. (1983). Foreign News Coverage in Two US. Wire Service s: Update. Journal of Communication 33, 132 148. Weaver, J. B., Porter, C. J., & Evans, M. E. (1984). Patterns of Foreign News Coverage on U.S. Network TV: A 10 Year Analysis. Journalism Quarterly 61, 356 363. Wimmer, R.D., & Dominick, J.R. (2006). Mass Media Research: An introduction. (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education Winter, J. P., & Eyal, C. H. (1981). Agenda Setting for the Civil Rights Issue. Public Opinion Quarterly 45(3), 376 383. Wu, H. D. (1998). Investigating the Determinants of International News Flow: A Meta Analysis. International Communication Gazette 60(6), 493 512. Wu, H. D. (2000). Systemic Determinants of International News Coverage: A Comparison of 38 Countries. Journal of Communication 50, 110 130. Wu, H. D. (2003). Ho mogeneity Around the World? Comparing the Systemic Determinants of International News Flow between Developed and Developing Countries. International Communication Gazette 9 24.
72 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Xuemeng Fu is an international student of University of Florida, whose major is mass communication From China, s he got her bachelor s degree from the Communication University of China, major in broadcast journalism. After graduation from the University of Florida, she served as a TV journalist for a local TV station in the east part of China for two years. Her research interest is journalism especially international news reporting.