Environmental Quality Enhancement of Portable Classrooms

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Title:
Environmental Quality Enhancement of Portable Classrooms a Solution for Educational Improvement
Physical Description:
1 online resource (144 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Tabrizchi, Maryam
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( M.Arch.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Architecture
Committee Chair:
BOSWORTH,FRANK,III
Committee Co-Chair:
WALTERS,BRADLEY SCOTT

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
portable -- relocatable
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Architecture thesis, M.Arch.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Portable classrooms are school districts’ responses to the need of individual schools that face demographic changes and require additional classroom space. They are meant to be used as temporary solutions, however, in many cases, this temporary solution evolves into a long-term response. Studies show that environmental conditions and the physical appearance of the portable classrooms lead to dissatisfaction and poor student performance. Thirty-six percent of the nation’s schools use portable classrooms which increasingly raises more concerns about the environmental quality of these educational facilities. This thesis attempts to study the relationship between the environmental quality of the portable classrooms and student performance.  Based on literature review, student performance in portable classrooms is lower than student performance in inside classrooms. In order to provide an equal educational opportunity for all students, investments should be made, and existing portable classroom conditions should be enhanced. Research has been conducted to investigate the variables in environmental quality of the portable classrooms that should be enhanced to improve student performance. The design variables impacting student performance are movement and circulation, instructional space, lighting, views, acoustics,and air quality. This thesis developed a design guideline for portable classrooms that defines the implementation of the six design variables.  It concluded that portable classrooms on school sites should be considered as neighborhoods which are part of the bigger community of school. Like any other site-built community, portable classroom neighborhoods require planning strategies be considered when orienting units on a site. In order to test the findings of this thesis, a design proposal is presented using the six design variables implementation guidelines as a strategy.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Maryam Tabrizchi.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: BOSWORTH,FRANK,III.
Local:
Co-adviser: WALTERS,BRADLEY SCOTT.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0046370:00001


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1 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENHANCEMENT OF PORTABLE CLASSROOMS A SOLUTION FOR EDUCATIONAL I MPROVEMENT By MARYAM TABRIZCHI A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Maryam Tabrizchi

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3 To my d aughter, Elena Sarah Nazari

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my deep gratitude to my thesis superviso rs, Professor Frank Bosworth and Professor Bradley Walters for their patient guidance, enthusiastic encouragement and useful critiques of this thesis I would also like to extend my thanks to John Ehrig for his advice and assistance on my research data gathering, and to the University of Florida professors and staff who helped me throughout my education.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 ABSTRA CT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY ................................ ................................ ......... 14 Portable Classrooms Background ................................ ................................ .......... 14 What are Portable Classrooms? ................................ ................................ ....... 14 Portable Classroom Materials and Technical Details ................................ ....... 14 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 18 Portable Classrooms, Orlando, FL. ................................ ................................ .. 18 Portable Classrooms Site Visit ................................ ................................ ......... 20 Statement of Purpose ................................ ................................ ............................. 27 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 28 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 28 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 Environm ental Quality and Student Performance ................................ ................... 31 Environmental Variables ................................ ................................ ......................... 37 Movement and Circulation ................................ ................................ ................ 43 Instructional Spaces ................................ ................................ ......................... 43 Lighting ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 44 View ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 45 Acoustics ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 45 Air Quality ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 46 3 VARIABLES THAT CAN CHANGE ................................ ................................ ......... 48 Case Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 48 Method of Study ................................ ................................ ............................... 49 Projects Analysis ................................ ................................ .............................. 50 Comparison ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 67 Design Dilemma ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 69 Variables Implementation Guidelines ................................ ................................ ..... 71 Movement and Circulation ................................ ................................ ................ 74

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6 Small public square ................................ ................................ .................... 74 Public outdo or room ................................ ................................ ................... 75 Positive outdoor space ................................ ................................ ............... 75 Arcades ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 76 Activity Pockets ................................ ................................ .......................... 77 Instructional Space ................................ ................................ ........................... 77 Small work group ................................ ................................ ....................... 77 Outdoor room ................................ ................................ ............................. 78 Lighting ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 79 Wings of light ................................ ................................ ............................. 79 Indoor sunlight ................................ ................................ ........................... 80 Pools of light ................................ ................................ .............................. 80 View ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 81 Windows overlooking life ................................ ................................ ............ 81 Acoustics and Air Quality ................................ ................................ .................. 81 Co nclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 82 4 PROGRAM AND DESIGN ................................ ................................ ...................... 90 Program ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 90 Design Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 94 Construction and Transportation ................................ ................................ ............. 96 Variables Enhancement ................................ ................................ ........................ 101 Movement and Circulation ................................ ................................ .............. 101 Instructional Space ................................ ................................ ......................... 106 Lighting: ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 112 Sustainability ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 125 Portable Classrooms Site Planning ................................ ................................ ...... 126 Audubon Park Elementary School Proposal ................................ ................... 128 Glenridge Middle School Proposal ................................ ................................ 132 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 136 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 141 BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 144

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Environmental variables that affect student performance. ................................ .. 42 3 1 R esponse of case studies in implementation of the environmental variable that affect student performan ce, based on a value scale with 4 being the best score. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 66 3 2 Design variables categorized as dependent and independent to the site, and ................................ ................................ .......................... 69 3 3 Variables implementation guidelines. ................................ ................................ 84 4 1 Standard program for portable classrooms. ................................ ....................... 91 4 2 Program of design for portable classrooms. ................................ ..................... 117

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Samples of va rious p ortable classrooms plans ................................ ................... 16 1 2 ................................ .......... 17 1 3 Shingle Creek Elementary School Plan, presenting differe nt types of portable classrooms ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 22 1 4 Concrete Portable Classrooms ................................ ................................ ........... 23 1 5 One of the primarily added steel constructed portable classrooms .................... 24 1 6 Series of environmental quality enhanc ed portable cl assrooms ......................... 24 1 7 Series of portable classrooms added to the Shingle Creek Elementary School site overtime. ................................ ................................ .......................... 25 1 8 Series of interior views from portable classrooms. ................................ ............. 26 1 9 Connection/ relationship between the portable classrooms ................................ 26 2 1 Relationship between student performance and the environmental quality of findings. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 33 2 2 Goal and purpose diagram. ................................ ................................ ................ 34 2 3 Difference between student performance in portable and inside classrooms over their lifecycle. ................................ ................................ .............................. 35 2 4 Difference between student performance in portable and inside classrooms over the course of their lifecycles with the enhancement of the environmental quality of the portable classrooms. ................................ ................................ ..... 36 3 1 Proj ect A series of illustrations ................................ ................................ ............ 52 3 2 Project B series of illustrations. ................................ ................................ ........... 55 3 3 Pr oject C series of illustrations ................................ ................................ ........... 57 3 4 Project D series of i llustrations ................................ ................................ ........... 59 3 5 Proje ct E series of illustrations ................................ ................................ ............ 62 3 6 Project F series of illustrations ................................ ................................ ............ 65

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9 3 7 Alternatives of portable units assembly. ................................ ............................. 72 3 8 Small public square ................................ ................................ ............................ 75 3 9 Public outdoor room ................................ ................................ ........................... 75 3 10 Buildings that create negative/p ositi ve outdoor space. ................................ ....... 76 3 11 Arcades ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 77 3 12 Activity pockets ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 77 3 13 Small work group. ................................ ................................ ............................... 78 3 14 Outdoor room ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 78 3 15 Wings of light. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 79 3 16 Indoor sunlight ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 80 3 1 7 Pools of light ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 80 3 18 W indows overlooking life ................................ ................................ .................... 81 4 1 ................................ .......... 96 4 2 This figure illustrates the tractor se mi tra iler dimensions ................................ .... 98 4 3 Assembly of structure kits. ................................ ................................ .................. 99 4 4 Exploded model of the classroom kits. ................................ ............................. 100 4 5 Positive outdoor rooms areas are highlighted in the prototype. ........................ 101 4 6 Small public squares are highlighted in the prototype. ................................ ..... 102 4 7 A perspective from transition spaces. ................................ ............................... 103 4 8 Activity pockets are highlighted in the prototype. ................................ .............. 103 4 9 Shaded entrance spaces (arcades) are highlighted in the prototype. ............... 104 4 10 Public outdoor rooms are highlighted in the prototype. ................................ ..... 105 4 11 Raised walkways are illustrated in the prototype. ................................ ............. 106 4 12 Classroom typologies. ................................ ................................ ...................... 107 4 13 Wall kit. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 107

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10 4 14 Layouts of different classroom types. ................................ ............................... 109 4 15 Interior perspectives ................................ ................................ ........................ 110 4 16 Outdoor instructiona l space s ................................ ................................ ........... 111 4 17 Wings of light are illustrated on the proposed project. ................................ ...... 112 4 18 East west axis orientation of single units allows classrooms to garner the maximum benefit from sunlight. ................................ ................................ ........ 113 4 19 Pools of light zones are illustrated in the proposed project. .............................. 114 4 20 Windows overlooking life are illustrated in the proposed classroom typologies. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 115 4 21 Section perspectives of the proposed classroom. ................................ ............ 116 4 22 ol sites. ................................ ............ 127 4 23 Current site plan of Audubon Park Elementary School. ................................ .... 128 4 24 site. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 129 4 25 A perspective showing the proposed portable classrooms neighborhood on ................................ ........................... 130 4 26 A perspective showing movement and circulation spaces outside the portable classrooms. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 130 4 27 Diagrams illustrate movement and circulation patterns of the proposed .................... 131 4 28 Current site plan of Glenridge Middle School. ................................ .................. 132 4 29 ............. 133 4 30 A perspective showing the portable classrooms neighborhood on Glenridge ................................ ................................ .......................... 134 4 3 1 Public square, Glenridge Middle School ................................ ........................... 134 4 32 A pespective from Blue Jacket Park to the p roposed portable classrooms ...... 135

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11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS I NSIDE CLASSROOM This term is used for classrooms that are held in permanent geably in this thesis. P ORTABLE CLASSROOM need of individual schools that face demographic changes and require additional classroom space. The terms are used interchangeably in this thesis. R ELOCATABLE CLASSROOM the need of individual schools that face demographic changes and require additional classroom space. The terms interchangeably in this thesis. T RADITIONAL CLASSROOM This term is used for classrooms that are held in permanent

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture ENVIRONMENTAL QUA LITY ENHANCEMENT OF PORTABLE CLASSROOMS A SOLUTION FOR EDUCATIONAL I MPROVEMENT By Maryam Tabrizchi December 2013 Chair: Frank Bosworth Co chair: Bradley Walters Major: Architecture schools that face demographic changes and require additional classroom space. They are meant to be used as temporary solutions, however, in many cases, this temporary solution ev olves into a long term response. Studies show that environmental conditions and the physical appearance of the portable classrooms lead to dissatisfaction and poor student performance. Thirty whic h increasingly raises more concerns about the environmental quality of these educational facilities. This thesis attempts to study the relationship between the environmental quality of the portable classrooms and student performance. Based on literature r eview, student performance in portable classrooms is lower than student performance in inside classrooms. In order to provide an equal educational opportunity for all students, investments should be made, and existing portable classroom conditions should b e enhanced. Research has been conducted to investigate the variables in environmental quality of the portable classrooms that should be enhanced to improve student

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13 performance. The design variables impacting student performance are m ovement and circulatio n, instructional space, lighting, views, acoustics, and air quality. This thesis developed a design guideline for portable classrooms that defines the implementation of the six design variables. It concluded that portable classrooms on school sites should be considered as neighborhoods which are part of the bigger community of school. Like any other site built community, portable classroom neighborhoods require planning strategies be considered when orienting units on a site.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Portable Classrooms Background Portable technology relates to the road and vehicle development era and specifically to the time in which trailers were designed to carry portable constructions, as a temporary solution wherever a facility is desired. Sudden surges in student population an d demographic shifts resulted in th e portable classrooms invention. What are Portable Classrooms? Portable classrooms are school districts solution to answer the unexpected increase in student enrollment in educational institutions, or the need for immedi ate building expansion in order to meet the requirements of new rules such as mandatory classroom size reduction. These relocatable classrooms can be rented during the time that a building expansion is under construction, or they can be purchased at any ti me. They are meant t o be less costly compared to new building construction costs. Low initial cost and the brief period between specification and occupancy are the most important advantages of portable classrooms which enables school districts to promptly respond to demographic changes. Portable classrooms are meant to be removed from school sites as soon as adequate educational facilities have been constructed in a district. However, in many cases, this temporary solution becomes permanent classrooms locat ed adjacent to the main school facilities. Portable Classroom Materials and Technical Details Portable classrooms are temporary, relocatable, modular buildings. According to the William Scotsman and Modular Genius manufacturers database, portable classroo ms are modular boxes with a a flexible length and

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15 which allows them to be moved by trailers. The width of the classrooms can varies depending on the requirements of each project. Figure 1 1 illustrates four floor plans with different locations of openings and optional toilet accessibilities (Williams S.). These facilities can be used depending on the capacity requirement of the educational facility, classroom grade, and the desired location of the classroom on site. Portable classrooms are constructed of wood, steel, or concrete (Modular G.). The interior finishes of the walls are varied, but in most cases Gypsum panels are used which can be installed quickly with vinyl wall base. Gypsum panels are used to cover Figure 1 2 compares different frame types in cross sections which are made of steel with cross members. The frame hold s the portable construction floors (Modular G.). The whole procedure of modular buildings construction is 40% faster than a traditional building.

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16 Figure 1 1. S amples of various portable classrooms plans (Source: http://www.willscot.com/cl/solutions portable.php )

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17 Figure 1 (Source: http://www.modulargenius.com/modular building frames.html )

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18 Problem Statement Recent student population growth fueled an expansion in the use of portable classrooms nationwide. Thirty classrooms which increasingly raises more concerns about the environmental quality of these educational facilities. In order to be able to study the reasons behind the concerns about portable classrooms, thi s thesis will concentrate specifically on the Orange County school district, located in Orlando, FL. Portable Classrooms Orlando, FL. A ccording to t he 1996 energy survey, Florida s chool s had approximately 25,000 relocatable classrooms. Increased demand fo r portable classrooms in Florida can be estimated by studying the population growth ratio. Based on an interview with the used in the Orange Coun ty district alone (Lamber t ). Low initial cost as well as the brief time between the specification and occupancy of the portable classrooms makes them the best options for the districts in response to sudden demographic changes. However, it is important to know that while the init ial costs of portable classrooms are low, from an energy consumption perspective, their on going operating costs are high. For instance, portable classrooms usually have minimal insulation, which causes inefficient energy consumption. In a report publishe d in the ASHRAE Journal, a study compared the improved energy efficient portable classroom units with the standard units in three locations throughout the nation, one of which was Orlando, FL. The monitored long term measured energy savings of the models w as 81% in Orlando. Although such improvement might be costly at the beginning, its energy savings over time not only

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19 cover the initial enhancement costs, but also respond to the en ergy consumption concerns of environmental organizations (Parker ). In addition to the energy consumption concerns, environmental and healthcare organizations have raised concerns about the impact of low air quality condition in portable classrooms the ones mos t dissatisfied. Current environmental conditions and the physical appearance of the portable classrooms lead to dissatisfaction and poor student performance. They are gray colored trailer boxes that not only have a negative impact on the urban environment surrounding them, but also create a high level of dissatisfaction especially among the users of the facility. As an example, Audubon Park Elementary School located in Baldwin Park, Orlando, added 27 concrete portables in the open space which was planned as a park in conjunction with the school. This act caused the neighbors to become outraged at the growing eyesore of portable classrooms which replaced the park that had been planned. "Horrible, horrible to look at in the morning, Horrible to look at in th e evening, said a resident (WFTV)". Now the question is, when such a view is intolerable for the neighbors, how do of portable classrooms have all the allure of a trashy only neighbors nor the parents who are dissatisfied with the environmental quality of the portable classrooms, but also the students and teachers who feel like second class citizens when having to spend a great amount of their time in them. Researching the

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20 abovementioned problems highlighted the necessity of visiting one of the school sites to investigate the conditions of the portable classrooms in greater detail. Portable Classrooms Site Visit Because of security re asons, the author made a site visit to the Shingle Creek Elementary School during the summer holiday of 2013 when school was officially closed. However, even without seeing the portable classrooms being used by students and teachers, it still provided a co mprehensive visual sense of the different types of portable classrooms and their environmental quality. Shingle Creek Elementary School, which is currently being replaced with a permanent structure, was basically a modular facility at the time of viewing. Figure 1 3 presents a plan of the facility in which the configuration of all the types of portable classrooms on site can be seen. The primary buildings were concrete constructed portable classrooms which were then connected through a roofed hallway (Fig. 1 4). than their life cycle. Figure 1 5 presents one of the primarily added steel construct ed portables on site. Although F igure 1 6 looks like F igure 1 5 it is one of the environmentally improved types, enhanced by the manufacturer. Better i nsu lation and enhanced techni cal details created a better box with lower energy consumption, but in appearance, it is still the same as the non enhanced one. Other types of portable classrooms that have been added to the facility over time due to demographic increas es are s hown in F igure 1 7. Figure 1 8 illustrates some interior views of these portable classroom s.

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21 As seen in the figures presented in this section, the environmental quality and physical appearance of these modular buildings are stigmatic Aside from the techn ical issues which cause environmental problems such as energy loss and healthcare problems, these gray colored boxes do not look appropriate for an educational institution, especially when compared to the traditional building facilities. In most cases the y are located on individual frames above the ground on school sites, isolated from the main buildings. The problem is that there is no cohesive connection between the portable classrooms and the main building, and could thusly create safety issues. Even th e connection between the portable classrooms themselves do es not provide an appropriate space for interaction between students and teachers (Fig. 1 9).

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22 Figure 1 3. Shingle Creek Elementary School Plan, presenting different types of portable classrooms. (Source: Orange County Public Schools)

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23 A B C D E F Figure 1 4. Concrete Portable Classrooms A) Entrance hallway B) Concrete portable classroom at the foreground and Steel portable classroom at the background C & D ) Inside view of concrete classrooms, E) Connecting hallway, F) Emergency exit (Photos courtesy of the author )

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24 Figure 1 5. One of the primarily added steel constructed portable classrooms. (Note: locat ion of this figu re is shown on F igure 1 3.) (Photo courtesy of the author) A B C D Figure 1 6. Series of environmental quality enhanced portable classrooms. A) Front view, B) Backside view, C) Interior view, D) Interior view showing the quality enhanced windows. ( Note: location of this f igure is shown on F igure 1 3.) (Photos courtesy of the author)

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25 A B C D E F Figure 1 7. Series of portable classrooms added to the Shingle Creek Elementary School site overtime. (Note: locations of each of these portable classroom photos are shown on F igure 1 3.) (Photos courtesy of the author)

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26 Figure 1 8. Series of interior views from portable classrooms (Photos courtesy of the author) Figure 1 9. C onnection/ relationship between the portable classrooms (Photo courtesy of the author)

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27 Statement of Purpose In 2002, the Florida Constitution passed a class reduction amendment that set limits on the n umber of students per classroom. This amendment started to be implemented from the 2003 2004 school year at the district level, from the 2006 2007 school year at the school level and ultimately from the 2010 2011 school year at the classroom level. Utilizing relocatable classrooms was a quick and economical way to meet the requirements of this amendment. Increas ed student enrolment due to demographic changes and natural disaster situations are other conditions for which the installation of portable classrooms appears to be the best course of action. This solution was intended to be only a temporary response, how ever, in many cases this temporary solution evolved into a long term response to the need for additional instructional space. In an interview, the Orange County Schools Facilities Manager mentioned that Florida plans to reduce the number of portable classr ooms by providing the desired student capacity in traditional buildings, and that their goal is to eliminate all portable cla ssrooms over time (Lambert ). I n reality, however, in many cases they have become a long term response which remain a part of school facilities even longer than expected. In fact, the problem is not the idea of the portable classrooms, but rather their environmental quality which affects student performance. While school districts struggle to provide equal educational opportunity by providing highly qualified teachers and reviewing the curriculum s that allow students to pass the high stakes testing requirements, it is important to look at the physical conditions of traditional buildings, as well as the portable classrooms which have b ecome an inevitable part of school facilities.

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28 Portable classrooms are definitely the best solution to any school district sudden demographic changes, and with that in mind, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between the envir onmental quality of the portable classrooms and student performance. In addition, this thesis conducts research investigating the possible ways to enhance the environmental quality of portable classrooms in order to meet the standards of traditional build ings so that equal educational opportunity is provided for all students. Research Questions In order to determine how to make positive changes, initially it was important to answer the research questions as listed below: 1. Is there a correlation between the environmental quality and student performance in portable classrooms compared to traditional classrooms? 2. What variables in environmental quality of the portable classrooms should be enhanced to improve student performance? 3. How should the en vironme ntal variables be improved in portable classrooms? Methodology Chapter 1 of this thesis began with an introduction to the portable classroom, and continued by describing the problem and purpose statement through description of the phenomenon, obse rvation, and intervi ews. As a result of C hapter 1 and in order to pursue the purpose of this thesis, research questions defined as described earlier in this chapter. The answers to the first and second research questions are explored in literature review in C hapter 2. The first heading of this chapter, Environmental Quality and Student Performance Is there a correlation between the environmental quality and student performance in portable classrooms c ompared to

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29 ssumption is that there is a sig nificant difference between student performance and test scores of the students studying in portable classrooms and the performance and scores of their peers studying insi de traditional building s The validity of this assumption is explained in C hapter 2 which answers the first research question through literature review. It described the significance of the topic and required further invest igation upon the existence of a p ositive correlation between the quality of a school facility and student performance. If there is a positive relationship between the environmental quality and student performance in portable classrooms compared to inside classroom s then the environmental quality of the portable classrooms should be enhanced, at least to meet the standards of a traditional building. The environmental quality of the portables can be enhanced by recognizing The second heading of C hapter 2 investigates the environmental vari ables in response to the second What variables in environmental quality of the portable classrooms should be enhanced to improve a result, C hapter 2 defines the environmental variables that can change in portable classrooms. How should the environmental variables be improved in po First, the feasibility of implementation of the six environment al variables, as identified in C hapter 2, is studied through a comparison between six case studies. In each case, the physical characteristics of : movement and c irculation, i nstructional s pace, l ighting, v iews,

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30 a coustics and air quality are studied separately based on a value scale of 1 to 4 with 4 being the best response. T he result of the case studies provide d a comprehensive insi ght into the feasibility of the implementat ion of the six design variables through the design of portable classrooms. In addition, this section concludes that although portable classrooms are basically singular units, it is important to consider the cluster orientatio n of these units on site in the design procedure In other words, the group of portable classrooms on school sites should be considered as neighborhoods, which are part of the bigger community of school. environmen design that consider human interaction are used as guidelines for design.

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31 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Environmental Quality and Student Performance This chapter provides insight, as evidenced by a review of relevant literature, into which states that there is a significant diff erence between the performance and test scores of the students studying in portable classrooms and the test scores of their peers studying inside a traditional building. Findings of this study answer the first research question and define the relationship of portable classrooms compared to traditional classro oms There has been limited research conducted to specifically compare the difference between student test scores in portable classro oms and traditional classrooms. However, there are many studies available that conclude there is a positive correlation between the quality of a school facility and student performance. John Lyons, who has worked in the U.S. department of education, makes a general comparison based on his professional knowledge and experience to answer to the conclusion that there is a direct co rrelation the condition of the school facility (2002) In another study by Edwards, an Ohio State U niversity PhD graduate in educational policy and leadership, qualitati ve variables are explored using survey and interview method s His research questions are: To wha t extent personal conduct affected by facility conditions? How does it impact teachers and principals? To what degree do schools value education and personal safety?

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32 Edwards concludes that th ere is positive correlation between school facilities an d student achievement ( 2006). A summary of the studies published since 2000 on the impact of school faci lities on students and teachers (21 st century, 2010) This study shows that there is a 4 9 % difference in graduation rates based on school conditions, and that p oor facilities affect the health and productivit y of both students and teachers. The research studies mentioned above are among the many that conclude there is a correlation between the school facility and student performance In 2004, Burnham studied the effects of inadequate sch ool building infrastructure on student attendance and found that t he quality of school infrastructure has a significant effect on school attendance and dropout rates. He concluded that students who attend schools that use temporary structures (portable classrooms) have lower attendance rates. Student satisfaction of the school structure results in school attendance, and because attendance is one of the major dri vers of student performance, it follows that student satisfaction positively relates to student performance. Since the level of student satisfaction in porta ble classrooms is lower than in indoor classrooms it is likely that there is a difference in student performance Crampton makes a different conclusion in an article published in the Journal of Educational Administration in 2009 in which he states that results of his study would predict an increase in NAEP scores o f .2 36 points per additional dollar / pupil invested in infrastructure (based on a .236 structural coefficient across th ree years of NAEP scores). In other words, the dollar/pupil investment in infrastructure or the

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33 environmental quality enhancement of the schools result s in better student performance. Based o satisfaction positively relates to student performance We also know that because of the difference between the environmental qualities of portable and inside cl assrooms that there a difference in student satisfaction that results in a difference in student performance. Figure 2 1 illustrates the relationship between student performance and the environmental quality of the inside and portable classrooms based on B conclusion, which states dollar/pupil investment in infrastructure result s in better student performance. Figure 2 1. R elationship between student performance and the environmental quality of the inside and portable classrooms based on Barnham and findings

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34 Figure 2 2 presents the goal and purpose of this thesis. This diagram illustrates that by improving portable classrooms, they could become qualitatively equal to the traditional/inside classroom. In other words, the goal is to minimize the difference in environmental quality between portable and traditional classrooms in order to enhance student satisfaction and performance Figure 2 2. Goal and purpose diagram However, it is important to understand the impact of the lifecycle of both portable and inside classrooms on student performance. Assuming that the portable classroom and inside classroom start the ir lifecycle at the same time, and knowing that the environmental quality of the portable classroom is lower than the inside classroom at that point in time, Figure 2 3 presents the difference between student performance in portable and inside classrooms o ver the course of their lifecycles. This diagram shows

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35 that the li fecycle of inside classrooms is lifecycle is 25 years. Considering the fact that over tim e the quality of infrastructure decreases in inside and po rtable c lassrooms, the gray area of the diagram re presents the difference between student performance in portable and inside classrooms as a result of infrastructure quality decline over their lifecycles. Figure 2 3. D ifference between student performan ce in portable and inside classroom s over their lifecycle. If the goal of this thesis is achieved, and if the environmental quality of the portable classrooms improves to the point that is similar to the environmental quality of inside classrooms, there will still be a difference between student performance in portable and inside classrooms over the course of time due to the decline in quality over their lifecycles. Figure 2 4 presents this difference with all of the same assumptions used to illustrate the diagram above in terms of lifecycles, and the starting point of their

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3 6 lifecycles. Like the previous diagram, the gray area of this figure re presents the difference between student performance in portable and inside classrooms as a result of infrastructure quality decline over their lifecycles. However, this difference is les s than in the previous situation, and it concludes that upon improvement of the environmental quality in portable classrooms, student performance in portables will be closer to student performance in inside classroom than the portables without quality enha ncement. Figure 2 4. D ifference between student performance in portable and inside classrooms over the course of their lifecycles with the enhancement of the environmental quality of the portable classrooms. The first heading of this chapter confi rms the existence of the correlation between environmental quality and student performance, and concludes that because of the difference between the environmental quality of portable classrooms and traditional buildings, there is also a difference in stud ent satisfaction that results in What variables in

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37 environmental quality of the portable classrooms should be enhanced in order to defined based on further research under the next heading in this chapter. Environmental Variables Based on the literature review and analysis con ducted there is evidence that enhancement of a school facility results in greater student satisfaction and eve ntually results in better student performance, regardless of whether the enhancement occurs in a portable classroom or in a traditional building (Blincoe, Bullock, Burnham, Chan, Collins, Edwards, Hughes, Picus et al, Schneider and Tanner). Because there i s limited research conducted on the environmental characteristics of the portable classrooms, general studies defining these environmental variables of classrooms are reviewed in this section that similarly impact the portable classrooms. In a recent rese arch study on windows and classrooms, a group of researchers including Aumann Don from California Energy Commission, Lisa Heschong from Heschong Mahone Group, Roger Wright from the RLW Analytics, Inc. and Ramona Peet, an independent contractor, studied the characteristics of indoor environment and student performance (2003). This study investigated whether day light and other environmental variables of the indoor environment in elementary classrooms have an impact on student learning, as measured by improvement on standardized math and reading tests over an academic year. The result of this research identified several characteristics of windows which are associated with student performance. Variables associated with a better view through windows are found to be positively and significantly associated with better student learning, while variables describing window

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38 glare, sun penetration, and lack of visual control are associated with negative performance. Surprisingly, Don et al successfully replicate the positive association of the day light code with student performance which resulted in a secondary conclusion. Although their previous studies on the is olated variable of day lighting resulted in finding a positive relationship between the day light code and student performance when variables describing window characteristics were added to the mo del of their latest study, the d ay light c ode emerged as a significant, but negative factor. sult may be due to other unknown factors which ca use students to learn better and t hat are collinear with the low d ay light c ode classrooms, or cause s tudents in the medium and high d ay light c ode classrooms to perform worse than expected ( Don, p.12). Thi s result provided a secondary, nevertheless im portant, conclusion to this research which states that environmental variable effects should not be studied in isolation. This study allowed not only the window characteristics but also all environmental variab les to compete for significance in explaining student performance on math and reading tests. The most compelling are found to be the variables associated with acoustic conditions in the classrooms in which variables that would indicate an increase in noise are consistently negative, while those associated with a reduction in noise are positive (Don, p.10). From the physical classroom characteristics, this research found that operable walls which provide flexible learning spaces are another factor that has a positive connection with student performance. In addition, variables associated with lighting and air quality issues are also found to be significantly associated with student performance.

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39 the relationship bet ween school design variables and student achievement in a large urban Texas school district (2005 ). The design variables, as defined by Hughes, included movement patterns, large group meeting places, day lighting, views, instructional neighborhoods, and outside learning Agency for the 2003 2004 academic school year, was used as the metric for this statistical study. Based on this rating method, reading, math, and science scores of children in ele mentary schools located in an urban Texas school district were tested to define the relationship between the design variables and student achievement. In her conclusion, Hughes states t hat all design variables in the study had a statistically positive cor relation with student reading, math, and science scores. She in dicates that as a result of her findings day lighting has a positive impact on student achievement, however unexpectedly, and based on her current study, she found that day lighting has a nega tive correlation in all was surprising because the literature is so strong in reference to the positive effects lighting has on Hughes, p.68). ut day lighting, and confirms the fact that the effect of an environmental variable on student performance variables such as instructional neighborhoods and movement, and conc luded that a positive correlation exi s ts between the quality of these environmental variables and student achievement in all three subject areas of math, reading and science She likens the instructional neighborhoods to wings of the building that include flex zones and

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40 places for multiple uses, such as small and large group areas. Hughes describes the movement as an environmental quality of space that enables students and teachers to interact efficiently in the classroom and around the school facility. Mo vement also relates to the safety of a school facility. In a 2009 study publi shed in the Journal of Educational Admi nistration Kenneth Tanner compares student achievement with three school design classifications : movement and circulation, day lighting, and views. Measures of these three school d esigns rated on a ten point scale are compared to students' outcomes defined by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). Design scores for this analysis were retrieved from the data bank which maintains information on ru ral and suburban elementary schools in Georgia school districts. This study defined the movement and circulation area as places and spaces in which people were free to move about without feeling they were confined or in a crowded environment. Research eff orts at the SDPL have generated two categories of natural and artificial light as da y lighting C lassroom windows overlooking outside life view was hypothesized as a positive aspect of the school environment. This research concluded that significant effect s e xist between high scores on all three design elements and test score results. that Movement and circulation patterns significantly influenced the variance in reading comprehension, language arts, mathematics, and science score s. Spaces allowing freedom of movement and circulation correlated w ith better test scores. ... Day lighting did not influence the variance in mathematics scores

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41 vocabul set of variables in this study. There exists little quantitative evidence on this topic in the literature. Views significantly influenced the variance of reading vocabulary, language art s, and mathematics ( A study published in Indoor Air, an international journal of indoor environment and health, explored the association of student absences with m easures of indoor minus outdoor carbon dioxide concentration (Shendell et al. 2004). This study concludes that the annual average daily attendance was 2% higher in traditional than in portable classrooms As mentioned earlier, because attendance is one of the major factors that impact student performance, indoor air quality of the portable clas srooms should be enhanced to meet the standards of the traditional buildings. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the most common problems with the portable classrooms as follows: Poorly functioning HVAC systems that provide min imal ventilation with outside air Poor acoustics from loud ventilation systems Chemical off gassing from pressed wood and other high emission materials which may be of greater concern because of rapid occupancy after construction Water entry and mold growt h Site pollution from nearby parking lots or loading areas. According to the literature review, several authors and researchers ( Don et al, Hughes, Tanner and Schendell et al ) investigated variables impacting student performance from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. In an effort to refine these environmental variables and transfer them into val id characteristics of design, T able 2 1 was created as an instrument to analyze the data gathered from the literature review. This table lists a numbe r of physical characteristics that affect student performance as

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42 design variables with a brief explanation of their definition. In the final column, the student performance are presented as the supporting resource. Table 2 1. Environmental variables that a ffect student performance Variables Description Author Movement and Circulation Allows students and teachers to move freely and interact inside and outside the classroom supports Safety and Accessibility Tanner K, Hughes M, I nstructional Spaces Small and large group areas, f lex zones, and places for multiple uses. Can be provided by using o perable Walls Hughes M, Don A, et al Lighting Natural lighting through windows and openings should be controlled to eliminate glare. Like traditional buildings, direction of the windows providing lights are important. Also, automatic control (tubular day light system) should be used for artificial lig hting systems Tanner. K, Don A, et al Hughes M, View Vegetated view has positive impact, but not the roads and places where outside school activity happens. Views should be controlled as not to cause distractions by using louver, blinds, or curtains Tanner K, Don A, et al Acoustics Outside and inside classroom n oise should be controlled Carpet floor, HVAC systems Tanner. K, Don A, et al Hughes M, Air Quality Indoor building materials with low or no VOCs, operable windows to provide user controlled ventilation for natural airflow, location of the classrooms to be away from locations where there are sources of air pollution. Don A, et al Shendell et al. EPA

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43 Based on the literature review, the design variables impacting student performance are; Movement and circulation Instructional space Lighting Views Acoustics Air quality Movement and Circulation Movement and circulation define characteristics which allow students and teachers to move freely and interact in order to garner maximum educational benefits. quality of space associated with its movement and circulation. Hughes states that this variable also relates to the safety of a school facility. As mentioned in Chapter 1 in the problem statement s ection, a problem with the portable classroom is the connection between the portable classrooms themselves, as well as between the portable classrooms and traditional/ main building. Improvement in movement and circulation between the portable classrooms, as well a s the enhancement of characteristics of instructional spaces inside the portable classrooms, will positively affect the student performance. Instructional Spaces Instructional spaces should respond to the pedagogical need of institutions by providing space s such as small and large group areas, f lex zones, and plac es for multiple uses. Hughes describes these spaces as instructional neighborhoods, and defines them as spaces outside the traditional classroom. The result of her statistical analysis confirms tha t the improvement of instructional neighborhoods have a significant

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44 providing operational walls which create flexible spaces. These spaces can be used based on the instructi onal requirements of the classroom. Don concludes that such enhancement improves student performance. Although implementation of this variable might have some limitations in portable classrooms, it is not impossible, and portable classroom spaces can be e nhanced through design to provide such high quality, flexible instructional spaces. Lighting Lighting of the classrooms can be defined in two categories: natural light provided through windows, skylights and openings, and artificial light. Surprisingly, r esearch studies by Don and Hughes failed to establish a significant relationship between the day light code and student achievement. Both concluded that this surprising result could be because of limitations of the study and that it is important to consid er this factor as one that cannot be studied in isolation and that it should be day lighting did not influence the variance in mathematics scores, but it did significantly a ffect the variance in science and reading vocabulary scores. As mentioned in the literature review, in order to create a positive effect on student performance, both sources of lighting in classrooms should be enhanced by providing controls. For instance, providing panels on windows controls the glare. As with traditional buildings, the direction of the windows providing light is important. Also, using systems, such as tubular day light systems, will positively impact student performance.

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45 View Similar to lighting, view is a variable associated with the window characteristics of windows is among the environmental variables that are significant in relation to student achievem ent. However, it should be implemented with special consideration. For instance, a vegetated view has a positive impact on student performance, but not distracting vi ews such as roads and places where non school activities occur Views should be controllab le by providing louver, blinds, or curtains, so that possible distractions from outside can be avoided. Acoustics Acoustics is one of the most important characteristics that impacts student performance. Don and Hughes concluded that since noise has a negative impact on student performance, it should be controlled inside the instructional spaces by using appropriate interior fi nishing materials, such as carpet rather than hard surface flooring and a quiet HVAC system. Not only the inside sound, but also the outside noise shoul d be controlled to eliminate a negative impact in the classroom. Environmental variables impacting student performance in a school facility are not limited to the aforementioned factors. Other factors, such as natural ventilation t hat impact the air quality inside the classroom, or paint and c olor characteristics which give an atmosphere of serenity and way finding are among the variables that impact student achievement However, in order to refine and transfer these environmental variabl es into valid characteristics for design, the variables that have the most significant relatio nship with student performance were studied in the scope of this thesis The feasibility of the

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46 implementation of the environmental variables, based on the literature review in this chapter, is investigated on the next chapter. Air Quality Air quality is another factor that impacts student performance. Research studies by Don and Shendell show the im pact of indoor air quality as an important factor which inf luences student performance. On their website, the EPA proposes an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) design tool for portable classrooms in which they stress the necessity of properly designed ventilation systems to minimize the presence of indoor pollutants. They also mention that regular maintenance is important to maintain the quality of the indoor environment. Factors that can be controlle d through design are associated with interior materi als. Like all school facilities, portable classrooms should contain appropriate building and indoor surface materials. Building materials such as paint with low or no volatile organic compounds ( VOCs) are recommended. Carpet, if specified for the classrooms, should be selected from among those tested u nder the Carpet and Rug Institute's Indoor Air Quality Carpet Testing Program. It is important to specify operable windows to provide user contro lled ventilation for natural airflow It is also essential to locate the classrooms away from locations where there are major sources of air pollution The v variables in environmental qu ality of the portable classrooms should be enhanced to study findings that examine the impact of each variable on student performance.

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47 The original intention was to study th e impact of each variable separately, however it is important to note the secondary, yet crucial conclusion made by the studies which fin d that none of the variables should be studied in isolation. As an example, when considering variables of lighting and view, the location and dimension of the windows that improve natural lighting inside the classroom cannot be studied in isolation from the view out of windows. The same conclusion is derived when considering the variables such as acoustics and air quality Indoor materials that are selected to enhance the indoor air quality cannot be chosen without considering their acoustic effects. Design variables impact each other, but due to the limited studies that have been conducted regarding the mutual impact of t hese variables, this thesis relies on the studies that consider the impact of each factor on student performance separately. Another conclusion from the findings of this study is that these variables can be categorized into two groups: variables that def ine the quality of space in the actual tectonic of the unit, such as acoustics and air quality; and variables whose quality improvement should be considered through the spatial organization of the units, such as movement and circulation, instructional spac e, lighting, and views. Both of these categories are equally important and should be considered in the design procedure of portable classrooms. Utilizing the abovementi oned results, the next intention is to answer the third research question: How should t he environmental variables be improved in portable This question is investigated in C hapter 3 of this thesis.

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48 CHAPTER 3 VARIABLES THAT CAN CHANGE There are various factors that impact student performance. Physical characteristics of an infrastructure are among the ones that can be controlled through design. The l iterature review defined some of the variables that have a significant positive correlat ion with student performance. Based on the literature review, quality enhancement or dollar/pupil investment in infrastructure results in better student performance, regardless of it being a portable classroom or a traditional classroom. Movement and circulation, instructional space, lighting, views, acoustics, and air quality are among the variables that can be changed through design solutions in order to improve educational attainment. In order to answer the third research question of ho w the environmental variables should be attained, the feasibility of imp lementation of the variables is investigated through a comparison of case studies. Case Studies Nationwide, various architectural solutions have been introduced regarding portable clas sroom enhancement. However, it is important to note that like a traditional environmental context where it will be used. In order to be able to study the feasibility of the implementation of the variables most efficiently, this thesis will specifically concentrate on Florida. In 2010, the Florida Foundation for Architecture sponsored a competition to enhance portable classrooms Its aim was to foster research associated wit h the design of modular classroom units capable of serving K 12 student populations throughout the state of Florida. Solutions addressed the design parameters of:

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49 1. Affordability 2. Sustainability 3. The Florida context 4. Meeting State Requirements for Education al Facilities (SREF) classroom size 5. Americans with Disabilities Act, and DCA Rule 9B.1 and Chapter 553 of the Florida Statutes 6. F lexibility for use in K 12 applications (i.e. the adaptability for elementary, middl e, and high school requirements) 7. Incorpora tion of design elements that foster greater le arning opportunities through architectural design 8. Indication of how the units would be assem bled to create a modular layout Regarding the restricted budget of school districts, it is important to consider the affordability of the portable classrooms as a design parameter. However, based on the literature review, low cost generally results in negative correlation with student performance because it limits design solutions. Parameters of sustainability, Florida c ont ext, State Requirements for Educational Facilities ( SREF ) and ADA requirements are all among the factors that should be considered in the design. Item 7 from the list of design parameters above specifically refers to the purpose of this thesis. It requires the incorporation of design elements that will foster greater learning opportunities through architectural design. In order to measure the implementation of environmental variables, a study ana lysis was conducted as described below. Method of Study The competition entries presented interesting design solutions that showed different approaches to enhance portable classrooms. However, none of them developed a research based, defined strategy to s upport the impact of their changed var iables on student performance. The competition entries provided a valuable resource f or design that specifically aimed to adhere to the requirements of the Florida climate and context S were used as case studies in order to test the

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50 feasibility of implementation of the six design variables defined by the literature review In each case study the physical characteristics of movement and circulation, instructional space, lighting, views, acoustics and air quality were evaluated separately based on a value scale of 1 to 4, with 4 being the best response. Table 2 1, which identifies the environmental variables that affect student performance, was used as a guideline for this study (s ee Table 3 1 ) As in T able 2 1, t he first and second columns of T able 3 1 list the variables and a give brief description of them. The other columns present the case studies and their relative value showing the success or failure of each project in impleme ntation of the isolated environmental variables. This table also illustrates the differences between the case studies. on the value scale are specified by showing the definitio n of each variable according to environmental variables that affect student performance are not restr icted to the list presented in T able 3 1, but based on the literat ure review, the ones listed in the table are the variables that have the most significant effect on student performance. Projects Analysis Movement and circulation, instructional space, lighting, views, acoustics, and air quality are st udied separately on the case studies. Project A Derek Ray, Pete r Fertig and Billy Bingham are the design team for project A. This team change the image of modular classrooms. Figure 3 1 demonstrates a series of illustrations from their entry.

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51 Movement and Circulation: resistant deck which is shaded by overhang and vertical operable shade elements. This space is provided at the perimeter of the module which facilitates pedestrian circulation. Instructional Space: interior space adaptable to numerous classroom layouts. The interior is dynamic in the composition of the enclosure elements and its colors give an air of serenity. Lighting; An aluminum skid resistant deck reflects natural light into the classroom. Full height and clerestory windows allow for natural light inside the classroom. Operable shade devices of a wood plastic composite material are provided to allow the user to customize the module based on prevailing sun angles. The sun in all directions, depending on the orientation of the module. Views : Overhangs and large louvers allow for generous use of glass while also creating a sophisti cated layering of exterior space. Full height windows provide view s to the vegetated areas which has positive impact on student performance, and the o perable shade devices control the negative impact of distractive views Acoustics : Cork floor tiles and sound baffles in the celling are used to absorb sound. Air Quality : Full height and clerestory operable windows take advantage of natural ventilation.

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52 Figure 3 and operable shade elements. B) Elevation. C) Plan. D) Interior view. (Source: The sunshine state sustainable classroom design competition)

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53 Project B Tom Wannan and Mandy Wannan submitted project B which aims to affect student learning by creating educational zones that support multiple learning styles. To develop the concept, this project explores three key areas of connection, collaboration, and community, as d efined by the designers. The Wannons define connection as a variable that aids learning through the use of technology in the classroom thereby giving teachers and students additional educational tools. They describe collaboration as a variable that enables students to learn from each other in group configurations, and community as a variable that encourages teaching outside the classroom walls by providing usable exterior spaces. Figure 3 2 shows various images of this entry. Movement and Circulation: As d escribed in the literature review, movement and circulation def ine characteristics which allow students and teachers to move freely and interact in order to gain maximum educational benefits both inside and outside the classroom. The design of project B br eaks down the barrier between teachers and students found in the traditional layout and allows them to interact, thereby maximizing educational attainment. Movement and circulation variables are best described as the definition of collaboration by the desi gners. Instructional Space: The designers define community as the variable that best fits the instructional space definition. The Wannons provided this quality of space to encourage teaching outside the classroom walls by providing usable exterior spaces. Angled classroom geometry creates a very successful exterior space and provides a successful sense of entry. The scheme through the linkage of units eliminates the individual, isolated portable classroom condition.

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54 Lighting: Insulated glazing provided on the windows allows natural light to enter the classroom while simultaneously controlling the a mount of day light. Views: Vegetated areas provided at the designed exterior space outside the classrooms a positive view for students, however those views should be controlled as not to cause distractions from other students in the outside space. Acoustics: An HVAC system is used as the mechanical system which is quieter than other heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Air Quality: Natural air ventil ation is possible through windows.

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55 Figure 3 2 Project B series of illustrations. A) Exterior s assembl y. C) Outdoor area designed as c ollaboration space. D) Assembly of single prefabricate classroom. (Source: The sunshine state sustainable classroom design competition)

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56 Project C Peter Gray submitted project C, illustrated in F igure 3 3, as his entry in the portable classroom competition. With the main concept of providing flexible space, he named his project Flexi ble Intelligent. Movement and Circulation: the purpose of circulation. Instructional Space: Outdoor decks were designed to enable educational interaction outside the classroom walls thereby providing flexible instructional zones. Lighting: Generous windows provide abundant natural light and, as described by the designer, their purpose is to eliminate the need for artificial light. Controllable sunshades control the natural light inside the classroom as not to cause glare. Also, they can be used as shutters for transport, security, and storm protection. Views: Operable windows provide views to vegetated areas. Acoustics: Linoleum or cork flooring is suggested which is both sustainable and quieter than other typ es of tiles. An HVAC is used as the mechanical system of the classrooms. Air Quality: The project illustrated the use of natural ventilation of air through clerestory windows and openings.

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57 Figure 3 3. Project C series of illustrations. A) Exterior view presenting the window shutters. B) Plan. C) Section. D) Outdoor deck that generates flexible educational zones. E) Exterior view. (Source: The sunshine state sustainable classroom design compe tition)

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58 Project D This project was submitted by George Pernas as a sustainable solution for the portable classroom. A modular sy stem of recycled denim insulated exterior metal wall panels and clear low e large missile impact resistant glazing ( see Fig ure 3 4). Movement and Circulation : As illustrated by the designer, two shifting rectangles represent a new paradigm on education. Instructional Space : The idea of one enti re glass faade protected by louvers could make for a very dynamic interior condition (Pernas). Lighting: A secondary solar panel roof structure is used to power lighting and electrical outlets. A terra cotta screen reduces heat and allows natural light into the classroom. Energy efficient florescent linear lighting fixtures and cost effective exposed interior ceilings are installed in the classroom. The unit could easily be easily to respond to different site orientations. Views: Lightweight recycled aluminum as in shop fabricated elements utilize panel systems that serve as the louver systems to control the view. Acoustics: Nothing was mentioned or illustrated regarding the acoustics system. Air Quality: Locating the windows on one side of the classroom eliminates the use of natural ventilation inside the classroom.

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59 Figur e 3 4. Project D series of illustrations. A) Exterior view showing the primary roof protected by secondary roof structure. B) Plan. C) Section. D) Interior view. (Source: The sunshine state sustainable classroom design competition)

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60 Project E The competiti was one of the most successful projects that well presented the concept of mass successful product, and cus tomers require individuality in the market. By breaking down the final product to a series of smaller, pre manufactured parts or sub assemblies, products can be customized to perform very specific needs while maintaining the cost efficiency and quality con trol inherent in mass production. Components such as doors, windows, skin system, casework, interior finishes, and mechanical systems can all be individually selected in this project. A series of images in F igure 3 5 illustrates this design solution. Movem ent and Circulation: A pressure treated modular deck system is used on the covered exterior circulation spine of this project. Instructional Space: A shaded exterior is used as a learning and gathering space to provide flex zones of educational interactio n. Modular casework, furniture, and wall panels can be arranged in many combinations to create a unique learning environment. Lighting: An operable window assembly above door height allows for natural light inside the classrooms. Clerestory glass was thoug htfully used to minimize solar heat gain. A lighting system with optional photometric sensors and an automated dimming system is recommended for lighting inside the classrooms. An exterior cladding system and an insulated shade are used in the south and west and green screen wire mesh system on the north and east.

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61 Views : Windows ab ove the door heights limit access to the views. Acoustics : An HVAC system minimizes the mechanical systems noise on this project. Air Quality: Allocating cleresto ry windows on both sides allows for natural ventilation.

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62 Figure 3 5. Project E series of illustrations. A) Exterior view showing the assembly of E) Interior view. (Source: T he sunshine state sustainable classroom design competition)

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63 Project F Kimberly Headland, Eric Gebo, and Giancarlo Giusti are the competitors who submitted Project F ( see Figure 3 6). They created this project to offer ultimate flexibility in K 12 modular classrooms. A modular pre fabricated frame provides the opportunity to clad the exterior envelope based on specific site orientation, classroom requirements, and local needs. The design is composed of three major elements: mponent that can be combined with other kit elements in numerous ways. An entry/ service component with large overhang roof, and encompassing mechanical and plumbing needs. A unifying canopy and walkway/ landscape structures creating outdoor learning space Movement and Circulation: in linking individual units to create a unified campus with well developed interior and exterior spaces. Dynamic and exciting exterior and interior spaces are inviting to chi ldren at all levels. The jury committee said that as a portable system, project F has the character and qualities of a permanent building. Instructional Space: The solution promotes the creation of high quality interior classroom space while offering opp ortunities for non programmed indoor and outdoor learning spaces. The kit of parts allows for a high degree of flexibility and choice. The modular elements can be combined a multitude of ways to encourage the use of non programmed outdoor learning spaces w hich capitalize on the modular system to and to the environment. Lighting : Operable glazing windows and doors introduce significant natural light inside the classroom.

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64 Views : The generous use of glass, operable windows, and non operable panels, as well as the suc cessful design of outdoor space provides the inside spaces with vegetated and positive views. Acoustics: Nothing is specifically mentioned about the acoustics i n this project. Air Quality: Full height operable windows take maximum advantage of natural ventilation.

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65 Figure 3 6. Proje ct F series of illustrations. A, B and C) Exterior view showing the assembl y of units on site D ) Interior v iew. E ) Plan. (Sou rce: The sunshine state sustainable classroom design competition)

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66 Table 3 1. R esponse of case studies in implementation of t he environmental variable that a ffect student performance ba sed on a value scale with 4 being the best score. Variables Description Project A Project B Project C Project D Project E Project F Movement and Circulation Allows students and teachers to move freely and interact inside and outside the classroom supports safety and accessibility 2 4 2 1 2 4 Instructional Spaces Small and large group areas, flex zones, and places for multiple uses. Can be provided by using operable Walls 3 4 4 2 3 3 Lighting Natural lighting through windows and openings should be controlled to eliminate glare, and automatic control should also be used for artificial lighting systems As with traditional buildings, direction of the windows that provide lights are important 4 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 View Vegetated view has positive impact, but not the roads and places where out of school people activity happens Views should be controlled by using louver, blinds or curtains in order to eliminate distractions 3 3 4 2 2 2 1 3 1 3 4 2 Acoustics Outside and inside classroom noise should be controlled by using carpet floors and HVAC systems 3 2 3 1 2 1 Air Quality Indoor building materials with low or no VOCs, operable windows for natural ventilation, and location of the classrooms away from idle vehicles or other major sources of air pollution 3 2 3 2 3 3

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67 Comparison As mentioned earl ier the variables that can change in order to im prove student performance in portable classrooms were analyzed separately in each case study, based on a value scale of 1 to 4 in T ables 3 1 and 3 2. These tables allow a comparison between the case studies, and as a result, they ident ify the successful responses to the implementation of changeable variables. Project B and F have the best responses to the variable of movement and circulation among the rest of the projects. The Wannans described this variable as of the factors that defines the concept of their design. This variable breaks down the barrier that is found between teachers and students in the traditional layout of inside and outside classrooms, and allows them to garner maximum educational benefits t hrough interaction by providing usable exterior spaces. In Project F, the group of designers illustrated circulation scheme that is very successful in linking individual units through raised walkways to create a unified campus with well developed interior and exterior spaces, thereby supporting safety, and also accessibility, which allows students and teachers to move and interact freely inside and outside the classrooms. Most of the entries consider instructional spaces an important variable. Projects B and C were the best designs which incorporate this variable by providing small and large group areas, flex zones, and places for multiple use. The Wannons call this students to learn from each other in group configurations inside and outside the classroom. Shifting rectangles in project C creates a Z shaped classroom which is suitable for use by small and large group areas. In addition, this project allocates an

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68 outdoor deck that enables educational interaction to take place outside the classroom walls. Day lighting is among the factors that most of the entries deem highly important. Projects A and F provided the best natural lighting inside the classrooms. Both projects utili zed full height windows to take maximum advantage of natural day light for the interior space, while clerestory glass on the windows control the glare inside the classroom. As in traditional buildings, the direction of the windows that provide lights are i mportant. The nature of portable classrooms enable the projects to fully articulate this quality of space. Projects B and F were among the most successful projects due to providing a defined outdoor area which enables students to have views outside the cla ssroom. However, it is important to control the views by using louver, blinds, or curtains to block any outside distractions. In projects B, C, and E, the quality of acoustics is improved by installing an s less sound compa red to other mechanical systems to minimize noise inside the classroom. Projects A and C controlled noise by choosing cork or similar flooring to creates less noise. In addition to using quieter flooring materials, project A designed soun d baffles in the ceiling. Most of the projects considered operable windows that allow for natural ventilation inside the classroom, but none of them mentioned anything regarding the usage of interior materials with low VOC or similar impact

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69 Design Dilemma The im plementation of the variables in the case studies show that portable classrooms cannot be designed as singular units. Projects that scored well on most environmental factors wh ere the design dilemma arises: portable classrooms are singular units, however, most of the design variables defined through the literature review are dependent on the e this matte r further, T able 3 2 shows which site. Table 3 2 Design variables categorized as dependent and independent to the site, and Environmental variables I ndependent of assembly on site D assembly on site Interior Exterior Interior Exterior Movement and circulation Instructional spaces Lighting Natural Artificial View Acoustics Air quality As described earlier, movement and circulation is the parameter that allow s students and teachers to move freely and interact inside and outside the classroom, thereby supporting safety and accessibility. Movement and circulation inside the classroom can be controlled in a singular unit, but outside characteristics of movement

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70 problem exist s with instructional spaces. Inside classroom flex zones can be controlled in a singular unit, but if the instructional spaces extend to the outside of the classroom tion of this factor. Regarding lighti ng, artificial light can be controlled in a singular unit, but as in the traditional building, the direction of the building is important in providing natural light inside the classroom. As with the variables described above, view out of windows is also mo stly On the other hand, acoustics and air quality are factors that can be enhanced inside a single unit. Altho ugh outside noise and outside air p oll u tion are factors that can be controlled by locating the unit away from their sources to enhance a co ustics and air q uality, mostly enhancement of these variables can be implemented inside a singular unit by using the right materials, i As described, besides the acoustics and air quality, the rest of the variables are classrooms are basically singular units, it is imp ortant to consider the cluster orientation of these units on site through the design procedure. In other words, the group of portable classrooms on school sites should be considered as neighborhoods which are part of the bigger community of school. Portab le classroom neighborhoods, like any other site built community, requires between a site built proposal and portable classroom neighborhoods is that a site built

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71 proposal can take advantage of the internal benefits of planning. It involves the organization of movement and circulation, instructional spaces, lighting, view, acoustics and air quality variables based on a defined, existing site condition. In contrast, portable classroom assembly should be planned in a way that responds to altered site configuration on site can be categorized as axial and cl uster configurations (Fisher proach was established based on case study reviews about site built campus planning options. Axial configurations of portable units are appropriate on sites with limited expansion width. Cluster configurations of portable units are appropriate on sites wit h large expanses. Variables Implementation Guidelines examples for implementation of the variables. Also, the study concluded that groups of portable classrooms on school s ites can be considered as neighborhoods which are part of the bigger community of school. In addition, a case study review considering the difference between a site built campus and portable classrooms assembly on alter sites concluded that two categories can be defined for the units assembly: Axial configuration and cluster configuration. Considering the strategies reviewed through case studies, two schematic design solutions were proposed as alternatives to portable units assembly (Figure 3 7). On these s chemes, singular units are oriented on site in a way that in any setting their longer axis aligns with the east west axis to ga in the maximum advantage of day lighting. Schemes are developed in both east west and north south axial configurations as well as the cluste r orientation of the units. F igure 3 7 shows: (A) the angled form of

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72 the units provides a dynamic outdoor space that opens up at the center of each set of four classrooms on the axial configurations, and between each set of two classrooms on the c luster configuration, and (B) presents sets of portable classrooms with more rigid forms with an outdoor space within the center of each set of four classrooms on the axial configurations, and between each set of two classrooms on the cluster configurati on. A B Figure 3 7. Alternatives of portable units assembly These schematic design figures, as with any other alternative of its kind, are design proposals In fact, a design solution as another alternative does not respond to the third research questio be developed.

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73 Portable classrooms on school sites are like neighborhoods which are part of the bigger community of school. The portable classroom neighborhoods, in a smaller scale, have the same characteristics and environmental qualities as urban neighborhoods. As improved in p ign can be used as guidelines for design; a guideline that describes how classrooms and their environment should interact with students. A Pattern Language is a study that refers to interchangeable components, items, and design characteristics of living environments (Alexander et a l. 1977). This book covers human interaction with buildings in a whole range of design scales from towns to neighborhoods, and even building scales, which makes it a suitab le resource to be used According to Alexander, A Pattern Language has the structure of a network that is used as a sequence, always starting from the larger pattern to the smaller. The quality of a bu ilding is objective and precise, and it is given its character by patterns of from which you can make a language for your own project, by using the patterns which are most useful to you (Alexander et a Fundamental thoughts from A Pattern Language are used as a tool to apply the environmental variables through the design of por table classrooms. Each variable defined in C hapter 2 incorporates some of these pattern sequences. V

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74 Movement and Circulation According to Alexander, in developing circulation patterns, designers and planners should ideally avoid the use of straight corridors and passages. Instead, they should use public and common spaces for movement and gathering to form a chain, or loop, making it possible to walk from one building to another. Public areas foster a sense of community, un ity, and belonging, and support safety and accessibility. Hierarchically Movement and Circulation patterns as deta i led in A Pattern Language ( Alexander et a l. 1977), include the following: Small public s quare This pattern, if correctly placed along the intersection of the paths which people use most often, forms the core where people can move and interact through the action of the people who gather there. Alexander views this pattern in the scale of a town, however this definition can be implemented in any community, even as small as the res, which are the largest public rooms that a community has. But when they are too large, to make a guess about the number of people who wil l typically be there. Fi gure 3 8 congregate; build buildings round the square in such a way that they give it a definite

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75 Figure 3 8 Small public s quare (Source: A Pattern Language ) Public outdoor r oom Alexander defines public outdoor rooms as spots along the pathways and walkways of a community where people can spend time or socialize comfortably, for rk community, make a piece of the common land into an outdoor room A partly closed place, with some roof, columns, without walls, perhaps with a trellis; place it beside an important path and within view of many homes an see Fig ure 3 9 ). Figure 3 9 Public outdoor r oom (Source : A Pattern Language ) Positive outdoor s pace spaces which are merely left over between buildings will, in general, not be used (Alexander et al.

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76 places all around the edge of the buildings, and considering the outdoors t o be as much a focus of atte ntion as the buildings ( see Fig ure 3 10 which surround and lie between your buildings positive. Give each of them a degree of enclosure; surround each space with wings of buildings, trees, hedges, fences, arcades, and trellised walks, until it becomes an entity with a positive quality (Alexander et al. Figure 3 10 Buildings that create negative/positive outdoor space (Source : A Pattern Lang uage) Arcades the edge of buildings, which are partly inside partly outside and play a vital role in the way that people interact with buildings (Alexander et a l. see Fig ure 3 11). Alexander suggests designing the arcades wherever paths run along the edge of place to place under the cover of the arcades. He states that the problem lies in the fact that there are no strong connections between the territorial world within the building and the purely public world outsi de. The classic solution to this problem is arcades. Arcades create an ambiguous territory between the public world and the private world, thus making the building friendly.

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77 Figure 3 11. Arcades (Source : A Pattern Lang uage) Activity Pockets of public square forms naturally around its edge. If the edge fails, then the space never becomes lively (Alexander et a see Fig ure 3 12). A Pattern Language suggests surrounding public gathering places with pockets of activity which jut forward into the open space between the paths, and contain activities which make it natural for people to pause and become involved (p.602). Figure 3 12. Activity pockets (Source: A Pattern Language) Instructional Space Instructional spaces shoul d response to the pedagogical need of institutions by providing spaces such as small and large group areas, f lex zones, and places for multiple uses. A pattern Language defines such spaces as: Small work g roup According to A pattern language, when more th an half a dozen people work in the same place it is essential that they nor be forced to work in one large

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78 undifferentiated space, but that instead, their work space should be divided so that they all, spatially identifiable work the other members of his own group; and arrange several groups in such a way that they share a common entrance, food, office equipment, drinking fountains, bathrooms see Figure 3 13). Figure 3 13. Small work group (Source : A Pattern Lang uage) Outdoor r oom feeling of a room, even though it is open. To do this define it at the corners with columns, perhaps roof it partially with a trellis or a sliding canvas roof, and create walls around it with fences, sitting walls, screens, hedges or the exterior walls of the building a l. p.767), ( see Figure 3 14). Figure 3 14. Outdoor r oom (Source: A Pattern Language )

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79 It is important to note the difference between the outdoor room and public outdoor room as defined by outdoor room has walls around it and is partially roofed, while the public outdoor room has a roof but e et a l. P.767). Lighting Lighting of the classrooms is cate gorized as natural light provided through windows and openings, and artificial light provided by electronic systems. A Pattern Language introduces these variables as below. Wings of light According to Alexander, t here is ample evidence that people need da y light to regulate circadian rhythms, a natural biological function discussed in this pattern entitled Wings of Light (p. 527). light each building so that it breaks down into wings, which correspond, approximately, to the most important natural social groups within the building. Make each wing long s and narrow as you can never a l. P.529). Figure 3 15 illustrates this pattern. ` Figure 3 15. Wings of l ight (Source : A Pattern L anguage )

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80 Indoor sunlight Alexander stresses that very few things have as great an effect on the feeling inside the room as the sun shining into it (p.615). He mentions the importance of placing (p.617). A Pattern Language illust rates this pattern as shown on F igure 3 16. Figure 3 16. Indoor s unlight (Source : A Pattern L anguage ) Pools of light This pattern helps to finish small social spaces, such as workplace enclosures with artificial lights. Alexan purpose whatsoever. In fact, it destroys the social nature of space, and makes people low and apart to form indiv idual pools of light which encompass chairs and tables like bubbles, as illustrated on Figure 3 17. Figure 3 17 Po ols of l ight (Source : A Pattern Language )

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81 View View is a variable associated with the window characteristics of the classrooms. Although a better view out of windows is among the environmental variables that are significant in relation to student achievement, it should be implemented as not to cause distractions. A Pattern Language defines the characteristics of windows and view as below. Windows overlooking life Rooms without a view are prisons for the people who have to stay in them. When people are in a place for any length time they need to be able to refresh themselves by looking at a world different than the one they are in, and wit h enough of a l. P.890) ( see Figure 3 18). This pattern s uggests placing windows in such a way that their total area conforms roughly 25% or more of floor area, and placing them in positions wh ich give the best possible views out over life and breaks the area of each window into small parts (p.892). Figure 3 18. Windows overlooking life (Source : A Pattern L anguage ) Acoustics and Air Quality As previously described, variables of acoustics and air quality can be categorized as variables that can be improved in a single unit. Because these variables are not

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82 implementation However, since they are important factors that impact student performance and have the same value as the rest of the variables mentioned earlier, they should be taken into consideration throughout the design procedure. Acoustic is among one of the most important characterist ics that impacts student performance. Noise has a negative impact on student performance and should be controlled inside the instructional spaces by using appropriate interior finishing materials such as carpet or similar sound absorbing materials sound b affles in the ceiling, and mechanical systems such as HVAC that has less sound compared to the central AC system. Air quality is another factor that impacts student performance. Like all school facilities, portable classrooms should contain appropriate b uilding and indoor surface materials. Building m aterials with low or no vo latile organic compounds (VOCs) such as paints is recommended. Carpets, if specified for the classrooms, should be chosen from among the ones that are tested u nder the Carpet and Rug Institute's Indoor Air Quality Carpet Testing Program. It is important to specify operable windows to provide user controlled ventilation for natural airflow It is also essential to locate the classrooms away from locations where there are major sources of air pollution Conclusion The relative patterns of variables of movement and circulation, instructional space, lighting and view, as defined by A Pattern Language, provided a structure for portable classroom. As a comprehensive guideline to be used for implementation through design, these pa tterns are aggregated in T able 3 3 In addition, the

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83 on site, are added to the T able 3 3 This table includes a reference c olumn, referring to the hierarchical number of the pattern in A Pattern Language. Looking back to the case studies, it can be seen that the competitors have presented some of these guidelines through their design strategies. In the last column of T able 3 3 successful approaches of case study strategies are presented as figurative examples of the variables implementation. Among the case study approaches, raised walkway is the one that i s not categorized based i n A Pattern Language This strategy i s added to the list i n T able 3 3 and in the reference column and is represented by star symbols. Program columns in the table represent the name of the pattern as a reference to the guideline in the first column, the characteristics of space that make that guideline essential for incorporation are in the second column, and design guidelines are in the third column. The figure columns illustrate the figure relevant to each guideline: The first column represents A P attern Language figures, and the second column represe This table of variables implementation guidelines is, in fact, a response to the third res earch question of this thesis: This coherent guideline can be used as an additional program to the standard portable classroom program in order to improve student performance. In order to test the findings of this chapter, a design solution is proposed using the variable s implementation guidelines i n C hapter 4.

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84 Table 3 3 Variables implementation guidelines Ref. Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Movement and Circulation 61 Small public square Public spaces foster sense of community, unity, and belonging Supports safety and accessibility Create public and common spaces for movement and gathering Locate small public squares at intersection of the paths Ring the square with pockets of activity Build buildings round the squa re to give it a definite shape 69 Public outdoor room A place where people can gather and interact Create public outdoor rooms along the pathways Create a partly enclosed space with a partial roof, columns, no walls 106 Positive outdoor space Geometric character of the outdoors are as important as the buildings geometry Consider outdoors as much a focus of attention as the buildings Surround each space with wings of buildings, arcades, and trellised walks

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85 Table 3 3. Continued. Ref. Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Movement and Circulation 119 Arcades A place that people can use to walk from place to place Create covered walkways at the edge of buildings Place arcades wherever paths run along the edge of buildings 124 Activity pockets The life of public square forms naturally around its edge Surround public places with pockets of activity which jut forward into the open space between the paths *** Raised walkway Creates a unified outdoor space Connect the portable classroom through raised walkways

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86 Table 3 3. Continued. Ref. Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Instructional Space 148 Small work group It is essential that people not be forced to work in one large undifferentiated space, but rather in small work groups Break institutions into small, spatially identifiable work groups Arrange work groups so that each person is in at least partial view of the other members of his own group Arrange several groups in such a way that they share a common entrance and equipment 163 Outdoor room It takes on the feeling of a room even though it is open Build a place outdoor Define it at the corners with columns, roof it partially Create walls around it with fences, sitting walls, screens, hedges, or the exterior walls of the building itself

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87 Table 3 3. Continued. Ref. Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Lighting 107 Wings of light People need day light to regulate circadian rhythms Arrange each building so that it breaks down into wings Make each wing as long and narrow as you can, never more than 25 feet wide 128 Indoor sunlight Few things have as much effect on the feeling inside the room as the sun shining into it Place the most important rooms along the south edge of the buildin g Spread the building out along the east west axis When possible, open up these indoor sunny rooms to the outdoors 252 Pools of light The uniform illumination destroys the social nature of space and makes people feel disoriented and unbounded Finish small social spaces like workplace enclosure with artificial lights Place the lighting low and apart to form individual pools of light

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88 Table 3 3. Continued. Ref. Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) View 192 Windows overlooking life People need to refresh themselves by looking at a world different than the one they are in, and with enough of its own variety Place windows in such a way that their total area conforms roughly 25% or more of floor area Place them in positions which give the best possible views out over life Break the area of each window into small pans Acoustics Finishing material and mechanical systems Noise has a negative impact on student performance and should be controlled inside the instructional spaces Use finishing materials such as carpet or similar on the floor, sound baffles in the ceiling and mechanical systems such as HVAC

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89 Table 3 3. Continued. Ref. Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Air Quality Finishing material Air quality affects student attendance and results in better student performance Use finishing materials with low or no VOC Specify operable windows to provide natural ventilation inside Locate the classrooms away from sources of air pollution Note: *** in the number column represents the case studies response to the variable

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90 CHAPTER 4 PROGRAM AND DESIGN In guidelines provided in C hapter 3 should be used as a strategy throughout the design process of portable classrooms and their assembly on site. In this chapter, a design solution is proposed to test the application of the guidelines. The proposal is also considered in response to the SREF Program The program of the proposed design solution is preceded of two components. First, the standard portable classroom program in Florida is based on the SREF And second, the program defined by the variables implementation guidelines for por table classroom s as listed on T able 3 2 in C hapter 3 Portable classrooms should be adaptable to serve prekindergarten through grade 12. SREF requirements for portable classrooms should comply with the general requirements of SREF for classrooms in additi on to specific requirements for portable classrooms. In order to define a comprehensive program of design for the portable classrooms, the standard regulations are categorized based on the six design variables as listed on T able 4 1

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91 Table 4 1. Standa rd program for portable classrooms Movement and Circulation Security: School boards shall design educational facilities and sites to enhance security through environmental design principles and architectural features. Accessibility : Accessibility for children and adults with disabilities shall comply with the applicable state and federal standards governing accessibility requirements. Separation of Units: Re locatable units shall be separated from each other and any permanent buildings in accordance wi th State Fire Marshal Rules in Chapter 69A 58, FAC, and by sufficient distance in each direction to prevent the spread of fire, and located to allow access by emergency vehicles. f building for heat dissipation of HVAC. Cluster of Re locatables: Cluster of re locatable s should comply with requirements of State Fire Marshal Rule 69A 58.0082(1), FAC F ire code s limit the number of typical re locatable classrooms to nine when grouped together within a two to four feet distance, from any other structure is maintained Minimum Setbacks : The minimum setback for re locatable units is at least 25 feet from a property line, unless local zo ning permits a smaller setback. Floodplain : Re locatable units located in a 1 00 year floodplain shall have the finished floor at least 12 i nches above the base flood elevation and shall be anchored to resist buoyant forces, if applicable. Exit doors : Exi t doors shall be equipped with a lockset, which is rea dily opened from the side from which egress is to be made; heavy duty hinges; a closer that prevents slamming; and a maximum one half inch high threshold.

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92 Table 4 1. Continued Interior and exterior door size: Interior and exterior doors shall be a minimum of three feet wide and six feet, eight inches high. Platform: All exterior doors shall open onto a five foot by five foot platform that is level with the interior floor and co nnects with an accessible ramp or steps equipped with handrails and guardrails. An accessible ramp need only be provided at one of the two required doors of a standard classroom unit. Instructional Spaces Class Size : Florida's Class Size Reduction Amendment limited the maximum number of students in each core class, beginning with the 2010 2011 school year, to be: PK 3 primary 18 students 4 8 intermediate/middle 22 students 9 12 senior high 25 students SREF defined the relative classroom space to range from 808 to 816 sqft, in which prekindergarten through grade 3 requires the toilets to be provided inside each classroom Lighting Windows : Windows, when provided for nat ural light, ventilation, and ac cess panels, shall be maintained in an operable, safe, and secure con dition Projecting and awning windows with sharp or protruding corners, below door head height, if in or adjacent to a corridor or walkway, shall be rendered safe. Sources of natural light in instructional spa ces shall be glazed with glare reducing materials, or shall be shielded to prevent glare from interfering with seeing within the space.

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93 Table 4 1. Continued Window Coverings : Interior blinds, shades, and shut ters, where provided, should be: Capable of dark ening the room sufficiently to al low audio visual presentations. Maintained free of torn material, broken slats, pulleys, and cords, and in an operational and safe condition at all times. Classroom Lighting: Classroom illumination shall be designed to prov ide and maintain an average of 40 foot candles of light at each desktop. Light emitting diode lighting shall be considered first before other lighting sources in educational facilities. View Landscaping: Outdoor a reas shall be landscaped by the use of trees, shrubs, grass, ground cover, mulch, hedges, or boulders. Operable Windows : Classroom units constructed (meaning contracted, leased, or otherwise acquired) on or aft er July 1, 1990, shall have a c ombina tion of exterior doors and oper able windows equ al to at least five percent of the floor area of the classroom. Operable windows of the awning, casement or projecting typ e shall not project onto walks or ramps Acoustics Acoustics : Each interior instructional space shall be acoustically treated to co ntrol reverberation, echo, and excessive deadness. Air Quality Ventilation : Windows, louvers, or other openings used for natural ventilation shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times.

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94 Table 4 1. Continued Maintenance: The HVAC system shall be inspected to ensure the system is operating as designed. In addition to the stand ard program presented i n T able 4 1, the program which is defined by the variables implementation guidelines for portable classrooms presented i n T able 3 2, is used to design the proposed project. In order to provide a comprehensive program of design for portable cla ssrooms, the standard program (T able 4 1) and variab les implementation guidelines (Table 3 2) are combined i n T able 4 2. To avoid repetition, T able 4 2 is presented at the end of the Variables E nhancemen t heading and also includes the implementation of the guidelines on the proposed project as additional examples. Before describing the implementation of the variables guidelines on th e proposed project, it is essential to have an overview of the proposed project. Design Overview As concluded in the De sign Dilemma subheading of C hapter 3 although portable classrooms are basically singular units, it is important to consider the cluster orientation of the units on site throughout the design procedure because most of the design assembly on site As a result the proposed c lassroom design procedure took place as a simultaneous effort t o design a single portable classroom unit and cluster orientation of multiple units. The prototype design has a double roof structure designated the classroom structure and shading structure. The classroom s tr ucture is interchangeable with four

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95 types of cl assroom layouts. The typologies of the classrooms are determined ba sed upon the definition of the instructional s p ace design variable which provide s flex instructional zones. Classroom typologies will be explained further under the Instructional Space and Small Work Space subheadings in this chapter. The shading s tructure works as a second roof which not only passively shades the unit and preserves energy, but also, provides the opportunity to implement the design patterns by providing partially and fully covered spaces The combination of classroom structure and shading structure generated a dynamic indoor and outdoor environment for the classrooms. Based on the definition of the day lighting variable, the direction of the building on site has an importan t impac t on the quality of natural day lighting inside the classroom. In a cluster orientation of the prototype, a rectangular layout of the classroom structure is positioned in the horizontal direction which allows for the allocation of windows and openings on the north and south faces of the classrooms. Figure 4 1 illustrates an example of different types of classroom s orientation on site and their relative outdoor space. This layout presents classrooms o rientation on site both on north south and east west axial. This setting is used throughout C hapter 4 to illustrate the design variables enhancement.

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96 Figure 4 1 Ex ample of portable c lassrooms orientation on site Construction and Transportation Po rtable architecture consists of structures that are intended for easy erection on (Kro nenburg, 2003). This is the strategy used for the typical portable classroom, greater variety in built form is the building constructed from factory made elements tra This strategy can be used with many alternative constructional systems that incorporate panel, framed, tensile and pneumatic structural principals (Kronenburg, 2003). Portabl e units designed to be moved on state roads shall comply with the maximum unit height, length, and width requirements of the Department of

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97 incorporated in the design procedure of a portable structure. Singular standard portable classrooms currently available typically consist of two piece container buildings, and each piece is shipped to a school site by separate trailers. Flat building components are delivered to site in a collapsed form. This means their size when transported is much smaller and eliminates the double cost of transportation for each unit. Another problem with transporting the completed classrooms to school sites is problem would be resolved by incorporating the flat pack strategy. One of the flat relatively simple solution with the walls, floor, and roof being identifiable complete elements that are assembled in a clear hierarchical process. A more complex ki t system pack units can be assembled by skilled With regard to the concept of portable classrooms which are repetitive singular clustered, assembly instructions will be limited to one unit that can be taught to those used for the module type of building, though the quality, efficiency and ( Kronenburg 2002, p.77).

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98 about 960 sqft of classroom space which meets the requirements of SREF. T requirements of Florida Department of Transportation for the commercial motor vehicle allows the portable classroom kits to be easily shipped to school sites in a collapsed manner by a semi trailer tr actor as shown on Fig ure 4 2 (p.15). Figure 4 2 This f igure illustrates the tractor semi trailer dimensions (Source: Commercial Motor Vehicle Manual ) Structural kits will be pre manufactured as separated parts and transported to site as flat packs along with the rest of the kits. Once transported to the site, they will be ouble roof structure. Figure 4 3 presents the structure assembly model.

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99 Figure 4 3 Assembly of structure kits enclosed by floor, roof, and wall kits. Figur e 4 4 illustrates the exploded model of all kits. Raised walkways surfaces will also be pre manufactured in packed manner. The classroom units can be disassembled and shipped to the manufa cturer for maintenance, and re shipped to other facilities during their life cycle.

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100 Figure 4 4 Exploded model of the classroom kits

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101 Variables Enhancement As previously mentioned, in addition to the standard program, variables guidelines have been implemented through the design procedure of the proposed project in order to enhance the variables that can change in portable classrooms. The applications of variables guidelines are described based on their order i n T able 4 2. Movement and Circulation Movement and circulation defines characteristics which allow students and teachers to move freely and interact in order to gain maximum educational benefits. This quality of space is enhanced in the proposed portable c lassroom neighborhood by implementing the strategies below. Positive outdoor space: As presented in F igure 4 5 the combination of the movement and circulation patterns created by the classroom structure and shading structure generat es a positive outdoor room area in which people can conveniently move and interact. The positive character of the outdoors is accomplished by considering the outdoors and buildings as equal focal points. Figure 4 5 Positive outdoor rooms areas are highlighted in the prototype

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102 Small Public Square: In the proposed project, small public squares are generated along the intersection of the paths connecting the portable classrooms. Transition spaces connecting the inside and outsides classrooms surround small public squares. Transition spaces, such as shaded entrances and outdoor public rooms, are designed as pockets in which social interaction can occur, and as a result, bring life to the sm all public square. In F igure 4 6 the proposed small public squares ar e highlighted in the cluster orientation of the classroom structures. Figure 4 6 Smal l public s quares are highlighted in the prototype Transition Space: One of the major characteristics of space that defines the quality of a public co mmunity is the way in which the inside and outsides of the building structures are connected. This proposal defines these places as transition spaces. Figure 4 7 presents a perspective view from the transition spaces.

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103 Figure 4 7. A perspective from trans ition spaces. Shaded entrance spaces created by the shading structure along with the outdoor public rooms are designed as transition spaces that provide a welcoming environment at the entrance of each classroom. These spaces are activity places where stude nt and teacher interaction takes place in a pleasant indoor/ outdoor environment. In order to generate life in the small public squares, transition spaces are designed as pockets of activ ity around the squares ( see Fig ure 4 8 ). Fi gure 4 8 Activity pockets are highlighted in the prototype

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104 Transition spaces include shaded entrances and public outdoor rooms. Shaded entrance spaces are defined as inviting classroom entrance spaces. As with arcades, they create an ambiguous territory between the outside and inside the classroom. Shaded entrance spaces are places that students can interact in a pleasant indoor/ outdoor space thereby making th e building friendly. Figure 4 9 illustrates the shaded entrance space in different typologies o f the classrooms. These are the roofed areas adjacent to the classroom structure that are created by the overhangs and columns of the shading structure. This partly inside, partly outside area plays a vital role in the way that students interact within the classrooms. Figure 4 9 Shaded entrance spaces (arcades) are highlighted in the prototype Public outdoor rooms are another component of the transition space. They are proposed as spots along the pathways, adjacent to the classroom entrances. These structures. Public outdoor rooms can be used as places where students can gather and interact during their breaks. Figure 4 10 illustrates the areas allocated to public outdoor rooms in each type of the proposed classroom.

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105 Figure 4 10 Public outdoor rooms are highl ighted in the prototype Raised Walkways: Raised walkways connecting the portable classrooms not only respond to the accessibility requirements of the standard program for people with disabilities, but also it creates a unified neighborhood of portable classrooms and solves the problem of the connection between the classrooms. Within this neighborhood, students and teachers can move and interact within an easily accessible outdoor environment. Raised walkways surfaces are also proposed to be pre manufact ured in packed and shipped to school sites in the same tractor/ semi trailer as the rest of the. Figure 4 11 illustrates the configuration of the proposed raised walkways between the classrooms

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106 Figure 4 11 Raised walkways are illustrated in the prototype Instructional Space Instructional spaces should respond to the pedagogical need of institutions by providing spaces such as small and large group areas, flex zones, and places for multiple uses. Small work group: The small work group concept in classrooms creates flex zones for group works. The standard portable classroom is a rectangular unit that is incapable of creating small work group opportunities through its layout plan. The proposed prototype alters the classroom plans into four types of rectangular L, Z, and T shaped classrooms that fit the needs of different pedagogical strategies. This becomes f of customized L, Z, and T shaped classrooms. Regarding the Construction and Transportation subheading described earlier in typologies of the proposed project. In order to keep the kit of parts as simple as

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107 possible, the entire wall with the inst alled openings will be pre manufactured in five typologies. This allows the on site assembly procedure to take place faster. Wall and roof kits are requirements and preferences. Classr oom typologies of this prototype are illustrated in an exploded m anner in F igures 4 12 and wall kits are presented in F igure 4 13 Figure 4 12 Classroom typol ogies Figure 4 13 Wall kit Each type of the proposed classroom is sui table for a specifi c furnished layout that allows different systems of educational activities to take place within, based on the

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108 As illustrated in F igure 4 14 type A represents the rectang furnished layout which is suitable for lecture classes. Type B or L shaped classrooms are preferred for their breakout space. This space can be allocated for a nook or office in which individual tutoring can take place while the rest of the classroom functions in a standard fashion. Also, the space which is a requirement of PK 3 grade classrooms. Type C or Z shaped classrooms are beneficial to the pedagogical systems employed in group work, such as in Montessori systems. If used for PK 3 grades, one of the breakout spaces can be allocated as the restroom, and the rest of the classroom can function for group work. Type D or T shaped classrooms are useful for another type of group work when class is divided into two bigger groups. Another c onfiguration would be useful when half of the unit is assigned for lecture purposes; the other half encourages group work. The breakout space can be used as the restroom if used by PK 3 grades Figure 4 15 illustrates interior perspectives from two classro om types.

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109 Figure 4 14. Layouts of different classroom types.

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110 A B Figure 4 15. Interior pe rspectives. A) Classroom type B, lecture cl assroom. B) Classroom type C, group work classroom.

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111 Outdoor instructional space: It is important to note the difference between the outdoor instructional space and the public outdoor room. The two are opposite in that outd oor instructional space is a part of the individual classroom, whereas the public outdoor room works as a common area for interaction between the classrooms. In other words, the outdoor public room is primarily used as a means of movement and circulation, and i s used mostly during the class break periods and outdoor instructional space is used as part of the instructional s paces during the class hours. In fact, they are outdoor spaces that work in relation to the inside instructional spaces. As illustrated on Figure 4 16, o n the proposed project, the outdoor r oom is designed in type C and D. A B Figure 4 16 O utdoor instructional spaces A) Outdoor instructional spaces are highlighted on the prototype B) A perspective from the outdoor instructional Spaces.

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112 Lighting: Lighting of the classrooms is categorized as natural light provided through windows and openin gs, and artificial light provided by electronic systems. Wings of light: requirem ent of this guideline ( see Fig ure 4 17 ). Also, the singular nature of portable classrooms allows them to be allocated in such a way that units lie long and narrow on site as t o best benefit from natural day light, even if they are spread out on the north south axis. However, it is always important that natural light be controllable to avoid glare. Figure 4 17 Wings of light are illustrated on the proposed project Indoor sunlight: In order to garner the maximum benefit from sunlight in the school sites along their length on the east layout of the classrooms in F igure 4 18 whether or not the school site allows for the cluster orientation of the classrooms to be spread out on the east west or north south

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113 allows the classrooms to benefit most from sunlight. Figure 4 18 East west axis orientation of single units allows classrooms to garner the maximum benefit from sunlight Pools of light: Based on standard regulations, classrooms are required to create a consistent level o f quality lighting. In addition, the proposed project suggests having control switches inside the classroom which would allow the lights to be set according to the instructional requirements of the classroom. For instance, when a projector is presented in one zone, control switches can turn the lights of that zone off while keeping the rest of the classroom at a lighting level which enables students to take notes. In order to do so, the proposed project suggests creating pools of light inside the classrooms Lighting fixtures would be installed as a part of a modular configuration. As s is divided into 4 smaller z ones to allocate lighting fixtures apart and controllable. Figure 4 19 illustrates the fixture configuration of the artificial lights on classroom typologies. They are linear lighting fixtures with optional photometric sensors and automated dimming systems

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114 Figure 4 19. Pools of light zones are illustrated in the proposed project View: View is a variable associated with the window characteristics of the classrooms. Although better view out of windows is among the environmental variab les way as not to cause distractions. Windows overlooking life: In the proposed project, window are placed in a way that not only to allows natural light into the class room, but also allows a view from windows Windows are most often positioned on the north and south faces of the classrooms at places which offer the best possible outside view. Throughout the process of allocating the openings, the wall typologies are designed in a way in which the quality of openings overlooking outside life retain the same characteristics in each classroom. Figure 4 20 illustrates the opening pattern of all types of the proposed classroom s Windows are equipped with operable louvers t o control distractive views, and clerestory windows are designed where views should be obstructed, allowing natural light to enter the classroom, and minimizing solar heat.

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115 Figure 4 20 Windows overlooking life are illustrated in the proposed classroom typologies Acoustics: In order to control noise inside the classroom, linoleum flooring is suggested in the proposed project. This material not only eliminates sound echo, but also allocates sound baffles in the ceiling so that noise can be controlled in side the classroom. An HVAC system is suggested as the mechanical system for the classroom which has less sound compared to a central AC system. The wall mounted mechanical system is located on the side of the classroom with the least amount of operable wi ndows to reduce sound transmission into the classroom. Air Quality: Good air quality inside the classroom can be achieved by allocating CO2 sensor controlled HVAC systems. Paint materials with low or no VOCs are proposed inside the classrooms O perable win dows on the north and south walls are also proposed in order to provide natural ventilation inside the classroom. It is also essential to locate the classrooms away from locations in which there are vehicles aisles. Figure 4 21 presents a section perspecti ve of the proposed classroom in which acoustics and air quality strategies, as well as material selections, are illustrated

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116 Figure 4 21. Section perspective s of the proposed classroom Table 4 2 presents the portable classroom I n the reference column of T able 4 2 guidelines for variables implementation of the guidelines in the proposed project as additional examples in its last column.

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117 Table 4 2. Program of design for portable classrooms Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) Movement and Circulation St. Security Educational facilities and sites should enhance security Use environmental design princi ples and architectural features St. Accessibility For children and adults with disabilities Comply with the applicable state and federal standards governing accessibility requirements St. Separation of units Prevent the spread of fire 20 foo t sepa ration from any other structure 10 foo t separation to wall of building for heat dissipation of wall mounted HVAC St. Clusters of relocatables Prevent the spread of fire Group up to nine units of 960 sq ft together within two to four feet St. Minimum setback Create safety 25 feet from a property line St. Floodplain Necessary for units located in a 100 year floodplain Finished floor at least 12 inches above the base flood elevation

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118 Table 4 2. Continued. Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) Movement and Circulation St. Exit doors Create safety Two exit doors are required St. Interior and exterior door size Create safety A minimum of three feet wide and six feet, eight inches high St. Platforms Create accessibility All exterior doors should open onto a five foot by five foot platform An accessible ramp need only be provided at one of the exit doors Ad. Positive outdoor space Geometric character of the outdoors is as important as the Consider the outdoors and buildings as equal focal points Surround each space with wings of buildings, arcades, and trellised walks Ad. Small public square Public spaces foster sense of community, unity and belonging Supports safety and accessibility Create public and common spaces for movement and gathering Locate small public squares at intersection of the paths Ring the square with pockets of activity

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119 Table 4 2. Continued. Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) Movement and Circulation Ad. Transition space/ A space that connects the inside and outside of the classroom Provide different types of transitional spaces such as public outdoor rooms, shaded entrance/ arcade, activity pockets Ad. Public outdoor room A place where people can ha ng out and interact Create public outdoor rooms as spots along the pathways A partly closed place a partial roof, columns, without walls Ad. Shaded entrance/ arcade A place that people can walk from place to place Create covered walkways at the edge of buildings Place arcades wherever paths run along the edge of buildings Ad. Activity pockets Life within the public square forms naturally around its edge Surround public places with pockets of activity which jut forward into the open space between the paths

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120 Table 4 2. Continued. Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) Movement and Circulation Ad. Raised walkway Creates a unified outdoor space Connect the portable classrooms through raised walkways Instructional Space St. Class Size Portable classrooms should be adaptable to serve Pk 12 Classrooms size about 808 816 sq ft, St. Restrooms Pk 3 Restrooms inside the classroom Ad. Outdoor instructional space Feels like a room despite being open Build an outdoor space Define it at the corne rs with columns, partially roof it Create walls around it with fences, sitting walls, screens, hedges, or the exterior walls of the building i tself

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121 Table 4 2. Continued. Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) Instructional Space Ad. Small work group It is essential that people not be forced to work in one huge undifferentiated space, but have the opportunity to work in small groups Break institutions into small, spatially identifiable work groups Arrange work groups so that each person is in at least partial view of the other members of his own group Arrange several groups in such a way that they share a common entrance and equipment Rectangular, Z, L and T shaped classrooms Lighting St. Windows For natural lighting Maintain in an operable, safe, and secure condition Use glare reducing materials or shielded on the windows to prevent glare St. Window coverings Interior blinds, shades, and shutters Operable shade devices should be capable of darkening the room

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122 Table 4 2. Continued. Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) Lighting St. Classroom lighting Classroom illumination should provide and maintain an average of 40 foot candles of light at each desktop Ad. Wings of light People need day light to regulate circadian rhythms Arrange each building so that it breaks down into wings Make each wing as long and narrow as possible, never more than 25 feet wide Ad. Indoor sunlight Few things have as much an effect on the feeling inside the room as the sun shining into it Place the most important rooms along the south edge of the building, Spread the building out along the east west axis When possible, open up these indoor sunny rooms to the outdoors Ad. Pools of light Uniform illumination destroys the social nature of space and makes people feel disoriented and unbound Finish small social spaces like workplace enclosure with artificial lights Place the lighting low and apart to form individual pools of light

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123 Table 4 2. Continued. Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) View St. Landscaping Create vegetated view Landscape the outdoor areas with trees, shrubs, grass, ground cover, mulch, hedges, or boulders St. Operable windows Enable students to have view outside the classroom Allocate windows equal to at least five percent of the floor area of the classroom Ad. Windows overlooking life P eople need to refresh by looking at a world differen t than the one they are in, with adequate variety Place windows in such a wa y that their total area covers roughly 25% or more of the floor plan Pla ce them in positions which give the best possible views out over life Break the area of each window into small parts Acoustics St. Acoustics For noise control Each interior instructional space should be acoustically treated to control reverberation, echo, and excessive deadness

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124 Table 4 2. Continued. Ref Program Figure Create Essential Guidelines A Pattern Language Case study (Example) Proposal (Example) Acoustics Ad. Finishing material and mechanical systems Noise has a negative impact on student performance and should be controlled inside the instructional spaces Use finishing materials such as carpet or similar on the floor, sound baffles in the ceiling, and mechanical systems such as HVAC Air Quality St. Ventilation For inside air pollution control Openings used for natural ventilation should be maintained in an operable condition HVAC system should be inspected on a regular basis Ad. Finishing material Air quality affects student attendance and results in better student performance Use finishing materials with low or no VOC Locate the classrooms away from s ources of air pollution

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125 Sustainability Sustainability is the potential for long term maintenance of well being which has environmental and cultural dimensions. Sustainable design denotes an interest in energy efficiency and use of environmentally friendly materials. It also deals with environmental systems management and strategies used in building design so that they meet the present requirements and consider future needs. Sustainable development carries this concept in all stages of design, construction, and maintenance. This proposal incorporates strategies that meet the requirements of sustainable design while establishing a sustainable culture among the young generations who are taught in portable classrooms. The double roof design of only provides shaded indoor/ outdoor spaces, but it also plays a large role in conservi ng energy inside the classroom. Photovoltaic panels integral with the metal roof capture solar energy and are proposed to be located on the second roof surface of the classrooms. The roof directs storm water run off to collection tanks to be used in irriga tion and the flushing of low flow toilets. Wall mounted classroom HVAC systems are protected by exterior louvers. This strategy covers the unpleasant sight of the mechanical systems while simultaneously reducing the heat gain of the HVAC and allowing for a ir circulation around the device. An east west axial direction of each classroom opt imizes day lighting and minimizes solar loss on building exposure. Allocating operable windows and openings on the north and south faces of the classrooms allows for natu ral air circulation. All of the windows are equipped by interior louvers to make the amount of light and heat controllable inside the classroom. Automated HVAC sensors that turn off the

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126 mechanical system upon existence of natural air flow impacts energy ef ficiency of the classrooms. Energy efficient florescent linear lighting fixtures that can be controlled in different zones are proposed for the lighting system of the classrooms. Linoleum flooring, which is a sustainable solution t hat contributes to or com plies with LEED credits, is proposed for the interior flooring, and low or no VOC paints are planned for the interior colors. Portable Cl assrooms Site Planning The number of portable classrooms added to a school site over time depends on the requirement of the school facility in each year based on demographic changes. However as in most cases studied, schools start with small unit numbers and grow to large unit numbers over the years. Based on the school s capacity and demographics, the first number of po rtable classrooms sets added to school sites might vary. In most cases, schools start adding portable classrooms from year one of their implementation because demographics change from the time construction begins to the time the school opens. Because of st ate law school districts may not construct extra capacity for projected demand even though additional classrooms available at the time the school facility is finished would provide a superior learning environment. This proposal suggests three or four as th e minimum number of units to be added to school sites in order for them to function as a small neighborhood in the allocating the portable units which incorporates the growing number of the portable classrooms that can be added to school sites in the future. This strategy should also eliminate the haphazard allocation of units on different locations on school sites so that they can form unified neighborhoods.

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127 As mentioned earlier in C hapter 3 in the Design Dilemma subheading, portable classroom neighborhoods can be oriented on school sites in two categories: axial configuration and cluster configuration. Axial configurations of portable units are appropriate on si tes with limited expansion width, and cluster configurations of portable units are appropriate on sites with large expanses. Axial configuration of proposed units can be located on school sites horizontally or vertically. Depending on each school site, the se configurations can be combined and used as the planning strategy of that school. Figure 4 22 illustrates different cl assroom neighborhood s on school sites and their relative elevations. A B Figur e 4 22. Portable c lassroom s on school sites. A) Plans. B) Elevations

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128 In order to test how these configurations respond to actual school sites, two school sites are developed as test cases Both of these sites are located in Orlando, Florida, and they are both newly constructed schools: Glenridge Middle School and Audubon Park Elementary School. Due to high demographic shifts in the district, these schools required portable classrooms from the time they started operating their facility. Audubon Park Elementary School Proposal Audubon Park Elementary School is located in the Orange County school district in Florida. The main building of this facility is a two story compact building with a ma in entrance on Common Way Rd. and a secondary entrance on Bennett Rd. This site contains 26 portable classrooms which have been added to the school site over time and are located on site using the fi nger plan strategy as shown in F igure 4 23. Figure 4 2 3 Current site plan of Audubon Park Elementary School As illustrated i n Figure 4 24 the proposed portable units instructional spaces consist of 3 type B/ L shaped classroom, 19 type C/ Z shaped classrooms and 4 type D/ T shaped classrooms. Unit assembly is designed based on a combination of vertical and horizontal axial orientation of units that form a cluster. East west axial orientation of

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129 single units maximizes the impact of natural lighting. Units are assembled on a raised walkway system that forms a can be accessed by both driveways from Common Way Rd. and Bennett Rd and is connected to the main building by defined walkways. Figure 4 view of the proposed project. Fig ure 4 24 Pro posed portable classroom layout site

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130 Figure 4 25 A perspective showing the proposed portable classrooms neighborhood on Audubon Pa This configuration creates a courtyard type of space that can be used as an outdoor public space for student gatherings and performances. This space is a common place between the students studying in portable classrooms and the permanent building, where st udents can interact. Figure 4 26. A perspective showing movement and circulation spaces outside the portable classrooms.

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131 Figure 4 26 is a perspective view from movement and circulation spaces outside the portable classrooms. entrance of the classrooms to each other, and the transitional spaces surrounding the small public squares create a positive outdoor space throughout this community. F igure 4 27 illustrates movem ent and circulation patterns in diagrams. Figure 4 27 Diagrams illustrate movement and c irculation pattern s of the proposed portable classrooms

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132 Glenridge Middle School Proposal Glenridge Middle School is locat ed in the same district as Audubon Park Elementary School. The main buildings are oriented in a cluster form that create a central courtyard. The main entrance to the school campus is from Glenridge Way, and the secondary access is from Upper Park Rd. The campus contains 14 portable classrooms that are located on the school site adjacent to Blue Jacket Park. The current portable classroom s are assembled in three rows as illustrated in Figure 4 28. Figure 4 28 Current site plan of Glenridge Middle School The proposed portable units are located in the same place as the current portable units and contain 2 type B/ L shaped classroom, 10 type C/ Z shaped classrooms and 2 type D/ T shaped classroom s. As illustrated in Figure 4 29 a combination of east west and north a way that creates a cluster setting as a whole. Like any other setting, east west axial orientation of single units maximizes the impact of natural lighting. Units are assembled on a raised wa

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133 Figure 4 29 Proposed portable classroom layout Glenridge Middle As illustrated on Figure 4 30, t he central courtyard between the portable classrooms neighborhood and main building creates a space similar to the courtyard that exists within the main buildings of this campus and generates a unified clustered campus as a whole.

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134 Figure 4 30. A perspective showing the portable classrooms neighborhood on Glenridge Figure 4 31 illustrates a closer view from the common public space (public square) that connects the portable classr ooms to the permanent building. Figure 4 31 Public s quare Glenridge Middle School

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135 Like any other configuration, sm all public squares connect the entrance of the surrounding the small public squares, they also create a positive outdoor space throughout the community. Figure 4 32 illus trates a perspective from Blue Jacket Park to the proposed portable classrooms. Figure 4 32. A pespective from Blue Jacket Park to the proposed portable classrooms (Base photo courtesy of the author)

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136 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION classroom space in schools that face demographic changes. They are me a n t to be used as temporary instructional spaces, however in many cases this temporary solution evo lves in to a l ong term response to the need for additional instructional space. Studies show that environmental condition s and the phy sical appearance of the portable classrooms lead to dissatisfaction and poor student performance In order to provide an equal edu cational opportunity for all students existing portable classroom conditions need to be changed. To determine how to make positive changes, it was important to answer the research questions as listed below. 1. Is there a correlation between the environmental quality and student performance in portable classrooms compared to traditional classrooms? 2. What variables in environmental quality of the portable classrooms should be enhanced to improve the student performance? 3. How should the environmental variables be improved in portable classrooms? There has been limited research conducted to specifically compare the difference between student test scores in portable classrooms and inside classrooms and this is an area that requires additional research However, there are many studies available that conclude there is a positive correlation between the quality of the school facility and student performance. Studies show that t significant effect on school attendance and that students are less likely to attend schools that use temporary structures (portable classrooms). Student satisfaction positively relates to student performance. Since the level of student satisfaction in portable classrooms is lower than student satis faction in inside

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137 classrooms, it is likely that student performance in portable classrooms is lower than student performance in inside classrooms. On the other hand, studies show that dollar/pupil investment in infrastructure or the environmental quality enhancement of schools results in better student performance or test scores. Therefore, to improve satisfaction and student performance in portable classrooms, investments should be made and the environmental quality of portable classrooms should be enhanc ed. While this study examined one possible approach to meeting this goal, additional research is necessary to ensure the best possible outcome. Affordability is one of the most important advantages of portable classrooms that enable school districts to pro mptly respond to demographic changes. This factor is important and should be considered in the design of portable classrooms. However, it is important that the idea of affordability be re evaluated because it impacts student performance. As studies show, i n order to enhance the quality of portable classrooms, it is not possible to avoid making an investment in improving the physical and environmental quality of portable classrooms. Additional research should be conducted to develop a new metric that establi shes critteria that is related to student outcomes more than construction costs. similar to the quality of the traditional/ inside classroom. In other words, the goal is to min imize the difference between the physical environmental quality of portables and inside classrooms in order to enhance student satisfaction and student performance.

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138 Based on the literature review, the design variables that impact student performance are: movement and circulation, instructional space, lighting, views, acoustics and air quality. These variables can be categorized into two groups: variables that define the quality of space in the actual tectonic of the unit such as acoustics and air quality, and variables whose quality improvement should be considered through the spatial organization of the units such as movement and circulation, instructional space, lighting, and views. bles be the six design variables. The important conclusion of the evaluation of the case studies is that variables cannot only be considered in isolation, and the arrangemen t of individual units on a site is critical. Because portable classrooms are delivered as single units, it is important to consider the cluster orientation of these units on a site when designing the singular unit. In others words, the group of portable cl assrooms on school sites should be considered as neighborhoods which are part of the bigger community of school. As with any other site built community, portable classroom neighborhoods require the consideration of planning strategies when orienting units on a site. In contrast to a site built proposal that should consider the implementation of variables depending on a defined site, portable classroom assembly should be planned in a way that responds to various site conditions. Portable classroom neighbor hoods have the same characteristics and environmental qualities as urban neighborhoods, albeit in a smaller scale. In order to

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139 provide a definitive response of urban design should be used as guidelines for design that consider human interaction. The fundamental concepts from A Pattern Language (Alexander etl. 1979) were used as a strategy to develop implementation guidelines for design variables in portable c lassrooms. The six v The basic concept of the design proposal is a double roofed structure. The second upper roof shades the unit to conserve energy and is a design element that improves the qu ality of transition areas between the inside and outside of the classrooms. Instructional spaces are proposed to be adaptable to different instructional needs by providing indoor and outdoor instructional spaces, as well as flexible classroom layouts to ac commodate lecture and group instructional spaces. The design proposal addressed the improvement of the six variables as shown on table 4 2 This proposal suggests the initial minimum number of the units added to school sites should be 3 or 4 in order to b e able to function as a small neighborhood in site should incorporate a strategy for further expansion when allocating the portable

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140 units. This strategy must eliminat e the haphazard allocation of units at different locations on a school site so that it can form a unified neighborhood. It is critical that the with the main buildings of the campus. The propos al suggests this connection should be created through a courtyard type of space that can be used as an outdoor public square for student gatherings and performances. This space is a common place of interaction between the students who learn in portable cla ssrooms and those who learn in classrooms in the permanent building. This space will play a vital role in unifying the campus. This proposal also incorporates sustainable design strategies that reinforce the development of a sustainable culture among the s tudents who learn in the portable classrooms. Affordability is recognized as an important factor in portable classrooms and is also considered in the design proposal. Flat pack strategy is considered to be the construction principle for the proposed class room. This strategy is utilized because four different varieties of classroom types can be offered while keeping the pre manufactured kit of walls limited to five types. Kit of parts for each unit is delivered to the site in a collapsed form and is assembl ed on transported is much smaller than the currently used portable classroom. In addition, the current transportation strategy creates structural tension on the units and its jo ints which would no longer an issue in the proposed strategy. Flat pack strategy is also a solution that enables the units to be shipped globally. The proposed strategy enables the units to be used in disaster conditions to create temporary school campuses Further studies are required regarding the tectonics of the construction.

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141 LIST OF REFERENCES Alexander, Christopher, et al A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Print. Barszewski, Larry. & Collie, T Sun Sentinel May 11, 1997. Web. 21 Fe b 2013. http://articles.sun sentinel.com/1997 05 11/news/9705100372_1_portable classrooms temporary classrooms school districts Blincoe, J. M. (2008). The age and condition of Texas high schools as related to stude nt academic achievement (Order No. 3341554, The U niversity of Texas at Austin). Pr oQuest Dissertations and Theses 98 n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304473140?accountid=10920. (304473140) Bullock, C, C. ( 2007 ). The relationship between school building conditions and student achiev ement at the middle school level in the common wealth of Virginia Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Dissertations and Theses Burnham, D avid inadequate school building infrast ructure on student attend Social Science Quarterly ISSN 0038 4941, 12/2004, Volume 85, Issue 5, pp. 1112 1128 Chan, Tak, C. Journal of educational administration 2009, Volume 4, p. 290 304 Collins, Robin. S Portable classrooms vs. inside classrooms: Middle school students' test scores. (Order No. 3330664, Walden University). Pr oQuest Dissertations and Theses http: //search.proquest.com/docview/304411467?accountid=10920 Don, European council for an energy efficient economy. 2003. Web. http://www.eceee.org/conference_proceedings/ACEEE_buildings/2004/Panel_7/ p7_1 Duran, in New York City public schools: Journal of Environmental Psychology 2008, Volume 28, p. 278 286 Journal of Educational Administration 2009, Volume 47, Issue3, P. 323 335 Edwards, Nicole C. School facilities and student achievement: Student perspectives on the connection between the urban learning environment and stu dent motivation and performance The Ohio State University, ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 2006

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142 EPA. IAQ Design Tools for Schools United stated environmental protection agency Web. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schooldesign/portables.html Florida department of transp ortation. th edition April 2010. Web. http://www.dot.state.fl.us/statemaintenanceoffice/2010TruckingManual.pdf Huam H. Ta, et al Student Satisfaction and Academic Performance: A Discriminant Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business 3. 2 (Jun 2011): 1401 1407. Hughes, S. Marie. ( 2005 ) The Relationship between School Design Variables and Student Achievement in a La rge Urban Texas School District PhD dissertation ProQuest Information and Learning Company Kronenburg, Robert. Houses in Motion: The Genesis, History, and Development of the Portable Building. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley Aca demy, 2002. Print. Kronenburg, Robert. Portable Architecture: Design and Technology Basel: Birkhuser, 2008. Print. Lambert, Jessma. Interview with Orange County Public Schools Facilities manager April 2013. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/recordDetails.jsp Modular Genius.com Web. August 20, 2013 http://www.modulargenius.com/modular building technical drawings.html Parker, Danny, Sherwin. J. & Thomas ASHRAE Journ al 51.5. May 2009. Web. http://www.ashrae.org between student achievement and the quality of educational facilities: Evidence Peabody Journal of Educatio n (2005), Volume 8 issue 3, P. 71 95. American Journal of Education 2011 Volume5, Issue2, P. 227 247

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143 Ravitch, Diane. A Glossary of Education Terms, Phrases, Buzzwords, and Jargon. Alexandria, VA, USA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development (ASCD), 2007. p 169. Print. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (2003) Shendell, D.G. et al Indoor Air. 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Web, Online Library : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ina.2004.14.issue 5/issuetoc Florida departm ent of education May 10, 2012. Rule 6A 2.0010, Florida Administrative Code Journal of educational administration 2009 Volume 47 Issue 3 p. 290 304 http://www.wftv.com/news/news/local/baldwin park residents upset over school portables/nNPD9/ William Scotsman website 20, 2013. http://www.willscot.com/cl/solutions portable.php Win ter, Michael. Interview with Orange County Public Schools Facilities manager April 2013. 21 st Research on the Impact of School Facilities on Students and Teachers: A Summary of Studies Published since 2000 ED509517, 2009. UF Lib. http://eri c.ed.gov/?id=ED509517

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144 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Maryam Tabrizchi graduated from Azad University in 2003 with a m aster degree in architecture She then worked as an architect in several international architectural firms. Her passion for graduate studies took her back to architecture school in the fall of 2012, and she graduated from lab Orlando, Master of Architecture program in the f all semester of 2013.