How to Attract, Employ, and Retain Highly Qualified Instructional Personnel

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Title:
How to Attract, Employ, and Retain Highly Qualified Instructional Personnel
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1 online resource (183 p.)
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english
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O'Neill, David A
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Degree:
Doctorate ( Ed.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Educational Leadership, Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education
Committee Chair:
OLIVER,BERNARD
Committee Co-Chair:
ELDRIDGE,LINDA BURNEY
Committee Members:
OLIVER,EILEEN
PACE,BARBARA G

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Subjects / Keywords:
attract -- employ -- highly-qualified -- qualitative -- retention -- teachers
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Educational Leadership thesis, Ed.D.
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theses   ( marcgt )
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Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

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Abstract:
This study addresses the issue of high teacher attrition within the first five years. It further addresses the effectiveness of teacher induction programs, most specifically mentoring, as a method of lowering the rate of attrition within school districts. Lastly, it addresses challenges specifically inherent to rural communities. Qualitative research is used to gather data and add to the body of literature already produced on the subject. Interviews are conducted with three administrators and three newly hired teachers at one middle school in Florida. Deep in-depth conversations take place between the researcher and the participants allowing for a clear picture to be painted of the current scene of induction programs and how mentoring plays a vital role in the decision-making process of newly hired teachers in whether to remain in their current positions or to leave the industry. The three newly hired teachers were carefully selected by the principal of the school to show diversification in the study. Teacher A is a recent college graduate who has only been working four months when she was interviewed. Teacher B has fifteen years of experience as a teacher but meets the definition of a newly hired teacher as this person recently switched school districts and took this job at the middle school and is being forced to go through the induction program of the school district as a new hire. Teacher C is a person in her forties who has recently switched from the business and military field to teach in the public school system. This is her first year asa teacher and the class she has inherited for her inaugural experience proves to be one with unexpected turns.
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In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
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Includes vita.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by David A O'Neill.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ed.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: OLIVER,BERNARD.
Local:
Co-adviser: ELDRIDGE,LINDA BURNEY.

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UFE0046120:00001


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1 HOW TO ATTRACT, EMPLOY, AND RETAIN HIGHLY QUALIFIED INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL By A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREME NTS FOR TH E DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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3 love, patience and support writing this dissertation would not have been possible

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the following people as without their help and support this project would never have been completed. Dr. Bernard Oliver for agreeing to be my di ssertation chair, Dr. Eileen Oliver, Dr. Barbara Pace, and Dr. Linda Eldridge for agreeing to help me through this journey of conducting my own doctoral study To my Gainesville Cohort, William Lockley, Joe Parlier, Reb ecca Stempel, Kristina Gonzalez and P atrick Capriola. A special thank s goes to Angela Rowe in the College of Edu cation office who always kept me on the right path for classes and making sure all our paperwork was processed I would like to extend a very special thank you to Dr. Craig Wood, Dr Linda Eldridge, and Dr. Bernard Oliver who completely changed my way of thinking about research and writing. Finally, I would like to thank the entire University of Florida and the College of Education for all their kind support and assistance during thi s four year journey.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page A CKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 11 Purpose of this Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 17 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 18 Definitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 18 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 19 Teacher Attrition Rate within the First Five Years ................................ ................... 19 Effectiveness of Induction Programs ................................ ................................ ...... 24 A Budgetary Standpoint ................................ ................................ .................... 24 Lack of Results from Prior Research Studies ................................ ................... 25 Attrition and Mobility ................................ ................................ ......................... 26 Mentoring and Induction ................................ ................................ ................... 28 Staffing Challenges: Methods for Recruiting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Communities ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 30 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 35 Qualitative Research ................................ ................................ ............................... 35 Case Study Research ................................ ................................ ...................... 35 Qualitative Interviews ................................ ................................ ....................... 37 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 38 Selection of Participants ................................ ................................ ......................... 39 Procedures and Data Collection ................................ ................................ ............. 41 Data An alysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 41 Rigor ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 42 Trustworthiness ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 42 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 42 4 ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ...................... 44 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 44 Analysis of Findings: Research Ques tion One ................................ ........................ 45 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 45 What makes a teacher want to stay here? ................................ ................. 45

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6 Why would a newly hired teacher choose to stay working here year after year? ................................ ................................ ............................... 47 Summary: Research Question One ................................ ................................ .. 48 Analysis of Findings: Research Question Two ................................ ........................ 49 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 5 1 Does the induction program play a deciding factor in whether newly hired tea chers choose to continue to work at the school? ...................... 51 How do we choose mentors for these new hires? ................................ ...... 52 Do you think mentors here en joy the process and idea of mentoring? ...... 53 Besides the incentives can you think of some other reasons why mentors want the extra responsibility? ................................ .................... 54 Do newly hired teachers feel the mentoring process is beneficial and helpful? ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 55 Do you think mentoring comes into terms on whether a newly hired teacher decides to stay? ................................ ................................ ......... 56 Summary: Research Question Two ................................ ................................ .. 57 Analysis of Findings: Research Question Three ................................ ..................... 60 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 61 What are some of the different reasons why a newly hired teacher would choose to leave the school? ................................ ......................... 61 What is the number one reason new hires leave this school out of all the reasons you mentioned? ................................ ................................ ... 62 Summary: Research Question Three ................................ ............................... 63 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 64 Themes ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 65 Theme One: Teams and Administrative Support are the Reasons Teachers Stay ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 65 Theme Two: Mentors are Found Beneficial to New Hires ................................ 67 Theme Three: The Current Induction Program Needs Modification ................. 69 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 69 5 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 71 Summary of the Study ................................ ................................ ............................ 71 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 71 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 72 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 72 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ................................ 72 Selection of Participants ................................ ................................ ................... 73 Procedures and Data Collection ................................ ................................ ....... 75 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 76 Rigor ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 76 Trustworthiness ................................ ................................ ................................ 76 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 76 Discussion of Findings ................................ ................................ ............................ 77 Theme 1: Teams and Administrative Support are the Reasons Teachers Stay ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 78

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7 Theme 2: Mentors are Found Beneficial to New Hires ................................ ..... 78 Theme 3: The Current Induction Program Needs Modification ......................... 78 Recommendations ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 78 Research Question One ................................ ................................ ................... 78 Research Questio n Two ................................ ................................ ................... 79 Research Question Three ................................ ................................ ................ 81 Suggestions for Further Research ................................ ................................ .......... 82 APPENDIX A QUESTION ONE COMPLETE NARRATIVE DATA ................................ ................ 84 Analysis of Findings: Research Question One ................................ ........................ 84 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 84 What makes a teacher want to stay here? ................................ ................. 84 What makes the employment process easy for teachers to apply? ........... 88 Why would a newly hired teacher choose to stay working here year after year? ................................ ................................ ............................... 92 Summary: Research Question One ................................ ................................ .. 95 B QUESTION TWO COMPLETE NARRATIVE DATA ................................ ............. 100 Analysis of Findings: Research Question Two ................................ ...................... 100 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 101 Does the induction program play a deciding factor in whether newly hired teachers choose to continue to work at the school? .................... 101 What type of induction program is currently being utilized at this school? 104 How do we choose mentors for these new hires? ................................ .... 108 Do you think mentors here enjoy the process and idea of mentoring? .... 111 Do we have any incentives for our mentors as far as encouraging them? ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 115 Besides the incentives can you think of some other reasons why mentors want the extra responsibility? ................................ .................. 116 Do newly hired teachers feel the mentoring process is beneficial an d helpful? ................................ ................................ ................................ 120 Do you think mentoring comes into terms on whether a newly hired teacher decides to stay? ................................ ................................ ....... 125 Do the newly hired teachers take into account the experiences found during the mentoring process whether to stay or to leave? .................. 130 Summary: Research Question Two ................................ ................................ 135 C QUESTION THREE COMPLETE NARRATIVE DATA ................................ ......... 151 Analysis of Findings: Research Question Three ................................ ................... 151 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 151 What are some of the different reasons why a newly hired teacher would choose to leave the school? ................................ ....................... 151

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8 What is the number one re ason new hires leave this school out of all the reasons you mentioned? ................................ ................................ 155 How many newly hired teachers typically leave this school on an annual basis? ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 157 Summary: Research Question Three ................................ ............................. 159 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 162 Themes ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 162 Theme One: Teams and Administrative Support are the Reasons Teachers Stay ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 163 Theme Two: Mentors are Found Beneficial to New Hires .............................. 164 Theme Three: The Current Induction Program Needs Modification ............... 166 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 167 D INTERVIEW QUE STIONS ................................ ................................ .................... 168 E INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ ........................ 170 F INDUCTION PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS ................................ ......................... 171 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 175 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 183

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education HOW TO ATTRACT, EMPLOY, AND RETAIN HIGHLY QUALIFIED INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL By December 2013 Chair: Bernard Oliver Major: Educational Leadership This study addresses the issue of high teacher attrition within the first five years. It further addresses the effectiveness of teacher induction programs most specifically mentoring, as a method of lowering the rate of attrition within school districts Lastly, it addresses challenges specifically inherent to rural communities. Qualitative research is used to gather data and add to the body of literature already produced on the subject. Interviews are conducted with three administrators and three newly hired teachers at one rural middle school in Florida. Deep in depth conversations take place between the researcher and the participants allowing for a clear picture to be painted of the current scene of induction programs and how mentoring plays a vital r ole in the decision making process of newly hired teachers in whether to remain in their current positions or to leave the industry. The three newly hired teachers were chosen at random by the researcher after a list of newly hired teachers was provided b y the principal. Teacher A is a recent college graduate who has only been working four months when she was interviewed. Teacher B has fifteen years of experience as a teacher but meets the definition of a newly hired teacher as this person recently switche d school districts and took this job at the middle

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10 school and is being forced to go through the induction program of the school district as a new hire. Teacher C is a person in her forties who has recently switched from the business and military field to t each in the public school system. This is her first year as a teacher and the class she has inherited for her inaugural experience proves to be one with unexpected turns.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background This study addresses the issue of high teacher a ttrition within the first five years. It further addresses the effectiveness of teacher induction programs most specifically mentoring, as a method of lowering the rate of attrition within school districts. Lastly, it addresses challenges specifically inh erent to rural communities. Is there a relationship between academic competency and retention? There are four s tudies which explicitly examine how t related to retention. The assumption is that teac preferred in the profession, and thus efforts should be made to encourage retention. Podgursky, Monroe and Watson (2004) investigate school ACT scores and both the probability of the individual entering teaching, and having entered teaching, the pr obability of leaving. They find ind ividuals with higher scores are less likely to enter teaching, and of those who did enter, teachers with higher scores are more likely to leave. Does this mean those who are m ore intelligent and score better on standardized exams are less likely to enter the profession of education? Zumwait and Craig (2005) have pointed out the flaws in using high school information g to determine how academic Strunk and Robinson (2006) use 1999 2000 School and Staffing Survey (SASS) and 2000 2001 Teacher Follow up Survey (TFS) data to build a hierarchical general ized linear model. They find subject matter taught, spe cifically foreign languages, is associated with increases in the probability of leaving tea ching, but advanced degrees are not predictive

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12 of attritio n. Weiss (1999) uses data from two SASS administrati ons (1987 88 and 1993 94) to examine relationships between advanced degrees and commitment to the profession in the sense of pl anned teacher retention. She fi nd s tea degrees are just as committed as those with bach there a re no differences in how long the two groups plan to teach. One study uses qualitative methods to explore why highly academically able teachers r emain in teaching (Clayton & Sc hoonmaker, 2007). Using constant comparative methods to analyze int ervie w data, the researchers find both of the two teachers who stayed in the profession receive support in their development as teacher leaders in nurturing school environments. However these researchers do not differentiate between the reasons capable teachers remain in the profession and t he reasons of other teachers Thus, it is unclear whether their findings are specific to highly academically able teachers. The studies which competency in extremely different ways, which, along with small samples, makes it difficult to generalize across the studies. These differences, notwithstanding the studies listed above, offer little support for the contention that teachers with greater ac ademic competency exhibit more desirable teaching practices or persist in the profession longer (Cochran Smith, et al. 2010). One of the major issues regarding teacher retention is the mentors which are assigned. The literature suggests a wide discrepancy among induction programs and their levels of support. Many programs provide generic information and strategies and lack in breadth and depth that beginning teachers need (Darling Hammond, Berry, Haselkom, & Fideler, 1999; Odell, 1986). Although some stat es have compreh ensive

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13 state level policies which require or strongly encourage districts to provide teacher induction programs (Hare & Heap, 2001), the structure and content of new teacher induction programs vary widely by state and district (Curran & Gold rick, 2002). Induction can range from a single orientation held before the start of the school year to a series of activities and sessions lasting several years. Some programs are school based, whereas others are state adopted (Hahs Vaughn & Scherff, 2008) In addition, although some programs have few requirements, others require novices to complete workshops (e.g., technology, discipline), create portfolios, take part in online discussions, and attend district based meetings while trying to navigate their first year in the classroom. Too little or too much can be equally ineffective (Kaplan, Scherff, & Faulkner, 2005). To see a detailed list of what states are asked to provide newly hired teachers and what they actually provide see Appendix C. It was so ap parent to all stakeholders involved that rural schools would not easily accomplish the standard teacher quality reform enacted by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) that an amendment was approved which gave teachers hired in rural areas who are al ready highly qualified in one subject area three additional years to become highly qualified in other subjects they teach (U.S. Department of Education, 2004). Although many schools struggle to meet the component of NCLB regarding the necessity to employee highly qualified teachers, the need to draw and retain instructional personnel presents unique challenges particularly in districts which find themselves of the rural variety (Elfers & Plecki, 2006). Rural schools experience many of the same challenges as urban schools, such as high concentrations of impoverished children, but often face additional obstacles to teacher recruitment and retention. These

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14 include: lower salaries, small school population, and remote locations, which can serve to further hinder the recruitment and retention of highly qualified teachers (Boe, Bobbitt, Cook, Whitener, & Weber, 1997; Ingersoll & Rossi, 1995). According to the SASS data, high schools in rural communities average nearly half as many full time instructional personnel per school as compared to larger schools, found in less isolated communities (27.6 teachers, as compared to 47.7 for urban fringe and 53.8 for large/mid size city). If an English teacher leaves, for example, there may be no English department until another teacher is hired In small rural schools, it is common for one teacher to be responsible for a broad discipline in its entirety and therefore required to teach multiple subjects, regardless of certification. For example, one teacher certified in science m ay teach physics, chemistry, and biology but may only be certified in one of these subjects Data collected for the 2003 2004 Schools Staffing Survey (SASS) presents the idea that towns with a small population and geographic locations found to be rural in the United States have a tougher time recruiting and employing instructional personnel than d o areas which find themselves possess ing greater numbers of people Bearing in mind that data on the national level revealed schools in a rural setting had a lower rate of teacher attrition (14.0%) than urban (15.2% ) and suburban (15.6%) schools, and a lower percentage of vacancies for instructional personnel (66.6% compared to 71.9% for all public schools), these vacancies may have a greater negative impact on a sc hool found to be small in population or rural more than a school with a greater number of students and teachers (Beesley, Atwill, Blair, & Barley, 2010 ; Ingersoll, 2001; Luekens, Lyter, & Fox, 2004).

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15 Teacher recruitment and retention have never been eas ily accomplished. With requirements in such a way that teaching positions requiring multiple subjects be taught by the same teacher, common to small rural schools, demand more teacher training than typical single subject positions, thus creating more reasons for someone to logically choose not to teach in small rural communities. A theoretical argument has been made that this has made recruitment and retention a greater issue i n small rural communities, districts, and schools throughout the United States (Reeves, 2003). The difficulty of recruiting and retaining teachers is particularly acute for rural schools that are also small. At the national level, Ingersoll & Rossi (1995) found that school size was a significant factor in retention; in fact, schools with fewer than 300 students had higher turnover rates than those wit h 300 students or more. Survey results produced by SASS in 2006 also substantiate the negative relationshi p between school size and teacher recruitment, as a higher percentage of small rural schools (less by all public schools (Strizek, Pittsonberger, Riordan, Lyter, & Orlofsky, 2006). Barrow and Burchett (2000) surveyed Missouri science teachers and found that 49% had more than four courses for which to prepare lesson plans, and that 29.9% were not certifi ed in at least one of the courses they were teaching. Given the multiple subject areas often required of rural teachers, finding teacher candidates that are highly qualified in each subject to be taught is, and will continue to be, a challenge. Lazarus (20 03) conducted a survey of all 331 Minnesota school districts and found that nearly

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16 twice as many rural teachers, as compared to non rural teachers, were teaching out of their field of licensure or under a waiver. Ingersoll (2003 a) studies the teacher quali ty issue from the perspective of teachers who are teaching out of field This study reports on a decade of work on out of field teaching utilizing four cycles of the SASS data. Despite national and local reforms to reduce out of field teaching, Ingersoll f i nd s a slight increase in its oc currence. He points out securin g a qualified teaching staff is more difficult in rural districts with smaller faculties whe re teaching multiple subjects i s common (Ingersoll, 2003 b ). Costigan (2005) uses interviews and focus gro ups to identify four themes influencing how New Yo rk City Teaching Fellows think about their career paths. Perceived lack of continuity between academic expectations and academic investment from stude nts, standardized curricula inhi biting their freedom to design curriculum materials, and lack of autonomy negatively impact The final theme, personal relationships with students, is the one influence which makes it difficult for teachers to think about leaving and thus bolstered retention (Cochran Smith et al., 2010). One limitation found within the literature discussing the topic of teacher retention by Cochran Smith et al. (2010) is that, with few exceptions, it does not connect teacher Further, important limitations prevent the studies in teacher preparation and learning to teach in the early career years from offering deeper insight into teacher lear ning. Additionally, studies examining teacher retention do so independently of measures of qu ality of the teachers who remain or leave the profession. Thus the insights generated

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17 by studies about the preparation and learning experie nces best foster ing the development of competent, committed educators are incompl ete While researchers have investigated rural teacher recruitment and retention, there is limited empirical research on what strategies are best for recruiting and retaining teachers, especially research that is rural specif ic (Allen, 2005; Arnold, Newman, Gaddy, & Dean, 2005; Hammer, Hughes, McClure, Reeves, & Salgado, 2005). Adding to the current knowledge of why teacher attrition rates are so high within the first five years of individuals beginning their teaching careers with a school/district will assist school districts in bettering this common problem found throughout the United States. If teacher induction programs are found to be effective in lowering the attrition rate other schools/ districts could use this process to assist in the retention of their highly qualified new hires. Rural districts will be able to use the knowledge discovered through this study to help with challenges found to be inherent to their areas. With this being said, transfer of concept is not ty pically a goal for qualitative research; thus, transfer is not a goal or priority for this study. Purpose of this S tudy The purpose of this study is to discove r what strategies a rural middle school within a school district in Florida use s to attract, empl oy and retain highly qualified personnel. It is also t o identify what role induction programs play at a rural middle school in a school district in in or leave their position. It is further t o descr ibe what specific problems a rural middle school within a school district in Florida face S when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers.

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18 Research Questions 1. Research Question #1: What strategies do es a rural middle school in a Florida s ch ool district use to attract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel? 2. Research Question #2: What role do induction programs play decision making to remain in their positions at a rural Florida middle school? 3. Research Question #3: What spe cific problems do rural Florida middle schools f ace when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers? Definitions 1. Agency (see also, Teacher Agency) is defined as the state of exerting power or influence. 2. Attrition (see also, L eavers) is defin ed as teachers leaving the industry. 3. Effective Mentoring is defined as combining the professional (observing, evaluating, and advising) and the personal (befriending and counseling). 4. Efficacy (see also, Teacher Efficacy) is defined as the capacity for prod ucing a desired result or effect; effectiveness. 5. Leavers (see also, A ttrition) are defined as teachers leaving the industry. 6. Mentoring is defined as personal support for beginning teachers from experts. 7. Migration (see also, Mobility; M overs) is defined as teachers changing schools. 8. Mobility (see also, Migration; M overs) is defined as teachers changing schools. 9. Movers (see also, Mobility; M igration) is defined as teachers changing schools. 10. Out of Field Teacher is defined as a teacher assigned to teach subjec ts for which they were not certified. 11. Successful Recruitment is defined as finding and coming to agreeable terms with certified teachers and having them accept positions with the school and district. 12. Successful Retention is defined as professional educato rs remaining in the field of education and at one location for an extended period of time. 13. Teacher Agency (see also, Agency) is defined as the state of exerting power or influence. 14. Teacher Efficacy (see also, Efficacy) is defined as the capacity for produ cing a desired result or effect; effectiveness.

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19 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE T he purpose of this review of literature is to present an overview of research related to my study including the following topics: teacher attrition rate within the first five years of being hired ; effectiveness of induction programs; and staffing challenges unique to rural communities. Teacher Attrition Rate w ithin the First Five Years Successful recruitment is defined as finding and coming to agreeable terms with certified tea chers and having them accept positions with the school and district. Successful retention is defined as professional educators remaining in the field of education and at one lo cation for no less than five years Ideally principals want as static a workforc e as possible but with a constantly changing educational sector this becomes more and more difficult as the business of education changes. Studies find the recruiting and retention of instructional personnel to be interrelated. Analyses of the Schools and S taffing Survey (SASS) show a high correlation between challenges with recruiting and with retention, implying that schools reporting they have difficulties recruiting are nearly twice is likely to have above average rates of attrition (Ingersoll, 2001; Lu ekens, Lyter, & Fox, 2004; Strizek et al., 2006). LaTurner (2002) used data from Baccalaureate and Beyond, a nationally degree in 1993, to identify four separate certif ication routes into teaching based on teaching crede ntial in math or science. He fi nd s teachers with teaching credentials in math or science express the highest commitment to teaching and the intention to still be

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20 teaching after two years. These facts suggest math and scienc e teachers with certification a re more committed to teaching than non certified teachers (Cochran Smith et al., 2010). There are t en distinct studies re garding entry pathways into teaching and the relationship between each pathway and teacher attrition. Two compare the turnover rates of graduates of Professional Development School (PDS) models with those of To examine the attrition rates of elementary teachers, F leener and Dahm (2007) conduct a survival analysis on 1,959 teachers (871 PDS) w hile Latham and Vogt (2007) use a regression analysis controlling for teacher demographics and characteristics to study 1,065 teac hers (506 PDS). Both studies fi nd that partic ipants in PDS programs persist longer in teaching than do their non PDS p eers. In contrast, Reynolds, Ross, and Rakow (2002) anal yze responses to open ended questions administered through pho ne and wr itten surveys. They fi nd no difference in rates of teacher persistence between PDS and non PDS teachers, but they note g raduates of the PDS program feel more prepared to teach. Taken tog ether these studies suggest retention rates may be improved when teach ers are prepared in PDS programs. However, there are many unanswered questions about what specific aspects of this model le a d to these results. Fleener and Dahm (2007) rightly re commend additional research examining key aspects of the PDS model, including commitments, impact of extended experiences in the classroom, and collaboration. Studies discussing entry pathways into teachi ng and their consequences focus on programs and the factors affecting their decisions to remain in the teaching profession.

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21 They found school districts with access to induction support and professional deve lopment a re more likely to retain teachers; teachers who were satisfied with suppor t from principals and mentors a re more willing to remain in teaching. Along slightly different lines, some studies in the area of teacher preparation progr ams and their gra duates examine retention more broadly by studying their rocesses of graduates who stay in teaching (Costigan, 2005; Liu, Johnson, & Peske, 2004; Malow Bisland, 2007; Olse n & Anderon, 2007; Quartz et al., 2005) Like the studies which examine teaching practice, research ers investigating retention use qualitative approaches and similar data collection strategies, such as Anderson, 2007 ). A few of the studies utilize mixed methods research designs, using survey data or scaled classroom observation scores alongside data collected from quantitative instruments to develop a more complex understanding of the impact of teacher education programs (e.g., Quartz et al., 2005). Despite some variat ion, the studies in this area co me to remarkably similar conclusions. Across the studies, researchers find two program factors connected to higher than average retention rates: selectivity in the recruitment of appropriate teacher candidates, focusing mainly on their dispositions and commitment to teaching; and, coursework, mentoring, and fieldwork specifically geared toward the contexts in which the candidates would ultimately teach. Anoth er group of studies investigating retention and other career decisions once teacher s entered the field also focus on context. Malow Iroff et al. (2007) used surveys

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22 to examine the career decisions of graduates of the New York City Te aching Fellows program. They find decisions a re correlated with working conditions, such as the socioeconomic status of students (as reported by teachers), administrative support for reported general teaching efficacy (the capacity for producing a de sired result or effect; effectiveness). Costigan (2005) uses journals, interviews and focus gr oups to identify four themes influencing how New Yo rk City Teaching Fellows think about their career paths. Perceived lack of continuity between academi c expectations and academic investment from stude nts, standardized curricula inhibiting their freedom to design curriculum materials, and lack of autonomy negatively impact which was also stated in chapter one, is p ersonal relationships with students, the one influence making it difficult for teachers to think about leaving and thus bolstered retention (Cochran Smith et al., 2010). Collectively, the studies discussing teacher preparation programs and their graduates make an important contribution to the research on teacher retention by throughout course a nd field offerings, and improve retention, especially when teachers are selected and prepared for specific contexts. The major limitat ion to this body of work is with few exceptions, that performa teacher quality solely on the basis of student learning, much of the research in the area of teacher preparation programs and their gr aduates assume s well prepared teachers

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23 remain in the profession to Smith et al., 2010). Four studies in the area of teacher preparation and learning to teach in the early career years examine the influence of aspects of the process of learning to teach on retention and other career decisions. Th ese studies generally identify teache r agency (the state of exerting power or influence) as an important factor contributing to teacher retention during the transition period from preparation to teaching. When teachers feel they have active, meaningful roles in their schools (Goode, Quartz, B arraz Lyons, & Thomas, 2004), a re able to approximate their ideals for classroom practice (Hammerne ss, 2008), and/or wh en they feel supported by empowering mentors (Johnson & Birkela nd, 2003; Worthy, 2005), they a re more likely to stay These studies, then, suggest reforms to teacher education programs, school organizations, and educat ional policy emphasizing factors which agency. Research in the area of teacher preparation and learning to teach in the early education and teacher retention. First, the stu education programs can better prepare graduates to incorporate reform oriented teaching practices into their instruction. In this way, the studies in this genre can be understood as a response to a w eb of critiques, suggesting university based teacher ess Secondly, the studies in this area contribute to a more intimate understanding of the complexities of teaching. By viewing teaching practice in dynamic relationship context, these studies

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24 provide greater insight into how preparation programs, of all kinds, can help to improve teacher quality (Cochran Smith et al., 2010). In spite of these contributions, important limitations prevent the studies in the area of teacher preparation and learning to teach in the early career years from offering deeper insight into teacher lear ning. Additionally, studies examining teacher retention do so independently of measures of quality of the teachers who stayed in or left the profession. Thus the insights generated by studies about the preparatio n and learning experiences best foster ing the development of competent, committed educators are incomplete (Cochran Smith et al., 2010). Effectiveness of Induction Progr ams A Budgetary Standpoint According to the U.S. Department of Education, 8% of all teachers (public and private) changed schools between 1999 2000 and 2 000 2001 During the same period, 7% of public school teachers and 13% of private school teachers left teaching (Luekens et al., 2004). Thus, one of the most prominent challenges facing schools today comprises attracting teachers and then retaining them (Imazeki, 2005). Attrition and mobility (teachers changing schools) create teacher shortages result ing in a poor return on mone tary resources spent to recruit, hire, train and support new teachers (Haselkorn & Fid e ler, 1999) Hare and Heap (2001) estimate the cost to replace one teacher is 25% 35% of his or her annual salary a nd benefits. A study of the California New Teacher Project focusing on new teacher support, including mentoring and profess ional development workshops, fi nd s districts saved an average of 31 cents for every dollar spent on the program after the first year and 68 cents after the second year because of decreased recruitment and hiring costs (California Commission

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25 on Teacher Credentialing and California Department of Education, 1992; Curran & Goldrick, 2002). Doney ( 2013) finds one teacher in her first year s aying she needs various systems of support. During your first year you need a whole bunch of different people helping has been teaching for a short time, someone that teaches your subj ect, someone that teaches another subject. Just to give you different ideas about different things. You want to find yourself as a teacher and not just become a clone o f another teacher This speaks to the fact that mentoring and professional development has been Citing a study performed in Texas showing teacher turnover costs the state around $329 million per year, Darling Early r retention rates (due to either attrition or mobility) can ultimately lead to substantial consequences on the quality of education provided to students (Imazeki, 2005). Lack of Results from Prior Research Studies Although researchers have consistently dem onstrated high teacher attrition rates (Darling Hammond, 2003; Gold, 1996, Ingersoll, 2003 a ; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004), little is known about the social, institut ional, and personal factors contributing to teacher attrition; researchers and educators have c alled for investigation of teaching conditions, mentoring, and induction programs as they relate to attrition and mobility (Curran & Goldrick, 2002; Imazeki, 2005). Althou gh some small scale studies analyze the experiences of beginning teachers (Bullough, 1989; Johnson & Birkeland, 2004; Rogers & Babinski, 2002; McCann, Johannessen, & Ricca, 2005; Scherff, 2006; Smagorinsky, Cook, Moore, Jackson, & Fry, 2004) reasons for dissatisfaction, the profession has had little succe ss in lowering attrition rate. For

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26 udy of beginning teachers shows the ability to define a teacher persona and narrow the mismatch between expectations and job reality which might red uce the attrition rate. They find one of every three teachers within their study quit by their fifth year. A similar follow up st udy of 12 beginning teachers fi nd s antagonistic colleagues, the demands of meeting special education requirements, and a lack of ad ministrative support contribut e to their dissatisfaction and their decision to change schools or leave the profession (Scherff, 2006). Attrition and Mobility Teacher turnover can exist in the form of either (a) attrition (teachers leaving the r migration (teachers changing schools or The two alternatives have approximately the same percentage of annual turnover. Most researchers on teacher attrition have not examined teacher mobility. This lack is because teachers who change schools although yielding an attrition statistic at one school, become a new hire at anothe r school. Thus, it may seem teacher mobility is not a problem related to staffing schools an d teacher shortages However, teacher attrition and teacher mobility have the s ame impact from the perspective of organization: they create a shortage of facult y that must be replaced, so examining ppears far less problematic than it is for those viewing this issue from a school management perspective (Ingersoll, 2004). Although many factors contribute to overall teacher attrition and mobility, most beginning teachers leave the profession because of low salaries, student discipline problems, lack of support, poor working conditions, inadequate preparation, and little opportunity to participate in decision making (Andrews & Martin, 2003; Cochran Smith,

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27 2004; Darling Hammond, 2003; Hirsch, 2006; Ingers oll, 2003 b 2004; Kent, 2000; Liu & poverty urban and rural districts are more likely to have higher teacher turnover (Hare & Heap, 2001; Haselkorn & Fideler, 1999; Imazeki, 2005). Imazeki (2005) fi nd s higher salaries are related to increase a ttrition out of the pr Moreover, increases in salary of up to 20% were ki, 2005). School districts perceive the effectiveness of salaries on re tention (yielding stayers ) as moderately successful in decreasing attrition (Hare & Heap, 2001). Others leave the profession because they never intended to stay in it over the long term. Johnson an d Birkeland (2004) report potential teachers do not nece ssarily possibilities, including jobs with high status and pay, productive work environments, and the norm, and short term employment is com As compared with public school teachers, private school teachers are more likely to leave teaching, although teachers from both sectors are equally likely to change schools (Luekens et al., 2004). Likewise, the effect of gender on teacher attrition and mobility differ s. Some researchers suggest women are more likely to leave teaching (Stinebrickner, 1998), whereas other researchers suggest women are less likely to leave (Imazeki 2005). Researchers id entify a nother cause for teacher attrition numbers:

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28 the accountability associated with the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2002). O ver 55% of those surveyed indicate decision to leave the profession (Hirsch, 20 06). Mentoring and Induction One way to reduce the attrition rate is through supportive induction and mentoring programs (Darling Hammond, 2003; Feiman Nemser, 1996; Gold, 1996). Mentoring makes a difference at the elementary, middle, and high school level s. No matter what level you teach effective mentoring produces positive effects in both teacher methodology and student achievement ( Stanulis, Little, & Wibbens, 2012; Bieler, 2013) Teacher induction programs are not necessarily extra training but do prov ide activities for teachers who have already completed basic preparation. Such activities for b eginning teachers which support, train, and provide feedback in currently used methodology. Induction activities may be mentoring programs, professional development, new teacher orientations, networking opportunities, or similar activities (Recruiting New Teachers, 2000). For example, an induction component to combat stress and foster encouragement among novice teachers is membership in network (i.e., support g roups). Research shows such groups lower stress and feelings of isolation while promoting teacher enthusiasm, competency, and reflection (Chubbuck, Clift, Allard, & Quinlan, 2001; DeWert, Babinski, & Jones, 2003). Aspects of formal induction, such as implementing team teaching and providing common planning time, are also perceived as effective strategi es for retention (Hare & Heap, 2001).

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29 However, the literature suggests a wide discrepancy among induction programs and their levels of support, with many programs providing generic information and strategies and lacking in breadth and depth that beginning teachers need (Darling Hamm ond et al., 1999; Odell, 1986). Research produced by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCR EL; Hare & Heap, 2001) indicates districts perceive induction programs to be effective for retaining and recruiting new t eachers, with mentoring as one of the most important attributes. Mentoring, which is defined as personal support for beginning teachers from experts, is one aspect of induction. As with induction programs, mentoring can look decidedly different from school to school. At minimum, some principals simply assign mentors to novice teachers with no guidelines for their responsibilities (Hahs Vaughn & Scherff, 2008). Sometimes mentors are assigned but rong collaboration, critical relationship cannot take place when mentors do not want the role, are not comfortable in the role, or are not provided with professional develo pment to take on the role. Some recommendations for effective mentoring include structured programs, mentor training, release time for mentors (e.g., allowing teachers paid time away from their classroom to mentor other teachers), and common planning time with novices (Darling Hammond, 2003; Feiman Nemser, 1996; Holloway, 2001). Effective mentoring combines the professional (observing, evaluating, and advising) and the personal (befriending and counseling) (Rippon & Martin, 2006). These conditions are essen tial for programs to

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30 potential unless it is guided by a deeper conceptualization that treats it as central to the rgreaves & Fullan, 2000). Staffing Challenges: Methods for Recruiting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Communities Beesley and a group of researchers perform a study worth noting in this area. Analyzing school districts based on their rate of success the m ethods and benefits found wit hin the SASS, signing bonuses a re the only major difference and interestingly a re found to have a negative effect on the ability to sign teachers to work in their district. During the interviews of seven principals of schoo ls f ound to be successful as is determined by their quantitative data, not as a representation of the population, but simply to add clarity to their quantitative findings, t he principals stated three methods your own, using fed eral funding opportunities, and Hare and Nathan (1999) conduct one of the few empirical studies investigating issues o f recruitment and retention including data on the success of st rategies utilized. They survey at small rural schools utilize three common strategies to fill high needs positions: alternative licensure, training paraprofessionals, and placement above entry on salary scale. This survey also includes a question asking the principals to rate the success potential for several additional strategies. The principa ls of small rural schools agree or strongly agree to the potential benefits of scholarships and/or loan forgiveness for students willing to teach in high need areas, funding for mentorship programs, and early recruitmen t programs

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31 T he Government Accountabi lity Office (GAO, 2004) surveyed rural and non rural superintendents about strategies used in recruiting and retaining h ighly qualified teachers. Significantly fewer superintendents from small r ural districts (28%) establish partnerships with higher education institutions, as compared to those in larger rural districts (48%); further, fewer superintendents from small rural districts en courage paraprofessionals to complete the coursework required to achieve certification (45% for small rural and 69% for large rural). It is the opinion of the small rural superintendents the travel distances reduced the potential efficacy of th ese strategies. The findings of the review of literature regarding promising strategies for recruiting and reta ining highly qualified teachers can be aggregated into three approaches: grow your own teachers, use targeted incentives in recruiting, and maxim ize federal funding opportunities. The grow your own approach refers to training local people who are most likely to return to the area and fill a need. Some examples of this approach include: a) providing additional training to local paraprofessionals; b) retraining service oriented people that is, people who express the mindset of wanting to give of themselves to the school and community ; and c) partnering with teacher preparation programs (Crews, 2002) and institutions of higher education to provide alt ernative access to coursework. In 2000, Clewell, Darke, Davis Googe, Forcier, and M anes created a summary report for the Department of Education Planning and Evaluation Service of various recruitment and retention strategies utilized in school districts th roughout the United States. Results from four programs with sufficient evaluative information reflect w hat other empirical research consistently fi nd s : there is a strong positive correlation between location of

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32 current teaching position and location of hom etown, high school or college (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2005; Boylan, et al. 1993; Davis, 2002; Monk, 2007; Yeager, Marshall, & Madsen, 2003) These studies also reveal those who enjoy their rural lifestyle as children and young adults value the b enefits small rural schools and communities offer: strong student teacher relationships, fewer discipline problems, increased individual instruction, increased parental involvement, and lack of crime. The approach of targeted incentives includes overlappin g strategies: salary increases and scholarship programs, as well as location specific incentives (affordable housing, transportation, and access to professional development) (Beesley et al., 2010). Critical to the understanding of targeted incentives, part icularly increased salary, is that while research has consistently show n field, adequate salary is necessary but not sufficient for teacher retention. Evaluating the teacher incentives program utilized in tw o school districts, Heneman (1998) and Heneman and Milanowski (199 9) find while monetary incentives a re valued by teachers, feeling empowered they can make a di a more powerful motivator. The approach of maximizing federal fu nding opportunities supports the two previously mentioned approaches by using additional funding available to rural schools to address the provisions of NCLB. For example, s ome small rural schools report using Title I funds to pay for teacher professional development (GAO, 2004). Title II funds are used to increase the number of highly qualified teachers in rural districts as well. In additi on, some rural schools use Title VIII funds to cover tuition costs for paraprofessionals seeking teacher certification Another approved source of

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33 supplemental funding for rural schools was implemented in 2004, the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP). The rural administrat ors surveyed by the GAO report using REAP funds to help teachers and paraprofessionals meet th e highly qualified teacher provision of NCLB, and also to recruit highly qualified teachers. Another federal program was created in conjunction with the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the E Rate program. Rural districts r eport using E Rate funds to suppor t the creation of distance learning opportunit ies for teachers and students; t eachers to meet the requirements of the highly qualified teachers component of NCLB and students to be provided advanced high school coursework options (Beesley et al., 2010). In addition to these three approaches researchers also study comprehensive and on going teacher induction programs (Harris, Holdman, Clark, & Harris, 2005; Smith & Ingersoll, 2004) and their relationship to teacher retention. Typical induction programs pair a new teacher with an experienced mentor, and include extended planning time, mentor coaching, and social activities to esta blish and enhance new connectedness. The studies of induction programs conducted in non rural schools consistently repor t induction as successful in retaining new teachers when the mentor teaches the same subject (Smi th & Ingersoll, 2004). A study evaluating the success of an induction program introduced to both rura l and non rural schools reports similar results, even thou gh more of the rural teachers moved to a different district after the first year (Harris et al., 200 5). The researchers hypothesize this increase i s a result of teacher mentor mismatc h. Rural first year teachers a re more likely to be mentored by teachers f rom different subject areas or grade levels. Results fro m the 2003 2004 SASS reveal compared to non rural teachers, a smaller percentage of rural teachers reported

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34 involvement in an induction program during their first year of teaching (National Center fo r Educational Statistics, 2008). The value of induction programs to support new culture of the rural education system and community has yet to be documented.

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35 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Qualitative Research This study uses qualitative research methods. Specifically, a case study is conducted as the method of choice. Qualitative research is defined by Gay, Mills, and Airasian (2006) as the collection, analysis, and interpretation of comprehensive narrative and visual data in order to gai n insights into a particular phenomenon of interest. The purposes of qualitative research are broad in scope and center around promoting a deep and holistic or complex understanding of a particular phenomenon, such as an environment, a process, or even a b elief. Case Study Research A good case study brings a phenomenon to life for readers and helps them understand its meaning. In education case study is probably the most widely used approach to qualitative inquiry. Case study design represents a basic form of qualitative research (Creswell, 2012) It can be used to study almost any t o pic or type of phenomenon, with the entire range of data collection and analytic methods used by qualitative researchers. Its basic elements also appear in the more specialized approaches to qualitative research, called qualitative research traditions (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994) Such traditions (ethnography, semiotics, and historical research) differ from case study in that they focus on particular types of phenomena and use speci al methods in the study of those phenomena. Gall et al. (2007) describe case study research as the in depth study of one or more instances of a phenomenon in its real life context that reflects the perspective of the participants involved in the phenomenon A case study is done to shed light on a phenomenon, which is a process, event, person,

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36 or other items of interest to the researcher. A case is a particular instance of the phenomenon. The unit of analysis is the aspect of the phenomenon that will be stud ied across one or more cases (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994) The focus is the aspect, or aspects, of the case on which data collection and analysis will concentrate. Selection of a focus depends on the audience that the case study will address and the message th at the researcher wants to convey. In a case study, a substantial amount of data is collected about the specific case (or cases) selected to represent the phenomenon. These data usually are in the form of words, images, or physical objects, and some quanti tative data may be collected as well (Creswell, 2012) Often data are collected over an extended time period, and several methods of data collection are used. Jerome Kirk and Marc Miller (1986) define qualitative research as an approach to social science r Researchers generally perform case studies for one of three purposes: to produce detailed descriptions of a phenomenon, to develop possible explanations of it, or to evaluate the phenomenon (Creswell, 2012) In a case study whose purpose is description, the researcher attempts to depict a phenomenon and conceptualize it. The depiction can focus on various phenomena, such as th e meanings that the research participants ascribe to their life and environment, contextual factors that influence their lives, a series of events and their possible outcomes, or the new or unusual in society (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994). A good depiction prov ide s what is called a thick description of the phenomenon, that is, statements that re create a situation and as much of its context as possible, accompanied by the meanings and intentions inherent in that

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37 situation. In creating thick description, the rese archer looks for constructs bring ing order to the descriptive data and relating these data to other research findings reported in the literature. A construct is a concept that is inferred from observed phenomena and that can be used to explain those phenom ena. Researchers also add depth to their descriptions by searching for themes present in the phenomena. Themes are defined by Gall et al. (2007) as salient, characteristic features of a case. Some case study research aims to provide explanations for the ph enomena that wer e studied. These explanations are known as patterns, meaning that one type of variation observed in a case study is systematically related to another observed variation. If the researcher does not cla im that one variation has a caus al effec t on the other, this is described as a relational pattern. If causality is claimed, it is described as a causal pattern. There are several different approaches to qualitative research including but not limited to responsive evaluation, fourth generation ev aluation, quasi legal models of evaluation, and expertise based evaluation (Creswell, 2012) In each approach, the researcher conducts a case study and makes evaluative judgments. In addition, th e researcher might create a thic k description of the phenomen on being evaluated and identify salient co nstructs, themes, and patterns. Qualitative Interviews Interviewing, according to Gay et al. (2006), is the second major data collection technique, which falls in between observing and examining records. An intervi ew is defined as a purposeful interaction in which one person is trying to obtain information from another. Interviews permit researchers to obtain important data they cannot acquire from observation alone. Interviews are distinguished by their degree of s tructure and formality. Some are structured interviews, with a specified set of questions to be

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38 asked, whereas others are unstructured interviews, with questions prompted by the flow of the interview. Interviews may vary from a few minutes to a few hours. They may consist of a one time session or multiple sessions conducted over time with the same participant. Interviews can be complex and difficult when the gender, culture, and life experiences of the interviewer and participant are quite different. There can be issues of which the language of the interviewee and the researcher are similar enough to permit meaningful inferences about the topic under study. For these reasons, a researcher must always take the time to enter the research setting unobtrusively and build support and trust with participants before initiating an interview. A trusting relationship is essential if participants are to answer questions, particularly tho se on sensitive issues, with candor. Participants may be interviewed individually or in groups (Gay et al., 2006; Creswell, 2012; Denzin & Lincoln, 1994; Kirk & Miller, 1986) Instrumentation This study uses qualitative interviews as the research m ethod to discover how a rural school in Florida attracts, hires, and retains highly qualifie d instructional personnel. It is the desire of the researcher to lea rn the story of how the school works according to administrators and teachers alike. A second ary resea rch question asked is how both sides truly feel about the current induct ion program used, especially the mentoring process, and whether or not they feel the current system used plays a role in determining whether newly hired teachers, that is teachers with in their first five years of arriving at the school, remain or leave The instrument used is a set of questions designed by the researcher and modified with the help of his doctoral cohort and dissertation committee to help bring

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39 forth answers to the res earch questions listed in the study. The principal, assistant principals, and te achers are all asked the same questions to ensure reliabili ty of results. The instrument is the foundation o n which all conversation s are based; however, it is not the only gui ding force as the conversations change based on the desired direction of th e interviewee. A pilot test was conducted using this instrument by the researcher with members of a rural s chool district in Florida. Proper paperwork for the pilot study was submit ted and the study was approved by the IRB Department. The question s have proven to be clearly written as well as easily understood by the pilot test interviewees. During the pilot study five interviews were conducted with the questions and modifications ma de to the wording of the interview questions based on the analyses conducted on the pilot study interviews. Additional modifications to the guiding questions were made in a meeting with the doctoral cohort and eventually the dissertation chairperson. Sele ction of Participants The par ticipants for this study are employee s found within a rural school in Florida who work at the middle school leve l. Specifically a principal, two assistant principals, and three newly hired teachers are interviewed. The three ne wly hired teachers were chosen at random by the researcher after a list of newly hired individuals was provided by the principal. The school used to gather data is selected due to its positive reputation. Teachers within the district seek to transfer to th is school because of the many positive assumptions made within the community about its administration, teachers, and students who attend. Within the district there are two middle schools. The middle school which is being researched is known as middle schoo l A (MSA), whereas the alternative middle school is known as middle school B (MSB). Enrollment trends at

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40 MSA are 1,100 students per ye ar, whereas there are around 600 at MSB. MSA has 255 special requests to attend the school, whereas MSB has none. MSA repo rts an average of 225 referrals a month, whereas MSB reports an average of 346. MSA has a history of being an A school, whereas MSB has a history of being a D school. Teachers and administrators at MSA are known to have very high standards and strict dress code; whereas MSB is known as a more relaxed atmosphere where students can act how they want and teachers do not have as high a standard for dress code, behavior, or rigor of instruction. Number of out of zone attendance at MSA is 255, whereas there are n one at MSB. As the researcher wishes to gain insight into how a successful rural middle schoo l is built and maintained MSA is an obvious choice of where best to gather data. The Director of Research within the rural school district in Florida has given per mission to conduct the qualitative re search study. The principal of the school has given permission to be interviewed, as well as her assistant p rincipals, and three newly hired teachers. Informed consent forms are obtained through a letter stating what th e resea rch study entails, which are signed by the principal, the participants, and the researcher. Interviews take place on the campus of the rural middle school and are conducted at the conven ience of the participants The following participant character is tics are gathered during the interviews: 1. Age 2. G ender 3. R ace 4. Y ears of experience as teachers or administrators 5. S ubject matter being taught or previously taught 6. Definition of effective mentoring

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41 7. D egree level 8. M entee or mentor experience 9. Definition of e ffectiv e teacher/principal characteristics Procedures and Data Collection Data collection is done through using a researcher constructed set of questions during a series of inte rviews within a rural school in Florida. As interview data are recorded and hand code d the research er produce s emergent findings and themes. Each participant is interviewed twice so as to establish depth of knowledge about the perspective of the individual and to clarify understanding of interview materia l. The method of inquiry is audio r ecorded interviews conducted to gather data about questions posed by the researcher. The direction of the conversation is allowed to shift depending on the responses of the interviewee always returning back to the guiding questions established by the resea rcher, with editions by the doctoral cohort and dissertation committee. Effort s to control potential bias include asking the same questions in the same manner and allowing the interviewee to expound on subject matter as desired. The randomization of the in terview process and schedule help s to control bias including unobservab le factors. Interviewees are asked to speak openly and honestly about how they feel regarding the interview quest ions. Each interview lasts between 45 70 minute s in duration. As there a re two of these interviews the total time with each participant is between 90 140 minutes total. Data Analysis Each interview is reviewed by the proce ss of hand coding which involves line by line analysis based on exact words used within the interview. I n other word s, line by line

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42 the text is taken, the essence of the text extracted, and compiled to look for common and uncommon trends. Rigor The con firmability of the study is verified through a process wh ereby more than one person analyze s th e data. The r esearcher has the doctoral cohort with which he studies assist in the analysis of data. Transferability, typically, is not a goal of qualitative research thus it is not a goal for this s tudy. Respondent validation increase s credibility through member check ing. Peer de briefing increase s consistency and enhance s dependability of findings. Trustworthiness Credibility is established through helping participants realize the value of the research. Through the use of a f ield journal the researcher notate s events as they occur and share s this with participants to buil d rapport. Dependability is established through an audit trail created to verify eac h step as the research study is performed. Confirmation is established through triangulation. This is also performe d when recoding and reflec ting. Reflexivity, which is performed in b oth aural and written form, assist s in the confirmation process of the resear ch study. The written form is also contained in the field journal which is updated after each activity. Limita tions Data for this study are collected over a period of two months. The conclusions drawn from this study are a snapshot of one rural school at one point in time. This study is conducted at one middle school in a rural community and the results may not be replicable in another school, rural or otherwise. The findings and opinions of this school are unique to their learning environment which have been established over a period of

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43 years. It is uncommon to find a head administrator who has served as a student teacher, assistant principal, and principal all within the same middle school. This provides a unique perspective.

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44 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS Background Teacher turnover is a problem which continually grows worse. The review of literature states induction programs and mentoring in particular help with this. This study researches a rural school district in Florida to discover how teachers and administrators alike feel about induction programs and mentoring. This chapter presents an analysis of th e data collected for the current study. The purpose of this study is to discover what strategies a rural middle school uses to attract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel. It is also to identify what role induction programs play at a rural middle remain in or leave their position. It is further to describe what specific problems a rural middle school faces when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers. This case study was designed to investigate the following questions: 1. Research Question #1: What strategies do es a rural middle school in a Florida s chool district use to attract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel? 2. Research Question #2: What role do induction programs play decision making to remain in their positions at a rural Florida middle school? 3. Research Question #3: What specific problems do rural Florida middle schools f ace when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers? These data were co llected over a two month period of time. The data collection was done by interviews and transcripts were provided to participants to verify accuracy. Interviews were conducted with three teachers and three administrators. Contextual data was gathered from an interview with the Director of Human Resources. The following is a presentation of each research question, corresponding data, and discussion findings as they relate to the study. General titles are provided for each

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45 participant so as to allow for easy reference while maintaining the promise to participants of anonymity. Analysis of Findings : Research Question One What strategies does a rural middle school in a Florida school district use to attract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel ? The fol lowing data represent that which directly ties to the findings of this study. To view the complete narrative for question one please see Appendix A. administrators and teachers agree that teachers want to be hir ed and stay at the school for the following reasons: reputation of the school; the idea of belonging to a team and not wanting to let others down; the support teachers receive from the administrative team; the collegial work environment which offers both a jovial feel and constant support when needed. DeAngelis, Wall, and Che (2 013) find that teachers who are more satisfied with the overall quality of their preservice program are significantly less likely to intend to move to another school or to intend to leave the profession. This preparation to enter successful environments and join the pre established culture proves to be invaluable. Further findings indicate teachers who are provided more comprehensive support are significantly less likely to intend to move or leave than teachers with no support or less comp rehensive support. Interviews What makes a teacher want to stay here? The AP of Curriculum said she thinks the reputation of the school has a lot to do with teachers wanting to stay in their current positions She says the school grade and reputation of the teachers demand for high rigor draw people to want to come and stay

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46 at the school She goes on to say it is not only the reputation of the school but the reputation of the teachers which draws stud ents and fellow colleagues alike. I think especially this middle school the reputation of the school the teachers are doing well People know this school because of the school grade that we have. The teachers are highly effective at looking at the data, kn owing the data, and teaching the kids. The reputation of our school is what sells the school when people want to come here. The teachers are completely invested in the kids and education. The AP of Discipline believes the team has a lot to do with why tea chers stay in their positions. He also speaks of the genuine feeling of acceptance from the faculty. He building from each and every person helping one another. I believe it's t he team itself. I remember when I came here I felt very welcomed. I felt like it was an awesome school to be at and it's just a calm setting. You feel like people genuinely want to help you and they're on your team and they want you to succeed. Then in ret urn, it's contagious you want to return all that favor. The principal also thinks it is the reputation of the school itself as being the reason teachers stay in their positions. She feels so strongly about the teachers, parents, and students knowing that kids. I think a huge part of it is our reputation; t he reputation not only as an academically achieving school but also the idea that we care about your child Teacher A believes it is the environment which brin gs people back year after year as well as a dministrative support. I love the administration. They back us and I feel that is very important. I have definitely interned in schools where there is no support there. And if there is no support in yo ur administration you can hang up your job, really in my opinion, because you are not being backed.

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47 Why would a newly hired teacher choose to stay working here year after year? The AP of Curriculum says the first reason is the reputation of the school as well as the data showing the school is high achieving. Another reason is the administration giving support to the teachers so they may be successful. As number one the reputation, because of the data, because I feel that administrators give the faculty th e support they need to be successful in their classes. I think those are the things the reason why the environment on this campus is all about students and education and what we can do to do the best that we can. I think that atmosphere we have fun, we can act silly, but then when it's time to get down and serious we get down and serious. The AP of Discipline says that the caring atmosphere for children is a major contributing factor. The entire faculty is striving to see how they can do better and make su re everyone feels cared about. He believes people taking care of one another and helping one another stay focused and refreshed is a major reason. Y ou come here you feel welcomed and this place cares about kids, about each other and you want to always str ive to be better and that's one thing that this place always does that always looking for how we can do better The principal says people of a similar mind want to work with one another and this school allows people to strive for success together. Maybe I am very simple but it all goes back to that same ve in that we appeal to teachers who have that desire and that passion and want to feel like they are making it happen If you're at a school where you are being successful where you are working towards the same goals where you see what you're doing and thinking into and you feel the impact that you're having on your students in your school why wouldn't you want to stay? Teacher B says the administration is the primary reason she decides to stay and the reas on she came to this school in the first place. The team approach used by the administration is another reason she decides to stay. Unity and a sense of belonging are also reasons Teacher B remains at this school.

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48 Definitely the administration would keep m e here in fact it is the reason I have stayed here. And another thing that I feel like we have at least in my experience is definitely the team approach and being able to feel like you r e a part of a unit. Because having that person that you r e connected t oo is huge You know we re all human beings and as teachers were all kind of touchy feely anyways we doing this job. Teacher C says the colleagues of new hires have a lot do with their decision to continue to work at this school. She goes on to say it is also the support one receives both from teachers and the administration, as well as supporting the team one has joined. I think part of it is the people that they on, the sup port that they get, not leaving someone out to dry so to speak. Summary: Research Question One In summary, the data collected, as it relates to the first research question, reveals the AP of Curriculum thinks the reputation of the school has a lot to do with teachers wanting to stay in their current positions She says the school grade and reputation of the teachers demand for high rigor draw people to want to come and stay at the school The AP of Discipline believes the team has a lot to do with why tea chers stay in their positions. The principal also thinks it is the reputation of the school itself as being the reason teachers stay in their positions. Teacher A believes it is the environment as well as administrative support which bring people back year after year She says administrative support is critical to accomplishing educational goals and having a pleasing work environment. Teacher B believes the administrative support she receives is the reason she and her peers decide to return year after year. Teacher C believes it is what you hear about the school that draws teachers to want to work here and stay in their position. She also says the teachers and administrators have a large part in her colleagues reasoning for staying at the school for an exten ded period of time.

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49 The AP of Curriculum says teachers stay because of the reputation of the school the data showin g the school is high achieving and the administration giving support to the teachers so they may be successful. The AP of Discipline says that the caring atmosphere for children is a major contributing factor. The entire faculty is striving to see how they can do better and make sure everyone feels cared about. The principal says people of a similar mind want to work with one another and thi s school allows people to strive for success together. Teacher B says the administration is the primary reason she decides to stay and the reason she came to this school in the first place. The team approach used by the administration is another reason she decides to stay. Teacher C says the colleagues of new hires have a lot do with their decision to continue to work at this school. She goes on to say it is also the support one receives both from teachers and the administration, as well as supporting the team one has joined. Analysis of Findings : Research Question Two What role do induction programs play their positions at a rural Florida middle school? The following data represent that which directly ties to the findings of this study. To view the complete narrative for qu estion three please see Appendix C. administrators and teachers agree that: the peer teacher makes the biggest difference in how newly hired teachers feel about the school and how successful they will be; teachers at the school help one another regardless of whether they are assigned to do so. Findings also indicate the administrative team all agree that: the induction program seems like jumping throug h hoops which does not necessarily help the newly hired teacher but it does help them get to know the people at the school; spending time with mentor teachers and peers on their team is much more beneficial to newly hired

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50 teachers than filling out paperwor k required within the current induction program; having teachers around the new hires who not only guide them verbally but go into the classroom and help them implement plans and tweak strategies as needed helps them become acclimated to our system which b reeds success; peer teachers are assigned by subject matter as closely as possible and grade level is also taken into consideration as a secondary concern; being a part of a team and feeling supported and accepted plays the largest role in making newly hir ed teachers feel positively about the school; mentor teachers choose to take on the extra responsibility because they care about the team, the school and they want to see everyone successful. Further data indicate the teachers concur that: being a part of a team and feeling supported and accepted plays the largest role in making newly hired teachers feel positively about the school; teachers have the peer teachers they are assigned but also find peer teachers who are closer in geographic location to help th em on a daily basis; mentor teachers do not meet with their newly hired teachers as they should but the team of teachers around the new hire helps the mentor train the new hire as needed. perspective towards efficacy can be en hanced by the nature of the settings in which that person works, the people he or she works with and the strength of beliefs or aspirations of the culture to which he or she is exposed. Hammerness and Matsko (2013) find challenges associated with beginning teaching are addressed through content specific supports that build on and further develop newly hired teachers knowledge about economic, geographic, and cultural features of their district, knowledge about routines, procedures, and curriculum specific t o their schools. Further findings indicate teachers prepared for particular contexts have higher rates of retention. Further proving the fact

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51 that education and specifically the profession of teaching is social in nature is the study conducted by Kavenuke (2013). He finds th at when teachers are deployed in areas they wish to work, meaning around people they enjoy and colleagues they find intellectually stimulating, they stay in their jobs longer. To further emphasize the effect of teachers being social bein gs and a need for the perception of efficacy Kline, White, and Lock (2013) find the interconnection between schools and communities and the value of community based relationships are key themes in building and maintaining a quality teacher workforce. Timms and Brough (2013) find workload does not have a primary determinant is whether they enjoy their colleagues and the work environment, once more pointing to the overwhelm ing fact that teachers are social beings and work in schools because they enjoy feel ing a since of efficacy. Interview s Does the induction program play a deciding factor in whether newly hired teachers choose to continue to work at the school? The AP of Curriculum says the induction program has nothing to do with a newly hired teacher deciding to stay in their position. She says it is more about the one on one conversations she has with each teacher providing them support and showing them colleagues w ho might also help with any area in which they may struggle. I t' s my job as administrator to get the support that the teachers need. Does the induction program really change you as a teacher? I don't know that it does that. There's a lot of rigor in it I think it's more jumping through hoops. The AP of Discipline says the mentor with which the new hires are assigned have a direct impact on how they feel towards the school and their experience during the first year.

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52 I think that the person that they are se tup to work with their mentor it can have a key effect on how they feel about the school, and what they're getting as far as their needs. But I think it's very key that you try to hook people up with someone within their own field. The principal says th e mentor teachers assigned to newly hired teachers makes the biggest difference in how they feel about the school. She feels the team mentality stay. What the school pe part of the overall scheme than the induction program presented by the district. I think teacher makes the mos t difference in how they feel about the school. Teacher A believes the administrative team plays a much larger role in the decision making process. The overall support she receives from her local colleagues who work in her building and her team has made a dramatic impact in her success and enjoyment level while working this year. The AP of Curriculum who is my administrative mentor has been wonderful. She has done walk throughs, observed me, answered all my questions, helped me prepare for my tests becau se I have to get certified to teach 7 th grade. How do we choose mentors for these new hires? The AP of Curriculum says regular teachers go through a training program which teaches them to be objective and critique others. Personalities and subject matter are considered when assigning mentors I line up new hires and mentors by personalities. I also line them up by subject matter. I also line them up by the mentors who are the ones that I sent to train who are effective teachers. I also look at background history and subject area.

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53 Do you think mentors here enjoy the process and idea of mentoring? The AP of Curriculum says that they do enjoy mentoring one another and it even goes beyond the paid portion of the job. She says many of the teachers in the hall way will offer their time and make sure a new teacher is succeeding and they will ask if there is anything they need. Yes, I think and especially this past year that they like seeing any teacher grow, blossom and help them. The AP of Discipline says tha them intrinsically. The idea that the school is a team and everyone works together for the common good drives individuals to work coherently as a single unit. I do and I think that the reason for that is th ey take pride in the school. And they want to make sure that whoever comes in is a part of the team and feels like a part of the team. And we help them with lesson plans and things like that because being a first year teacher is tough. The principal says the teachers see the benefit from being effective mentors and think back on how important it was for them when someone mentored them. Another reason they enjoy mentoring is because the work they invest in the teacher will be reflected in how the students a re taught. W e have some teachers who really see the benefit It goes back to that the reason they do what they have to you have to believe in your heart it has to be for children and you realize as a mentor that's an extension that's another impact on wha t we're doing. Teacher B says she knows of three different teachers who all have positive experiences with their mentors and believes each mentor enjoys the experience of taking other teachers under their wing. The most overwhelming feeling the teachers h ave is that they are cared for by everyone, not just the teacher getting paid to watch their progress.

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54 One thing that I find very encouraging about this school is one of the new teachers here has a mentor who she does all of her stuff with. And she enjoys her avid mentor. But she also has an other teacher who is more available to her because the mentor is more of a mom and that other me under her wing and she helps just as much as my mentor teacher even Besides the incentives can you think of some other reason s why mentors want the extra responsibility? The AP of Curriculum says she believes the teachers desire to share th eir knowledge with new teachers. Further, some teachers enjoy motivating others and getting them excited about educating our young people. I think that they like to share their knowledge with new teachers. Th at's what teachers like about it and so that's why they like to do it. They like to help them get excited about being a teacher. The AP of Discipline says the reason people mentor is because they care about children and care about their profession. He also says mentors take pride in the school and wan t to make sure the new hires are instilled with that same sense of ownership. Experienced teachers mentor b ecause they care about their profession and they care about kids. There's no better way to promote your livelihood and what you think is important t han to share your knowledge with somebody else. Teacher A says mentors like to advise others on how to change small things about their systems and processes which makes them more effective educators. She would come in and tell me how to change my room, c hange my assessments, change just little things to help me and I think it really benefited my practice and methods Teacher B says mentors in her experience decide to perform the duties for the interest and motivation they have in seeing others do well an d develop as young professionals. When I have been a mentor and when I mentor again it will 100% be the interest and motivation. I feel rewarded by watching someone else bloom

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55 into a wonderful teacher because for me that just increases my skill and influe nce. Teacher C says the mentor wants to help new hires not make the same mistakes they did when they first started. She says it has to do with people who choose to go into the teaching profession being social beings. Some of them want to pass on their kn owledge in hopes that in some cases Mentors want new hires to learn from their mistakes or to learn the good things that the mentor has experien ced That goes back to kind of being a socia l being thing. Some people are more willing to share that kind of can give to someone else is their knowledge. Do newly hired teachers feel the mentoring process is beneficial a nd helpful? The AP of Curriculum says s he does feel having a mentor or peer teacher can be very beneficial to the growth and development of new hires and can help them in areas such as classroom management or teaching strategies which have proven over time to be successful. The principal says s tructure is very important at this school and classroom management is one of the most important elements stressed throughout the campus. The principal communicates the fact that mentors help new hires establish a sens e of control and mold the learning environment to the organizational expectation. Everything that we do is built on structure. You know we do things differently here so you know those mentors are people that are successful and can help a new person come i thing to say this is our goal, these are our plans, and this is how we structure things. You better have someone that's willing to work with you and help you get there. Teacher A says they are encouraging and their ex perience helps them relate to what new hires are challenged with and how hen I meet with my mentor this, they know how it is to be a first year teacher. Teach er C says her experience is

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56 when she asks her mentor a question the individual is careful to think through the answer and give her feedback when she finds it to be beneficial to her systems and processes as an educator. I think being honest in the answer to your questions is really important. And y this worked this is what I have do ne it has not worked Do you think mentoring comes into terms on whether a newly hired teacher decides to stay? The AP of Curriculum says she does believe mentoring comes into play when a new hire chooses to remain at the school and in the profession. Ye s I do believe so. I think it goes back to the professional attitude on campus t he teamwork between departments and grade levels that keep s people here. The principal says she believes the mentoring experience plays a major role in whether new hires dec ide to remain. She says that although we have a very strong team concept in place having someone you can rely on and call on when you need help is essential to making new hires feel comfortable and at home. Yes I do think it plays a really big part. You c an have a great team and that plays a big part of what we do. But you got to have more than that. It would be hard for me as a new person to just come in to a school this size, with this many teachers, with all the thin gs that we need to do; just to think about it is pretty scary. Teacher B says she does take into account her mentor experience when deciding whether to stay or leave the school. The social aspect and day to day activities, such as making copies, according to Teacher B begins to form the con fidence, or lack thereof, within a teacher which shows in his or her comfort level while working within the organization. It is the social aspect which ultimately determines

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57 whether a teacher stays or goes from a school. Even if teachers are successful in the classroom and their students like them, if they are not enjoying their colleagues, or if they feel unappreciated by their administration or their colleagues, they will eventually choose to leave the school and seek employment elsewhere. But there are t hings about every school, the way things are going. Who do you call if you wake up sick, all of those little things; they are as important to mentor, whether it s official or unofficial is so very valuable in working within the school. Summary: Research Question Two In summary, the data collected, as it relates to the second research question, reveals the AP of Curriculum feels the induction p rogram has nothing to do with a newly hired teacher deciding to stay in their position. She says it is more about the one on one conversations she has with each teacher providing them support and showing them colleagues who might also help with any area in which they may struggle. The AP of Discipline says the mentor with which the new hires are assigned have a direct impact on how they feel towards the school and their experience during the first year. He goes on to say it is important to align young teach ers with a mentor in their own field. The principal says the mentor teachers assigned to newly hired teachers makes the biggest difference in how they feel about the school. She feels the team mentality and growing together as a cohesive unit plays the lar The AP of Curriculum says p ersonalities and subject matter are considered when assigning a mentor There are some teachers which are highly effective who cannot be used as mentors because they are competitive and d o not want to share their teaching secrets with others.

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58 The AP of Curriculum says that they do enjoy mentoring one another and it even goes beyond the paid portion of the job. She says many of the teachers in the hallway will offer their time and make sur e a new teacher is succeeding and they will ask if there what motivates them intrinsically. The idea that the school is a team and everyone works together for the common good drives individuals to work coherently as a single unit. The principal says the teachers see the benefit from being effective mentors and think back on how important it was for them when someone mentored them. Another reason they enjoy mentoring is bec ause the work they invest in the teacher will be reflected in how the students are taught. Teacher A says she does feel mentors enjoy the process as a whole. Teacher C says her mentor has been extremely helpful and feels t he mentorship has been a perfect f it The AP of Curriculum says she believes the teachers desire to share their knowledge with new teachers. Further, some teachers enjoy motivating others and getting them excited about educating our young people. The AP of Discipline says the reason peop le mentor is because they care about children and care about their profession. He also says mentors take pride in the school and want to make sure the new hires are instilled with that same sense of ownership. Teacher A says mentors like to advise others o n how to change small things about their systems and processes which makes them more effective educators. Teacher B says mentors in her experience decide to perform the duties for the interest and motivation they have in seeing others do well and develop a s young professionals. She also goes on to say her influence over student development is compounded when her techniques and skills are used by other

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59 teachers. Teacher C says the mentor wants to help new hires not make the same mistakes they did when they f irst started. She says it has to do with people who choose to go into the teaching profession being social beings. The AP of Curriculum says s he does feel having a mentor or peer teacher can be very beneficial to the growth and development of new hires an d can help them in areas such as classroom management or teaching strategies which have proven over time to be successful. The AP of Discipline says he believes new hires do find the mentoring process to be helpful and beneficial. The principal says s truct ure is very important at this school and classroom management is one of the most important elements stressed throughout the campus. The principal communicates the fact that mentors help new hires establish a sense of control and mold the learning environme nt to the organizational expectation. Teacher A says they are encouraging and their experience helps them relate to what new hires are challenged with and how best to meet those challenges. Teacher C says her experience is when she asks her mentor a questi on the individual is careful to think through the answer and give her feedback when she finds to be beneficial to her systems and processes as an educator. The AP of Curriculum says she does believe mentoring comes into play when a new hire chooses to rem ain at the school and in the profession. She goes on to say it is the teamwork mentality between departments, grade levels, and individuals throughout the school that makes this place a fun place to work and why people enjoy the position. The principal say s she believes the mentoring experience plays a major role in whether new hires decide to remain. She says that although we have a very strong team concept in place having someone you can rely on and call on when you need help is

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60 essential to making new hi res feel comfortable and at home. Teacher B says she does take into account her mentor experience when deciding whether to stay or leave the school. The social aspect and day to day activities, such as making copies, according to Teacher B begins to form the confidence, or lack thereof, within a teacher which shows in his or her comfort level while working within the organization. It is the social aspect which ultimately determines whether a teacher stays or goes from a school. Even if one is having succes s in the classroom and the students like a teacher if they are not enjoying the people around them and feeling appreciated by the administration and their colleagues they will eventually choose to leave the school and seek employment elsewhere. The AP of Discipline says he believes the experiences found within the mentorship program play a deciding factor in whether new hires decide to remain in their positions. The principal says she feels the mentoring experience is an important factor new hires ponder w hen making their decision about job choices. Teaming plays a may have. Analysis of Findings : Research Question Three What specific problems do rural Florida middle sc hools face when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers ? The following data represent that which directly ties to the findings of this study. To view the complete narrative for question two please see Appendix B. According to the research a dministrators expressed that newly hired teachers leave the school because: they cannot meet the expectations and the high standards the school demands of its teachers; their spouse gets a job somewhere else; a family or a family related is sue occurs. Teachers

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61 expressed that newly hired teachers leave the school because of the stress of teaching; they cannot handle the unique challenges middle school students present; the pressure felt to do well on standardized test scores; teaching is not what they expected. Interviews What are some of the different reasons why a newly hired teacher would choose to leave the school? The AP of Curriculum says new hires can have difficulty in meeting expectations established by the administration and the oth er successful teachers on campus. They nd success, it's too hard at this school. The principal says there are different reasons new hires decide to switch to a different job or position and they include familia opportunity, or making a move from one level to another so that they can be at the school where their child attends. Another reason is advancement within the district to a posit ion of leadership or at times the y find a new hire who simply has d ifferent ideas and goals than they do about what education should look and feel like. There are a lot of different reasons sometimes its family sometimes it's starting a family sometimes it's moving because of a spouses employment things like that are probably the biggest reasons S ometimes it's because those teachers are seeking to advance themselves they're going i nto leadership or they're advancing themselves in some way so that plays a part as well Teacher A says teachers discover the art of teaching is not what they thought it was and choose not to continue. The general stress of teaching accompanied with the reality that this job is not what they expected tends to overwhelm the new hire into choosing not to conti nue. I would say maybe they find out it is just not their thing. Maybe they have a being adapted to or cooperated with; I think it is more of a personal choice

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62 Teacher B says the reality of the teaching job here does not meet the overall persona carried by the school within the community. When a new hire takes a post here he or she thinks it is going to be fantastic and there will be no problems. When reality sets in it can be qui te overwhelming when one discovers the students here have the same problems as other schools without such a great reputation, and sometimes the problems are even more complex. I was shocked because I had a perception that all these kids come from the good side of town and advantaged kids and helping them reach their full potential maybe shocked by some of the experiences that they have with some of our students issues and perhaps we have high expectations here. What is the number one reason new hires leave this school out of all the reasons you mentioned? The AP of Curriculum says new hires become angry at the administration and l eave. The administration has very high expectations of their teachers and some just cannot meet that expectation so they either leave or are not asked to return. I believe they get pissed off at the administrators and leave. We hold their feet to the fire They are not asked to return b ecause they did not fulfill what we expected them to do. And I think the work ethic of the younger generation is not as much as my generation. Even when my father was ill last year and he died last summer, I did not miss. Of course I left in the afternoon and went to Gainesville and spent the night at the hospital and then went back to work the next day. That was the work ethic expected of me. The principal says family related items would be the most common reason new hires d Teacher A says she thinks the primary reason for a new hire leaving the school is classroom management issues. The number one reason would be because of a classroom manag

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63 type s of children who are going through so many physical and emotional changes. Teacher C says it is probably because new hires discover that teaching is not the profession they wish to pu rsue for the rest of their careers. I think just in genera Summary: Research Question Three In summary, the data collected, as it relates to the third research question, reveals the AP of Curriculum thinks new hi res can have difficulty in meeting expectations established by the administration and the other successful teachers on campus. Gallie, Felstead, and Green (2012) report a sharp rise in educational levels. This may have had an influence directly through lon ger experience of study or indirectly through the way it affects parental upbringing. Cross sectional studies indicate that those with more advanced educ ation attach a greater importance to intrinsic rewards from work. Although the importance of pay has ri sen, this does not imply a decline in the importance attached to issues of intrinsic job quality. Rather, on all of the indicators, concern for the intrinsic quality of jobs has increased. This research directly contradicts the perspective and opinion of t he administrator. The principal says there are different reasons new hires decide to switch to a different job or position and they include familial level to another so that they can be at the school where their child attends Teacher A says teachers discover the art of teaching is not what they thought it was and choose not to continue. The general stress of teaching accompanied with the reality that this job is not what the y expected tends to overwhelm the new hire into choosing not to continue. Teacher B says the reality of the teaching job here does not meet the overall persona carried by the school within the community. When a new hire takes a post here

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64 he or she thinks i t is going to be fantastic and there will be no problems. When reality sets in it can be quite overwhelming when one discovers the students here have the same problems as other schools without such a great reputation, and sometimes the problems are even mo re complex. The AP of Curriculum says the reality is they also become angry at the administration and leave. The administration has very high expectations of their teachers and some just cannot meet that expectation so they either leave or are not asked t o return. The principal says family related items would be the most common think it would be family or Teacher A says she thinks the primary reason for a new hire leaving the school is classroom management issues. Teacher C says it is probably because new hires discover that teaching is not the profession they wish to pursue for the rest of their careers. The AP of Curriculum says one or two at the very most is the numb er of newly h ired teachers who leave on an annual basis. The AP of Discipline says one or two administration. Discussion The three research questions launched in the case study were: 1. Research Question #1: What strategies do es a rural middle school in a Florida s chool district use to attract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel? 2. Research Question #2: What role do induction programs play decision making to remain in their positions at a rural Florida middle school? 3. Research Question #3: What specific problems do rural Florida middle schools f ace when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers?

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65 Three very distinctive thematic trends surfaced not only in the interviews of the teachers but were later corroborated through the data collected from interviews with the administrative team. Findings for each of the research questions were based upon careful analysis and the triangulation of data and member chec king from participants. The findings were subsequently reviewed and analyzed, resulting in the emergence of the major themes in the following summary of findings. The literature review in Chapter Two supports the findings in this case study. Themes Findin gs for each research question were determined following a careful analysis of the data. The wealth of rich data lent itself to the emergence of the following three themes: 1. Teams and administrative support are the reason s teachers stay Teams are the life blood of the organization and one of the primary protagonists which push the organizational culture on to the next generation of teachers year after year. 2. Mentors are found beneficial to new hires The mentoring system within the school agrees with the r eview of literature in that it is one of the most important parts of the induction program but it is performed with a twist. 3. The current induction program needs modification The standard induction program has no bearing or effect on whether new hires dec ide to leave or remain in their current positions with its current format and implementation. Theme One: Teams and Administrative Support are the Reasons Teachers S tay The reputation of the school working together as a cohesive unit draws not only the mos t appealing and successful families to the school to study but also attracts the most desirable instructional personnel as well. The teachers demand for high rigor draw s people to want to come and stay at the school. The AP of Discipline says this the culmination of years of collaboration. Teacher A says it is the working environment

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66 and the collegial atmosphere which brings teachers back year after year. Teachers not only cre ate an open, loving, and caring atmosphere but also help the teachers on their team. Teacher A says administrative support is another reason why teachers stay at the school and is critical to accomplishing educational goals and having a pleasant work envir onment. Teacher B believes administrative support is the reason she and her peers decide to return year after year. Another reason s he states is the teachers and administrators who work at the school have a large part in her and her colleagues reasoning fo r staying at the school for an extended period of time. The AP of Curriculum believes the administration giving support to the teachers so they may be successful is a major contributing factor to teachers to stay. The AP of Discipline says the ca ring atmosphere for children created by teams is a major contributing factor. The entire faculty is striving to see how they can do better and make sure everyone feels cared about. People taking care of one another and helping one another stay focused and refreshed is a major reason. The principal says people of a similar mind want to work with one another and this school allows people to strive for success together. Teacher A says the administration provides variety of the workplace through changing person nel groupings and listening carefully to what the needs of the teachers are. The administration is viewed as being very loving, caring and motivating The administration keeps teachers motivated. Teacher B says the administration is the primary reason she decides to stay and the reason she came to this school in the first place. This combined with the team approach is why she stays at the school. Unity and a sense of belonging unite the staff together. Teacher C says the colleagues of new hires have a lot t o do with their decision to continue to work at this school. She says it is the support, both

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67 from teachers and administrators, as well as supporting the team one has joined. The principal says the team mentality and growing together as a cohesive unit pla ys the lar to stay. Teacher A says the overall support she receives from her local colleagues who work in her building and her team has made a dramatic impact in her success and enjoyment level while working together. The ide a that the school is a team and everyone works together for the common good drives individuals to work coherently as a single unit. Theme Two: Mentors are Found Beneficial to New Hires the school has a lot to do with the one on one conversations she has with each teacher providing them support and showing them colleagues who might also help with any area in which they may struggle. The AP of Discipline says the mentor with which the new hires are assigned has a direct impact on how they feel towards the school and their experience during the first year. It is important to align young teachers with a mentor in their own field. The principal says the mentor teachers assigned to newly hired teachers makes the biggest difference in how they feel about the school. The AP of Curriculum says the most important thing one needs is a mentor who can point them in the right direction and equip them with the tools needed to be successful. If a young te acher is struggling with certain concerns the experienced mentor teacher can help by answering questions and assisting where needed. The AP of Discipline says having someone critique new hires is very valuable to their development and overall success. The principal says the most important aspect of the induction program is having the mento r which keeps everyone accountable and ensures success. The AP of Curriculu m says the mentor teachers want to share their knowledge and want to see the new hire succeed an d are

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68 willing to help however necessary to make this happen. Teacher A says the team approach at the school creates a twist which enables teachers who are closer in proximity who teach the same grade and subject as her to augment the mentor experience. Her primary mentor is not always able to provide as much attention as is needed thus the team around her answers questions and alleviates concerns as needed. Having multiple mentors, both assigned and volunteer, is a common occurrence at this school. Teacher C uses a lot of human resources in her local area. She not only relies on her assigned mentor teacher to help her but even more so calls on the assistance of more local resources who work in her hallway and who teach the same grade and subject matter. The AP of Curriculum says many of the teachers in the hallway will offer their time and make sure a new teacher is succeeding and they will ask if there is anything they need. They offer their time and make sure the team is succeeding whether they are being pa id to do so or not. The AP of Discipline says the own help regardless of who their assigned mentor turns out to be. They all communicate well together and seek the common good of the whole. Teacher B says she knows of three different teachers who all have positive experiences with their mentors and believes each mentor enjoys the experience of taking other teachers under their wing. The most overwhelming feeling the teachers have is that they are cared for by everyone, not just the teacher getting paid to watch their progress. Teacher C says her mentor has been extremely helpful and a perfect fit. The AP of Curriculum feels having a mentor teacher can be very benefici al to the growth and development of new hires and can help them in areas such as classroom management or teaching

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69 strategies which have proven over time to be successful. The principal says mentors help new hires establish a sense of control and mold the l earning environment to the organizational expectation. Theme Three: The Current Induction Program Needs Modification The AP of Curriculum feels the induction program has nothing to do with a newly hired teacher deciding to stay in their current position. The induction program is a bunch of hoops which must be jumped throu gh to satisfy a requirement and is outdated The much larger part of the overall scheme than the inducti on program presented by the district. Teacher A does not believe the induction program plays a critical role in the retention of new hires. Teacher C believes it is time consuming and has little to no value regarding the retention of new hires. Teacher A s ays paperwork is the primary concern for this induction requiring the new hire to complete the packet within 196 days. Teacher C says the induction program does not provide her any skills worth mentioning. The AP of Curriculum says the paperwork is probabl y not viewed by the teachers as being helpful towards their growth and development as professionals. She also feels the paperwork is ineffective in helping new hires perform their jobs better or become highly effective. Teacher B says the new hires probabl y do not feel the process is beneficial and helpful. Summary This chapter discovered three themes: teams and administrative support are why teacher stay; mentors are found to be beneficial; the current induction program needs modification. It is readily apparent the entire school works as a cohesive unit to ensure quality education is brought to each and every student. This u nity draws the best

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70 teachers in from the community and surrounding area to want to work at this educational organization. Through in terviewing administrators and teachers alike the themes presented are so thick and rich it is undeniable what makes the success of this school so readily apparent year after year. Attrition is not only an issue for administrators but also for students and the community. Teachers leave after two years body to watch the students but there is so much more tied to having an experienced teacher in the classroom. The area, demogra phics, cultural expectations, and societal norms all play a role in building successful systems and processes w ithin a community and a school. In a rural community a teacher leaving means broken relationships and a rebuilding of what people know to come an d expect year after year. This means much more to a rural community than it does to an urban area. A supportive placement community and access to resources and supports proves to be key factors in successful careers for new teachers (Kline, White, & Lock, 2013). This chapter reviewed the findings, analysis, and interpretation of the data for this study. The data collected and common themes were extrapolated from the findings an d shared by the researcher. Chapter five will conclude the study by summarizing the purpose and methodology, sharing the overall findings, and making recommendations for further study.

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71 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Summary of the Study This study centered around the concept of discovering why so many teachers are deciding to leave the schools at which they teach. Some are leaving one school to go to another, some are leaving one district for another, and some are simply leaving the educational sector all together in order to seek higher pay, better benefits, and the like. Why is it the best and b rightest America has to offer are not choosing to invest their talents and efforts into the most valuable asset we have, our children? This study asked many important que stions to three administrators and three newly hired teachers about how one rural middle school in the state of Florida is attracting, employing, and maintaining highly qualified instructional personnel. The middle school being studied has an annual attrit ion rate of 1 .4 %, and these teachers are asked to leave, versus the national average which sits at 8 .2 %, and 40% of these teachers leave because of dissatisfaction (OPPAGA, 2007). The results are truly nsight into the minds of those working at the middle school level in rural Florida. It is the sincere hope of the researcher to add to the body of literature already produced about this very important topic of finding and keeping the best minds America has to offer in the most important Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to discover what strategies a rural middle school within a school district in Florida use s to attract, employ and retain highly qual ified personnel. It is also t o identify what role induction programs play at a rural middle

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72 school in a school district in in or leave their position. It is further t o describe what specific problem s a rural middle school within a school district in Florida face s when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers. Research Questions 1. Research Question #1: What strategies do es a rural middle school in a Florida s chool district use to attra ct, employ and retain highly qualified personnel? 2. Research Question #2: What role do induction programs play decision making to remain in their positions at a rural Florida middle school? 3. Research Question #3: What specific problems do rural F lorida middle schools f ace when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers? Methodology Instrumentation This study uses qualitative interviews as the research m ethod to discover how a rural middle school in Florida attracts, hires, and retai ns highly qualifie d instructional personnel. It is the desire of the researcher to lea rn the story of how the school works according to administrators and teachers alike. A second ary research question asked is how both sides truly feel about the current in duct ion program used, especially the mentoring process, and whether or not they feel the current system used plays a role in determining whether newly hired teachers, that is teachers within their first five years of arriving at the school, remain or leave The guiding questions are being used to discover what is happening beyond the test scores. Data present the idea that t he teachers at the rural middle school care about one another and teach because they love to see the students learn. They sacrifice of themselves to see the betterment of the school, their colleagues and the students and families who attend.

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73 The instrument used is a set of questions designed by the researcher and modified with the help of his doctoral cohort and dissertation committee t o help bring forth answers to the research questions listed in the study. The principal, assistant principals, and te achers are all asked the same questions to ensure reliabili ty of results. The instrument is the foundation o n which all conversation s are b ased; however, it is not the only guiding force as the conversations change based on the desired direction of th e interviewee. A pilot test was conducted using this instrument by the researcher with members of a rural s chool district in Florida. Proper pap erwork for the pilot study was submitted and the study was approved by the IRB Department The question s have proven to be clearly written as well as easily understood by the pilot test interviewees. During the pilot study five interviews were conducted wi th the questions and modifications made to the wording of the interview questions based on the analyses conducted on the pilot study interviews. Additional modifications to the guiding questions were made in a meeting with the doctoral cohort and eventuall y the dissertation chairperson. Selection of Participants The par ticipants for this study are employee s found within a rural school in Florida who work at the middle school leve l. Specifically a principal, two assistant principals, and three newly hired te achers are interviewed. The three newly hired teachers were chosen at random by the researcher after a list of newly hired individuals was provided by the principal. The school used to gather data is selected due to its positive reputation. Teachers within the district seek to transfer to this school because of the many positive assumptions made within the community about its administration, teachers, and students who attend. Within the district there are two middle schools. The

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7 4 middle school whic h is being researched is known as middle school A (MSA), whereas the alternative middle school is known as middle school B (MSB). Enrollment trends at MSA are 1,100 students per ye ar, whereas there are around 600 at MSB. MSA has 255 special requests to attend the sc hool, whereas MSB ha s none. MSA reports an average of 225 referrals a month, whereas MSB reports an average of 346. MSA has a history of being an A school, whereas MSB has a history of being a D school. Teachers and administrators at MSA are known to have very high standards and strict dress code; whereas MSB is known as a more relaxed atmosphere where students can act how they wa nt and teachers do not have as hi gh a standard for dress code, behavior, or rigor of instruction Number of out of zone attendanc e at MSA is 255, whereas there are none at MSB. As the researcher wishes to gain insight into how a successful rural middle schoo l is built and maintained MSA is an obvious choice of where best to gather data. The Director of Research within the rural scho ol district in Florida has given permission to conduct the qualitative re search study. The principal of the school has given permission to be interviewed, as well as her assistant p rincipals, and three newly hired teachers Informed consent forms are obtai ned through a letter stating what the resea rch study entails, which are signed by the principal, the participants, and the researcher. Interviews take place on the campus of the rural middle school and are conducted at the conven ience of the participants The following participant characteris tics are gathered during the interviews: 1. Age 2. G ender 3. R ace 4. Y ears of experience as teachers or administrators

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75 5. S ubject matter being taught or previously taught 6. Definition of effective mentoring 7. D egree level 8. M entee or ment or experience 9. Definition of e ffective teacher/principal characteristics Procedures and Data Collection Data collection is done through using a researcher constructed set of questions during a series of inte rviews within a rural school in Florida. As inter view data are recorded and hand coded the research er produce s emergent findings and themes. Each participant is interviewed twice so as to establish depth of knowledge about the perspective of the individual and to clarify understanding of interview materi a l. The method of inquiry is audio recorded interviews conducted to gather data about questions posed by the researcher. The direction of the conversation is allowed to shift depending on the responses of the interviewee always returning back to the guidin g questions established by the researcher, with editions by the doctoral cohort and dissertation committee. Effort s to control potential bias include asking the same questions in the same manner and allowing the interviewee to expound on subject matter as desired. The randomization of the interview process and schedule help s to control bias including unobservab le factors. Interviewees are asked to speak openly and honestly about how they feel regarding the interview quest ions. Each interview lasts between 4 5 70 minute s in duration. As there are two of these interviews the total time with each participant is between 90 140 minutes total.

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76 Data Analysis Each interview is reviewed by the proce ss of hand coding which involves line by line analysis based on exac t words used within the interview. In other word s, line by line the text is taken, the essence of the text extracted, and compiled to look for common and uncommon trends. Rigor The con firmability of the study is verified through a process wh ereby more than one person analyze s th e data. The researcher has the doctoral cohort with which he studies assist in the analysis of data. Transferability, typically, is not a goal of qualitative research thus it is not a goal for this s tudy. Respondent validation increa se s credibility through member checking. Peer de briefing increase s consistency and enhance s dependability of findings. Trustworthiness Credibility is established through helping participants realize the value of the research. Through the use of a f ield j ournal the researcher notate s events as they occur and share s this with participants to buil d rapport. Dependability is established through an audit trail created to verify eac h step as the research study is performed. Confirmation is established through triangulation. This is also performed when recoding and reflec ting. Reflexivity, which is performed in b oth aural and written form, assist s in the confirmation process of the resear ch study. The written form is also contained in the field journal which is updated after each activity. Limitations Data for this study are collected over a period of two months. The conclusions drawn from this study are a snapshot of one rural school at one point in time. This study

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77 is conducted at one middle school in a rural community and the results may not be replicable in another school rural or otherwise The findings and opinions of this school are unique to their learning environment which have been established over a period of years. It is uncommon to find a head admin istrator who has served as a student, teacher, assistant principal, and principal all within the same middle school. This provides a unique perspective. Discussion of Findings This case study was designed to investigate (a) what strategies a rural middl e school in Florida uses to attract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel, (b) what role induction programs play at a rural decision making in whether to stay, a nd (c) what specific problems a rural middle scho ol in Florida face s when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers. A thorough review of the literature provided an understanding of the past and what problematic elements were in the way of a rural middle school providing a static staff f or the surrounding community to enjoy year after year. It further indicated the problems rural areas encounter more so than urban areas and gave the researcher an expectation of what to encounter when conducting research in a rural community. Through the analysis of personal interview data and member checking the literature supported the key elements and theme s found in the case study. The themes became clearly evident as the data were analyzed. Through the analysis of the data three themes were identified and are as follows:

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78 Theme 1: Teams and Administrative Support are the Reason s Teachers Stay Teams are the life blood of the organization and one of the primary protagonists which push the organizational culture on to the next generation of teachers year after year. Theme 2: Mentors are Found Beneficial to New Hires The mentoring system within the school agrees with the review of literature in that it is one of the most important parts of the induction program but it is performed with a twist. Theme 3: T he Current Induction Program Needs Modification The standard induction program has no bearing or effect on whether new hires decide to leave or remain in their current positions with its current format and implementation. Recommendations The following rec ommendations are made as a result of the conclusions and findings of this study. These recommendations should assist middle schools in discovering what administrators and newly hired teachers in a rural community hold to be important as professionals worki ng in the industry of education. Research Question One The reputation of the school and the teachers who work there has a lot to do with teachers wanting to stay in their current positions. The school is known to hold their students to a high standard and accomplish high academic goals. The team mentality of the school has a lot to do with why teachers remain static in their positions. A genuine feeling of acceptance also assists in this decision.

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79 There is communal feeling within the school and within th a resource for years to come long after students have departed the school. The work environment and warm, supportive nature of the administ ration is what brings teachers back year after year. Teachers feel the support of the administration is what allows them to be successful and enjoy their place of work. Research Question Two The induction program as a whole has nothing to do with whether newly hired teachers decide to remain after their first year. It is time consuming and according to interview data, has little to no value regarding the retention of new hires. The induction process requires new hires to consider how they are going to go about their business from day to day. The paperwork is intended to force the new hire to think about every logistical aspect of how they approach teaching. The paperwork according to interview data, is ineffective in helping new hires perform their jobs b etter or become highly effective. The mentoring process found within the induction program is what makes the needs is a mentor who can point them in the right direct ion and equip them with the tools needed to be successful. Mentor teachers desire to share their knowledge with new teachers. Further, some teachers enjoy motivating others and getting them excited nd subject matter are how mentors are assigned. Grade level is a secondary concern if it is possible. The most important thing is the mentor teacher wants to share their knowledge and wants to see the new hire succeed and is willing to help however necessa ry to make this happen. It is

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80 difficult attempting to match people in the same geographic location as only teachers who have passed district training may be assigned to be a mentor. Having a mentor or peer teacher can be very beneficial to the growth and d evelopment of new hires and can help them in areas such as classroom management or teaching strategies which have proven over time to be successful. Feedback from a caring mentor can be wonderful when presented in the right way and helps everyone become be tter at what they are being paid to accomplish. The geographic locations of the mentor teacher and new hire also will play a part in just how positive a feeling the new hire will have from the experience of working with the mentor due to the close proximit y and ease of having one with which to speak and glean from their experience is essential to positive feelings about the job and workplace. The team mentality and growing together as a cohesive unit plays the largest role Marker, Mitchall, and Lassiter (2013) find it is becoming increasingly difficult for rural districts to provide mentor programs and support for new teachers as budget cuts eliminate funds for such program. Rural districts find it more and more difficult to recruit and retain strong teachers in such areas. Mathur, Gehrke, and Kim (2013) find mentors who team with younger teachers view th at their role as a mentor helps improve their ability to reflect. Mentees fi nd teaming with more experienced teachers beneficial in increasing their knowledge of classroom, district, and schoo l assessments. DeAngelis, Wall, and Che (2013) find teams who are helpful increase retention rates and increase levels of satisfaction within the work environment. For some teachers this means spending time with colleagues located more closely than

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81 common good of the whole and a feeling of communal success creates a static staff. The team will decide the overall experience and feeling for the new hire. Teaming is the reason some teachers choose to teach at this middle school as opposed to the elementary level, as there are multi ple teachers attempting to teach the same student and thus comparing notes on the most appropriate learning style and communicating challenges with parents occurs as a united front. Research Question Three New hires can have difficulty in meeting expectat ions established by the administration and the other successful teachers on campus. Also some people according to interview data, discover although they are intelligent and have the data learned the art of teaching is not something they feel is their st rongest asset. There are many different reasons why new hires decide to leave the rural school. Some have to do with familial situations such as the spouse taking a new job, it could be because of a health reason, and some people do not enjoy the constant changes occurring with the school system. Rules and regulations passed down by the state can be taxing and wear on people. Other reasons new hires decide to switch to a different job or position are their family is moving or they might be making a move fro m one level to another so they can be at the school where their child attends. Another reason is advancement within the district to a position of leadership or at times a new hire simply has different ideas and goals than the administration does about what education should look and feel like. It can easily be seen how the general stress of teaching accompanied with the reality that this job is not what they expected tends to overwhelm the new hire into choosing not to continue.

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82 The reality of why some teach ers leave is they become angry at the administration and decide not to continue. The administration has very high expectations of their teachers and some just cannot meet that expectation so they either leave or are not asked to return. The perception of o ne administrator is that the work ethic between the new g eneration of workers and those working in administration is completely different. This administrator expresses that t he administration grew up in a time where one did not miss work unless it was an a bsolute emergency and the new generation miss work because they need a day off or just have something personal they expected her to be at work because that was the place people n eeded her and she has an obligation to them and to her duties. She believes t his type of mentality is not shared by the most recently educated class of teachers. Suggestions for Further Research Discovering how induction programs can become more effective and up to date with modern technology and the needs felt most pertinent by the teachers is a necessary study. Many large school districts, and most recently smaller rural districts, are surveying their teachers asking for input on what type of professiona l development they would find most helpful The next step in educational research is to survey future collegiate graduates who are looking at entering the new teacher induction program and ask them what learning support systems would help based on their kn owledge. This would also involve returning at years three and four to conduct follow up question naires to see how their perspectives have changed with experience. Looking at different types of administrative leadership teams and discovering how teachers f eel about their level of support is another area which needs addressing.

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83 and it shows in every fiber of their daily work and how they address important school issues. I t would be very intriguing to discover how this changes as the administrative approach changes from collegial to that of a dictatorship. Also, the level of broad support versus micromanagement is a factor to be considered in future studies on administrativ e leadership approaches and the resulting qualitative effect on morale. This study showed teachers were greatly assisted by a mentor but often times it was not the mentor assigned to them. Reasons for this were geographic location of the assigned mentor, lack of common planning time, and lack of initiative on either the part of the mentor or newly hired teacher. Valuable data for another study would be with how many teachers and in what types of school districts, rural or urban, this is the case. Does this occur more at the elementary, middle, or high school level? What is the percentage of newly hired teachers which feel helpless without the team of teachers more centrally located around them? Variables which effect retention include: age, gender, race, ye ars of experience as teachers, subject matter being taught, degree level attained, and mentor/mentee experience. These important demographics were collected and are important but were not a focus for this study. Mathur, Gehrke, and Kim (2013) find that the mentorship experience is positively viewed by experienced and more novice teachers in perceptions of their decision making and practices. A future study which discusses how certain induction programs tend to keep certain races, gender types, and age level s would add to the current body of literature ava ilable to educational policy makers

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84 APPENDIX A QUESTION ONE COMPLETE NARRATIVE DATA Analysis of Findings : Research Question One What strategies does a middle school in a Florida school district use to at tract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel ? both administrators and teachers agree that teachers want to be hired and stay at the school for the following reasons: reputation of the school; the idea of belon ging to a team and not wanting to let others down; the support teachers receive from the administrative team; the collegial work environment which offers both a jovial feel and constant support when needed. Interviews What makes a teacher want to stay here ? The AP of Curriculum said she thinks the reputation of the school has a lot to do with teachers wanting to stay in their current positions She says the school grade and reputation of the teachers demand for high rigor draw people to want to come and sta y at the school She goes on to say it is not only the reputation of the school but the reputation of the teachers which draws students and fellow colleagues alike. I think especially this middle school the reputation of the school the teachers are doing w ell with. People know this school because of the school grade that we have. The teachers are highly effective at looking at the data, knowing the data, and teaching the kids. The reputation of our school is what sells the school when people want to come he re. The teachers are completely invested in the kids and education. It's a completely different atmosphere than any other school that I have ever been to and everything wa refreshing and I loved it. And it's truly the reputation of the school I can say it's the reputation of the teachers. The AP of Discipline believes the team has a lot to do with why teachers stay in their positions. He also speaks of the genuine feeling of acceptance from the faculty. He

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85 sp building from each and every person helping one another. I believe it's the team itself. I remember when I came here I felt very welcomed. I felt like it was an awesome school to be here and it's just a calm setting. You feel like people genuinely want to help you and they're on your team and they want you to succeed. Then in return, it's contagious you want to return all that favor. Because everybody's on your team and you want th em to be just as successful. You just want this machine to keep on growing. Overall it does of course you got a little more distance between the human side of things because you're not working as closely every day but you still have that bond that this is one big family. The principal also thinks it is the reputation of the school itself as being the reason teachers stay in their positions. She feels so strongly about the teachers, kids are our is there as a support system as they need them growing up an d going through life. Encouraging students and helping them feel self confident is also mentioned inside the interview. I think a huge part of it is our reputation. The reputation not only as an academically achieving school but also the idea that we care that your child is my child and I really feel that way. I was watching some news footage from the tornadoes in Oklahoma and they were talking to a teacher who had been in one of the affected schools and they talked about how she was laying on the children and thankfully for that particular teacher in that particular class things had ended. Well they said if you could say anything to your parents right now what would you say? And she said that your children are my children. And really I think that's what mak es us a successful school. And I hope what attracts parents and what I think attracts teachers to o is that they know that that's the way we feel about what we do and about our kids. Their kids are my kids and they're not just my kids from 8 to 4 they're my kids and they're not just my kids for 6th and 10 years from now the y're still my kid and I still have that feeling of you know of investment and also thi that I was born here an d I've worked my whole life in the city so I can go to the fair or to the grocery store and I see

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86 my kids and there's nothing better than that it's like a constant pat on my back and I did something that mattered I did something that they remembered Y ou k now this past year when I went to the fair I saw one of my 6th graders who had me for journalism and he said you are the first teacher who made me be lieve that I can write, you're the first person who ever told me that I could write. He was in the 6th grad e I thought oh my lord for me that's payday and I think that's what a ttracts teachers to our school, we have this group of people who feel that way about our kids because they are the kids this is our community this is what we want for our own personal children T his is what we want for all of our children and I hope that's the draw for teachers that they can get a part o f that. Teacher A believes it is the environment which brings people back year after year. Teachers at this school do not only create an open, loving, and caring atmosphere but help the teachers they want on their team to know what to study for the interview process. Administrative support is another reason Te acher A mentions as teachers returning to their positions. She says administrative support is critical to accomplishing educational goals and having a pleasing work environment. My friend told me the environment here was very open, loving, caring and I th came up to me, they were encouraging. Especially when I got my job interview I have never seen so many people reach out to me and say this is what you need to know. A friend of min e and I sat down and we did a whole lot of questions, I practiced my responses to different questions, so then when it came time for me to answer the interview questions I knew exactly what I wanted to say. I felt so prepared as a result of the time the st aff members spent with me in preparation for my job interview. Literally every person in the sixth grade hallway had drilled me with questions. So it was a very warm feeling and I love the administration. They back us and I feel that is very important. I h ave definitely interned in schools where there is no support there. And if there is no support in your administration you can hang up your job, really in my opinion, because you are not being backed. Teacher B believes the administrative support she recei ves is the reason she and her peers decide to return year after year. Perception of the community as the school being the best to attend regarding middle schools in the district is another reason listed. The perception of the school being an elitist school is also something Teacher B

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87 feels appeals to the local community. The perception that the good kids go to this school and they will be better prepared for their classes. She also says the perception is false and there are students who do not have everythi ng and their trip to college is not guaranteed. She says she enjoys working with those students because she feels she can make a difference and their path is not predetermined regardless of the work she puts into their lives or not. Definitely the adminis tration for me. I think a young teacher might not get dealt with the bad county this school is very highly thought of. This is perceived to be the good that this is thought of kind of like an elite school. So having that elite perception I guess would be the right word of the school is something that have their supplies. Oh I want to teach there because the good kids go here. I think also though attrac ting highly qualified type teachers has a lot to can serve these children. And I love teaching students whose parents are there for them and give them that back up at home which i s what I have in about half of my kids here. But attracting high quality teachers it can depend on that teacher s heart because for me as much as I love it here there are times when I miss that. Because a lot of the kids here are going to go to college no matter what we do. But when you have that at stake those are the students that I focus on now. I do for them as much as I can. But way they think about school now those are the ones I really focus on. And so I was actually kind of happy when I came here. I just came here because I just needed a soft place to fall on. I knew this place was set. I knew what to expect when I walked in the first day because I knew how the administration ran the school. But I was thrilled to find that I had a lot of needy children because that was not my perception when I first took the job here. I thought I would have a bunch of kids that live over on the Westside and they all have everything they need. A kind of happy that my perception was proven false. Teacher C believes it is what you hear about the school that draws teachers to want to work here and stay in their position. Also the feedback from students who attende d the school and speak well of it has to do with the positive view from the

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88 community regarding the middle school which makes it a favorable place to work and stay year after year. She also says the teachers and administrators have a large part in her coll eagues reasoning for staying at the school for an extended period of time. Part of it is um what you hear I think you know that round about of life in this many good things ab out this school that I am at so you know um. Also the students, um I knew many students that have gone through this school and have had good experiences so I guess I guess that it would be mainly the students and the other teachers and administrators here at this school. What makes the employment process easy for teachers to apply? The AP of Curriculum says one still has to jump through the hoops of the government hiring process but it is now online and much easier than when she first applied. She says if y ou want to hire a highly affective teacher you have to steal them from another school. She says it is important to keep the school looking good and to do that you need highly effective teachers so you get them wherever you can find them. She says they are very difficult to find right out of college. And that's compared to when I applied it was it's now online. You know you still have to jump through the hoops because the school government in Florida says teachers who teach have to have fingerprints, drug t est, etc. I mean certain things because of different laws and stuff that they require. But I think to hire it's hard to find a highly effective teacher to hire them you have to steal from another school. It's not very often to find a highly effective teach er right out of college. You can, I'm not saying you can't but it's very rare. You want to find somebody especially on this campus, to find somebody that's completely fresh out of college, they are having difficulties. And I'm having to step in and really model with them and talk to them and get them back on track. To find a really effective teacher that's new to this campus maybe this past year we've had a couple that are new to this campus this past year, w ho are working at another school who were highly effective at that school. We stole them and I'll be honest with you you have to steal from another school to bring them here. I mean and you do that and that's unfortunate that schools do that, but you want to keep yourself looking good you steal from oth er schools. Corporations do it all the time in the business world. I mean we have a math teacher that was contacted from another district, would you come over would yo u teach. But you do w hat you have to recruit.

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89 The AP of Discipline says he thinks the pro cess at this school is easy. He feels as though he is approachable and likes that idea because he wants others to feel open to speaking with him about positions. He feels the community knows the school is open and approachable regarding open positions and he feels this is attributable to some of the success the school has in hiring qualified employees. I think at this school it's definitely easy. I welcome that because I want all walks of life that can approach me or the school because that might be the mi ssing link to something that we need here at the school. You can tell a lot by a person in their interview, you can tell a little bit about what they are and what they put down on that website on the online application Being able to approach us to me is t he big thing. I think that the people in the community have spread it around that we are approachable people which makes it that much easier for them. That's how I always want it to be. And you've got well coached into our sc hools like because they want to work here for a little while. But the number two is to everybody here mostly everybody here has went through the interview process with one of us on the committee. Will you take ownership for who is here and like I said if y our intern and you don't have a job here we want you to succeed. It's like an interview process with internship, if you do a good job we want you because we know what we're getting. The principal says the ease and convenience of filling out the application online is a major plus. She says the district website does a nice job of producing all openings every Thursday for the community to view. The community also knows it is alright to call the office and let them know they are interested and that they have ap plied. It is welcomed by the administration to follow up on potential openings and when interviews are scheduled. I mean obviously it is easy to do in terms of convenience you can go online and apply so that's easy that they can see the report that comes out every Thursday it's easy to access and see. But also I think it because it's the community that we live in and because the kind of people that we are here for you. Whenever there is a vacancy people go in and apply but they also just want to let you kn ow hey and I'm interested. Can you tell me a little bit about it and um and they stay on my case which is great because I told you there was one language arts opening when I finished school and the principal at that time when he hired me it was funny becau se I have been to

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90 the school many times that summer and when he hired me and you know everyone I guess we all have preferences and we all have things that we think are important in an interview and we're looking at perspective candidates that was kind of f unny he told me you know I look at your grades I look at your this and you're that. And sometimes people think you have the harder time reaching students and I was like what the what are you talking about I have a hard time reaching students because I had really good grades and he said sometimes it's hard for someone with your grades to relate to middle school students and I was like this man is crazy but he goes you bash me all summer and really I had to hire you because you ke whatever gets the job done. You know that's great I can badger so in our community you I have people when there's an opening who I'm getting emails and I'm getting phone calls and I go okay I got you on the list you know but I'm okay with that I'm okay with that it is easier in terms of convenience you know it's going to come out every Thursday you know what you need to do to be aware and you know what you need to do to apply and so that part of it I think it's convenient and easy for people. Teacher A s ays the online process makes it very easy to apply. She says it was extended due to all the government regulations but not difficult by any means. I would not say it was difficult. All you had to do was go online. It was long and drawn out but it was not difficult. This was a part of my education process at my college was to go online and apply for different jobs. The college made us act as a substitute for the city as one of their graduating requirements. So when I was subbing I saw this job opening so I applied for it at the same time. Our preparatory program makes u s work in an elementary, middle, and high school to gain exposure to the three different levels. This is a good thing because I can tell you right now I would never work in kindergarten. I di d my duty and it is just not my thing. And I said never middle school but obviously I am here and I love it. It is just too easy here to go back to elementary school. There is so much in elementary school. Teacher B says the online access is what makes th e process so simplistic and easy for anyone to apply for a position. She likes that one can sit and think about their response before submitting it online. She feels one drawback to the communal system used by the district is each school has to be contacte d to indicate interest in the position. Another point of growth indicated by Teacher B is the idea of people being able to interview from out of town via Skype which would broaden the scope of the interview

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91 pool. She personally conducted her interview over the phone as she was out of town during the interview process. She said because people knew her face already it was not a big deal. The online access is phenomenal being able to do your application online and like sit down and think about the questions t hat they ask. And being able to do it in a word document and save it and do it again 20 minutes later. So I really liked that and having the central county office that you do the application in that makes it really easy because you do one application for a ll the school s. Something that is a little bi t odd in this county and it may be state ow that about our county because they might get s communicated clear enough that you need to make contact with each atever listing and that goes into a county office but there are so many applicants often feel like that should be communicated more clearly be sure to call the o nice when you do call the schools because you get that personal interaction. I really like d to be able to call the front office when over the phone as I was out of town. For me because everyone in the ove r the phone they knew who I was But the availability to be able to do Skype interviews I think are so important because we do live in a transient soci ety and so limiting your applicants to people who are already here I think is a disservice. Teacher C says she thinks filling out the online application makes the process easy. The time consuming part for her was the mandatory class which one must take wh ile completing the induction program. Applying for multiple positions within the same system is also convenient but Teacher C stresses the idea that the most qualified I think filling out an application when you say that, filling out an application the class that goes with it which is extremely time consuming. And then there are other papers tha t you have to fill out. I guess the application process just filling out the application process is fine. But then there are other steps and there are other steps associated with many other jobs are

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92 not exclusive to teaching but you have to follow those st eps and go through the interviews and such. And that was a simple thing you can do that at home at your convenience and that was a wonderful thing. And it makes it but all you ha there to o h my students the most qualified pursue what they need to pursue in order to get a job and sometimes that is contacting someone someone to call. There were some positions that were open here and I applied directly for those positions and they interviewed a whole lot of other people. T hey were filling in more than one position within social science. Why would a newly hired teacher choose to stay working here year after year? The AP of Curriculum says the first reason is the reputation of the school as well as the data showing the school is high achieving. Another reason is the administration giving support to the teachers so they ma y be successful. Along with this is the reasoning that the campus is all about the students and learning. The environment of being fun and silly with the focus to get down to business when it is time separates this campus from others. As number one the rep utation, because of the data, because I feel that administrators give the faculty the support they need to be successful in their classes. I think those are the things the reason why the environment on this campus is all about students and education and wh at we can do to do the best that we can. I think that atmosphere we have fun, we can act silly, but then when it's time to get down and serious we get down and serious. And I think that's the big reason that people want to stay here for. Like I said we had a teacher last year came here from another elementary school and she was a highly effective teacher at that elementary school. She is doing a bang up job here. She was very insecure with coming to me with am I doing right. At that school she and the princ ipal never did that and structuring and giving validation. And I give her validation. I see this teachers FCAT scores this year, wow, 70% sufficient. That's saying something. So I mean I think they like the atmosphere is the reason why they want to stay. A nd cu t up, and laugh, and embarrass yourself. I mean I can't tell you how many people think it's funny to see me run across the campus to see a fight. Yes I run like a girl I'm a girly girl. I mean if you didn't

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93 laugh that's okay, if they see us act like a fool at a pep rally. That's what kids need, but that's what the faculty needs. The AP of Discipline says that the caring atmosphere for children is a major contributing factor. The entire faculty is striving to see how they can do better and make sure eve ryone feels cared about. He believes people taking care of one another and helping one another stay focused and refreshed is a major reason. Just for all of the reasons. You come here you feel welcomed and this place cares about kids, about each other and you want to always strive to be better and that's one thing that this place always does that always looking for how we can do better. Everybody can get stale in their position in the classroom, but if most everybody in the school is looking ahead trying t o find out the new and improved way to do things then it's contagious, you may fall off the tracks every once in a while there's always somebody there to pick you up by the hand I think that's why people stay here I believe. The principal says people of a similar mind want to work with one another and this school allows people to strive for success together. Maybe I am very simple but it all goes back to that same vain that we appeal to teachers who have that desire and that passion and want to feel like they are making it happen and that if you're at a school where you are being successful where you are working towards the same goals where you see what you're doing and thinking into and you feel the impact that you're having on your students in your schoo l why wouldn't you want to stay? I think that's the biggest piece because trying to attract those people who are of a similar mind and who want the same things and see that importance and I think it's very easy to retain them be cause we're doing what we're supposed to and we're attracting people who see the importance and who want to be successful and I think it's kind of easy to keep those who are doing that. Teacher A says the administration provides variety of the workplace through changing personnel gr oupings and listening carefully to what the needs of the teachers are. This administration is viewed as being very loving and caring by Teacher A. The administration keeping teachers motivated is another reason newly hired teachers want to stay.

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94 I think t he administration does a good job of switching up teams, giving you a new environment, I think they really listen to us, I think if I went to them and said science just is not my thing if something comes up I would like to do something else they would give me that opportunity. They care; they care about us as people, not just teachers. I think they are a very loving, caring administration. I have worked in neighboring districts and it is two completely different worlds. I make a long drive to work here. The school I would teach at in my town is two minutes from my home and I elect to drive 35. People tell me I am crazy for making the drive but it is two totally different schools. I would not work in the other district right now. It is not that they are a bad daughter. I have made my name here. This school does a great job of wanting you to stay because they keep you motivated. Yes they require us to do a lot of stuff but any job would. Since the state came in last year and altered the way schools a re graded overall this school which has been an A for years was lowered to a B which completely motivated the entire staff to get back to the pinnacle of the educational world. It is a push. Even in science, no we do not write as much as language arts or do as much as math, but I make my kids write, I make my kids do those common core things. It is not just a language arts thing it is a group effort. I think all of our teachers feel that way. I think we work togeth er so we do have that A rating. Hopefully we have that A. Teacher B says the administration is the primary reason she decides to stay and the reason she came to this school in the first place. The team approach used by the administration is another reason she decides to stay. Unity and a sense of belonging are also reasons Teacher B remains at this school. Definitely the administration would keep me here in fact it is the reason I have stayed here. I have had friends at other schools say come and teach at that I feel like we have at least in my experience is definitely the team approach and being able to feel like you r e a part of the unit. Makes people say there are a few teachers that Because having that person that you r e connected too is huge You know we re all human beings and as teachers were all kind of touchy feely a nyways we And so the need to feel like you belong is huge and I think with our team portant on a campus to get that unity and teachers would stay because they feel as if they belong the re brought into

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95 our vision. And that goes back to the administ ration becaus e they communicate well. Teacher C the colleagues of new hires have a lot do with their decision to continue to work at this school. She goes on to say it is also the support, both from teachers and the administration, as well as supporting the team one ha s joined. I think part of it is the people that they on, the support that they get, not leaving someone out to dry so to speak. The students although I know there are some classes more challenging than others. The admini stration plays a part in that and I think support is a major thing if t n a whole lot is lost. Everyone has to support one another whether the re a teacher whether the re a pair a professional, custodian, administration, an d office staff it takes everybody to do that. We all have to keep in mind that the reason we are here is not for e student you r e still supporting the education system. Summary: Research Question One In summary, the data collected, as it relates to the first research question, reveals the AP of Curriculum thinks the reputation of the school has a lot to do with teach ers wanting to stay in their current positions She says the school grade and reputation of the teachers demand for high rigor draw people to want to come and stay at the school She goes on to say it is not only the reputation of the school but the reputa tion of the teachers which draws students and fellow colleagues alike. The AP of Discipline believes the team has a lot to do with why teachers stay in their positions. He also speaks of the genuine feeling of acceptance from the faculty. He speaks of the school every person helping one another. The principal also thinks it is the reputation of the school itself as being the reason teachers stay in their positions. She feels so strongly about the teachers, parents, and students knowing that the entire faculty feels as

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96 le school but also knowing the entire faculty is there as a support system as they need them growing up and going through life. Encouraging students and helping them feel self confident is also mentioned inside the interview. Teacher A believes it is the e nvironment which brings people back year after year. Teachers at this school do not only create an open, loving, and caring atmosphere but help the teachers they want on their team to know what to study for the interview process. Administrative support is another reason Teacher A mentions as teachers returning to their positions. She says administrative support is critical to accomplishing educational goals and having a pleasing work environment. Teacher B believes the administrative support she receives is the reason she and her peers decide to return year after year. Perception of the community as the school being the best to attend regarding middle schools in the district is another reason listed. The perception of the school being an elitist school is al so something Teacher B feels appeals to the local community. The perception that the good kids go to this school and they will be better prepared for their classes. She also says the perception is false and there are students who do not have everything and their trip to college is not guaranteed. She says she enjoys working with those students because she feels she can make a difference and their path is not predetermined regardless of the work she puts into their lives or not. Teacher C believes it is what you hear about the school that draws teachers to want to work here and stay in their position. Also the feedback from students who attended the school and speak well of it has to do with the positive view from the community regarding the middle school whi ch makes it a favorable place to

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97 work and stay year after year. She also says the teachers and administrators have a large part in her colleagues reasoning for staying at the school for an extended period of time. The AP of Curriculum says one still has t o jump through the hoops of the government hiring process but it is now online and much easier than when she first applied. She says if you want to hire a highly affective teacher you have to steal them from another school. She says it is important to keep the school looking good and to do that you need highly effective teachers so you get them wherever you can find them. She says they are very difficult to find right out of college. The AP of Discipline says he thinks the process at this school is easy. He feels as though he is approachable and likes that idea because he wants others to feel open to speaking with him about positions. He feels the community knows the school is open and approachable regarding open positions and he feels this is attributable t o some of the success the school has in hiring qualified employees. The principal says the ease and convenience of filling out the application online is a major plus. She says the district website does a nice job of producing all openings every Thursday fo r the community to view. The community also knows it is alright to call the office and let them know they are interested and that they have applied. It is welcomed by the administration to follow up on potential openings and when interviews are scheduled. Teacher A says the online process makes it very easy to apply. She says it was extended due to all the government regulations but not difficult by any means. Teacher B says the online access is what makes the process so simplistic and easy for anyone to ap ply for a position. She likes that one can sit and think about their response before submitting it

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98 online. She feels one drawback to the communal system used by the district is each school has to be contacted to indicate interest in the position. Another p oint of growth indicated by Teacher B is the idea of people being able to interview from out of town via Skype which would broaden the scope of the interview pool. She personally conducted her interview over the phone as she was out of town during the inte rview process. She said because people knew her face already it was not a big deal. Teacher C says she thinks filling out the online application makes the process easy. The time consuming part for her was the mandatory class which one must take while compl eting the induction program. Applying for multiple positions within the same system is also convenient but Teacher C stresses the idea that the most qualified person does not The AP of Curriculum says the first reason is the reputation of the school as well as the data showing the school is high achieving. Another reason is the administration giving support to the teachers so they may be successful. Along with this is the reasoning that the campus is all about the students and learning. The environment of being fun and silly with the focus to get down to business when it is time separates this campus from others. The AP of Discipline says that the caring atmosphere for children is a major contributing factor. The entire faculty is striving to see how they can do better and make sure everyone feels cared about. He believes people taking care of one another and helping one another stay focused and refreshed is a major reason. The principal s ays people of a similar mind want to work with one another and this school allows people to strive for success together. Teacher A says the administration provides variety of the workplace through changing personnel groupings and listening carefully to

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99 wha t the needs of the teachers are. This administration is viewed as being very loving and caring by Teacher A. The administration keeping teachers motivated is another reason newly hired teachers want to stay. Teacher B says the administration is the primary reason she decides to stay and the reason she came to this school in the first place. The team approach used by the administration is another reason she decides to stay. Unity and a sense of belonging are also reasons Teacher B remains at this school. Tea cher C the colleagues of new hires have a lot do with their decision to continue to work at this school. She goes on to say it is also the support, both from teachers and the administration, as well as supporting the team one has joined.

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100 APPENDIX B QUESTION TWO COMPLETE NARRATIVE DATA Analysis of Findings : Research Question Two What role do induction programs play s findings, both administrators and teachers agree that: the peer teacher makes the biggest difference in how newly hired teachers feel about the school and how successful they will be; teachers at the school help one another regardless of whether they are assigned to do so. Findings also indicate the administrative team all agree that: the induction program seems like jumping through hoops which does not necessarily help the newly hired teacher but it does help them get to know the people at the school; sp ending time with mentor teachers and peers on their team is much more beneficial to newly hired teachers than filling out paperwork required within the current induction program; having teachers around the new hires who not only guide them verbally but go into the classroom and help them implement plans and tweak strategies as needed helps them become acclimated to our system which breeds success; peer teachers are assigned by subject matter as closely as possible and grade level is also taken into consider ation as a secondary concern; being a part of a team and feeling supported and accepted plays the largest role in making newly hired teachers feel positively about the school; mentor teachers choose to take on the extra responsibility because they care abo ut the team, the school and they want to see everyone successful. Further data indicate the teachers concur that: being a part of a team and feeling supported and accepted plays the largest role in making newly hired teachers feel positively about the scho ol; teachers have the peer teachers they are assigned but also find peer teachers who are closer in

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101 geographic location to help them on a daily basis; mentor teachers do not meet with their newly hired teachers as they should but the team of teachers aroun d the new hire helps the mentor train the new hire as needed. Interview s Does the induction program play a deciding factor in whether newly hired teachers choose to continue to work at the school? The AP of Curriculum says the induction program has nothin g to do with a newly hired teacher deciding to stay in their position. She says it is more about the one on one conversations she has with each teacher providing them support and showing them colleagues who might also help with any area in which they may s truggle. The induction program, according to the AP of Curriculum, is a bunch of hoops which must be jumped through to satisfy a requirement. She does say there is some value to learning the processes within the system. I disagree. I think for the new hir es it is that I really try to spend a lot of time in those teachers classrooms. And if I see there's an issue I bring them in and sit down and talk and pair them up with somebody and talk to another mentor teacher and talk about like what is going on. If things aren't happenin g, not working, whether it's showing on the paperwork or not they won't be hired back. If I see help them so that they don't struggle, because it's my job as administrator that I get t he support that the teachers need. Do I think if they don't do the paperwork is that going to make me not hire them no, but I do think that being successful in the classroom doing what I expect them to do, doing what I expect all the teachers to do, yes. Going to visit a teacher, you need to go to this workshop, lets you and I sit down and figure out a plan, and if that doesn't work then we got an issue. That is more important than the good get to kn ow the system, get to know people here. Does it really change you as a teacher? I don't know that it does that. There's a lot of rigor in it I think it's more jumping through hoops but also getting to know people. I mean you have to go talk to this person or this person or whatever. And those things help you feel more comfortable with the environment that you're in and the county that you're in.

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102 The AP of Discipline says the mentor with which the new hires are assigned have a direct impact on how they feel towards the school and their experience during the first year. He goes on to say it is important to align young teachers with a mentor in their own field. It helps the new hire get to know the people on campus as they are required to ask questions to diffe rent individuals to pass the requirements. I think that the person that they are setup to work with their mentor it can have a key effect on how they feel about the school, and what they're getting as far as their needs. From year to year everyone has a good year and a bad year from time to time. So sometimes those things happen and somebody you pair up with may not work out very well. And that's happe ned before and when it does it can leave a bad taste in somebody's mouth. But I think it's very key that you try to hook people up with someone within their own field. And try to give it to someone who's one of those good to get to know the system, t o get to know the people here. Does it really change you as a teacher? I don't know that it does that. There's a lot of rigor in it I think it's more jumping through hoops but also gett ing to know people here. The principal says the mentor teachers assigne d to newly hired teachers makes the biggest difference in how they feel about the school. She feels the team mentality stay. What the school personally does to ensure t part of the overall scheme than the induction program presented by the district. I think that what we do as a school makes the most difference. Newly hired feel about the school. Now the county does some things as well as the new teacher some things that they work on as far as professional development and those things are important but I think what we do at the school is the most impor tant that membership on a team is huge! Being a part of a team is huge feeling like you're a part feeling like you've got colleagues to help you look out for you to guide you that is huge working with a strong peer teacher is huge I think those things play a much bigger piece.

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103 Teacher A does not believe the induction program plays a critical role in the retention of new hires. She believes the administrative team plays a much larger role in the decision making process. The overall support she receives from her local colleagues who work in her building and her team has made a dramatic impact in her success and enjoyment level while working this year. great but she is there when I need her. The AP of Curriculum who is my administrative mentor has been wonderful. She has done walk throughs, observed me, answered all my questions, helped me prepare for my tests because I have to get certified to teach 7 th grade. So as far as the administra tion goes the answer is yes. I can see how if I did not know what I was doing, if I had not interned in the sixth grade I can tell you right now I would be lost. I would not have known school procedures, I would not have known anything and I was never told any of that. If I could say our program needs to improve on anything it would be that they issue a packet to newly do anything for a new teacher. For instance, my first fire drill I had no idea where to go. My first bomb drill, I hope they never do that because I have no idea what to do. They should go over these things with you, or hand you a packet, or do something that educates the new teachers because seriously I had no idea, to move because you are already going crazy as a new teacher but at some point you have to have some type of help. Teacher B says she feels the initial induction program is effective in that it requir es the new hire to think about their systems and processes; how they go about their business. She feels the induction program gives the new hire a feeling of success that they have accomplished something after their first year which makes them want to retu rn. Teacher B who is newly hired from a previous district last year says the other district did not have the same induction program and as a result felt like this was not the right field for her after the first year. She says this is proof that this county program is helpful and beneficial to new hires. I feel like the invite induction program the county does a very good job with that. They have a system in place that has not changed much in the fifteen

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104 ery effective it makes you think obvio usly very flexible. So I feel like the county does a very good job at that. And I think that it definitely facilitates teachers staying because you feel like a failure, because you have had that scaffolding all along to help guide you and get you where you need to be. And make sure that you have a vision retaining new teachers. The girl that I helpe d mentor last year she felt so discouraged by the end of her first year, because her entire first semester she had no help. She had never taken classroom management before in her life. So all her classroom management was shooting from the hip. And then at Christmas time when I realized what was going on it was too late. she had invested four years in college to do something completely different. And so she left the field she left that year feeling like this is not the field for induction program so it definitely makes a difference in ret aining teachers. Teacher C believes it is time consuming and has little to no value regarding the retention of new hires. Induction programs as far as the new teacher class is time consuming while hat forever but once you get past that new teacher stigma then I just feel like you can see that light you can see that ending. And then you continue on until your certification needs to be renewed. What type of induction program is currently being utiliz ed at this school? The AP of Curriculum says the induction program is outdated. The most important thing one needs is a mentor who can point them in the right direction and equip them with the tools needed to be successful. If a young teacher is struggling with certain concerns the experienced mentor teacher can help by answering questions and assisting where needed. Having rubrics in place and knowing what is expected of a teacher is also important.

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105 TAP. I think at one point it was a different domain area s that a teacher needs to be effective in and be considered an effective teacher. Planning and organization, communication, I can't even think of the different domains. And it was years ago you did all of those domains. Some of them were really good and yo u can go through it. Some of the others you needed to work on what might be considered your weakness. I think it's just ludicrous, I don't think that's important now. I do think it's important that teachers know what the expectations of their evaluations a re, and to see the rubric of the evaluation. To know this is what is considered highly effective in this area, developing. I think if you have a rubric it helps you as a teacher know this is what the expectations are if I want to be here this is what I hav e to do in my classroom. For a new teacher I think mentoring them, sitting down with them on a weekly basis, t ying them with somebody who has the strategies to say okay here's something you can use in your classroom if you have that struggle or if you have that child they don't know what to do with, t hose are more important. The AP of Discipline says the teacher assistance program (TAP) is a check off list system. During this process you are assigned a mentor and they observe the new hire and make observati ons as needed. Having someone critique new hires is very valuable to their development and overall success. Teacher assistance program called Tap. Well there's a check off list and there's many things that you need to do. Just common everyday things that need to occur, things that have to happen in the classroom for you to be successful. You also get watched by whoever your mentor is they come in and watch you and critique you and you know just normal things. You just have somebody who has a little more of an eye on you than just the regular everyday teachers that are here. The principal says there is a district wide program used by every school. She says the most important aspects of the induction program are having the mentor teacher in place and being su rrounded by a successful team. One should note the mentor teachers are assigned with district funds; however, the team concept is school based and not used district wide. The check off list is also helpful to acclimate the new ut the main piece which keeps everyone accountable is the mentor and team mentality which ensures success.

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106 We go through the beginning teacher program which is a program that our district uses. And it is a beginning teacher program and it has certain requi rements and I'm sure you have been exposed to that as well in terms of working with a peer teacher and terms of observations that look at what new hires need to complete. I think the biggest most important thing is that relationship with that peer teacher and that team having that feedback. Having someone come to your room and help you see the things that are going really well. You see something that maybe you haven't seen before, give you some ideas because there are so many things out there and also havin g someone who is experienced, who is a teacher here, who knows the structure and goals of this school. Again this is what we all believe in and this is all w hat we must do. And helping a new hire become a part of that is so important so I don't know that I could say that it's this piece of the induction program. It used to be years ago that we would say okay those are those little pieces like that which are important but I think the big p iece that communication and that feedback with that person and that team who can help you and you can give your ideas and who can help you when you are struggling and that support and that's really what it's about is support. And the beginning to your prog ram as it stands in that binder and that check off helps you be accountable that you are doing all those things. That's sort of that this is what we're doing and this is how we make sure, this is how we monitor what we're doing. Teacher A says the program assigns a mentor teacher and an administrator to watch over you during your first year. Paperwork is the primary concern for this induction requiring the new hire to complete the packet in 196 days. Also involved are observations throughout the year which require meetings before and after the observations to ensure professional development is occurring. It is called TAP and it is for Teacher Assistance Program. You get assigned a teacher, you get assigned an administrator and then they give you all this pa perwork that you have to do and fill out and you have a year to get it accomplished. Each employee has 196 days to get the packet completed. They give you a professional development plan that you work through. You end up with a portfolio, you have to answe r questions, you have to provide answers to the planning guide before they come in and look at you. So it is a lot. Most teachers they just walk in a nd get observed, not for me, it is a lot more one on one. It is a lot more intense and I have to meet with them before and after the observation and during to discuss what they are seeing. So it is very intimidating as a first year teacher.

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107 Teacher B says there is a packet of information which must be filled out. She also says there are observations both by th e mentor teacher as well as the new hire observing more experienced teachers in action. The observations and meetings with those observing to review areas of growth are the most valuable piece of the induction program according to Teacher B. She says it gi ves new hires a reason and a challenge to come back and do better next year. There is a packet that they have to go through with their mentor teach er and they together have a whole list of things that they have to do. Everything from observations the ment or teacher comes in and observes to the new teacher observing other teachers. They have to do reflections on lessons. They have to do a plan of a long range and a short range plan for ere are even several in services specifically o n our in service days there are several specifically for new teachers to go to. So lots of that and more observations by administrators as well. And I am not one of those when me on whenever. Because I feel like you can only gain from having someone else watch you teach and say objectively, you know well this is what I saw you did great and these are some things you need to work on. I have been doing this for a long time but I a lways can improve on a lesson. So I think the observation component of it is huge because it helps them see their own errors or their own areas that still can improve that just gives y ou more of a I year attitude And it gives you a reason to want to do it again because you can improve even upon being successful. Teacher C says the induction program is a new teacher class with mentoring occurring throughout the year. Teacher C completed the online coursework necessary before school started and just has observations and meetings with her assigned mentors and administrators. She does not mention it helping in any regard worth noting. We have a new teacher class. W e have a TAP program and the mentoring on a regular basis. I have been to other classes not specific for new teachers but it helped me for C ivics. You know before school started I did that online.

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108 How do we choose mentors for these new hires? The AP of Cu rriculum says we place regular teachers through a training program which teaches them to be objective and critique others. Personalities and subject matter is how mentors are assigned. There are some teachers which are highly effective who cannot be used a s mentors because they are competitive and do not want to share their teaching secrets with others. Not every teacher can be aligned with someone in their grade level and who teachers their subject matter. The most important thing is the mentor teacher wan ts to share their knowledge and wants to see the new hire succeed and is willing to help however necessary to make this happen. Basically the requirement for this county is that they have to go through a training process to spend two or three days on how to observe and evaluate a person a teacher. It's to be objective and that's what they teach you basically, is how to be objective and give criticism or critiques to somebody effectively. I did that years ago I don't remember the training I'll be honest wi th you. But I just remember we had to watch videos of teachers and what did we see. And it's not just standard teaching stuff but it's the whole picture. And when I'm in a classroom I just don't focus on what the teachers teaching I focus on what's happeni ng the entire time. And so looking at the whole picture not just that one snapshot of you standing up and that 's what I think mentoring does i s to help you look at the whole thing not just what you're teaching but what's going on during the whole environme nt. I line up new hires and mentors by personalities. I also line them up by subject matter. I also line them up by the mentors who are the ones that I sent to train who are effective teachers. Are they going to be willing to help a new teacher? Are they g oing to be willing to give up some of their strategies and different techniques that they use to the new teacher? And there are some teachers here that are effective and not willing to give to other people. And that's okay. Some of it is that they see it a s competition and you're trying to get my stuff. And a competition sometimes can be good when you look at data. Because I'm a very competitive person and I can tell you I don't want to lose. And if I'm going to compete against somebody for my pay I'm going to make sure I am up there towards the top. I s that competition those are the people that don't want to share that knowledge. I know it's very interesting. And basically I look at when I do mentors and teachers I do it with personalities which I think is very important. I also look at background history and subject area.

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109 The AP of Discipline says the matching process begins by looking for someone who teachers their subject matter and then a secondary concern is grade level. Like I said we try to match them up with somebody that's in their field and try to match them in their same grade level. But you have to have a special training to even be allowed to be a mentor teacher because our county offers a stipend to people that do that. And so we do the bes t that we can with our list of people who are certified to do that. The principal says the primary concern is subject matter and then a secondary concern is grade level. She says it is difficult attempting to match people in the same geographic location be cause they can only assign who has passed the district training required to be a mentor. The first thing is you have to have that mentor training and our county offers that training every year so we kind of do outreach to our teachers and teachers of expe rience teachers who have that structure teachers who have been a big part of the whole improvement process we reach out to those people and you know can we get you to the training we'd love you to become a part of this program and we always have lots of takers so that's the first thing do they have a training to be the peer teacher and once you have that training then we try to look in terms of your subject area and in terms of your academic team and how we think you would be best supported. It is wonder ful if it can be someone who is geographically close to you it's wonderful if it can be your exact subject area some things are harder to find than others for all those things make a difference so all of that plays in. Teacher A says she believes the men tors are chosen by department. Her mentor is her department leader. She states the mentor teacher is in a different grade level, different geographic location, and has a lot of experience in the field. Teachers who are not her mentor are more meaningful to her development as a young teacher because they teach the same grade and are closer in proximity thus making it easier to communicate on a regular basis about important issues. They have more in common and experience more common challenges than her mentor teacher. She finds

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110 communicating with people on her same grade level to be most helpful when discovering solutions to student challenges and learning desires. I believe it is by department. So my mentor is my department leader. She is an eighth grade teac her. She is a veteran teacher, so she has done this a lot. She is in a different building. I have one teacher who teaches my subject area right across the hall from me, which she and I collaborate more probably more than anybody. Me and her teach the same her than other p re like okay were trying to like common core standards with our get it because we all have to do it, but the older teac abo ut that. teachers, one on each team and we get together every Tuesday and we meet and we t on the right track discuss our assessments and if our assessments were successful or not because When we meet departmentally I We meet more at grade level than anythi ng. Teacher B says she does not know at this school because it is her first year teaching here. She thinks based on prior experiences at other schools one is approached by the principal and asked to be a mentor. She believes in mentoring and teaching beca use it is what gives her intrinsic motivation and excites her to help others. whenever I was a mentor previously the principal came to me and said are you willing to do this and I I enjoyed helping other teachers be successful. I love my job I could definitely do a lot of other things. But I like teaching and I like watching those light bulbs go on for both my students and for other teachers. And I love to see other people be able to enjoy their job. And so I can only

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111 very f riendly I mother everyone and so I think she just saw those qualities and said would you be willing t stipend Why bother? It was a minimal like fifty bucks or something stupid like that. And so they just as far as I know you r e just approached by the administration. Teacher C says she is not sure how mentors are chosen. She knows they must be experienced in teaching. Teacher C uses a lot of resources in her local area. She not only relies on her assigned mentor teacher to help her but even more so calls on the assistance of more local resources who wor k in her hallway and who teach her same subject matter. This teacher is a self starter who does not wait for someone to tell her what needs to be done; rather, she sees what needs to be done for the students to be successful and finds the necessary resourc es to help the students. n I do use the other mentors but the o ther ones are right here and I can go to them at any time. From my mentor that is not in the same building, she has a few years of experience. So in that respect I can grab different things from her that I may not be able one of those people I try to seek out as much information as I can before you know so that I can do the best job because I got to get different points teaching like the first part of the year was there is no one right way. Number I think I was expecting find wh at your right way is. Like I said C wledge they may have had bits and pieces here and there and so trying to make sure they are excited and they want to know about it is a challenge light bulb goes on kind of deal. And I can see some of them lawyers and politicians a nd in my field which is kind of cool. Do you think mentors here enjo y the process and idea of mentoring? The AP of Curriculum says that they do enjoy mentoring one another and it even goes beyond the paid portion of the job. She says many of the teachers in the hallway

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112 will offer their time and make sure a new teacher is s ucceeding and they will ask if there is anything they need. They offer their time and make sure the team is succeeding whether they are being paid to do so or not. This team mentality is a theme which keeps surfacing throughout many of the interviews and a ppears to be one of the main reasons Yes, I think and especially this past year that they like seeing any teacher grow, blossom and help them. I can also say add to this but also as in the side, the one thing about this campus is that even if they are not the mentors or the peer teachers as part of the beginning program for new teacher. Our grade level teachers help out those new teachers. For instance, one 7th grade new teacher walks in deer caught in th e headlights, oh my god I think I'm not doing a very good job, panics, works very hard, is here diligent. Her peer teacher is an experienced teacher They worked so well together, came in during the summer figured out a pacing guide. Did lesson plans toget her they worked and worked and worked. They did many assessments throughout the year. The mentor teacher blew them out of the water with her data on the mini assessments. And I said you better turn around and ask her what she's doing now. And I love that beside s her having her mentor teacher she had other two teachers to help her also be successful as a teacher. And they have planning periods together and stuff like that. The 7th grade team really works well together not just the peer teachers that were he lping the mentor teachers. So I don't think it's not just mentors it's even people in your hallway. them intrinsically. The idea that the school is a team and everyone works tog ether for the common good drives individuals to work coherently as a single unit. He also reiterates the point that teachers will seek their own help regardless of who their assigned mentor turns out to be. He says they all communicate well together and se ek the common good of the whole. He also says that when people help around campus if factors into their overall evaluation as the administrative team hears about people helping one another. I do and I think that the reason for that is they take pride in th e school. And they want to make sure that whoever comes in is a part of the team and

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113 feels like a part of the team. And we help them with lesson plans and things like that because being a first year teacher is tough. It's tough to keep your nose above wate r and so those mentor teachers know who to put them with if they're not directly involved with the same classes to help them. They'll go plans this week, I need to work with them on something else so if you'll help when you want somebody to be successful. We all communicate yes that is definitely something they do. They're in charge of going to make some observation s every once in a while. But they're also in charge of finding out from the other peers how they feel things are going to o other evaluation process. You know whenever I go into evaluate somebody sometimes people think that one or two ti mes a year that I get to make it the entire piece. The rest of it comes from you know things that they do around campus. The principal says the teachers see the benefit from b eing effective mentors and think back on how important it was for them when someone mentored them. Another reason they enjoy mentoring is because the work they invest in the teacher will be reflected in how the students are taught. I do, we have some fabu lous teachers who are doing it and honestly some better than others but we have some teachers who really see the benefit and who also because they've been there know the importance of it you know when you've been a new teacher and you have someone who work s with you who is there for you who helps you with those things that you need to do shows you those things that are not working so well you really get the importance of it. And you have some people doing that. And I never have to say excuse me you need to m entor this person and they hate it and I know you don't want to do it. And we have people that want to do it because they see the benefit of it and the importance of it to the school. So they're happy to do it. It goes back to that the reason they do what they have to you have to believe in your heart it has to be for children and you realize as a mentor that's an extension that's another impact on what we're doing. It's hard to answer that because I'm one of those people that see the importance of it. It' s hard to even think in terms of not doing it. So the incentive is the impact that you have through kids, the impact they have for that person and if you believe in yourself and what you doing that you want to share it. Teacher A says she does feel men tors enjoy the process as a whole. She goes on to say that the ineffectiveness of her assigned mentor is due to the fact they have too

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114 much on their plate to do everything well. They do not have the meetings they are supposed to and without the teacher acr oss the hall Teacher A would not have a positive experience with mentoring this year. The mentor teacher and Teacher A do not have common planning time due to their not teaching the same grade level and due to the fact they are not on the same team. This m akes it extremely difficult for them to find time to discuss important matters and have meetings. Due to the fact the mentor teacher has not taught the grade level of the teacher being mentored in a long time it is difficult for her to discuss the subject matter being taught. mentor or I would find it to be an honor. I think my mentor just has so much going on being She can th grade in a long time so the curriculum and such she just i e with it, w have to have ready for next time. S he plans to come and in watch, t hings like that. I think your mentor should have your same planning, if your mentor had your same planni teacher across the hall, her mentor did have the same planning, so they got thing that they should look at, j y. Teacher B says she knows of three different teachers who all have positive experiences with their mentors and believes each mentor enjoys the experience of taking other teachers under their wing. The most overwhelming feeling the teachers have is that they are cared for by everyone, not just the teacher getting paid to watch their progress. This feeling of family and team is what apparently drives the school to succeed and maintain a static staff year after year.

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115 I definitely do. I know two of the new teachers here on campus that have same thing there both mother hen s the mentors are. And they just take people under their wing. One thing that I find very encouraging about this school is one of the n ew teachers here has a mentor who she does all of her stuff with. And she enjoys her avid mentor. But she also has an other teacher who is more available to her because the mentor is more of a mom and that other teacher is a younger teacher. She recently sa me under her wing and she helps just as much as my mentor teacher even that whole unity she feels like she belongs she feels like not just this la dy who is getting paid a minuscule little tepid of money to help me but another teacher who is getting nothing for it is there to help me. And so that is almost like there is an entire mentor mentality we all just work together and at is huge in making people like their job. Teacher C says her mentor has been extremely helpful and it is actually a continuation of a previous relationship established through her undergraduate studies. The mentorship has been a perfect fit and has been helpful to Teacher C. Yes, because my mentor she has helped me. In my mentor I also did my teaching experience with her last year and so that was a good continuation because we already established a working relationship that way and then she continued on to be my mentor, a nd that was a good experience. The was only a few times. But it was something I worked with her on. So that was a great introduction for me. And then to find out she was my mentor made me happy b continuity. So that was a good thing. Do we have any incentives for our mentors as far as encouraging them? The AP of Curriculum says there are monetary rewards encoura ging teachers to want to help others. Yes, they do get monetary compensation for doing the extra work throughout the year. I don't know how much it is anymore. And so we only The AP of Discipli ne says for certified teachers who agree to mentor there is a es if you get certified there's a stipend that is given each time you accept a new mentor.

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116 Teacher A says she does not believe there are monetary rewards or incentives involved in the process of mentoring. She says it is something that is expected of veteran teachers and it is an honor to be asked. paid to it. Teacher B says she believes it is around $50. She says that is not why teachers are mot ivated to mentor; rather, it is the intrinsic desire to help others succeed and teach students successfully. It is around $50. I could be wrong because that was a whole lot of years s not the reason that you Teacher C openly admits that she does not know what the parameters for incentives are. When asked the qu estion she just plainly communicated, w Besides the incentives can you think of some other reason s why mentors want the extra responsibility? The AP of Curriculum says she believes the teachers desire to share their knowl edge with new teachers. Further, some teachers enjoy motivating others and getting them excited about educating our young people. It is a lot of paperwork. But I also think that they like to share their knowledge with new teachers. And I give the example of a teacher who has been teaching for 20 plus years. And I can remember when she started out teaching she was a kindergarten teacher. And she is somebody who loves the profession loves the career so much that she enjoys getting other people hooked on it. That's what she likes about it and so that's why she likes to do it. She likes to help them get excited about being a teacher.

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117 The AP of Discipline says the reason people mentor is because they care about children and care about their profession. He also s ays mentors take pride in the school and want to make sure the new hires are instilled with that same sense of ownership. Because they care about their profession and they care about kids. There's no better way to promote your livelihood and what you thin k is important than to share your knowledge with somebody else. And so I feel like most of ours that do it they do it for that reason. And they take pride in the school and they want someone to come in and realize what we have here. Teacher A says mentors like to advise others on how to change small things about their systems and processes which makes them more effective educators. In this particular response the new hire expresses her appreciation for constructive criticism and having someone watch over he r professional development as a professional educator is extremely beneficial and welcomed. I think listening to the teacher across the hall, her mentor was very involved. She would come in and tell her how to change her room, change her assessments, chan ge just little things to help her and I think it really teaching, how like being watched people who get offended by not tell me and then judge me for it for two years. I told our administrator that when she se I want to be average. Teacher B says mentors in her experience decide to perform the duties for the interest and motivation they have in seeing others do well and develop as young professionals. She also goes on to say her influence over student development is

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118 compounded when her techniques and skills are used by other teachers. She also states that being a mentor and being mentored is a life long event. She constantly asks other teachers to help her grow and develop because she enjoys learning new techniques and growing as the state places new demands on teachers. When I have been a mentor and when I mentor again it will 100% be the interest and motivation. I feel rewarded by watching someone else bloom into a wonderful teacher because for me that just increases my skill and influence. I have my 40 some odd kids that I teach every day and I impact them in their math and science skills definitely but I impact them more in th eir life. Math and science is the academics but the life skills and the life lessons that I teach them are of such greater value than the math and another teacher be effective and be a pos itive teaching entity than m y scope of influence is broadened by all the children that that teacher teaches something. I was a mentor on an official basis 4 times. And then I was a mentor on an unofficial taught at another school I had taught math and science previously but I was teaching language ar ts and the math teacher at the other school was over standards and I constantly took her stuff out of my filing cabinet because I had my math and science stuff and I was like oh hey look I found my stuff in my filing cabinet. Okay no I went looking for it but I told that I found it but I told her that I found it in my filing cabinet, because she needed to focus on the standards more. And I would find things that would focus on the standards that I fel t like would suit her teaching because I wanted the student to be successful on the test. And I would have them in Language A t to do and I would going to fail on math on the FC AT. And so there was nothing official about that and you know she had been teaching longer than I had mentor someone but I also receive mentoring every year because if I see someth ing I like I am going to go to that person and say now tell me how you did that because I am fixing to steal it. All the best ideas, someone else has already done them, so just steal them. And I do so, I think the mentor process is ongoing always. Not on a n official basis, but if you not Teacher C says the mentor wants to help new hires not make the same mistakes they did when they first started. She says it has to do with people who choose to go in to

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119 the teaching profession being social beings. New teachers of any age can enjoy being mentored so they do not make unnecessary errors. For mentors to not take the job seriously and observe their new teacher without giving them helpful suggestions and all owing mistakes to occur without offering correction is performing a disservice to the new hire and to the communal team of teachers and students. A new hire needs to give respect to those in authority over them. This could be an administrator in charge of the school or a mentor teacher assigned to their professional development. The teachers do not need to know everything going on within the school as it is not their job or responsibility to handle the intricate details of running an educational organizatio n. There are times when respect must be given due to the position one holds regardless of Some of them want to pass on their knowledge in hopes that in some cases e mistakes that they did. To learn from those mistakes or to learn the good things that the mentor has experienced and to be able to share that. That goes back to kind of being a social being thing. Some people are more willing to share that kind of inform can give to someone else is their knowledge. I believe there would be some extrinsic gain to share that with someone else. Because I mean one I mean I would want someone to learn from me. I have a wonderful older sister she has two her. And she calls me sometimes and says you know take this down and remember this and I think those things are helpful. Just from your life experiences of what you have. But I think being a mentor is a very guidance re going to do what that be your class team your grade team your subject matter team the school as a whole then maybe that needs to be rethou ght because

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120 administrators in many cases know the big picture a lot of times the people need to know everything and I some trust in administrators and managers wherever you are you g ot to that situation in the sy stem. S o that trust is very important. You have to have an assistant principal, you got to have the respect and trust. And sometimes ly due to their position. Because like I said they know more ev resident Obama he knows more about rything about the military I got to put some trust in them to do what they should do. Do newly hired teachers feel the mentoring process is beneficial and helpful? The AP of Curriculum says the paperwork is probably not viewed by the teachers as being hel pful towards their growth and development as professionals. She also feels the paperwork is ineffective in helping new hires perform their jobs better or become highly effective. She does feel having a mentor or peer teacher can be very beneficial to the g rowth and development of new hires and can help them in areas such as classroom management or teaching strategies which have proven over time to be successful. People jump through hoops because they have to do so in order to maintain their positions within the organization. The AP of Curriculum states she does what is necessary to keep her job just like everyone else. The paperwork crap no. I do not think that is effective or it helps a new teacher become effective or highly effective or helps them do thei r job better no. Do I think that having a mentor en twined into peer teachers or hooking them up with somebody who can help them with classroom management? Or maybe hooking them up with the teacher who does a unique strategy, or hooking them up with a teac her who is blowing them out of the water for FCAT reading, yes. I think that is mo re beneficial to any teacher than jumping through hoops. That's my opinion. I think that if having that makes a teacher better stronger than doing paperwork. And of course n one of the new teachers would ever come to me and say this is stupid and I would never do this again and I cannot believe y ou made me do it. Because they are all just so hungry and they know that jo bs are so hard to

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121 come by. T hey will say I will do it agai n yes ma'am give me some more please. But I can say they will never certainly come to me and say this is full of crap I'm not doing it. And I mean I would certainly do the same thing. Just like I tell the principal everyday thank you very much give me some more please I will do it just because I need this job. The AP of Discipline says he believes new hires do find the mentoring process to be helpful and beneficial. He believes that during the process itself some new hires are simply trying to fulfill a req uirement mandated by the system which makes it difficult to appreciate the growth which is occurring. Teachers typically look back after a year or two and then appreciate what the mentor was doing for them at the time and how it helped them develop as a pr ofessional. to get these things checked off so that they're done with the whole entire process. But I think in the end and you know it may even take a year or two to look ba ck, but I think most of us when we are kind of in a fog when you're there. But then when you look back a few years later you go oh I remember so and so helped me so much with this or that. and you're the student you know you didn't really appreciate your teachers as much until after you were done with their class and moved on to something else. So I kind of think of it that way The principal says the mentor serves as the extension of the ad ministrative team to the new hire and provides feedback to both parties. She says feedback can be wonderful when presented in the right way and helps everyone become better at what they are being paid to accomplish. Structure is very important at this scho ol and classroom management is one of the most important elements stressed throughout the campus. The principal communicates the fact that mentors help new hires establish a sense of control and mold the learning environment to the organizational expectati on. Being a part of the process and helping new hires achieve success is one of the primary tasks of the mentor. The administrative team keeping a close eye on whether

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122 mentorships are successful and helping new hires is one of their primary concerns each y ear and something they monitor very closely. I think a mentor is again giving the feedback that we need. I think that sometimes feedback is wonderful, but its feedback and it's helping you I hope you go along those. Achieve those goals to get you where yo u need to be. I think mentors are also those people who can seek out those things that you're doing well. Be that person who can help you build on your strengths and also help you build that structure that we also think is important here. Everything that w e do is built on structure. You know we do things differently here so you know those mentors are people that are successful and can help a new person come in and become a part of that. So it's recognizing what you're doing well and not just saying you need to do such and such because that's great but helping you do it. But that is coming into your classroom and watch and come to your class tweak this our plans, and this is how we structur e things. You better have someone that's willing to work with you and help you get there. That's what a good mentor is someone who is willing to come in and help you do that work with you. And help you see the successful classroom this is what it looks li ke, and this is what it feels like. I think I do get somewhat of a chance to do that and I can see where it is successful. It is something that I like to build on and tweak. I think it is a work in progress and something that we need to pay close attention to every year. I can see when it doesn't go well that's very obvious too. And I think it's something that you have to constantly work and reveal on staying in the front of your mind. Teacher A says they are encouraging and their experience helps them rel ate to what new hires are challenged with and how best to meet those challenges. Teacher expectation she would have of herself as a mentor. The mentor teacher has not been i nvolved in her life and simply performs the minimum requirements to fulfill the obligation required of her. Teacher A expresses her feeling of being a self starter and not waiting on someone to tell her something needs to be done; rather, she initiates the process and asks others for help when her mentor is not present to support her needs or involved in her growth and developmental process.

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123 likes you to just get through it. I think th their not me. It works for her, so she promises not one of those teachers who is going to go into your room every thirty minutes and ask you Teacher B says the new hires probably do not feel the process is beneficial and helpful when they are experiencing it. She says one must be separated from the process and have time to look back and reflect on what was happening before appreciation can truly be felt by the participant involved. Teacher B says when she was first mentored out of college she needed to be held by the h and that first year because the education programs were not as thorough as they are now. She goes on to say teachers are so much better prepared through collegiate training programs that the mentorship may be viewed as a burden rather than as an enjoyment. Knowing what one or having the feeling of being lost and needing that helping hand to be by your side job. teenagers never understand why you have the rules that you have and then wn I think. The education programs may be doing a better job, when I came out of school I needed that first year of having someone hold my hand. The teacher prep program may be doing a better job of getting teachers ready and they may be ready

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124 to go more than I was because hopefully the colleges are looking at what is our success rate f adjusting their programs. Your first year is like insanity anyways and then to have to do that packet on top of it seems like a pain in th e neck, but later they appreciate it I believe. I did my bachelors at a small school mostly because it wa s a smaller school and I lived N orth of here so it was about the same distance, there was not a program here at the time like there is now. For several years there was a bachelors program that was a satellite program from FAMU and those ladies and gentleman came to the school so wretchedly unprepared it was so sad. In fact I know several of them were not reappointed after their first year because they we re so ineffective, but couple interns through the local program and they got it going on, they daughter went through that program, and she had to work. And she is a that I had as a long term intern was from UNF and she knew wh at she was doing. And that is huge. Teacher C says her experience is when she asks her mentor a question the individual is careful to think through the answer and give her feedback when she finds to be beneficial to her systems and processes as an educato r. This teacher does not wait for her mentor to engage her in the process; rather, if she has an area which needs addressing she initiates the question with her mentor who is careful to make her feel supported. Teacher C openly admits without the help and assistance of her mentor supporting her the experience of this first year teaching at this school would be much different. I think being honest in the answer to your questions is really important. And and I suggest So taking the time to say you know this is what you may need to think about. So I think time is a big thing and some people may not have the time to share but I think whenever I go to a mentor and ask them a question and they take the time to think about it themselves then let me know what their response is it s extrem ely supportive to me. And some of that is through paper work most if it is not though. Most of it is me going to

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125 ask a question and then them taking the time to help me with it. And I think D o you think mentoring comes into terms on whether a newly hired teacher decides to stay? The AP of Curriculum says she does believe mentoring comes into play when a new hire chooses to remain at the school and in the profession. She goes on to say it is th e teamwork mentality between departments, grade levels, and individuals throughout the school that makes this place a fun place to work and why people enjoy the position. She also thinks her working with the teachers on their trade and helping them develop and how she supports them also plays a role in their decision making. Yes I do believe so. I believe and I think it goes back to this campus the teamwork between departments, grade levels, and school are so strong on this campus that it keeps people her e. I do believe that. And hopefully I but I think a little bit of me makes them want to stay. The AP of Discipline says he has never heard of a teacher expressing they took t he mentoring process into consideration when deciding whether to stay or not. He does say there are bonds which develop between the new hire and mentor. He says the mentor and new hire stay close to one another even after the process is concluded. I've ne ver heard that but I have seen bonds occur with people that you know they were their mentor. And you take ownership in it. Even though they're done with the program they still stay pretty close to that person. And then it becomes more of a mutual relations hip and you see a lot more sharing. So I don't think anybody has said because of that program but you see it. You see the bond that occurs. The principal says she believes the mentoring experience plays a major role in whether new hires decide to remain. She says that although we have a very strong team concept in place having someone you can rely on and call on when one needs help is essential to making new hires feel comfortable and at home.

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126 Yes I do think it plays a really big part. You can have a grea t team and that plays a big part of what we do. But you got to have more than that. It would be hard for me as a new person to just come in to a school this size, with this many teachers, with all the thin gs that we need to do; just to think about it is pr etty scary. That's a pretty scary thing to do for anybody. It's very hard to walk into this school and not feel a little intimidated, and not feel all oh my gosh there's 500 teachers. You know that's what it feels like. And even coming here as an AP for th e first y ear, how many of them are there? Teacher A says the mentoring experience does not play a role in whether she stays or leaves the school. She says that if her mentoring experience determined whether she stayed or left the school she would have left a long time ago. She says that if one truly wants to be successful in any field one must be a self starter and seek the seek them out in order to succeed all is lost. She also feels that elementary school teachers have way more of a taxing paperwork assignment than do middle school teachers due to RTI requirements in particular. No, because if it was by my mentoring, I would have been gone a long time when I started I got a mentor. So I mean I think no. If you want to be here then you want to be here regardless if you have the help or not. You have to be a go getter, in anything you do like that. No, I think if I would have been in an elementary school setting it would have been worse, because to me they have so much more to do. Like paperwork things to do they have so much more tedious things to do. I interned in all elementary until I got to my final, and that was just madness. All they had to do, paperwork you had to fill out. The things you had to do, I would have to have a mentor worth a billion dollars, because I mean they literally throw you into the walls when ike the time the kids get here they have IPD teachers did it. Like RTI, all those things elementary schools did that. And everyday day, and then they plan subject every day. So I mean as far as workloads, to me they are way more than we are. Teacher B says she does take into account her mentor experi ence in whether deciding in staying or leaving the school. This teacher is calling upon her experience

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127 from when she first began teaching. She says without her mentor it would have been a disaster when she first began teaching. She also says this first yea r as a new hire is not as bad because she has so many years of teaching experience with other schools and she has taught these subjects before which also helps. She says her experience outweighed her need for a mentor. She says the team approach is vital t o her success as she is teaching math and science so she is unable to be at both department meetings at the same time and thus relies on her colleagues to keep her informed and accountable. She says the little things such as what to do if you are sick and where to go during a fire drill as just as important as knowing how to teach your curriculum. The social aspect and day to day activities, such as making copies, according to Teacher B begins to form the confidence, or lack thereof, within a teacher which shows in his or her comfort level while working within the organization. It is the social aspect which ultimately determines whether a teacher stays or goes from a school. Even if teachers are successful in the classroom and their students like them, if th ey are not enjoying their colleagues, or if they feel unappreciated by their administration or their colleagues, they will eventually choose to leave the school and seek employment elsewhere. Yes, like I said about that I moved from kindergarten to 4 th gra de, if I had mentor situation, she just came and helped me, if I had not had her it would have been a disaster 4 th grade because it was such a change. This year not quite so much cause I have so many years under my belt and I have taught these subjects. My experience outweighed my need for a mentor this year. I go to the math meetings, but because I have a split personality this year I s have been wonderful miss information. Because the curriculum is the curriculum and I could teach that wherever. But there are things about every school, the way things are going. Who do you call if you wake up sick, all of those little

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128 successful in a mentor, whether it s official or unofficial is so very valuable in working within this is th 15 th year out of school you need someone to help you through, this is how you do things here. Positively maybe not, but I think whether they realize it or o turn the copies in, they knew who to call when they woke up sick and they knew well I could wear jeans on Friday. Those little things within the social aspect positive experience on those types of things, you start to have a negative outlook. And then that negative outlook, negativity always grows faster than it should, and so the more positive you can have the better off you are. ood teacher, like I do my job. I dream about my lesson plans sometimes. I care about my students and I bust my behind to get every student taught before that test but when I did not feel welcomed at a school I was ready to go. At the end kind of friends. His wife and I were friends, his children knew me and I did not like that place because I did not feel welcomed. And there were teachers who made me feel welcomed. But as a whole after 2 years there, there were te achers that I did not know their name or what they taught. And come over there? There were local people who could be doing my job, and they did not care how effective I was. I had better standardized test scores than anybody in any grade. I had better standardized test scores than other schools in that county. I rocked it in language arts. They did not welcome just over there. I left because I did not feel welcomed. The students loved me. I curriculum, it was so muc Teacher C says for her the mentor experience is not a deciding factor but she realizes it is for some teachers. She says one has to view the whole picture and cannot

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129 let one negative experience spoil the entire viewpoint of teaching. Teacher C believes the role of t he mentor should be to encourage the new hire and make them feel more confident in their work; however, if this does not turn out to be the case the new hire cannot let this one negative aspect of the job influence their decision to stay in the industry, o r not, so heavily. This is one aspect of the many facets which play into the role of being a professional educator. Teacher C has many years of work experience outside the realm of education and she says that it greatly helps in her vantage point regarding how to be successful in a job with our without a mentor standing by helping. Dealing with different types of people has helped her become diverse and view different scenarios with patience and understanding. m not going to let that be a deciding factor for me. Because I feel like there a lot of other issues that are associated with that. Even if a new hire had a bad experience with a mentor and I think part of this comes from having previous work experience. A nd just like lessons and such you can It could be factor associated with it. But yes I think if you have a bad relationship or your mentor i s no t supportive I think that can have a bearing on the way you they need. But again the new hire has to take a step back and say okay is this just a bad experience that I had or is i t something that just happens have any life experience at all that might be more of a case. I think a mentor plays a part but it should definitely be a positive one and not fall int o that negativity. Which in any position you can do it. Like I said teamwork is so support is extremely important. But you also have to take a step back and look at the picture. I have to say my working experience prior to coming into education has helped me tremendously. I have worked professionally with military members that were getting out and some had been retired and everyone over a ten year period. But I would not trade it for anything it was one of those things where I grew a lot and I went back and got my masters and my masters is in business administration. So I have that respect. But that work experience and life experience and things plays a part in it.

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130 D o the newly hired teachers take into account the experiences found during the mentoring process whether to stay or to leave? The AP of Curriculum says this decision is typically made based on a number of differe nt factors. One could be the type of students they had in the given year. It could be the subject area they were asked to teach, especially if it is not the area in which they have been trained or in which they have experience. It could also be their team, their mentor, the administration, it all plays a factor in the final decision making process. No one single factor determines whether someone stays or leaves. I think a combination of both I'll be honest I think that it's a combination of a lot of differ ent things I think it's the kind of students they have that year it could be the subject area that they taught that year that might have not have been there subject. It could be the mentor it could be the commodity of their team and the department it could be the administration. I think all of that takes an account whether somebody stays or not I truly believe it's a whole package deal not just one thing keeps somebody from staying I think it's the whole thing. Now you might have a year where you have the y uckiest of yuckiest of children in the world I mean you think that you're going to die these are the horriblest children. You might be teaching out of your field and you're having to teach math if I have to do that I would die I would struggle. It could be that you absolutely do not get along with the peers on your hallway with your grade level. I mean it could be all of those that one of those can make you just say I'm out or it could be one of those that you could say okay I realize this is just the one y ear let me see what this next year is. The AP of Discipline says he believes the experiences found within the mentorship program play a deciding factor in whether new hires decide to remain in their positions. He also states that with the current state of primary concern is whether one has a job to pay the bills and feed their families. He goes on to say internships help recruit prospective employees coming out of college due to the fact they have experienced the campus and the cultur e of success built over many years of hard work.

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131 I'm sure that plays a key role. You know whether we have a job or not is number one. And then after that if they have a positive experience they're hat work here whether it's a mini internship or a full internship they want to work here when they leave. But you know we only have so many jobs to offer so a lot of them have to go elsewhere. But I feel like they're ready to go somewhere whenever we get t hrough. The principal says she feels it is an important factor new hires ponder when making their decision about job choices. The personality of the person who is mentoring also plays a factor as well as the subject area they teach and years of experience they is no exception to the varied experience one may have. The team will decide the overall experience and feeling for the new hire and the geographic locations of t he mentor teacher and new hire also will play a part in just how positive a feeling the new hire will have from the experience of working with the mentor due to the close proximity and ease of access, or lack thereof. Having someone else on campus who does job and having one with which to speak and glean from their experience is essential to positive feelings about the job and workplace. I can't necessarily speak for those people but I think that's an important piece, yes. And that's just me tal king. Thinking about what you just said looking at the teachers in terms of years of experience, gender, and subject area. I mean when I sit and think about those things really there are a lot of questions we can ask ourselves and where are we doing better in terms of grade, in terms of subject area, in terms of all those things. And are we stronger in some areas than others and I would guess yes. And stronger in some subject areas and I would guess yes. Depending on who those peer teachers are, who those m entor teachers are here so I think all those are important pieces. I know off the top of my head there are some real streaks also know those crazy wonderful ones. So I know there' s a lot of thought that can be spent on just that. Because of geographic location, because of what team I'm on, because of all those things. Not always possible. I mean look at our chorus teacher. We don't have another one of those. So that in itself that' s a harder challenge to me. But also doing very different things, there are some similarities that the chorus teacher has to do and there are

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132 some similarities in the structure. But there are also some differences in what is being done. Teacher A says it a bsolutely has no bearing on whether she decides to stay in her current position or move somewhere else. Teacher A has the personality of wanting one will read in the follo wing quotations she feels inconvenienced and unsupported when the mentor teacher does not offer her support and experience willingness but rather must be asked before offering assistance. Teacher A wants to be told very specifically what to do and what the best systems and processes are to achieve the optimum level of success. This teacher relies on her team leader to provide support and direction not waiting for her mentor teacher to finally offer support or ask her questions about how she is doing. This a gain reinforces how vital the team concept is to the success of the organization as a whole as well as the individual teams and teachers found within. Contrary to what the community believes about the school, which is that all the good kids who are respect ful come to this school, Teacher A has difficulty with her students who have no accountability at home and do not care if she calls their parents as there are no affective repercussions for their blatant disrespect in the classroom. According to Teacher A teams are the most effective support system she has at the school and she does not want the administration to change the team concept as her mentor teacher has proven to be ineffective in supporting her since her arrival. Teaming is the reason this teacher chose to team at the middle school level instead of elementary as there are multiple teachers attempting to teach the same student and thus comparing notes on the most appropriate learning style and communicating challenges with parents occurs as a united front. Not everyone enjoys each person on a

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133 team but the team concept is essential to our success as teachers in educating our students. The geographic placement is very important to Teacher A as she can easily speak to people around her but finds no one who teachers her subject very close. The school has students assigned by grade regarding what building they attend so if the other teacher responsible for teaching her subject area is placed at the other end of the hallway she can not easily access her for a quick moment to speak about professional matters. Her recommendation is to place subject area teachers close together so they may collaborate quickly between classes if need be. Teacher A also feels the reason switching teacher locations is not done is because the teachers reject the idea. She says it is not because of the administration. Some suggestions from Teacher A which improves the mentoring and induction process in general are as follows: having a book for the teacher outlining expectations in a simple way, instructions on fire and tornado drill procedures, have a mentor that wants to do it, have someone assigned as a mentor who will engage new hires and push them to become better without being asked to do so by the new hire. No. The veteran teach er that works on our wing she helps us a lot, the new n that, like tell us what to do. to tell me what to do. You had all these high expectations and w hard to do those things. We are very team centered at this school and I can team leader, she keeps me going. If it how to deal with something like behavior wise and these kids are nuts, they kids that are so disrespectful. I would have never said the things to my teacher that they say to us, in a hundred years because I was scared of what would happen

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134 have no accountability for what they do here and with my team leader, if it to be upset because that is, a team. You may not like a person on your team. The team thing, I think is the best thing we have done. Way more than the mentor process, way over the new teacher program, over any of that. The first year teacher has been the best thing by a long shot. Removing teams would negatively impact the school because I think, just like going back to the comparing assessments, comparing behavior. In elementary school, that is one thing I did not like is problem wi th this kid times we call their parents, just as a team and we will pass the phone around. And all four of us will sit there in her room and call. I love that and I en I applied it is hard to find four people that can work together and not have issues, I mean that is hard to do. But I think our school does a good job at doing that. Now there a re some teachers along that hallway, oh I have some issues. really like you, but I can get along with you. We have three or four teams, so 12 teachers. No, we are not all in the sam in my opinion you would have your teams together, to me that makes since like one language arts teacher is at one end of the hall, one of them is at the other end of the hall and then one science teacher is at one end of th e place them. To me a lot of that hallway mess that we have, those issues that we have, all that mess, would be solved in two seconds because all you know P.E. or something like that. To me that would be more beneficial or if they would put science together, language arts together, like somehow group them. But to me that team makes the most since, so the t eams would think a lo t of our beh avioral issues would end in the hall at least. In an ideal world geographic location would be by subject, because two language arts are together, two civics are together, two sciences are together and then just one random. You have one language arts on one end; you have the

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135 are some suggestions of things that could make the mentoring program better and induction programs in general. I would say have a book for the teach about telling us. When we had that tornado drill the other day, I was like what the crap do I do? a packet that says thi s is what you got to do. These are the guidelines, this is how our school works, this is about your administration, this is how you get in contact with us gs like that, which you need to ou more than anything. I think our school has a lot of trust in our teachers; I appreciate that because I do not want an administration that is on my back 24/7, that is the last thing I y never our assistant principal who is over my new teacher program has done a popped in the other day and di lucky to get this job. My internship ended in November, I got this jo b in a long term sub for all of December and then in January I was an official teacher by mistake. So literally it fell in my lap. They came to me and were like go apply for thi teacher who comes to work and does your job, I th ink our administration works with you. I think there just respectful like that, so happy to be here. Summary: Research Question Two In summary, the data collected, as it relates to the second research question, reveals the AP of Curriculum feels the induc tion program has nothing to do with a newly hired teacher deciding to stay in their position. She says it is more about the one on one conversations she has with each teacher providing them support and showing them colleagues who might also help with any a rea in which they may struggle. The induction

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136 program, according to the AP of Curriculum, is a bunch of hoops which must be jumped through to satisfy a requirement. She does say there is some value to learning the processes within the system. The AP of Dis cipline says the mentor with which the new hires are assigned have a direct impact on how they feel towards the school and their experience during the first year. He goes on to say it is important to align young teachers with a mentor in their own field. I t helps the new hire get to know the people on campus as they are required to ask questions to different individuals to pass the requirements. The principal says the mentor teachers assigned to newly hired teachers makes the biggest difference in how they feel about the school. She feels the team much larger part of the overall scheme th an the induction program presented by the district. Teacher A does not believe the induction program plays a critical role in the retention of new hires. She believes the administrative team plays a much larger role in the decision making process. The over all support she receives from her local colleagues who work in her building and her team has made a dramatic impact in her success and enjoyment level while working this year. Teacher B says she feels the initial induction program is effective in that it r equires the new hire to think about their systems and processes; how they go about their business. She feels the induction program gives the new hire a feeling of success that they have accomplished something after their first year which makes them want to return. Teacher B who is newly hired from a previous district last year says the other district did not have the same induction program and as a result felt like this was not the right field for her after the first year.

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137 She says this is proof that this c new hires. Teacher C believes it is time consuming and has little to no value regarding the retention of new hires. The AP of Curriculum says the induction program is outdated. The most important thin g one needs is a mentor who can point them in the right direction and equip them with the tools needed to be successful. If a young teacher is struggling with certain concerns the experienced mentor teacher can help by answering questions and assisting whe re needed. Having rubrics in place and knowing what is expected of a teacher is also important. The AP of Discipline says the teacher assistance program (TAP) is a check off list system. During this process you are assigned a mentor and they observe the ne w hire and make observations as needed. Having someone critique new hires is very valuable to their development and overall success. The principal says there is a district wide program used by every school. She says the most important aspects of the induct ion program are having the mentor teacher in place and being surrounded by a successful team. One should note the mentor teachers is assigned with district funds; however, the team concept is school based and not used district wide. The check off list is a but the main piece which keeps everyone accountable is the mentor and team mentality which ensures success. Teacher A says the program assigns a mentor teacher and an administrator to watch over you during your first year. Paperwork is the primary concern for this induction requiring the new hire to complete the packet in 196 days. Also involved are observations throughout the year which require meetings before and after the observations to ensure professional development is occurring. Teacher B says there

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138 is a packet of information which must be filled out. She also says there are observations both by the mentor teacher as well as the new hire observing more experienced teachers in action. The obs ervations and meetings with those observing to review areas of growth are the most valuable piece of the induction program according to Teacher B. She says it gives new hires a reason and a challenge to come back and do better next year. Teacher C says the induction program is a new teacher class with mentoring occurring throughout the year. Teacher C completed the online coursework necessary before school started and just has observations and meetings with her assigned mentors and administrators. She does not mention it helping in any regard worth noting. The AP of Curriculum says we place regular teachers through a training program which teaches them to be objective and critique others. Personalities and subject matter is how mentors are assigned. There ar e some teachers which are highly effective who cannot be used as mentors because they are competitive and do not want to share their teaching secrets with others. Not every teacher can be aligned with someone in their grade level and who teachers their sub ject matter. The most important thing is the mentor teacher wants to share their knowledge and wants to see the new hire succeed and is willing to help however necessary to make this happen. The AP of Discipline says the matching process begins by looking for someone who teachers their subject matter and then a secondary concern is grade level. The principal says the primary concern is subject matter and then a secondary concern is grade level. She says it is difficult attempting to match people in the same geographic location because they can only assign who has passed the district training required to be a mentor. Teacher A says she believes the mentors are chosen by department. Her mentor is her department

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139 leader. She states the mentor teacher is in a dif ferent grade level, different geographic location, and has a lot of experience in the field. Teachers who are not her mentor are more meaningful to her development as a young teacher because they teach the same grade and are closer in proximity thus making it easier to communicate on a regular basis about important issues. They have more in common and experience more common challenges than her mentor teacher. She finds communicating with people on her same grade level to be most helpful when discovering sol utions to student challenges and learning desires. Teacher B says she does not know at this school because it is her first year teaching here. She thinks based on prior experiences at other schools one is approached by the principal and asked to be a mento r. She believes in mentoring and teaching because it is what gives her intrinsic motivation and excites her to help others. Teacher C says she is not sure how mentors are chosen. She knows they must be experienced in teaching. Teacher C uses a lot of resou rces in her local area. She not only relies on her assigned mentor teacher to help her but even more so calls on the assistance of more local resources who work in her hallway and who teach her same subject matter. This teacher is a self starter who does n ot wait for someone to tell her what needs to be done; rather, she sees what needs to be done for the students to be successful and finds the necessary resources to help the students. The AP of Curriculum says that they do enjoy mentoring one another and i t even goes beyond the paid portion of the job. She says many of the teachers in the hallway will offer their time and make sure a new teacher is succeeding and they will ask if there is anything they need. They offer their time and make sure the team is s ucceeding whether they are being paid to do so or not. This team mentality is a theme which keeps

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140 surfacing throughout many of the interviews and appears to be one of the main reasons says that school is a team and everyone works together for the common good drives individuals to work coherently as a single unit. He also reiterates the point that teach ers will seek their own help regardless of who their assigned mentor turns out to be. He says they all communicate well together and seek the common good of the whole. He also says that when people help around campus if factors into their overall evaluatio n as the administrative team hears about people helping one another. The principal says the teachers see the benefit from being effective mentors and think back on how important it was for them when someone mentored them. Another reason they enjoy mentorin g is because the work they invest in the teacher will be reflected in how the students are taught. Teacher A says she does feel mentors enjoy the process as a whole. She goes on to say that the ineffectiveness of her assigned mentor is due to the fact they have too much on their plate to do everything well. They do not have the meetings they are supposed to and without the teacher across the hall Teacher A would not have a positive experience with mentoring this year. The mentor teacher and Teacher A do not have common planning time due to their not teaching the same grade level and due to the fact they are not on the same team. This makes it extremely difficult for them to find time to discuss important matters and have meetings. Due to the fact the mentor teacher has not taught the grade level of the teacher being mentored in a long time it is difficult for her to discuss the subject matter being taught. Teacher B says she knows of three different teachers who all have positive experiences with their mentor s and

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141 believes each mentor enjoys the experience of taking other teachers under their wing. The most overwhelming feeling the teachers have is that they are cared for by everyone, not just the teacher getting paid to watch their progress. This feeling of f amily and team is what apparently drives the school to succeed and maintain a static staff year after year. Teacher C says her mentor has been extremely helpful and it is actually a continuation of a previous relationship established through her undergradu ate studies. The mentorship has been a perfect fit and has been helpful to Teacher C. The AP of Curriculum says there are monetary rewards encouraging teachers to want to help others. The AP of Discipline says for certified teachers who agree to mentor th ere is a stipend issued for each new teacher is assigned. His actual words es if you get certified there's a stipend that is given each time you accept a new mentor. invo lved in the process of mentoring. She says it is something that is expected of veteran teachers and it is an honor to be asked. Teacher B says she believes it is around $50. She says that is not why teachers are motivated to mentor; rather, it is the intri nsic desire to help others succeed and teach students successfully. Teacher C openly admits that she does not know what the parameters for incentives are. When asked the question she just plainly communicated, w what the incentives The A P of Curriculum says she believes the teachers desire to share their knowledge with new teachers. Further, some teachers enjoy motivating others and getting them excited about educating our young people. The AP of Discipline says the reason people mentor i s because they care about children and care about their

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142 profession. He also says mentors take pride in the school and want to make sure the new hires are instilled with that same sense of ownership. Teacher A says mentors like to advise others on how to ch ange small things about their systems and processes which makes them more effective educators. In this particular response the new hire expresses her appreciation for constructive criticism and having someone watch over her professional development as a pr ofessional educator is extremely beneficial and welcomed. Teacher B says mentors in her experience decide to perform the duties for the interest and motivation they have in seeing others do well and develop as young professionals. She also goes on to say h er influence over student development is compounded when her techniques and skills are used by other teachers. She also states that being a mentor and being mentored is a life long event. She constantly asks other teachers to help her grow and develop beca use she enjoys learning new techniques and growing as the state places new demands on teachers. Teacher C says the mentor wants to help new hires not make the same mistakes they did when they first started. She says it has to do with people who choose to g o into the teaching profession being social beings. New teachers of any age can enjoy being mentored so they do not make unnecessary errors. For mentors to not take the job seriously and observe their new teacher without giving them helpful suggestions and allowing mistakes to occur without offering correction is performing a disservice to the new hire and to the communal team of teachers and students. A new hire needs to give respect to those in authority over them. This could be an administrator in charge of the school or a mentor teacher assigned to their professional development. The teachers do not need to know everything going on within the school as it is not their job or responsibility to

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143 handle the intricate details of running an educational organiz ation. There are times feelings towards that individual. The AP of Curriculum says the paperwork is probably not viewed by the teachers as being helpful towards their g rowth and development as professionals. She also feels the paperwork is ineffective in helping new hires perform their jobs better or become highly effective. She does feel having a mentor or peer teacher can be very beneficial to the growth and developmen t of new hires and can help them in areas such as classroom management or teaching strategies which have proven over time to be successful. People jump through hoops because they have to do so in order to maintain their positions within the organization. T he AP of Curriculum states she does what is necessary to keep her job just like everyone else. The AP of Discipline says he believes new hires do find the mentoring process to be helpful and beneficial. He believes that during the process itself some new h ires are simply trying to fulfill a requirement mandated by the system which makes it difficult to appreciate the growth which is occurring. Teachers typically look back after a year or two and then appreciate what the mentor was doing for them at the time and how it helped them develop as a professional. The principal says the mentor serves as the extension of the administrative team to the new hire and provides feedback to both parties. She says feedback can be wonderful when presented in the right way an d helps everyone become better at what they are being paid to accomplish. Structure is very important at this school and classroom management is one of the most important elements stressed throughout the campus. The principal communicates the fact that men tors help new

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144 hires establish a sense of control and mold the learning environment to the organizational expectation. Being a part of the process and helping new hires achieve success is one of the primary tasks of the mentor. The administrative team keepi ng a close eye on whether mentorships are successful and helping new hires is one of their primary concerns each year and something they monitor very closely. Teacher A says they are encouraging and their experience helps them relate to what new hires are experience with mentoring has not been positive and does not meet the expectation she would have of herself as a mentor. The mentor teacher has not been involved in her life and si mply performs the minimum requirements to fulfill the obligation required of her. Teacher A expresses her feeling of being a self starter and not waiting on someone to tell her something needs to be done; rather, she initiates the process and asks others f or help when her mentor is not present to support her needs or involved in her growth and developmental process. Teacher B says the new hires probably do not feel the process is beneficial and helpful when they are experiencing it. She says one must be sep arated from the process and have time to look back and reflect on what was happening before appreciation can truly be felt by the participant involved. Teacher B says when she was first mentored out of college she needed to be held by the hand that first y ear because the education programs were not as thorough as they are now. She goes on to say teachers are so much better prepared through collegiate training programs that the mentorship may be viewed as a burden rather than as an enjoyment. Knowing what on e is doing out of college makes all the difference in having a

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145 on the job. Teacher C s ays her experience is when she asks her mentor a question the individual is careful to think through the answer and give her feedback when she finds to be beneficial to her systems and processes as an educator. This teacher does not wait for her mentor to engage her in the process; rather, if she has an area which needs addressing she initiates the question with her mentor who is careful to make her feel supported. Teacher C openly admits without the help and assistance of her mentor supporting her the expe rience of this first year teaching at this school would be much different. The AP of Curriculum says she does believe mentoring comes into play when a new hire chooses to remain at the school and in the profession. She goes on to say it is the teamwork me ntality between departments, grade levels, and individuals throughout the school that makes this place a fun place to work and why people enjoy the position. She also thinks her working with the teachers on their trade and helping them develop and how she supports them also plays a role in their decision making. The AP of Discipline says he has never heard of a teacher expressing they took the mentoring process into consideration when deciding whether to stay or not. He does say there are bonds which develo p between the new hire and mentor. He says the mentor and new hire stay close to one another even after the process is concluded. The principal says she believes the mentoring experience plays a major role in whether new hires decide to remain. She says th at although we have a very strong team concept in place having someone you can rely on and call on when one needs help is essential to making new hires feel comfortable and at home. Teacher A says the mentoring experience does not

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146 play a role in whether sh e stays or leaves the school. She says that if her mentoring experience determined whether she stayed or left the school she would have left a long time ago. She says that if one truly wants to be successful in any field one must be a self starter and seek waits for the mentor to seek them out in order to succeed all is lost. She also feels that elementary school teachers have way more of a taxing paperwork assignment than do middle school teac hers due to RTI requirements in particular. Teacher B says she does take into account her mentor experience in whether deciding in staying or leaving the school. This teacher is calling upon her experience from when she first began teaching. She says witho ut her mentor it would have been a disaster when she first began teaching. She also says this first year as a new hire is not as bad because she has so many years of teaching experience with other schools and she has taught these subjects before which also helps. She says her experience outweighed her need for a mentor. She says the team approach is vital to her success as she is teaching math and science so she is unable to be at both department meetings at the same time and thus relies on her colleagues t o keep her informed and accountable. She says the little things such as what to do if you are sick and where to go during a fire drill as just as important as knowing how to teach your curriculum. The social aspect and day to day activities, such as making copies, according to Teacher B begins to form the confidence, or lack thereof, within a teacher which shows in his or her comfort level while working within the organization. It is the social aspect which ultimately determines whether a teacher stays or g oes from a school. Even if one is having success in the classroom and the students like a teacher if they are not enjoying the people around them and feeling appreciated

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147 by the administration and their colleagues they will eventually choose to leave the sc hool and seek employment elsewhere. Teacher C says for her the mentor experience is not a deciding factor but she realizes it is for some teachers. She says one has to view the whole picture and cannot let one negative experience spoil the entire viewpoint of teaching. Teacher C believes the role of the mentor should be to encourage the new hire and make them feel more confident in their work; however, if this does not turn out to be the case the new hire cannot let this one negative aspect of the job influ ence their decision to stay in the industry, or not, so heavily. This is one aspect of the many facets which play into the role of being a professional educator. Teacher C has many years of work experience outside the realm of education and she says that i t greatly helps in her vantage point regarding how to be successful in a job with our without a mentor standing by helping. Dealing with different types of people has helped her become diverse and view different scenarios with patience and understanding. The AP of Curriculum says this decision is typically made based on a number of different factors. One could be the type of students they had in the given year. It could be the subject area they were asked to teach, especially if it is not the area in which they have been trained or in which they have experience. It could also be their team, their mentor, the administration, it all plays a factor in the final decision making process. No one single factor determines whether someone stays or leaves. The AP of Discipline says he believes the experiences found within the mentorship program play a deciding factor in whether new hires decide to remain in their positions. He also states that with one has a job to pay the bills and feed their families. He goes on to say internships help recruit

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148 prospective employees coming out of college due to the fact they have experienced the campus and the culture of success built over many years of hard work. The principal says she feels it is an important factor new hires ponder when making their decision about job choices. The personality of the person who is mentoring also plays a factor as well as the subject area they teach and years of experience they are offering to the new varied experience one may have. The team will decide the overall experience and feeling for the new hire and the geographic locations of the mento r teacher and new hire also will play a part in just how positive a feeling the new hire will have from the experience of working with the mentor due to the close proximity and ease of access, or ame job and having one with which to speak and glean from their experience is essential to positive feelings about the job and workplace. Teacher A says it absolutely has no bearing on whether she decides to stay in her current position or move somewhere e lse. Teacher A has the personality of wanting to be offered help and does not want to impose on someone inconvenienced and unsupported when the mentor teacher does not offer her support and experience willingness but rather must be asked before offering assistance. Teacher A wants to be told very specifically what to do and what the best systems and processes are to achieve the optimum level of success. This teacher relies on her team leader to provide support and direction not waiting for her mentor teacher to finally offer support or ask her questions about how she is doing. This again reinforces how vital the team concept is to the success of the organization as a whole as well as the individual

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149 teams and teachers found within. Contrary to what the community believes about the school, which is that all the good kids who are respectful come to this school, Teacher A has difficulty with her students who have no accountability at h ome and do not care if she calls their parents as there are no affective repercussions for their blatant disrespect in the classroom. According to Teacher A teams are the most effective support system she has at the school and she does not want the adminis tration to change the team concept as her mentor teacher has proven to be ineffective in supporting her since her arrival. Teaming is the reason this teacher chose to team at the middle school level instead of elementary as there are multiple teachers atte mpting to teach the same student and thus comparing notes on the most appropriate learning style and communicating challenges with parents occurs as a united front. Not everyone enjoys each person on a team but the team concept is essential to our success as teachers in educating our students. The geographic placement is very important to Teacher A as she can easily speak to people around her but finds no one who teachers her subject very close. The school has students assigned by grade regarding what build ing they attend so if the other teacher responsible for teaching her subject area is placed at the other end of the hallway she cannot easily access her for a quick moment to speak about professional matters. Her recommendation is to place subject area tea chers close together so they may collaborate quickly between classes if need be. Teacher A also feels the reason switching teacher locations is not done is because the teachers reject the idea. She says it is not because of the administration. Some suggest ions from Teacher A which improves the mentoring and induction process in general are as follows: having a book for the teacher outlining expectations in a simple

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150 way, instructions on fire and tornado drill procedures, have a mentor that wants to do it, ha ve someone assigned as a mentor who will engage new hires and push them to become better without being asked to do so by the new hire.

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151 APPENDIX C QUESTION THREE COMPLETE NARRATIVE DATA Analysis of Findings : Research Question Three What specific problems do Florida middle schools face when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers ? both administrators and teachers agree that one or two newly hired teachers leave t he school annually for various reasons. Administrators expressed that newly hired teachers leave the school because: they cannot meet the expectations and the high standards the school demands of its teachers; their spouse gets a job somewhere else; a fami ly or a family related issue occurs. Teachers expressed that newly hired teachers leave the school because of the stress of teaching; they cannot handle the unique challenges middle school students present; the pressure felt to do well on standardized test scores; teaching is not what they expected. Interviews What are some of the different reasons why a newly hired teacher would choose to leave the school? The AP of Curriculum says new hires can have difficulty in meeting expectations established by the a dministration and the other successful teachers on campus. Also some people discover although they are intelligent and have the data learned the art of teaching is not something they feel is their strongest asset. The AP recalls when she began first teachi ng she was not good at it. It was not a natural talent she possessed coming from the business world. She says being a good teacher when you first begin is a miracle. One must assume the role and skills the job requires. The AP must be outgoing and assertiv e even though this is not her natural tendency and some people just cannot and will not become what is necessary in order to be successful.

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152 the school. It's not that I think and there is one that I'm thinking that's not with us, she was asked not to come back. It wasn't that she was not smart enough. It wasn't that she didn't know the data enough or the standards enough. I think it was just too much that I think teaching wasn't he r forte. She didn't have a grasp on how to do it, on what I call day to day teaching. But on a day to day basis she couldn't do it. And it's a shame. I think so you either got it or you don't. And this is coming from someone who went into banking before I went into teaching I was a branch manager. So I wasn't even in the business world. Do I think I was meant to be a teacher, no. I'm not the warm fuzzy teacher, I wasn't that kind of person. I was not you know the kids in my class; they never got a great k id. I was not that kind of person, but that's not me. I think I became good, but I did not start off good. If you start ou're a freak. That's very interesting because me and my mother were talking about that this weekend an d my mother tried to get me because I was very shy and quiet. And I am still a quiet and shy person. And she would try to force me out of that to be more assertive. I had to learn to do that, I was not born that way. And it's still absolutely makes me want to crawl in a hole. I could absolutely die. I was born that way, and it just kills me and my sisters like go talk that person I'm like no I don't know him. And my sisters are like look at what you do for a living. And I just can't do that. The AP of Disc ipline says there are many different reasons why new hires decide to leave the school. Some have to do with familiar situations such as the spouse taking a new job, it could be because of a health reason, and some people do not enjoy the constant changes o ccurring with the school system. Rules and regulations passed down by the state can be taxing and wear on people. There are various reasons a lot of them may be because their spouse gets easons we've had that come up. And then you know to be honest with you being a teacher nowadays is very rigorous. And there are lots of changes that get comfortable with not like it used to be. And so a lot of times those changes can wear on somebody especially a brand new teacher but those are the main reasons right there. We don't lose a lot but when we do it's usually because someone had to leave for a spouse getting a job elsewher e. The principal says there are different reasons new hires decide to switch to a

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153 employment opportunity, or making a move from one level to another so that they can be at the school where their child attends. Another reason is advancement within the district to a position of leadership or at times we find a new hire who simply has different ideas and goals than we do about what education should look and feel like. There a re a lot of different reasons sometimes its family sometimes it's starting a family sometimes it's moving because of a spouses employment things like that those are probably the biggest reasons S ometimes it's because those teachers are seeking to advan ce themselves they're going i nto leadership or they're advancing themselves in some way so that plays a part as well S ometimes we see it in terms of a level change every once in a while we ll have a middle school teacher who for whatever reason and usua l ly again its family mind you, t hey have a young child and they want to be an elementary school because when they want to be where their child is those things happen a lot so I think those are the biggest reasons I'll be honest with you every once in a whi le there isn't that fit they don't have the same ideas and goals and so they're looking to be somewhere else where they will have those things in common so it happens to. Teacher A says teachers discover the art of teaching is not what they thought it was and choose not to continue. The general stress of teaching accompanied with the reality that this job is not what they expected tends to overwhelm the new hire into choosing not to continue. She does not feel this school, teams, or the administration is f actor in their decision to leave the school. I would say maybe they find out it is just not their thing. Maybe they have a being adapted to or cooperated with, I think it is more of a personal choice. I the school or teams. Teacher B says the reality of the teaching job here does not meet the overall persona carried by the school within the community. When a new hire takes a post here he or she thinks it is going to be fantastic and there will be no problems. When reality sets in it can be quite overwhelming when one discovers the students here have the

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154 same problems as other schools without such a great reputation, and sometimes the problems are even more complex. Test scores are being emphasized more and mor e these days and when one comes to this school assuming the students are going to score well who attend this school then one finds themselves with struggling students, if they have high anxiety about testing and results, they could become aggravated with t he scenario quickly. People assume when a teacher comes here all the students have supplies and nice clothes to wear but this simply is not the case. Clothes are not always supplied by the parents the way they should be and test scores are not always ideal The job is not easy wherever you go so if that is the assumption coming to this school one gets brought back to reality very quickly. This job requires hard work just like anywhere else and one must be willing to put in long hours and teach difficult stu dents along with the ideal students, and sometimes side by side. I was shocked because I had a perception of all these kids come from the th a heart for teaching the advantaged kids and helping them reach their full potential maybe shocked by some of the experiences that they have with some of our students issues and perhaps we have high expectations here. I have never been one that has wor ried about test scores so it did not impact me this year, but if I were one that worried about how are my kid make the score I did my best and I sleep at night knowing that. But for someone who is a worrier that pressure for academic excellence might be anything I can teach all day lon g. And so if I were stressing about test scores and then I have these children who have wre t ched home lives that ld kind of scare them. You know I have to make A grades on FCAT s cores, going to change the rules after you take the test. But that might

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155 leave the perception and then the pressure for high test scores it s completely out of our co ntrol. Because I like to teach, to teach those tough kids the difference in expectations would not be the same. But I know teachers who those tough kids who have such a tough home life the know how to deal with them. And so if I were that teacher who wanted to teach the hell raisers that have that opportunity where they come from a administrators say that makes a and you come here and you find kids who literally have their shoes duck taped together that can be really shocking especially if you came from an effluent back ground where you have no experience with that, that can be Teacher C says she is unsure of the reasons a new hire would leave because she has not spoken with someone who would be a new hire. She says a new hire may not be aware of all that is involved in teaching. some cases they may not if they Wha t is the number one reason new hires leave this school out of all the reasons you mentioned? The AP of Curriculum says new hires are presented with an opportunity which they must take to better their careers is the most positive scenario but the reality is they also become angry at the administration and leave. The administration has very high expectations of their teachers and some just cannot meet that expectation so they either leave or are not asked to return. The work ethic between the new generation o f workers and the one working in administration is completely different. The administration grew up in a time where one did not miss work unless it was an absolute emergency and the new generation takes off because they need a day off or just have somethin g personal

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156 expected her to be at work because that was the place people needed her and she has an obligation to them and to her duties. This type of mentality is not shared by the most recently educated class of teachers. on to another position in the district, or moving into a different district is something that they wanted to achieve. I think would be the reason someone would want to leave. That's saying something very positive. I believe they get pissed off at the administrators and leave. We hold their feet to the fire. In the past four years that I've been here, it's been the negative. Because they d id not fulfill what we expected them to do. Yes there are some that do move on and that's why I said that the positive way of it. Because there are some that we do want, we encourage them to move on and I think that's important, part of mentoring as an administrator to achieve what goals they want to do. B ut I say the majority of them are a negative situation I would certainly die trying. And I think the work ethic of the younger generation is not as much as my generation. I'm not saying I'm over the hi ll old, but I'm just saying I know there's a lot of teachers and especially young teachers that miss a lot of work. Take a day off, call in sick, use all their sick days that sort of thing. In the 16 or 17 years that I've been teaching I've accumulated six because I don't take off. I've been taught you don't miss unless you're sick. That's the way it was when I was a child growing up. It was not to stay home and watch TV. But that's just the way I was raised and I'm not sayi ng everybody has to be raised that way, but it was just the expectations that me when I was in the classroom to miss because now I have to get lesson plans and it was just easier t o be there on my feet than to miss. Even when my father was ill last year and he died last summer, I did not miss. Of course I left in the afternoon and went to Gainesville and spent the night at the hospital and then went back to work the next day. That w as the work ethic expected of me. The principal says family related items would be the most common reason new would be Teacher A says she thinks the primary reas on for a new hire leaving the school is classroom management issues.

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157 The number one reason would be because of a classroom management s of children who are going through so many physical and emotional changes. Seventh grade is a tough year and I would tell you I would move to sixth grade in a heartbeat. Seventh grade is a hard age, hormones are crazy, caring. They h particular group of students or if it is 7 th grade in general. Sometimes you get in a pa now I understand why you rents act you still cannot act like a butt. So you have to play mommy, psychiatrist, caregiver, you have to be all these people all in one. Teacher C says it is probably because new hires discover that teaching is not the profession they wish to pursue fo r the rest of their careers. I think just in general that teaching is not just what they expected it could be the hours an d its funny when people say you have the summer off which is true but the weekends during the week. How many newly hired teachers typically leave this school on an annual basis? The AP of Curriculum says one or two at the very most is the number of newly hired teachers which leave on an annual basis. One or two at the very most. I think as I said to you when we met all that is the jump through some hoops. We will do whatever it is to jump through the hoops. I think it originally at one time was good but there's so much out there that teachers can access online can get through literacy co aches through other programs and services that are offered more now than when I was going through and it's just a waste of time. I think having a good mentor exposing that new teacher to a lot of professional development can help them be the best that they can be in the classroom and that is a more important thing tha n all that paperwork. Do I think the paper is important yes, because half your job is doing that crap work. But that stuff is just not necessary. The AP of Discipline says one or two newly hir ed teacher per year leave because

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158 I'd say we probably have one or two a year and a lot of times those are our reasons they can be it wasn't working out and their contract may have not been renewed I mean that does happen. The principal says the number changes from year to year but a guess would be around 10% rate of attrition on new hires. It changes from year to year we have some years w h ere there are number of vacancies posted in the summer becau se of retirement because of family moves I think it could be pretty drastically different summer to summer. I don't know that I could give you a real consistent answer of the new teachers that we recruit we're probably keeping 90 percent of them, because y ou have invested that much time and energy because you're working with them as administration their team that time and those hours and the energy t o help them build that structure you want to keep them. Teacher A says thinks very few new hires leave on an annual basis, probably one or two, and it is probably not of their own volition. I would say very few. I would say maybe one to two and that was b ecause they were made to leave, not because they chose to leave. I know there have been a few but it was not because they were not happy it was because they had to leave. For example, one of the teachers was acting inappropriately. As teachers we are held to a higher standard. I think people see me out, and I am very careful where I go or what I do. Even at 22, I am Teacher B says not many leave on an annual basis, probably only one or two, bec ause this is where people call home and if you have a job here you keep it. The only reason someone would leave is if they are young and get married and need to move for I would say this school probably not that many. This county is a differen t situation than say schools nearby. Like I was told the other day I was told leavin g. But in this here and plan on moving next month this is home for so many people. So I think that not very many here because of the nature of our county. And so I would say not many one

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159 choose from you is your home you stay and if you have a job you keep it because there are not so many to choose from. Summary: Research Question Three In summary, the data collected, as it relates to the third res earch question, reveals the AP of Curriculum thinks new hires can have difficulty in meeting expectations established by the administration and the other successful teachers on campus. Also some people discover although they are intelligent and have the da ta learned the art of teaching is not something they feel is their strongest asset. The AP recalls when she began first teaching she was not good at it. It was not a natural talent she possessed coming from the business world. She says being a good teacher when you first begin is a miracle. One must assume the role and skills the job requires. The AP must be outgoing and assertive even though this is not her natural tendency and some people just cannot and will not become what is necessary in order to be su ccessful. The AP of Discipline says there are many different reasons why new hires decide to leave the school. Some have to do with familiar situations such as the spouse taking a new job, it could be because of a health reason, and some people do not enjo y the constant changes occurring with the school system. Rules and regulations passed down by the state can be taxing and wear on people. The principal says there are different reasons new hires decide to switch to a different job or position and they incl move from one level to another so that they can be at the school where their child attends. Another reason is advancement within the district to a position of leadership or

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160 a t times we find a new hire who simply has different ideas and goals than we do about what education should look and feel like. Teacher A says teachers discover the art of teaching is not what they thought it was and choose not to continue. The general stre ss of teaching accompanied with the reality that this job is not what they expected tends to overwhelm the new hire into choosing not to continue. She does not feel this school, teams, or the administration is factor in their decision to leave the school. Teacher B says the reality of the teaching job here does not meet the overall persona carried by the school within the community. When a new hire takes a post here he or she thinks it is going to be fantastic and there will be no problems. When reality set s in it can be quite overwhelming when one discovers the students here have the same problems as other schools without such a great reputation, and sometimes the problems are even more complex. Test scores are being emphasized more and more these days and when one comes to this school assuming the students are going to score well who attend this school then one finds themselves with struggling students, if they have high anxiety about testing and results, they could become aggravated with the scenario quick ly. People assume when a teacher comes here all the students have supplies and nice clothes to wear but this simply is not the case. Clothes are not always supplied by the parents the way they should be and test scores are not always ideal. The job is not easy wherever you go so if that is the assumption coming to this school one gets brought back to reality very quickly. This job requires hard work just like anywhere else and one must be willing to put in long hours and teach difficult students along with the ideal students, and sometimes side by side. Teacher C says she is unsure of the reasons a

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161 new hire would leave because she has not spoken with someone who would be a new hire. She says a new hire may not be aware of all that is involved in teaching. The AP of Curriculum says new hires are presented with an opportunity which they must take to better their careers is the most positive scenario but the reality is they also become angry at the administration and leave. The administration has very high exp ectations of their teachers and some just cannot meet that expectation so they either leave or are not asked to return. The work ethic between the new generation of workers and the one working in administration is completely different. The administration g rew up in a time where one did not miss work unless it was an absolute emergency and the new generation takes off because they need a day off or just have something personal expected her to be at work because that was the place people needed her and she has an obligation to them and to her duties. This type of mentality is not shared by the most recently educated class of teachers. The principal says family related items woul d be would be family or it Teacher A says she thinks the primary reason for a new hire leaving the school is classroom management issues. Teacher C says it is probably because new hires discover that teaching is not the profession they wish to pursue for the rest of their careers. The AP of Curriculum says one or two at the very most is the number of newly hired teachers which leave on an annual bas is. The AP of Discipline says one or two administration. The principal says the number changes from year to year but a guess

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162 would be around 10% rate of attrition on new h ires. Teacher A says thinks very few new hires leave on an annual basis, probably one or two, and it is probably not of their own volition. Teacher B says not many leave on an annual basis, probably only one or two, because this is where people call home a nd if you have a job here you keep it. The only reason someone would leave is if they are young and get married and need to move for Discussion The three research questions launched in the case study were: 10. Resear ch Question #1: What strategies do es a middle school in a Florida s chool district use to attract, employ and retain highly qualified personnel? 11. Research Question #2: What role do induction programs play decision making to remain in their posit ions at a Florida middle school? 12. Research Question #3: What specific problems do Florida middle schools f ace when attempting to employ and retain highly qualified teachers? Three very distinctive thematic trends surfaced not only in the interviews of the t eachers but were later corroborated through the data collected from interviews with the administrative team. Findings for each of the research questions were based upon careful analysis and the triangulation of data and member checking from participants. The findings were subsequently reviewed and analyzed, resulting in the emergence of the major themes in the following summary of findings. The literature review in Chapter Two supports the findings in this case study. Themes Findings for each research que stion were determined following a careful analysis of the data. The wealth of rich data lent itself to the emergence of the following three themes:

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163 13. Teams and administrative support are the reason teachers stay Teams for the life blood of the organizatio n and one of the primary protagonists which push the organizational culture on to the next generation of teachers year after year. 14. Mentors are found beneficial to new hires The mentoring system within the school agrees with the review of literature in th at it is one of the most important parts of the induction program but it is performed with a twist. 15. The current induction program needs modification The standard induction program has no bearing or effect on whether new hires decide to leave or remain in their current positions with its current format and implementation. Theme One: Teams and Administrative Support are the Reasons Teachers S tay The reputation of the school working together as a cohesive unit draws not only the most appealing and successfu l families to the school to study but also attracts the most desirable instructional personnel as well. The teachers demand for high rigor draw which breeds success fro m each and every person helping one another is the culmination of years of collaboration. Teacher A says it is the working environment and the collegial atmosphere which brings teachers back year after year. Teachers not only create an open, loving, and ca ring atmosphere but also help the teachers on their team. Teacher A says administrative support is another reason why teachers stay at the school and is critical to accomplishing educational goals and having a pleasant work environment. Teacher B believes administrative support is the reason she and her peers decide to return year after year. Another reasons he states is the teachers and administrators who work at the school have a large part in her and her colleagues reasoning for staying at the school for an extended period of time. The AP of Curriculum believes the administration giving support to the teachers so they may be successful is a major contributing factor to teachers deciding to stay. The AP of Discipline says the caring atmosphere for children created by teams is a major contributing factor. The

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164 entire faculty is striving to see how they can do better and make sure everyone feels cared about. People taking care of one another and helping one another stay focused and refreshed is a major reason. The principal says people of a similar mind want to work with one another and this school allows people to strive for success together. Teacher A says the administration provides variety of the workplace through changing personnel groupings and listening carefully to what the needs of the teachers are. The administration is viewed as being very loving and caring. The administration keeps teachers motivated. Teacher B says the administration is the primary reason she decides to stay and the reason she came to this school in the first place. This combined with the team approach is why she stays at the school. Unity and a sense of belonging unite the staff together. Teacher C says the colleagues of new hires have a lot to do with their decision to continue to work at this school. She says it is the support, both from teachers and administrators, as well as supporting the team one has joined. The principal says the team mentality and growing together as a cohesive unit plays the ns to stay. Teacher A says the overall support she receives from her local colleagues who work in her building and her team has made a dramatic impact in her success and enjoyment level while working together. The idea that the school is a team and everyon e works together for the common good drives individuals to work coherently as a single unit. Theme Two: Mentors are Found Beneficial to New Hires has a lot to do with the one on one conversations she has with each teacher providing them support and showing them colleagues who might also help with any area in which they may struggle. The AP of Discipline says the mentor with which the new hires are

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165 assigned has a direct impact on how they feel towards the school and their experience during the first year. It is important to align young teachers with a mentor in their own field. The principal says the mentor teachers assigned to newly hired teachers makes the biggest difference i n how they feel about the school. The AP of Curriculum says the most important thing one needs is a mentor who can point them in the right direction and equip them with the tools needed to be successful. If a young teacher is struggling with certain concer ns the experienced mentor teacher can help by answering questions and assisting where needed. The AP of Discipline says having someone critique new hires is very valuable to their development and overall success. The principal says the most important aspec ts of the induction program are having the mentor teacher in place and being surrounded by a successful team. The main piece which keeps everyone accountable is the mentor and team mentality which ensures success. The AP of Curriculum says the mentor teach ers wants to share their knowledge and wants to see the new hire succeed and is willing to help however necessary to make this happen. Teacher A says the team approach at the school creates a twist which enables teachers who are closer in proximity who tea ch the same grade and subject as her to augment the mentor experience. Her primary mentor is not always able to provide as much attention as is needed thus the team around her answers questions and alleviates concerns as needed. Having multiple mentors, bo th assigned and volunteer, is a common occurrence at this school. The AP of Discipline says the matching process of a mentor begins by looking at subject matter and then grade level. The principal reiterates this fact. Teacher C uses a lot of resources in her local area. She not only relies on her assigned mentor teacher to help her but even more so calls on the assistance of more

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166 local resources who work in her hallway and who teach the same grade and subject matter. The AP of Curriculum says many of the t eachers in the hallway will offer their time and make sure a new teacher is succeeding and they will ask if there is anything they need. They offer their time and make sure the team is succeeding whether they are being paid to do so or not. The AP of Disci what motivates them intrinsically. Teachers will seek their own help regardless of who their assigned mentor turns out to be. They all communicate well together and seek the common good of the whole. Teacher B says she knows of three different teachers who all have positive experiences with their mentors and believes each mentor enjoys the experience of taking other teachers under their wing. The most overwhelming feeling the teachers have is that they are care d for by everyone, not just the teacher getting paid to watch their progress. Teacher C says her mentor has been extremely helpful and a perfect fit. The AP of Curriculum feels having a mentor teacher can be very beneficial to the growth and development of new hires and can help them in areas such as classroom management or teaching strategies which have proven over time to be successful. The principal says mentors help new hires establish a sense of control and mold the learning environment to the organiza tional expectation. Theme Three: The Current Induction Program Needs Modification The AP of Curriculum feels the induction program has nothing to do with a newly hired teacher deciding to stay in their current position. The induction program is a bunch of hoops which must be jumped through to satisfy a requirement. The induction program success is a much larger part of the overall scheme than the induction program prese nted by the district. Teacher A does not believe the induction program plays a

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167 critical role in the retention of new hires. Teacher C believes it is time consuming and has little to no value regarding the retention of new hires. Teacher A says paperwork is the primary concern for this induction requiring the new hire to complete the packet within 196 days. Teacher C says the induction program does not provide her any skills worth mentioning. The AP of Curriculum says the paperwork is probably not viewed by the teachers as being helpful towards their growth and development as professionals. She also feels the paperwork is ineffective in helping new hires perform their jobs better or become highly effective. People jump through hoops because they have to do so in order to maintain their positions with the organization. Teacher B says the new hires probably do not feel the process is beneficial and helpful. Summary This chapter discovered three themes: teams and administrative support are why teacher stay; men tors are found to be beneficial; the current induction program needs modification. It is readily apparent the entire school works as a cohesive unit to ensure quality education is brought to each and every student. This unity draws the best teachers and fr om the community and surrounding area to want to work at this educational organization. Through interviewing administrators and teachers alike the themes presented are so thick and rich it is undeniable what makes the success of this school so readily appa rent year after year. This chapter reviewed the findings, analysis, and interpretation of the data for this study. The data collected and analyzed provided extrapolated from the findings and shared by the researcher. Chapter five will conclude the study by summarizing the purpose and methodology, sharing the overall findings, and making recommendations for further study.

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1 68 APPENDIX D INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Attracting 1. What attracts a teacher to want to work at this school? Employment 2. What makes the employment process easy for teachers to apply? Retaining 3. Why would a teacher newly hired at this school choose to continue to work here year after year? Attrition 4. What are the reasons new ly hired teachers choose to leave this school ? 5. Out of all the reasons you mentioned earlier w hat is the number one reason newly hired teachers decide to leave this school? 6. How many newly hired teachers typically leave this school on an annual basis? Induct ion Program 7. Do the induction programs play a deciding factor in whether newly hired teachers choose to continue to work at this school? 8. What type of induction program is currently being utilized at this school? Mentoring Program 9. How are mentors chosen for newly hired teachers at this school? 10. Do you think mentors at this school enjoy the process and idea of mentoring? 11. Are there any incentives in place for mentors which encourage them to want to engage in the mentoring process with a newly hired teacher? 12. Besi des the incentives, can you think of some other reasons why mentors want the extra responsibility of mentoring? 13. You have talked a lot about mentors and their support systems. What comes to mind for you when we talk about mentors that they d o to make you w ant to stay? 14. Do newly hired teachers feel the mentoring process is beneficial and helpful?

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169 15. Do you think mentoring comes into play in terms of whether you stay or leave a school? Do newly hired teachers take into account the mentoring process and their expe riences found within when deciding whether to remain or leave this school?

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170 APPENDIX E INFORMED CONSENT UFIRB # 2012 U 1116 Informed Consent Protocol Title: Why Teachers Leave or Remain in a School District in Florida Please read th is consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to examine how the district is attracting, employing and retaining highly qualified teachers. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked a series of questions regarding the subject of how the school district is attracting, employing and retaini ng highly qualified teachers. Time required: 1 hour Risks and Benefits: There are no risks associated with this study. We do not anticipate that you will benefit directly by participating in this interview but may gain a deeper understanding of what your school and district are doing to retain highly qualified instructional personnel. Compensation: There is no compensation being offered for participation in this research study. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The l ist connecting your name to this number wil l be kept in a locked file in my faculty supervisor's office. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, th e list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: ral Candidate, Department o f Education Dr. Bernard Oliver, College of Education Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 Agreement: I have read t he procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this descript ion. Participant: ______________________________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: _______ _______________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ Director of Research: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________

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171 APPENDIX F INDUCT ION PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Category Florida Texas California New York State policy should require that all teachers receive induction support during their first two years in the profession. State policy does not require all new teachers to receive inductio n support The state does not require new teachers to receive induction support. The Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) System requires all first and second year teachers to participate in an induction program. The state requires new teachers to receive induction support during their first year of employment. State policy should require that all school administrators receive induction support during their first two years in the profession. State policy does not require new administrators to re ceive induction support. State policy does not require new administrators to receive induction support. The state does not require all new school administrators to receive induction or mentoring support during their initial years on the job. The state req uires new school building leaders to participate in a mentoring program during their first year of employment. The state should have formal program standards that govern the design and operation of local teacher induction programs. The state does not have formal induction program standards. The state does not have formal induction program standards. Induction Program Standards focus on two primary concerns: (1) Program exhibit effective design principles and (2) Program provide opportunit ies for participants to demonstrate effective teaching. Guidelines for Implementing District Based Teacher Mentoring Programs articulate initial steps, program components, program design, and references. State policy should require a rigorous mentor selection process. State policy does not address mentor selection. State policy requires that a mentor teacher least three complete years of teaching experience with a superior record of Education Code 44279 requires teachers mentors to teaching credential, or have equivalent professional background and State policy requires that each school district maintain a m entor selection procedure that is published and available upon request.

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172 assisting students, as a whole, in achieving imp rovement in student Category Florida Texas California New York State policy should require foundational training and ongoing professional development for mentors. State policy does not address mentor tr aining. State policy requires that a mentor teacher must complete based, mentor and induction training approved by the state education commissioner and complete training program provided by the CA Induction Program Standard 3 requires the BTSA induction program to select, prepare, and assign well defined criteria consistent assigned responsibilities in State policy requires professional development for mentors, inclu ding but not limited to such topics as adult learning theory, teacher development theory, elements of a mentoring relationship, peer coaching, and time management. State policy should address how mentors are assigned to beginning teachers, allow for manag eable mentor caseloads, and encourage programs to provide release time for mentors. State policy does not address mentor assignment or caseload. State policy requires that a mentor teacher must teach in the same school and, to the extent practicable, teach the same subject or grade level as the beginning teacher. In addition, an induction program funded through the Beginning Education Code 44279 requires each BTSA induction program to ensure that mentors are assigned to each beginning teacher days of initial teacher participation in the induction State policy does not addre ss mentor assignment and caseload, but the state does require programs to outline time allocation for mentoring activities, such as common planning time, release from instructional or non instructional duties, and summer orientation sessions.

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173 Teacher Induction and Mentoring Program (BTIM) must provide release time in order for a mentor teacher to fulfill mentoring Category Flo rida Texas California New York State policy should identify key induction program elements, including a minimum amount of mentor new teacher contact time, formative assessment of teaching practice, and classroom observation. State policy does not address key induction program elements. A local induction program funded through be a research based mentoring program that, through external evaluation, has demonstrated success in improving new teacher quality and teacher CA I nduction Program Standards focus the work on BTSA induction program in six principal areas. Programs should help participating teachers: (1) Apply CA Standards for the Teaching Profession and specific teaching skills for subject matter instruction; (2) Use and interpret data; (3) Plan and differentiate instruction; (4) Engage in effective classroom management strategies; (5) Use technology; (6) Design and implement inclusive learning environments for all students. A formative assessment is in The st ate does not provide universal funding for local induction programs. There is $2 million in state funding available through a competitive grant application process called the Mentor Teacher Internship Program (MTIP).

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174 place. The state should provide dedicated fun ding for local induction programs. The state does not provide dedicated funding for local induction programs. The state supports an annual grant program, BTIM, to which a school district may apply for funds to establish a mentoring program for first and s econd year teachers. Local education agencies (LEAs) are allowed to apply for and receive state funding to support induction programs through the BTSA. Category Florida Texas California New York The state should require participation in and/or completio n of an induction program to advance from an initial to a professional teaching license. The state does not require new teachers to participate in an induction program in order to advance to a professional teaching license. The state does not require new teachers to participate in an induction program in order to advance to a professional teaching license. Induction programs determine, prior to the recommending a professional teaching credential, has completed the approved induction New teachers (holders of Initial and Conditional Initial certificates) must receive mentoring support during their first year in order to advance to the next level of licensure. The state should assess or monito r program quality through accreditation, program evaluation, surveys, site visits, self reports, and other relevant tools and strategies. The state does not assess or monitor induction program quality. The BTIM allows the state education audit mentor program funds, and requires each district providing a program to submit progress reports to the California added BTSA induction programs to its statewide accreditation system (which also convers teacher preparation programs). The sys tem features ongoing data collection and a seven year cycle of activities, including at least one site visit. The state does not assess or monitor induction program quality. However, Guidelines for Implementing District Based Teacher Mentoring Programs enc ourage and provide key questions to support local program evaluation. All information for this chart provided by www.newteachercenter.org

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183 BIOGRA PHICAL SKETCH State University. His area of study was education with emphasis in music. After completing his undergraduate study in the area of education in 2006 he returned to Colum bus State University where he graduated with a Master of Educational Leadership in 2010 and immediately turned his pursuits to a doctoral degree with the University of Florida. In 2013 David graduated from the University of Florida earning the title Doctor of Education.