Expressionism in Italian Music and Art in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

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Title:
Expressionism in Italian Music and Art in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Physical Description:
1 online resource (208 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Bell, Emily Anne
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Music
Committee Chair:
KUSHNER,DAVID Z
Committee Co-Chair:
CHOBAZ,RAYMOND A
Committee Members:
GRAHAM,ELIZABETH P
JENNINGS,ARTHUR C
ROSS,ELIZABETH

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
dallapiccola -- expressionism -- maccari -- malipiero -- modigliani -- nono -- rosso
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
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Music thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
In this study, a selection of Italian musical pieces and art works, hailing from the late-19th through the mid-20th centuries, are analyzed for their Expressionist content.  Although Expressionism began in Austria and Germany, the movement affected neighboring countries, including Italy, especially due to the emotional and physical strain caused by the two World Wars.  An Italian version of Expressionism is defined for the following musical compositions:  Gian Francesco Malipiero's Pantea and Sette Canzoni, Luigi Dallapiccola's Canti di Prigionia and Il Prigioniero, and Luigi Nono's Intolleranza 1960.  Expressionist qualities are explored in the work's subject matter, text, use of Sprechgesang and Sprechstimme, chromaticism, emphasis on non-triadic tones, serialism, dramatic and irregular texture, rhythmic instability, scenic design and lighting, extreme expression and dynamics, subjectivity, exaggeration, and distortion.  The characteristics of the Expressionist 'Ich Drama' are sought out, such as the use of an unnamed central character who comes back at the end of the play to his point of departure, a fast-moving plot, and savage characters.   Medardo Rosso's Conversazione in Giardino, Amedeo Modigliani's Max Jacob, Cafe Singer, and Madame Kisling, and Mino Maccari's Amleto are analyzed for Expressionist tendencies.  The writer will aim to find Expressionist characteristics in these art works, such as violent distortion, subjectivity, strong colors, symbolic use of color, angular and rhythmical areas of flat or dissonant colors which clash violently, and colors that are heavily outlined in black.  In Expressionism, the woodcut medium was favored, and the subject's state of mind was the sculptor's focus.   Additionally, the titles of each musical and art composition will be examined for psychologically intense content.  Autobiographical effects will be discussed in terms of how the creation of the work relates to the artist's reaction to a personal crisis.  The study of Italian Expressionism and the artists discussed in this document have mostly been neglected in the standard textbooks.  Italian Expressionism is now definable, proving that the Expressionist movement had a broader influence.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Emily Anne Bell.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2013.
Local:
Adviser: KUSHNER,DAVID Z.
Local:
Co-adviser: CHOBAZ,RAYMOND A.

Record Information

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UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2013
System ID:
UFE0046112:00001


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1 EXPRESSIONISM IN ITALIAN MUSIC AND ART IN THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES By EMILY A. BELL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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2 2013 Emily A. Bell

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3 To optimism, courage, love, and hope: w ith these, anything is possible To Joey

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the following people and organizations who supported my research : Francisco Rocca and Lucia Sardo (Malipiero Collection, Fondazione Giorgio Cini, Venice, Italy); Music Sales Corporation; Dover Publications Inc. ; Boosey & Hawkes Inc. ; Anna L. Dallapiccola; Ilaria Spadolini Gloria Manghetti and Fabio Desidei (Fondo Dallapiccola, Florence, Italy); Carisch; Edizioni Suvini Zerboni; Nuria Schoenberg Nono, Giovanna Boscarino and Claudia Vincis (Fondazione Archivio Luigi Nono, Venice, Italy); European American Music Distributors Company ; Rome, Italy); Modigliani Institut Archives Lg ales Paris Rome (Rome, Italy); Vernica Betancourt (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.); Jennifer Eckman ( Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio) ; Marco Maccari; Gennaro Russo and Valentina Adamo Italy ); Christen E. Runge (Art Collection Special Collections Research Center, Lauinger Library, Georgetow n University, Washington, D.C.) I thank the members of my committee for their time, patience, and understanding during my disserta tion process: Drs. Art Jennings, Elizabeth Graham, Raymond Chobaz, and Elizabeth Ross. I am especially grateful to my chair Dr. David Z. Kushner, who has provided me with inspiration, invaluable friendship, encourageme nt, and fantastic conversation. Michele Wilbanks of the University of Florida Libraries has been a terrific supporter. Special thanks to Kathy Plymptom for pl aying the piano parts from the Pantea score (for which there is no recording ). The doctors and health practitioners who helped me get better are part of the reason why I was able to finish this dissertation. My bountiful gratitude goes to Dr. Kimberly Kay e because she made sure I got the treatment and care I needed Life is a precious gift and good health is a wonderful asset that I will never take for granted.

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5 Thank you to friends and family who have cheered me on to the finishline. I express the most extensive appreciation for my husband, soulmate, and best friend f orever, Joey Spooner.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF EXAMPLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 12 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 Purpose and Summary of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 15 Need for Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 16 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ................................ 17 Articles ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17 Biographical Dictionaries and Encyclopedias ................................ ................................ ........ 19 General Music and Art Appreciation Books or Textbooks ................................ .................... 23 General Histories of Music and Art ................................ ................................ ........................ 24 Twentieth Century Music and Art Histories ................................ ................................ .......... 25 Books of Italian Music and Art ................................ ................................ .............................. 27 Books on Composers and Artists ................................ ................................ ............................ 28 Musical Scores and Art Locations ................................ ................................ .......................... 31 Sound Recordings ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 31 Correspondence ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 32 Dissertations and Theses ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 32 3 ITALIAN EXPRESSIONISM ................................ ................................ ................................ 34 History of Expressionism ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 35 Expressionism in Music ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 37 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 38 A Short Live d Movement with Lasting Influence ................................ ................................ .. 40 Italian Application of Expressionism to Music ................................ ................................ ...... 41 Italian Application of Expressionism to Art ................................ ................................ ........... 4 1 4 PANTEA ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42 Malipier ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 42 Musical Styles ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 44 Autobiographical Implications ................................ ................................ ............................... 45

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7 Italian Expressionism Defined in Pantea ................................ ................................ ............... 46 Performance History ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 47 Reception ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 48 Versions of Pantea ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 49 Musical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 51 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 58 Relevance and Application of Pantea ................................ ................................ .................... 59 5 SETTE CANZONI ................................ ................................ ......................... 61 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 61 Performance Histor y ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 62 Reception ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 64 Italian Expressionism Defined in Sette Canzoni ................................ ................................ .... 64 Performance History ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 65 Reception ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 67 Musical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 67 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 81 Relevance and Application of Sette Canzoni ................................ ................................ .......... 81 6 CANTI DI PRIGIONIA ................................ ................................ ........ 82 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 82 Autobiographical Implications ................................ ................................ ............................... 82 Musical Styles ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 83 Italian Expressionism Defined in Canti di Prigionia ................................ ............................. 87 Performance History ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 87 Receptio n ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 88 Musical Analysis: Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ........................ 88 Text ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 89 First Movement: Preghiera di Maria Stuarda ................................ ................................ ....... 92 Second Movement: Invocazione di Boezio ................................ ................................ ............ 93 Third Movement: Congedo di Girolamo Savonarola ................................ ........................... 94 12 Tone Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 96 Lyricism and Extreme Dynamics ................................ ................................ ........................... 97 Dies Irae Motive ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 98 Arch Form ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 98 Canons ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 98 Relevance and Application of Canti di Prigionia ................................ ................................ .. 99 7 IL PRIGIONIERO ................................ ................................ ............. 101 Italian Expressionism Defined in Il Prigioniero ................................ ................................ .. 101 Performance History ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 102 Re ception ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 105 Synopsis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 107 Sprechgesang and Sprechstimme ................................ ................................ .......................... 108

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8 Dramatic Tension via Ricercares ................................ ................................ .......................... 109 Expressionist Scenery ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 112 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 113 12 Tone Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 115 Choral Intermezzi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 118 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 119 Relevance and Application of Il Prigioniero ................................ ................................ ........ 121 8 INTOLLERANZA 1960 ................................ ................................ ......................... 123 ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 123 Musical St yles ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 125 Autobiographical Implications ................................ ................................ ............................. 126 Italian Expressionism Defined in Intolleranza 1960 ................................ ............................ 127 Performance History ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 128 Reception ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 133 Libretto ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 137 Synopsis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 139 Block Style of Orchestral Writing ................................ ................................ ........................ 145 12 Tone Method versus Communism ................................ ................................ .................. 145 Intervallic Rows and Voicing ................................ ................................ ............................... 146 Vocal Style ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 152 Use of Chorus ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 152 Theatrical Des ign ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 153 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 154 Relevance and Application of Intolleranza 1960 ................................ ................................ 156 9 EXPRESSIONIST ITALIAN ART WORKS ................................ ................................ ...... 158 Italian Expressionism Defined in Art ................................ ................................ ................... 158 Medardo Rosso ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 158 A Question of Labeling ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 162 Conversazione in Giardino ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 164 Ex hibitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 165 Conversazione in Giardino : Descriptive Analysis ................................ .............................. 165 Expressionism in Conversazione in Giardino ................................ ................................ ...... 166 Amedeo Modigliani ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 166 The Expressionist Lifestyle ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 168 Max Jacob ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 170 Exhibitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 171 Max Jacob : Desc riptive Analysis ................................ ................................ ........................ 171 Expressionism in Max Jacob ................................ ................................ ................................ 172 Autobiographical Implications and Relationships ................................ ................................ 173 Cafe Singer ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 174 Exhibitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 174 Cafe Singer : Descriptive Analysis ................................ ................................ ....................... 174 Expressionism in Cafe Singer ................................ ................................ ............................... 176

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9 Madame Kisling ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 176 Exhibitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 176 Madame Kisling : Descriptive Analysis ................................ ................................ ............... 177 Expressionism in Madame Kisling ................................ ................................ ....................... 177 Autobiographical Implications and Relationships ................................ ................................ 178 Mino Maccari ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 179 Amleto ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 183 Exhibitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 185 Amleto : Descriptive Analysis ................................ ................................ .............................. 185 Expressionism in Amleto ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 187 Auto biographical Implications and Relationships ................................ ................................ 187 Expressionism in Italian Art ................................ ................................ ................................ 187 10 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 189 Expressionism in Musical Works ................................ ................................ ......................... 189 Expressionism in Art Works ................................ ................................ ................................ 191 Connections ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 192 Reflection, Receptivity, and Further Study ................................ ................................ .......... 193 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 195 BIOGRAPH ICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 208

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10 LIST OF EXAMPL ES Example page 4 1 Hurricane (Prologue) ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 51 4 2 Baritone Canon with Cello and Bassoon ................................ ................................ ........... 52 4 3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 53 4 4 Second Hallucination ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 54 4 5 Third Hallucination ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 55 4 6 Epilogue; Death Dance ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 57 5 1 Song One: Il Vagabondo ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 69 5 2 Song One: Il Vagabondo ................................ ................................ .................. 70 5 3 Song Two: A Vespro ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 71 5 4 Song Two: A Vespro Marian Litany ................................ ................................ ................ 72 5 5 Song Three: Il Ritorno ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 73 5 6 Song Three: Il Ritorno ................................ ................................ ....................... 74 5 7 Song Four: ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 75 5 8 Song Five, La Serenata ; Act III of Tosca ................................ ................................ .......... 76 5 9 Song Six: Il Campanaro ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 78 5 10 Song Seven, L'Alba delle Ceneri ................................ ................................ ....................... 79 5 11 ................................ ................................ 80 6 1 Canti di Prigionia First Movement ................................ ................................ ................... 92 6 2 Canti di Prigionia Second Movement ................................ ................................ .............. 94 6 3 Canti di Prigionia Third Movement ................................ ................................ ................. 95 6 4 Row One ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 96 6 5 Row Two ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 96 7 1 Il Prigionie ro First Ricercare ................................ ................................ .......................... 109

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11 7 2 Il Prigioniero Second Ricercare ................................ ................................ ..................... 110 7 3 Il Prigioniero Third Ricercare ................................ ................................ ........................ 111 7 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 113 7 5 ................................ ............................... 114 7 6 119) ................................ ................................ .............. 116 7 7 Prayer Series ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 116 7 8 Hope Series ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 117 7 9 Liberty Series ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 117 7 10 Contrapuntal imitation in choir (beginning at measure 869) ................................ ........... 118 7 11 borrowing of his Canti di Prigionia (beginning at measure 920) .... 120 8 1 Tenor Row One Augmented Fourth and Perfect Fourth ................................ ............... 146 8 2 Tenor Row Two Minor Second and Major Second ................................ ...................... 147 8 3 Part I, Scene One, Emigrant (pages 16 17) ................................ ................................ ...... 147 8 4 Soprano Row One Minor Third and Minor Second ................................ ...................... 147 8 5 Soprano Row Two Minor Second and Perfect Fourth ................................ .................. 148 8 6 Part II, Scene Two, Companion (page 152) ................................ ................................ ..... 148 8 7 Contralto Row Augmented Fourth and Minor Second ................................ ................. 149 8 8 Pa rt I, Scene Two, Woman (pages 35 36, measures 220 223) ................................ ........ 149 8 9 Baritone/Bass Row Major Second and Perfect Fourth ................................ ................. 150 8 10 Part I, Scene Six, Tortured Man (page 108) ................................ ................................ .... 150 8 11 Part I, Scene Seven, Emigrant and Algerian (page 122) ................................ .................. 151 8 12 All Inter val Row ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 152

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12 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Carla Fracci as Pantea ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 48 6 1 Young Dallapiccola (undated) ................................ ................................ ........................... 83 6 2 Dallapiccola in Berlin (1968) ................................ ................................ ............................. 86 8 1 Malipiero and Nono (date unknown) ................................ ................................ ............... 123 8 2 Part I, Scene One Mining Town ................................ ................................ ................... 139 8 3 Part I, Scene Six Concentration Camp ................................ ................................ .......... 140 8 4 Part II, Scene One projections, voices, and mimes ................................ ....................... 141 8 5 Part II, Scene Two Companion ................................ ................................ ..................... 142 8 6 Emilio Vedova and Luigi Nono (Venice, 1961) ................................ .............................. 154 9 1 Medardo Rosso (date unknown) ................................ ................................ ...................... 161 9 2 Conversazione in Giardino ................................ ................................ .............................. 165 9 3 Max Jacob ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 172 9 4 ( From left to right ) Modigliani, Max Jacob, Andr Salmon, Manuel Ortiz de Zarate .... 173 9 5 Cafe Singer ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 175 9 6 Madame Kisling ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 178 9 7 Mose and Rene Kisling (date unknown) ................................ ................................ ....... 179 9 8 Mino Maccari (1972) ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 183 9 9 Amleto ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 186

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Gra duate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EXPRESSIONISM IN ITALIAN MUSIC AND ART IN THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES By Emily A. Bell December 2013 Chair: David Z. Kushner Major: Music In this study, a selection of Itali an musical pieces and art works, hailing from the late 19 th through the mid 20 th centuries, are analyzed for their Expressionist content. Although Expressionism began in Austria and Germany, the movement affected neighboring countries, including Italy, especially due to the emotional and physical strain caused by the two World Wars. An Italian version of Expressionism is defined for the following musical compositions : Pantea and Sette Canzoni Canti di Prigionia and Il Prigioniero Intolleranza 1960 Expressionist qualities are explored in Sprechgesang and Sprech stimme chromaticism, emphasis on non triadic tones, serialism, dramatic and irregular texture, rhythmic insta bility, scenic design and lighting, extreme expression and dynamics, subjectivity, exaggeration, and distortion. The characteristics of the Expre central character who comes back at the end of the play to his point of departure, a fast moving plot, and savage characters. Conversazione in Giardino Max Jacob Cafe Singer and Madame Kisling Amleto are analyzed for Expressionist

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14 tendencies. The writer will aim to find Expressionist characteristics in these art works, such as violent distortion, subjectivity, strong colors, symboli c use of color, angular and rhythmical areas of flat or dissonant colors which clash violently, and colors that are heavily outlined in black. In Addi tionally, the titles of each musical and art composition will be examined for ps ychologically intense content. Autobiographical effects will be discussed in terms of how the ersonal crisis. The study of Italian Expressio nism and t he artists discussed in this document have mostly been neglec ted in the standard textbooks. Italian Expressionism is now definable, proving that the Expressionist movement had a broader influence.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose and Summary of the Study This dissertation studies the relationships that existed with Expressionist music and art in Italy. The so called Expressionist movement that consisted of a group of German wr iters, painters, and musicians eventually influenced works in other countries, including the United States England, and Italy. The Italian Expressionist works in music and art came a bout as early as the late 19 th century and continued until the mid 20 th century The author reveals the extent to which the Expressionist movement affected musicians and artists in Italy. Chapter 2 reviews the literature that served as resource material for this project. The resources include articles, biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias, dissertations, general appreciation books or textbooks, general histories, 20th century histor ies, Italian histories, books, correspondence, recordings, musical scores, art locations, and online materials. In Chapter 3, the term Expressionism is analyzed for its various definitions and interpretations, and the techniques utilized by artists and c omposers are discussed. The writer examines the definition in musical and art dictionaries from 1920 to the present day, definitions given in general English and Italian dictionaries, and notes the differences and similarities. The author outlines the pr ocess of an Expressionist analy sis for Italian music and art In Chapters 4 through 8, the following works are analyzed for their Expressionist content: Pantea (1917 1 9) and Sette Canzoni (1918 1 9), part two of the trilogy eide (1918 22) ; Canti di P rigionia (1938 41) and Il P rigioniero (1944 4 8) ; and Intolleranza 1960 (1961). Critical reviews are provided. All works have text; text is scrutinized for psychological implications via analysis of the characterizations.

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16 Chapter 9 covers similar ground for the following works by Italian visual artists: Conversazione in G iardino ( 1893 ); Amedeo Modigliani Max Jacob (1916 17), Cafe Singer (1917) and Madame Kisling Amleto (1935). This as connections between all three. The concluding chapt er determines that the designation Expressionism is not a one size fits all term. The usage of the label is dependent upon the particular piece of music or art. Whether realized or not, the psychologically compelling basis of the Expressionist movement h ad a direct effect on Italian musicians and artists. Need for Study The investigation of an Italian Expressionist movement has not been undertaken When sources describe Expressionist artists or musicians, they are usually referring to those of th e Austro German movement that prospered betwee n approximately 1905 and 1920. No work has been published that has focused on Italian Expressionist art and music. Due to the proximity of Italy to Germany and Austria, it is not a surprise that the Italians were influenced by their Teutonic neighbors. When Arnold Schnberg (1874 1951) composed music using his 12 tone method, Luigi Dallapiccola (1904 75) an d other Italians, including Luciano Berio (1925 2003), Luigi Nono (1924 9 0), and Bruno Maderna (1920 73) borrowed this method and adjusted it to fit their needs. The Expressionist works of Italians from the early to mid 1900s imitate certain traits of the German Expressionists. There is not a specific school or group of Italian Expressionists; rather, the re are specific works created by Italian composers and artists which contain associated characteristics. The in depth analysis of an Italian Expressioni st movement, which has been neglected, is conducted in this project with the term as it is defined in s tandard source s

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17 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The writer provides a review of the sources consulted for the project, as well as general sources that further prove the underrepresen tation of Italian Expressionism, composers and artists discussed in this project. Unless otherwise noted, translations are by the author. 1 Articles Two significant articles concerning Gian Francesco Malipiero (1882 1973) are by John C.G. Waterhouse: Canzoni. The first article analyzes the works composed during this turbulent and Expressionist lecting his agitation due to World War I Analysis of P antea Expressionist monodrama Erwartung Il P rigioniero are given. Sette C anzoni is also discussed in relation to Pantea since they were written concurrently with one another. The second article per tains to Sette C anzoni in light of and compared to works such as Pantea Waterhouse claims that Pantea 2 Renato Mariani also has an Expressionist take on Pantea Herzgewchse di Pantea Ve rismo in Music e Altri The Torinese critic and musicologist Massimo Mila (1910 88) is complimentary of preference for using the structure of the song in his opera r ather than Wagnerian declamation is revealed in 1 This dissertation follows the standards set by Rpertoire International d e Littrature Musicale (RILM) in James R. Cowdery, ed., How to Write About Music: The RILM Manual of Style (2 nd ed.; New York, N.Y.: Rpertoire International de Littrature Musicale, 2006). 2

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18 A number of articles are attributed to Dallapiccola. Analyses of his 12 tone works, including Canti di P rigionia and Il P rigioniero are discussed in Han The Twelve Tone Compositions of Luigi Dallapiccola The writer looks for analysis that specifically relates the music or text. Nathan also wr where Dallapiccola conveyed his fondness for the piano as well as his preference regarding vocal information about the reception for Canti di P rigionia Canti di An Autobiographical Fragment Canti di P rigionia is the Canti di Prigionia he Politics of Commitment: Re R eading Il P rigioniero Il Prigioniero is reviewed in Music Review and The Musical Times and Canti di Prigionia received a critique in Tempo N Intolleranza 1960 Intolleranza 1960 analyzed in light of the 50 th wife, Nuria, is included ( Intolleranza 1960 The opera mixed reviews are noted from the publications Gior nale del Mattino , The Boston

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19 Globe La Suisse Time Avanti! La Tribuna del Mezzogiorno Le Monde Il Messaggero di Roma The New York Times and The Musical Times There are no articles regarding the specific works covered in this dissertation created by Medardo Rosso (1858 1928), Amedeo Modigliani (1884 1920), and Mino Maccari (1898 1989). However, Rosso, Modigliani, and Maccari are the primary focus of articles by others res by Jules Dalou, Henry Cros, ief, Bohemian Transit of Amedeo Cristina Camemolla visit to a Maccari exhibit O mag g Maccari is mentioned in articles about the Fascist and anti Semitic sentiment in Italy, and especially in relation to the journal he edited, Il Selvaggio. This association between artist and magazine is discussed in greater detail in The Culture of Italian Fascism and t he Fascist Crisis of Modernity: The Case of II Selvaggio is referenced. Sharp notes Freudian influence on the movement. Biographical Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Volume 4 of the 8 th edition of iographical Dictionary of Musicians provides a brief biography of Malipiero and lists his works within one and a half pages, but the Sette Canzoni and Pantea Works: Dramatic: Opera, and the latter under Works: Dramatic: Ballet. In Volume 2, Dallapiccola is given about one page, but nothing is mentioned in his biography abou t his troubled years during World War I. His Canti di P rigionia is noted under Works: Vocal, and Il P rigioniero

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20 n acknowledgment one half a page long, and it is stated that he stud ied composition with Malipiero at the Venice Conservatory from 1943 to 1945. It is also noted that Nono was active in the Italian Resistance Movement against the Nazis and joined the Italian Communist Party during the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini. Wa terhouse purports that 3 On the same page, Intolleranza 1960 is labeled ist Canti di Prigionia and Il Prigioniero are cited in the updated edition of Dizionario pera 4 Il Prigioniero is discussed for almost two pa ges (pages 1043 and 10 44). Dallapiccola has a bio graphical listing on page s 1473 through 14 Pantea is mentioned on page 934 and 1535, and his biography is on pages 1535 through 1536. Pages 933 thrugh 9 35 are mostly devoted to Intolleranza 1960 is review ed from pages page 1560. Grove Music Online emphasizes years of tragedy during World War I Sette Canzoni is given one Pantea on 5 One paragraph is attributed to Pantea within hat Piero Santi has compared Erwartung 6 W ithin Pantea Waterhouse 3 Slonimsky, ed.., 4:2619. 4 Gelli and Poletti, eds., pera 1473. 5 6 Piero Santi quoted in Waterhouse,

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21 notes 7 Pantea is marked as an anticipation of Dallapiccola Il P rigioniero Waterhouse authored an article that explores the entire operatic triology titled The New Grove Dictionary of O pera Waterhouse and Virgilio Bernardoni penned Grove Music Online s article on Canti di P rigionia and Il P rigioniero are viewed as 8 Canti di P rigionia is cited for being a nalysis of both works is given Grove Music Online experiences of World War II and the Nazi occupa tion, his awareness of the music of the Second Viennese School, and his friendship with and respe ct for Dallapiccola are noted. Within the Intolleranza 1960 is briefly acknowledged as making political references 9 Grove Music Online Expressionism is given German and Austrian references, any music before, during, and after World War I is viewed as fitting the definition, and the following composers are listed as contributors to the Expr essionist repertoire: Schnberg Anton Webern (1883 1945), Alban Berg (1885 1935), Gustav Mahler (1860 1911), Aleksandr Skryabin (1871/72 1915), Josef Hauer (1883 1959), Igor Stravinsky (1882 1971), Karol Szymanowski (1882 1937), Bla Bartk (1881 1945), Paul Hindemith (1895 1963), Charles Ives (1874 1954), Ernst Krenek (1900 91), Hans Werner Henze (1921 2012), Pierre 7 8 9

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22 Boulez (1925 ), Peter Maxwell Davies (1934 ), Wolfgang Rihm (1952 ), Bernd Alois Zimmermann (1918 70), and Michael Finnissy (1946 ). Ho wever, no Italian composers ar e listed, such as Alfredo Casella (1883 1947). 10 Expressionism in The Oxford Companion to Music Impressionism is compared to Expressionism in its vagueness of definitio n in the 5th edition of The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music Erwartung is cited as the best representation of Expressionism in music in the 4th edition of The Harvard Dictionary of Music Marica Magni pens a rather brief article for Rosso in Grove Art Online Magni views Conversazione in G iardino 11 The Oxford Companion to Western Art Angelo de Gubernatis labels Rosso as a realist in Dizionario degli Artisti Italiani Viventi: P ittori, S cultori e Architetti Grove Art Online grants credit to the artist for 12 ee occasions during his youth are noted, as well as his generally poor health throughout his short life of 35 years Wilkinson claims that work was much more autobiographical than works of his contempor Max Jacob is cited Cafe Singer nor Madame Kisling is listed. Grove Art Online does not have an article devoted solely to 10 11 12

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23 Maccari; however, the artist is §III, 7(i): Painting, c. 1900 1945 for his involvement in running the Fascist periodical, Il Selvaggio from 1928 to 1942. Expressionism is defined in Grove Art Online as an international movement in art and architecture. Its use and origins are expressed as German, but it is also given as an alternative to Die Br c ke and Der Blaue Reiter are mentioned in relation to the m ovement. In Paul Vogt and Ita Heinze Greenberg Expressionism primary representatives are cited from the following countries for their contributions to the Expressionis t movement: Belgium (Albert Servaes (1883 1966)), Austria (Egon Schiele (1890 1918) and Oskar Kokoschka (1886 1980)); Scandinavia (Henrik Srensen (1882 1962)); and France (Andr Dunoyer de Segonzac (1884 1974)). 13 Italy is not represented within this international evaluation. The movement is also referenced without mention of Italy in Ric hard Aronowitz The Oxford Companion to Western Art Italy is also not covered in the Expressionism article in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms Lionel Richard Phaidon E ncyclopedia of Express ionism: Painting and the Graphic Arts, Sculpture, Architecture, Literature, Drama, the Expressionist Stage, Cinema, M usic makes the argument that Expressionism affected all of the arts in an epidemic way. General Music and Art Appreciation Books or Textbooks 9 th edition of Music: An Appreciation makes no reference to the three composers. As for Expressionism, the artistic movement in Germany and Austria is mentioned, 13 Vogt and Heinze Greenberg Expressionism

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24 Salome and Elektra Pierrot lu naire and A Survivor in Warsaw Wozzeck Five Pieces for Orchestra 14 does not discuss the three artists. Expressionism is represented as members of Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brcke as well as Henri Matisse (1869 1954) and the Fauves, 15 Andr Derain (1880 1954) Paul Gauguin (1848 1903), Edvard Munch (1863 1944), Jean Dubuffet (1901 85), Francis Bacon ( 1909 92), and Swiss born Alberto Giacometti (1901 66). Existentialism is labeled as Post World War I Expressionism. General Histories of Music and Art The 5 th edition of A History of Western Music does not discuss Malipiero. Dallapiccola is given a brief listing as a European composer who spent a large amount of his creative time in the U.S. Nono is noted as a pupil of Olivier Messiaen (1908 92) and referenced with a couple of other composers as u sing chromatic clusters of sound for strings or voices. 16 Expressionism is cited in reference to works by Schnberg Berg, and Elliott Carter (1908 2012). nd edition of Th e Development of Western Music: A History gives no credence to Ma lipiero or Dallapiccola; however, within a sentence about serialism, she lists N along with Karel Goeyvaerts (1923 93), Boulez, and Kar lheinz Stockhausen (1928 2007). Stolba claims that these composers 14 Kamien, Music: An Appreciation 435. 15 The Fauves were a French group led by Matisse who shared a similar approach to nature, which was to express it with vibrant colors and bold brushstrokes. Their avant grade movement was a break with Impressionism. Other Fauves included Andr Derai n ( 1880 1954 ) and Maurice de Vlaminck ( 1876 1958) 16 Grout and Palisca, A History of Western Music 748.

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25 17 She views Expressionism as a German moveme nt, and also cites the Second Viennese School. Non German works are labeled as Expressionist, including settings of poetry by Irish writer James Joyce (1882 1941) by American composer David Del Tredic i (1937 ) and Christophe Columbe by French composer Darius Milhaud (1892 1974). 5 th edition of The Rough Guide to Classical Music Malipiero is only paragraph to Il Prigioniero Nono is given three pages, and Intolleranza 1960 is noted for its premiere which caused a riot. There is a featured b 259. The 3 rd edition of A History of Western Art leaves out all three visual artists discussed in this project. The Expressionism movement credits Wassily Kandinsky (1866 1944), Die Brc ke and Der Blaue Reiter members Kthe Kollwitz (1867 1945), Franz Marc (1880 1916), and Emil Nolde (1867 1956). Although Expressionism is not linked to the Italians, Adams states that it is similar to the Futurism movement in Italy. Twentieth Century Mus ic and Art Histories Twentieth Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America is the first music history book found in this study to mention Malipiero. Morgan contributes about one page of biographical informatio n on the composer. Approximately five pages are devoted to Dallapiccola, in which his Canti di P rigionia and Il P rigioniero are briefly mentioned. Nono is noted as belonging to the serialist movement in the early 1950s, in terms of his contribution to co ntemporary opera, and for his use of music as a Cori di Didone is briefly analyzed, but there is no mention of 17 Stolba, Th e Development of Western Music: A History 629.

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26 Intolleranza 1960 Expressionism is linked with the composers Schnberg and Bartk, and Ger man and Austrian Expressionist artists and Kandinsky are listed. The 2 nd edition of Mu sic of the Twentieth Century: Style and Structure makes no mention of Malipiero. Dallapiccola is briefly discussed in relation to his adoption of Schn tone method, as well as his teaching of Berio, but there is not any biographical or musical information about him. Nono is listed as a student of Maderna and brief descriptions of his works Il Canto S ospeso La Fabbrica I lluminata and Polifonic a Monodia Ritmica are provided. Expressionism is linked to the composers Schnberg Berg, Hindemith, Kurt Weill (1900 1950), Bartk, Dmitry Shostakovich (1906 75), Richard Strauss (1864 1949), Gottfried von Einem (1918 96), Henze, and Krzysztof Penderecki (1933 ), the artists Kandinsky, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880 1938), Erich Heckel (1883 1970), and Munch, and the playwrights Georg Bchner (1813 37), August Strindberg (1849 1912), Frank Wedekind (1864 1918), Georg Kaiser (1878 1945), Walter Hasenclever ( 1890 1940), Franz Werfel (1890 1945), Kokoschka, and August Stramm (1874 1915). Approximately t wo pages are dedicated to Malipiero The Ca mbridge Companion to Twentieth C entury Oper a. Sette Canzoni and are labeled as progressive opera. According to Cooke, Pantea provided Malipiero with against the predominance of the singer 18 The section covering Malipiero also gives attention to Intolleranza 1960 is cited on page 54. Nono is barely mentioned in a section on Ger many and Austria from 1918 60. Expressionism is featured in a section with Symbolism for about six pages. Point of View: Essays on Twentieth Century Chora l Music by Those Who Wrote It includes 18 Cooke, The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth Century Opera 40.

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27 challenges with vocal writing and prefere nce for brevity The 5 th edition of History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture Architecture, Photography gives Rosso a little less than half a page, with a biography that mentions his Impressionist technique and deliberate dissolution of sculptural forms. 19 Mo digliani is given one and a half pages of biographical information that touches on his short life, bohemian artistic existence, 20 Maccari is not given any attention. Expr essionism is defined as Austrian and German, and Neo Expressionism is cited as well as Italian Neo Expressionism with the a rtists Francesco Clemente (1952 ), Sandro Chia (1946 ), and Enzo Cucchi (1949 ). Art Since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism gives a brief blurb on Rosso in relation to Matisse and as rival of Auguste Rodin (1840 1917). Modigliani is referenced for his study of African sculpture and his connection with American born British sculptor Jacob Epstein (1880 1959), but there is nothing specific about his life or works. Once again, Maccari is not represented. Expressionism is discussed as Neo Expressionism and German Expressionism in relation to Schiele, Kokoschka, Gustav Klimt (1862 1918), Gauguin, Kirchner, and member s of Die Brcke and Der Blaue Reiter but no Italians are mentioned. Books of Italian Music and Art Italian Music During the Fascist Period is a collection of essays, from which the following writings I rte e 19 Arnason, History of Modern Art: P ainting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography 107. 20 Ibid., 269.

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28 Oltre la F orma. Gli Anni della Favola del Figlio Cambiato S gi Dallapiccola and the Politics of Voice Italian Opera S ince 1945 contains dissertation, especially in light of what was occurring culturally at the time of their presentations since World War II. Twentieth Century Italian Art briefly mentions Rosso in relation to early Futurism, as well as his status of neglect in the history books. Modigliani is represented with about one dozen paintings, pencil drawings, and sculptures, and about two thirds of a page is devoted to his biography. Maccari is not discussed. Books on Composers and Artists The author is esp Gian Francesco Malipiero 1882 1973: The Life, Times, and Music of a Wayward Genius Essays about Malipiero from close associates, and the composition process of Pantea and Sette Canzoni are revealed in a di Gian Francesco Malipiero, Saggi di Scrittori I taliani e Stranieri con una Introduzione di Guido M. Gatti, Seguiti dal Catalogo delle di Guido M. Gatti Seguiti dal Catalogo delle Opera con Annotazioni trilogy is the focus of Gian Francesco Malipieros Musiktheater The Malipiero: Scrittura e Critica edited by Waterhouse.

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29 book about the composer offers brief biographical and composition information. Raymond The Music of Luigi Dallapiccola is better focused Malipiero. In Parole e Musica Dallapiccola shares his thoughts about his music and his observations of others, including conductor Hermann Scherchen (1891 1966) thoughts on Il Prigioniero are revealed in his Dallapiccola on Opera A collection of the Luigi Dallapi ccola: Saggi, Testimonianze, Carteggio, Biografia e B ibliografia The sole biographical book on Nono comes from Marinella Rammazzoti. There are two collections of essays attributed to the c omposer. In Luigi Nono (1924 1990): T he Suspended Song t between Luigi Nono and Arnold Schnberg, Intolleranza 1960 Luigi Nono: Fragments and Silence (1924 1990) t Development 1960 regarding his Intolleranza 1960 The 50 th anniversary of his first opera is celebrated in Angela Ida De Ben edictis and Giorgio ssoluta This compilation features essays, photographs from the premiere performance, and images of t he score that reveal compositional process. Two articles are of relevance to this dissertation from Massimo P uliani SvobodaMagika: Polyvisioni S ceniche di Josef Svoboda: In tolleranza 1960 di Nono, Faust I nterpretato da St rehler, La Traviata di Verdi Una

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30 Ierofania che Rivela il Simbolo Sotto la Sembianza E motiva Analyses including Intolleranza 1960 are Luigi Nono und sein Musiktheater Four books are explored regarding Rosso In Medardo Rosso: Impressions in Wax and Bronze, 1882 1906 there is Luciano Caramel catalogue of pictures of his works during this time per iod, as well as a time line of his life and works. Medardo Rosso by Dieter Schwarz and others features multiple essays about the artist, pictures of his sculptures and drawings, letters and documents by Rosso and o thers related to his life, a catalogue of his works, and a list of exhibitions. Margaret Scolari Medardo Rosso Medardo Rosso: Second Impressions makes no making process. In Modigliani: T he Melancholy Angel a number of essays about the artist are given, some of which deal with his personal relationships with artists and patrons. Also included is a list of exhibitions and a catalogue. In Amedeo Modigliani: Paintings, Sculptures, Drawings a biography in relation to his sculptures, portraits, and nudes is given, plates of his paintings, sculptures, and drawings are displayed, exhibitions are listed, and comments by contemporaries about the artist are included Modigliani, Chagall, Soutine, Pascin: Some Aspects of Expressionism considers these four artists in light of their contributions to Expressionism as they resided in Paris. The book gives the disclaimer that Expressionism as a word is being given a very wide meaning. The three works discussed in this dissertation are not discussed in this book, but the connection of Modigliani with the Expressionist movement makes this reference worthy of an investigation. J. Modigliani, 1884 1920, Catalogue Raisonne provides biographical information as

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31 well as photographic plates of select works. A less academic and more sensationalized Modigliani: A Life Two texts are included in this project on Mino Maccari and Francesco Mel Mino Maccari: Catalogo Ragionato delle Incisioni Amleto is found in these books. Musical Scores and Art Locations The following musical scores are analyzed for their E xpressionist content : Mali Sette Canzoni Pantea: Dramma Sinfonic o ; Canti di P rigionia ; Il P rigioniero ; and Intolleranza 1960 The author observed the art works and to ok notes and photographs of them (with permission). The locations of the works follow: Conversazione in G iardino (bronze Rome, Italy); Modigliani Max Jacob Cafe Singer ( The National Gal lery of Art, Washington, D.C., U Madame Kisling ( The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D C U S A. ); and Amleto (Shakespeare University, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.) Sound Recordings There are no recordings of Pantea but a live recording from 1966 of the entire triology was transferred from LP s onto two CDs in 1996 (Tahra TAH 190 191). Canti di Prigionia and Il Prigioniero are featured on one CD from a 1995 recor ding (Sony Classical SK Intolleranza 1960 was recorded in 1995 onto one CD (Teldec 4509 97304 2).

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32 Correspondence A majority of the letters featuring Dallapiccola in this document are referenced with permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux in Florence, Italy, and These letters span from 1939 through 19 61, including one written by Malipiero in 1949 and another written to Nono in 1961. A lett er from Nono to Palmiro Togliatti in 1961 is sourced from Luigi Nono: Carteggi, Concernenti Politica, Cultura e Partito Comunista It aliano Letter s from Maccari come from Omaggio a Mino Maccari: Nel Centenario della Nascita il Lungo Dialogo di Maccari c on il Suo T empo : Mostra A ntologica 1921 1989 Dissertations and Theses For Malipiero, the only dissertations that are extant are regarding his choral works and piano works; nothing has been written about his biography or the two works covered in this project. Canti di P rigionia has four writings Prigionia, Italian Ly ricism and Viennese Cr aft was written in 1987 for a D.M.A. degree at the University of Cincinnat Luigi Dallapiccola 's Use of S erial Technique in Four Choral W orks: Canti di P rigionia Canti di Li bera zione, Requiescant, and Tempus D estruendi/Tem pus A edificandi was penned in 1994 for a D.M.A. degree at the University of Cincinnat i; An A nalysis of the Canti di Pr igionia by Luigi Dallapiccola : Materials of a Musical La nguage was written in 1975 for a M.F.A. degree at Cornell University; and The Use of Tonal and Atonal E lements in Luigi Dall apiccola s Canti di Prigionia was penned in 1982 for a M.M. degree at the University of Maryland. For Il P rigioniero Music, Text, and D rama Il P rigioniero was written in 2005 for a Ph.D. degree at City University of Serial T echniq rigioniero was

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33 penned in 1984 for a m Intolleranza 1960 has Dialectic Music: An A Intolleranza written in 1979 for a D.M.A. degree at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Im pressions in Light: Photographs of S culptures by Medardo Rosso (1858 1928) penned in 2004 for a Ph.D degree at Rutgers University, and Sharon Haya Heck l elf: Medardo Rosso and the Role of the Imagination in Nineteenth Century E uropean Sc ulpture written in 1999 for a Ph.D. degree at University of California at Berkeley. Six writings are extant on Modigliani of which two are the most relevant: An Investigation into the W orks of Amedeo Modigliani with Accompany ing Analytical Drawings Interpolating these W orks penned in 1967 for a M.S. degree at Central Missouri State College, and Amedeo Modigliani : Art and Li fe written in 1991 for a M.A. degree at Kent State University There are no American dissertations on Maccari.

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3 4 CHAPTER 3 ITALIAN EXPRESSIONISM Expressionism has been given a variety of definitions and interpretations, and the artists and composers covered in this analysis rely on differing techniques to express the label. Chapter 2 gave examples of works that made mention of the term. Definitions were cited from musical and art dictionaries from 1920 to present day, as well as general English and Italian dictionaries. The term Expressionism was also analyzed in music an d art appreciation books. For this chapter, the writer will use the Expressionism label in order to define an Italian variation. The definition of Italian Expressionism will be the basis for analysis of the works treated in Chapters 4 through 9. When a t erm such as Expressionism is given a meaning, there will likely be an array of definitions that will contradict one another. Other interpretations will be vague enough so as to fit the label to a larger number of works. Recognition is given to the vaguen ess in usage of the term; therefore, Expressionism is similar in this regard to the term Impressionism. 1 Normally w ords are necessary to prove an Expressionist element in music and art so it is no surprise that the analyze d works in this document contai n text. Eduard Hanslick discussed the conundrum regarding music that has no subject matter: what is the subject of the music, must necessarily be answerable i n subject everyone puts a different construction, which can only be felt and not translated into words, is not a subject as we have defined it. 2 expression . it conveys th 3 1 Kennedy and Kennedy, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music 244. 2 Hanslick, The Beautiful in Music: A Contribution to the Revisal of Musical Aesthetics 162. 3 Ambros The Boundaries of Music and Poetry 53.

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35 Commonly, autobiographical implications exist when it comes to Expressionist art and music. Crawford asserts that a substantial amount of Expressionist music came about as a personal crisis. 4 These autobi ographical motives will be explored for each work. History of Expressionism As mentioned in Chapter 2, Expressionism has a history stemming from the German and Austrian artists of Die Brcke and Der Blaue Reiter The movement affected architecture, drama, literature, dance, and, eventually, music, beginning with Schnberg. The founding members of Die Brcke who formed in Dresden, Germany, were Heckel Kirchner Karl Schmidt Rottluff (1884 1976), and Fritz Bley l (1880 1966). The artists of Die Brcke used psychologically intense subject matter. Some techniques inclu ded the use of strong colors. Richard Aronowitz Mercer states that the Die Brcke group would also utilize angular and or dissonant colors which clashed violently. 5 Members of Die Brcke used the forms of painting, and, in particular, woodcuts. According to Paul Vogt and Ita Heinze Greenberg t he woodcut was seen as the most capable ensions by contrastin g black and 6 There was a preference for using blocks cut along the grain. Themes included the rough nature of urban life. The colors were dissonant with 7 The 4 Crawford and Crawford, Expressionism in Twentieth Century Music 71. 5 Aronowitz 6 Vogt and Heinze Greenberg Expressionism 7 Aronowitz Expressionism

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36 style of the woodcuts, where colors were heavily outlined in black, influenced t he medi um of painting. Other mediums affected by Expressionism included sculpture, where the focus was on the subject Kirchn er created large sculptures. The artists of Die Brcke preferred using wood as a material, since it was less expensive than bronze. The sculptures are characterized as figurative and adaptive of the sculp ture art of Africa and the Pacific Islands. 8 Woodcut was an important medium for late medieval German art, so t he use of wood in sculpture and the woodcut block implies Primitivism as well as a return to the national roots of the rustic and primeval German forest. An example of this Gothic style is expressed in the woodcut series The Apo calypse (1498) by German Renaissance artist Albrecht Drer (1471 1528) 9 Through the woodcut medium the Expressionists elicited their nationalism and culturalism. Members of Der Blauer Reiter included Kandinsky, Marc, Gabriele Mnter (1877 1962), Alfred Kubin (1877 1959), Paul Klee (1879 1940), and August Macke (1887 1914). This group strove to use ar 10 The Der Blaue Reiter group wanted to use different tonal values colorwise and psychologically speaking. These Expressionists had an interest in color theory (especially Kandinsky) and a f ocus on what Aronowitz Mercer calls both empathetic identification with the 11 8 Vogt and Heinze Greenberg Expressionism 9 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1498). The Apocalyse was a series of 15 woodcuts on the Book of Revelation. The late Gothic style conveyed in this series focuses on intensifying the impact of the events portrayed. 10 Vogt and Heinze Greenberg Expressionism 11 Aronowitz Blaue Reiter, Der

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37 In order to stress emotionalism, these artists used heightened, non naturalistic color as 12 Other char acteristics included violent distortion, symbolic usage of color, and suggestive lines. In art, the Expressionism Period lasted from 1905 until 1920. According to Vogt and Heinze Greenberg Expressionism was meant to reflect the deep intellectual unrest between man and the 13 The work same time, had edginess in its style that represented the anxiety about the loss o f that traditional relationship. Expressionism in Music With music, Expressionism was conveyed t hrough subject matter, text, musical methods such as chromaticism, texture, rhythm, and dynamics, scenic design, and lighting. Assigning the Expressi onist label to a musical piece would indicate it has extreme expression, subjectivity, exaggeration, and distortion. If the music utilized text, these techniques were easier to convey to the listener, especially through speech inflections. According to The Harvard Dictionary of Music 14 In contrast, David Fanni tonal, pre 12 time period. 15 Fanning claims the term can have a broader application in referencing music from 12 Expressionism The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms. 13 Vogt and Heinze Greenberg Expressionism 14 15 Fanning Expressionism

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38 expression appears to override demonstrabl e coherence and to 16 nontriadic tones are emphasized. There is intentional distortion of traditional harmony. The Harvard Dictionary of Music cites the comp Erwartung ( 1909 ) as the best thematic, tonal, or formal c onventions, in the traditional sense. 17 In Expressionist music, there is an avoidance of repetition, a denial of stability ( especially in tempo ) and use of chromaticism. Composers were wary of using the Expressionist label, more so than visual artists and literary figures. For music, Lionel Richard believes Expressionism but rather ] 18 Schnberg employed a vocal technique, halfway between speech and singing, know n as Sprechgesang Sprechstimme is the spoken vocal part employing Sprechgesang The works in which h e used this technique were his E xpressionist works, specifically Die Glckliche Hand (1910 13) and Pierrot Lunaire (1912). Berg also utilized Sprech gesang in Wozzeck (1914 22). the theme revolves around one persona. This character comes back at the end of the play to his 16 Ibid. 17 18 Richard Phaidon Encyclopedia of Expressionism: Painting and the Graphic Arts, Sculpture, Architecture, Literature, D rama, the Exp ressionist Stage, Cinema, Music 7.

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39 point of departure ; in oth er words, he is at the same place he was in the beginning Other features include a plot that is fast moving and compact, and colors are used symbolically. Die Glckliche Hand is representative of the Ex Expressionist the theme revolves around one character (the Man), the plot is fast moving and compact, there is a speech style of singing, and colors are used in a symbolic way. 19 Stage lights convey the different color schemes of each scene. ch The most important literary influence on Schnberg Die Glckliche Hand is part, Expressionist, and autobiographica l play, To Damascus (1898 (like the Man in Schnberg 20 In To Damascus like Die Glckliche Hand the end of the 21 Other influences on Schnberg act plays of 1907, Mrder, Hoffnung der Frauen ( Murderer, Hope of Women ) and Sphinx u nd Strohmann ( Sphinx and Stawman ). It is plausible that Schnberg attended performances of these plays (especially since he initially wanted Kokoschka to do the scenic design for Die Glckliche Hand ). These plays were some of the earliest representations of Austrian or German Expressionist drama. The battle of the sexes is an Expressionist motive in Mrder, Hoffnung der Frauen Die Glckliche Hand between the Man and the Woman. 19 Hahl Koch Arnold Schoe n berg/Wassily Kandinsky: Letters, Pictures and Documents, 161 62. 20 Die Glckliche Hand Gesamtkunstwerk 8 5. 21 Ibid., 585.

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40 In true Expressionist form, the Man and Woma n are savage, archaic, and display primal behavior. A Short Lived Movement with Lasting Influence The rise and fall of Expressionism as a movement could be due to the demand it placed on an artist, because it required such intense self examination. The ex treme psychological stress and human situations of the two World Wars also had a direct effect on the tendency for artists to be drawn to the psychoanalytical pull of Expressionism. The interest in the psychology of the unconscious stemmed from Austrian n eurologist Sigmund Freud (1856 1939). Francis Sharp expressionist literature stems [mostly] 22 In 1918, Freudian thought was di scussed more in young artist circles than those of the medical and psychiatric fields. 23 The lasting influence of Expressionism is reflected in two later movements: Abstract Expressionism from the late 1940s, and Neo Expressionism from the late 1970s. Abs tract Expressionism began in the United States and its members included Adolph Gottlieb (1903 74), Franz Kline (1910 62), Jackson Pollock (1912 56) and Mark Rothko (1903 70). These New York painters influenced American c omposer Morton Feld man (1926 87) Neo Expressionism started in Germany and had an international reach. Sculptors and painters of this movement included Georg Baselitz (1938 ), Anselm Kiefer (1945 ), and Salom (born Wolfgang Ludwig Cihlarz in 1954). 22 Sharp, Expressionism and Psychoanalysis 95. 23 Ibid., 94.

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41 Italian Application of Expressionism to Music Pantea and Sette Canzoni Canti di Prigionia and Il Prigionier Intolleranza 1960 the following Expressionist qualities will be sought: s ubject matter, text (especially fragmented text), use of Sprechgesang and Sprechstimme chromaticism, emphasis on non triadic tones, dramatic and irregular texture, rhythmic inst ability, scenic design and lighting, extreme expression and dynamics, subjectivity, exaggeration, and distortion. In addition, autobio graphical implications will be discussed, especially in terms of an unnamed central character who comes back at the end of the play to his point of departure, a fast moving plot, and characters who are savage, archaic, and display primal behavior. Italian Application of Expressionism to Art Conversazione in G iardino Modig liani Max Jacob Cafe Singer and Madame Kisling Amleto will be dissected for Expressionist tendencies. The title of the work will be scrutinized to determine whether or not it is indicative of psychologically intense subject matter. Als considered. Expressionist characteristics will be pursued, such as violent distortion, subjectivity, strong colors, symbolic usage of color, angular and rhythmical areas of fl at or dissonant colors which clash violently, and whether the colors are heavily outlined in black. In addition, the following questions will be posed: is the artwork a painting or woodcut (the mediums which were favored by Expressionists), or, if it is the work? Does the work portray the rough nature of urban life, and is there a rejection of the balance of design? Also, autobiographical intentions will be explored in terms of whether or not the artist has composed the work as a reaction to his own personal crisis.

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42 CHAPTER 4 PANTEA Born in Venice, Italy, on 18 March 1882, Gian Francesco was the grandson of opera composer Francesco Malipiero (1824 87) His formative years, spent on the move, were a bit troubled: his parents ended their marriage and he was uprooted to Vienna, and then sent back to Venice. 1902, Malipiero found and transcribe d the early Italian mu sic of Claudio Monteverdi (1567 1643), Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583 1643), Claudio Merulo (1533 1604), and others in the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. After studies in Bologna, and from 1910 onwards, he attempted to set tle in the small town of Asolo. Malipiero married his first wife, Maria Rosa, daugh ter of the painter Luigi Rosa, in 1910. The composer did not live abroad during his adult life, unlike his fellow Italians Ferruccio Busoni (1866 1924) and Casella althoug h he traveled a fair amount before World War I. One of these trips was to Paris in 1913, where he met Casella and attended the premiere of Le Sacre du P rintemps (1911 13). Upon hearing this work, Malipiero commented ke from a long and dangerous lethargy, on that evening of 28 th May 1 He and his family had to leave Asolo for Rome in November of 1917 due to the Retreat of Caporetto, the result of the Italian Arm 1 From an undated autobiographical note in Scarpa, ed., L'Oper a di Gian Francesco Malipiero, Saggi di Scrittori I taliani e St ranieri con una I ntroduzione di Guido M. Gatti, Seguiti dal C atalogo delle di G uido M. Gatti Seguiti dal utore e da Ri cordi e Pensieri dello S tesso 349 50.

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43 His wife Maria was un fai thful and reportedly died in 1921 while giving bir th to a child who was not his. 2 That same year, Malipiero was appointed professor of composition at the Parma Conservatory, but he resigned three years later In 1922, he married his second wife, Briti sh born Anna Wright, and purchased a house in Asolo. From 1926 through 1942, Gian Francesco as musicologist published complete editions of Vivaldi (1678 1741), and penned books on Monteverdi, 3 Vivaldi, 4 and Stravinsky. 5 Malipiero again became a professor of c omposition in 1932, but this time at the Venice Liceo Mu sicale. He would direct the Conservatory from 1939 to 1952 At 85 years of age, the composer married his third wife, Guiletta Olivieri who was 30 years his junior. He had been having a very open af fair with Guiletta for about 20 years before marrying her. Malipiero would be laid to rest in Treviso on 1 August 1973 at the age of 91. Since the early 1990s, there has been an increase in the number of commercial recordings of The co mposer 6 Dallapiccola however, regarded Malipiero ortant personality we have had [ in Italian music] 7 Music critic Massimo Mila saw him as an innovator: 2 Waterhouse, Gian Francesco Malipiero 1882 1973: The Life, Times, and Music of a Wayward Genius 19. 3 Malipiero, Claudio Monteverdi (Milan, 1929). 4 Malipiero, Antonio Vivaldi, il Prete R osso (Milan, 1958). 5 Malipiero, Strawinsky (Venice, 1945). 6 Canzoni 7 Ibid.

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44 Although immersed in a commitment to modernity which so far we have not yet found Malipiero is isolated, away from the fashions and the international experiments to the suggestions of a Fran co Russian comb ining Rimsky Korsakov and Debussy, [but] does not hesitat e to shake them away from him: t he novelty of his language is generated throughout a personal rethink i s recitative and the sixteenth century Venetian School [but] not without some curiosity [of] recent of expressionistic new music. 8 Musical Styles The m ovements rarely end with the key signature in which they began. He utilizes diatonicism and his compositions are typically freely composed and not based on thematic development. Unpredictable fluctuations of tempo occur in pieces from 1916 through 1919, notably, Pantea and Sette Canzoni During World War I and its resulting instability, the Societ Nazionale di Musica (later named Societ Italiana di Musica Moderna (S.I.M.M.)) was formed. The S.I.M.M. only existed for 2 years as an organization (1917 19), during which time it published the periodical Ars Nova 9 Gian Francesco who shared this desire for new Italian music with such compatriots as Ildebrando Pizzetti (1880 1968) Ottorino Respighi (1879 1936) Vittorio Gui (1885 1975) Vincenzo Tommasini (1878 1950), and Mario Castelnuovo Tedesco (1895 1968), became a member of the S.I.M.M. Unli ke Pizzetti and Casella, Malipiero never composed music that made a direct reference to w ar. In addition to Pantea Malipiero composed four other ballets: Il S elvaggi (1918), La Mascherata delle Principesse P rigionere (1919), Stradivario (1947 4 8) and El Mondo N ovo 8 9 Waterhouse, Gian Francesco Malipiero, 24.

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45 (1950 5 1). He composed 34 operas throughout his long career, three of which were never performed. Even though his later works reflected a hint of atonality, he never accepted serialism as a force majeur when it came to his own compositions. T ncluded Stravinsky (especially Le Sacre du P rintemps ), Claude Debussy (1862 1918), and Giacomo Puccini (1858 1924) (especially the idea of continuous music so as to minimize clearly defined acts or scenes). Much of works after 1955 new chromatic language in which he mixed whole tone and modal scales (e.g., the commedia musicale Venere P rigioniera of 1955). Autobiographical Implications Pantea came during a difficult time in his life, about which he wrote the following: In 1914 the war disrupted my whole life, which remained, until 1920, a perennial tragedy. The works of those years perhaps reflect my agitation; however, I consider that if I h ave created something new in my art (formally and stylistically) it happened precisely in this period. 10 The French musicologist Henri Prunires (1886 1942) who had a close friendship with the Italian composer during thi s time, described his ituation of having to leave Asolo in November of 1917 : Malipiero, taking with him only a few manuscripts, had, in order to reach Venice together with his wife, to make his way for two days through a d b cle without name, amid soldier s without weapons, and amid unfortunates abandoning their homes. They were transported as in a nightmare to Venice where they took the train to Rome. Malipiero arrived there exhausted, shattered horrific memories, to such a point that his fr iends for some days feared for his sanity. 11 10 Refers to a note by Malipiero from 1942, referring to his first Pause del silenzio in Wa terhouse, Mal 11 Waterhouse,

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46 In a note from 1952, Malipiero would express that, during this difficult time in his life, he had a 12 This vision would later materialize as the ballet Pantea Italian Expressionism Defined in Pantea This chapter will validate the Expressionist qualities of Pantea Expressionist features in the ballet include the following: subject matter ( imprisonment ), use of Sprechgesang (while speechlike singing is not utilized, wordless singing is ), chromaticism (heavily used throughout in tandem with stepwise motion), dramatic and irregular texture (playful moments mixed with tremolos and dramatic phrasing), rhythmic inst ability ( use of mixed meter with sudden shi fts), contrasting and extreme dynamics, scenic design and lighting, extreme expression ( wail like singing subjectivity (the lack of freedom that Pantea experiences ; the magi cal hold and temptation that an archaic canon represents Death and the so lo baritone ), exaggeration (repeated motives; frequent chromaticism), distortion, and autobiographical implications ( the concept of Pantea was inspired from period of crisis due to World War I ). an unnamed central character (although Pantea is named, she is the only main character) who comes back at the end of the play to her point of departure (she is imprisoned and never free), a fast moving plot ( the symphonic drama is only 23 minutes long), and a savage character amongst her (the wordless baritone tempts Pantea to leave her prison, only t o face her own death). 12 Scarpa, ed., L'Opera di Gian Francesco Malipiero, 207.

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47 Performance History The version for reduced orchestra was performed on 6 September 1932 at Teatro Goldoni in Venice, with Hungarian born conductor Fritz Reiner (1888 1963) and Italian dancer Attilia Radice (1914 80) as Pantea. Guido Salvini (1893 1964 ) served as designer for the ballet. Also premiering on the same program for the Venice Festival was La F a chamb er to words of Italian writer, director, and literary critic Corrado Pavolini (1898 1980) after the Italian classical scholar and poet Poliziano (born Angelo Ambrogini (1454 94)) premiered on this program was L lba di Don Giovanni by Franco Casavola (1891 1955). The order of the program was expressed thusly: Pantea Don Giovanni 13 Performances outside of Italy included a performance at the Opra in Paris on 21 January 1935. French conduc tor fl utist, and composer Philippe Gaubert (1879 1941) directed and Latvian ballet dancer Suria Magito ( 1903 1987 ) portrayed Pantea. The ballet was given an Austria n presentation on 28 June 1949 with Swiss conductor Paul Sacher (1906 99) and Czech dancer Rosalia Chladek (1905 95) Pantea 6 5 season (dates unknown). 14 Italian ball et dancer Carla Fracci (1936 ) portrayed Pantea ( Figure 4 1) and Teodoro Rovetta was the voice. The conductor was Argentinian born Italian Carlo Felice Cillario (1915 2007) and the performance featured choir director Gianni Lazzari, choreographer Loris Gaj, director Beppe Menegatti scenic designer Ezio Frigerio d irector of scene p reparation Giovanni Cruciani and l ight ing designer Alessandro Drago. 13 Rodoni, uce di Alcune 545. 14 Program notes for Pantea by Gia n Francesco Malipiero, 302 15.

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48 Figure 4 1. Carla Fracci as Pantea 15 On 7 July 1968 at 7:00 p.m. on KPFK Folio 90.7 FM (Los Angeles, California ) Pantea was presented via a radio broadcast. This performance is listed on page 5 of the Folio as r, who is almost 16 Reception Critics praised the premiere Italian c omposer and conductor Adriano Lualdi (1885 the most authentic statement of the entire Festiva 17 Lualdi 15 Image featured in Program notes for Pantea by Gian Francesco Malipiero, 308. 16 KPFK Folio 90.7 FM, 10. 17 Rodoni, Caro Lualdi.. 500.

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49 helped coordinate the production of Pantea in Venice, so he is certainly not an impartial critic. ballet and talked about how he needed to find the monetary resources that the theatre required. Lualdi asked Malipiero for the sheet music to get a sense of the piece and what was required for the orchestra. He went on to say that Pantea must be at least an absolute novelty for Italy 18 Malipiero wrot t be too aggressive because (and this is the part that 19 After seeing the Paris performance of 1935, Henry Malherbe in Le Temps were stirred to the inn ermost depths of our being [by] a symphonic and choreographic dance of a 20 Waterhouse believes Pantea t biographical questions. 21 Versions of Pantea The first of three compositions for ballet by the Italian composer, Pantea (1917 19) is a dramma The original score for full orchestra (Edizione: Chester, Londra, 1920 ) is nowhere to be found. The G. Schirmer, Inc. Rental and Performance Library in Chester, New York, cla imed that the only copy they had of the score (a reduced orchestral version) is lost. The author is forced to use the piano reduction for analysis purposes. It is also unfortunate that no commercial recording has ever been made of Pantea 18 Ibid., 536. 19 Waterhouse, ed., Malipiero : Scrittura e Critica 40. 20 Waterhouse, Gian Francesco Malipiero 129. 21 G. F. Mal

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50 The 1920 reduced version for two pianists (four hands) is housed in the Malipiero Collection at the Giorgio Cini Foundation at San Maggiore Giorgio Island in Venice, Italy. This score comprises 63 pages. At the end of the score, Malipiero makes a note that the composition was finished in Capri on 3 August 1919. The composer dedicated this ballet to the Italian music critic Guido M. Gatti (1892 1973). 22 Before page one, there is a note that lists the characters and gives the option of eliminating the voices; the chorus may be excluded, except for pages 14 through 15 a nd 53 through 54, for which the one voice is indispensable. On page one the composer wrote that the performance time for Pantea should be about 23 minutes. There is a dramatic difference of opinion in terms of how long the ballet should last, because th e publisher, Chester Music (now a part of Music Sales Classical) states on their website that it should last only 10 minutes. 23 In this case, something would likely be omitted for a 13 minute time reduction. s compositions prior to 1950. The cast characters on stage (the other being an apparition of Death), while the off stage, wordless chorus and baritone soloist 24 Gian Francesco named the ballet after the courtesan in the tragic poem utunno (1899) by Gabr 1938), the Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. However, Pantea and the courtesan are 22 A m usic critic and founder of the journal Rassegna musicale in 1928 Gatti had a 58 year correspondence with Malipi ero. 23 Pantea: Symphonic Drama 24 Waterhouse Malipiero, Gian Francesco

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51 not comparable characters. It has been suggested that Malipiero could have simply liked the sound of her name. 25 The composer indicated that this symphonic drama was writte n for the love of musical theater and to avoid melodrama. He had difficulty in finding a dancer who was capable of handling the demanding lead role The choreographers at the time want ed to invent c haracters and therefore prevent the ballet from resembli ng musical theater 26 Musical Analysis Example 4 1. Hurricane (Prologue) 27 25 Waterhouse, 26 27 Malipiero, Pantea: Dramma Sinfonico 6.

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52 28 This hurricane is portrayed musically with aggressive and feverish t extures in the (Example 4 1) 29 An off stage chorus of wordless voices begi ns at page 11, eight measures after rehearsal no. 5. The piano accompaniment sounds very much like a hymn. The wordless choral passage of the Prologue is meant to represent songs of the morning. 30 Example 4 2. Baritone Canon with Cello and Bassoo n 31 On page 14, three measures after rehearsal no. 6 (Example 4 2), the solo baritone voice, off stage, sings in canon with a solo cello and a solo bassoon, while four solo violins and four 28 Ibid., 1. 29 Description, four measures before rehearsal no. 5 in Malipiero, Pantea: Dramma Sinfonico 10. 30 Stage direction, eight measures after reh earsal no. 5 in Malipiero, Pantea: Dramma Sinfonico 11. 31 From Waterhouse, Gian Francesc o Malipiero 129.

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53 flutes give a repeated, ostinato expression via a seri es of four, third inversion seventh chords: A D# F# B (third inversion dominant seventh), B E G C (third inversion major seventh), A D# F# B, and G C# E# voice and stops dancing. The curtain is close d during the Prologue, and opened just before the First Hallucination at page 24, two measures after rehearsal no. 11. Example 4 3. 32 For this delusion Pantea is striving to reach the summit of a steep mountain where there is a raging hurricane This is one of the most turbulent scenes, musically speaking. It begins with a change of meter with a quick shift from 2/4 to 3/4 at a ff dynamic level. Three measur es after rehearsal no. 13 on page 26 (Example 4 3), the chorus provides the only word that occurs in the 32 Malipiero, Pantea: Dramma Sinfonico 26.

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54 by the sudden change of the meters yet again (from 2/4 t o 3/4). I n the second d elusion, the imprisoned Pantea yearns for freedom in the form of a boundless meadow, where she is intoxicated by sunlight, but her joy ultimately culminates in vertigo. This hallucination begins on page 33. At rehearsal no. 19, there is a quick shift from 9/8 to 6/8 meter, and only once. On page 37, 6 measures before rehearsal no. 21, there are The stage directions call for many voices to sing a hymn of exultation representative of t he apotheosis of light 33 Example 4 4. Second Hallucination 34 33 Ibid., 37. 34 Ibid., 40.

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55 only pronounced word during but, during other hallucinations, the choir gives exclamations of amazement with the expressions and 35 The music has great dialectical traits in that, at one moment, there are stacked dissonances during times of stress, while oth er moments feature cantabilit and lyricism. For example, on page 40 (Example 4 4), 11 measures after rehearsal no. 21, wordless singing and playful accompaniment suddenly transform into tremolo and chromatic d isso nance when the curtain closes. Example 4 5. Third Hallucination 36 35 Waterhouse, ed., Malipiero: Scrittura, 35. 36 Malipiero, Pantea: Dramma Sinfonico 49.

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56 On page 41, after the curtain closes and eight measures after rehearsal no. 22, the sopranos and altos sing a half diminished seventh chord with an added ninth (A C Eb G B) while being accompanied with a chord consisting of the notes E Bb D F# Bb (a Bb major chord with an augmented 4 th and 5 th or, a chord consisting of notes that are mostly a half step away from the A C Eb G B chord). The curtain rises at the beginning of the Third Hallucination on page 42. For this hallucination, Pantea is flying through a fabulous forest but the trees are lashing at her. At inve rsio n Ab minor chord (Cb Eb Ab). By page 49 (Example 4 5) the sopranos and altos have steadily climbe d their registers, so that, at six wit h an E minor chord (E G B ). All the while, a climbing sextuplet motive in the right hand part of th e first piano is repeating Pantea is exhausted at the foot of a tree, with her face to the ground, and the curtain closes. es, and the protagonist is still kneeling in f ront of the window with the same posture of contemplation and dreaming. There is a sunset. The choir begins to sing. Three measures after rehearsal no. 34, the wordless and nostalgic baritone solo returns. W the ballet. 37 There are repeated falling parallel chords expressed in the right hand of the second piano part (Bb Eb G Bb to Ab Db F Ab). Page 57 (Example 4 6) reflects highly chromatic musical tension, e specially in the vicinity of rehearsal no. 36. Four measures before rehearsal no. 36, after the death dance has begun, a quasi canon commences between the left hand of the 37 Waterhouse, Gian Francesco Malipiero, 129.

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57 first piano part (beginning on F#) and the right hand of the first piano (beginning a perfect fifth higher on C#), with falling, ch romatic, and stepwise motion. Example 4 6. Epilogue; Death Dance 38 The writer believes that the wordless baritone and faceless shadow are one and the same (Death). This argument is justified because the baritone singer employs a canon and a canon is used after two measures after rehearsal no. p level and in the lower registers, while the stage directions note that Pantea is exhausted, falls to the ground, and will never rise again 39 The curtain makes its 38 Malipiero, Pantea: Dramma Sinfonico 57. 39 Two measures after rehearsal no. 40, in Malipiero, Pantea : Dramma Sinfonico 62.

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58 final closing with an unset tling half diminished seventh chord (E# G# B# D#) in the piano accompaniment. The reiteration of short musical phrases is a trait in this piece (and Sette Canzoni ) that s uperimposed triads, similar to what Stravinsky expressed in Le Sacre du P rintemps Leigh Henri believes Pantea the first art conception created from the matter which serves psycho analy i sts such as Freud for the basis of their scientific works. 40 Wate rhouse views the music for Pantea 41 42 Ich Drama Piero Santi has said that, in both Schnberg Erwartung Pantea a 43 Pantea can be considered a monodrama in that it is similar to Erwartung where the woman has haunting hallucinations and is beset with unattainable desire. Mariani also compares the quintessential Ich Drama Erwartung to Pantea Mariani calls them both mono dramas that avoid melodrama. Both works have a single figure on stage. Schnberg Herzgewchse (Foliage of the Heart) with her voice. The solo dancer in Pantea conveys her Herzgewchse with gestures, facial expressions, and agitation 44 The similarities between 40 41 42 Waterhouse, Gian Francesco Malipiero, 127. 43 44 Herzgewchse di Pantea,

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59 Erwartung and Pantea are coincidental, given that, other than knowing some of Schnberg piano works Malipiero was un familiar with the Austrian Gian Francesco liked the lyrical aspect of the music 45 He said the following about his musical theatre: In my theater there are thr ee element The Song indispensable and necessary even if one were [to] represent the subj ect without music as a comedy Stage the visible element which explains the subject [without] any need he Orchestra which creates t he dramatico musical atmosphere. The importance of each of these three elements is equal although from a bureaucratic point of view it is the orchestra that takes the larger share of the labor. 46 Il Prigioniero with Pa ntea citing the fact that both works pole is 47 Relevance and Application of Pantea T his composition is not a standard piece for ballet companies. The writer could only find a handful of performances throughout the 20 th century. Because it would require a full symphony, two ballet dancers, an off stage baritone, and mixed chorus, Pantea would be a promising collaborati ve opportunity for an orchestra chorus, and ballet company. Because a mute female dancer must perform on stage for the entire performance, this performer must have considerable stamina as well as a pronounced stage presenc e. Pantea would pair well on a concert program ballet Petrushka (1911). Both ballets have emotionally driven storylines that in volve imprisonment and ghosts. Pantea is 45 46 Ibid. 47 G. F. Mal

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60 prevented from attaining personal freedom and Petrushka is a pu ppet that will never be free The baritone in Pantea is a ghostlike figure, and, after the ghost of Petrushka appears at the end of the ballet. When presenting this work, the program should contain notes that summarize the stage directions for each scene, as well a s an overall plot description. Mention should also be made of isis that inspired this work about imprisonment.

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61 CHAPTER 5 SETTE CANZONI Sette Canzoni is part two of the triptych Malipiero composed the trilogy between 1918 and 1922. The full orchestral version was published in 1922, and the arrangement for reduced orchestration was c omposed between 1924 and 1925. is divided into the following three one act operas: La Morte delle Maschere ( The Death of the Maskers ) (1921 22); Sette Canzoni ( Seven Songs ) (1918 19); and ( Orpheus, or The Eighth Song ) (1919 20). The myth of Orpheus is a popular subject for opera. Other dramatic works on the topic include : Euridice ( 1602) by Guilio Caccini (1551 1618 ), Orfeo ( 1607) Orfeo ed Euridice ( 1762 ) by Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714 87) Orphe aux Enfers ( 1858) by Jacques Offenbach (1819 80 ), Or pheus und Eurydike (1923) by Ernst Krenek (1900 91 ) La Favola di Orfeo (1932) tale of love beyond the grave is practically lost; however, the ideas of allegory and symbolism are borrowed. The character Orpheus only makes an appearance in the first and last operas. The opening opera, La Morte delle Maschere presents an array of characters who are auditioning for an impresario. They are interrupted when a disguised Orpheus, dressed in red and wearing a hideous mask, enters and pushes the impresario out with a whip, and imprisons the characters inside a cupboard. Orpheus removes his disguise for the audience, and shows his lyre. In the last opera, Orfeo, Orpheus interrupts the scene again, where Nero is giving a sadistic performance while posing as a marionette. Around the stage are three different audiences who have three different reactions to what is happening before them.

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62 The audience, comprised of children th century aristocrats. The first two operas can be performed independentl y of the trilogy, especially since the triptych as a whole is comprised of three piebald operas. However, after composing the three 1 Similar to Richard Wagner (1813 83), Malipiero wrote the entire libretto. The work is based on a mix of the Orpheus myth as well as poems by Italian Renaissance poets including Angelo Poliziano, and one each by Jacopone da Todi (1230 1306) and Luigi Alamanni (1495 1556) On the se lection of his texts for Sette Canzoni the composer wrote the following : The text of Sette canzoni is taken from old Italian poetry, because in it one rediscovers the rhythm of our music, that is to say that truly Italian rhythm which, little by little during three centuries, was becoming corrupted in operatic melodrama. 2 The author found a photographic reproduction of the original full score (published by J.W. Chester, London) at the Malipiero Collection in the Giorgio Cini Foundation (Venice, Italy). Parts one, two, and three are divided into three bound books inside of a wooden box. This box also contained a microfi lm copy of the score. Performance History The world premiere of the trilogy, featuring the re duced orchestral version, occurre d on 5 November 1925 a t the Stadttheater Dsseldorf. For this German performance, Willi Aron and German conductor Erich Orthman n (1894 1945) translated it into the native language. 1 2 Scarpa, ed., 192.

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63 Essen served as the set designer. Technical direction was given by August Breimann, light design by Leo Banni za, costumes by Matthias Radermacher, and wigs were designed by Willi grand pause between the second and third parts. 3 Also, pre orders were accepted by phone, and ha d to be picked up no later than one half hour before each performance. Another German performance may have taken place in Leningrad on 24 November 1928. On 23 February 1936, received its Italian premiere at Teatro La Fenice in Venice, with Ital ian conductor and composer Nino Sanzogno (1911 83) stage designer and director Francesco Pasinetti, and costume designer Roberto Zerboni. The only recording of the trilogy is a two disc CD set that was created from Hermann 966 performance at the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino at Teatro della Pergola. 4 Gianni Polidori served as stage and costume designer, and Gianfranco de Bosio directed. Conductor Scherchen fell ill during the third opera, although he was able to continue with out losing his focus. Scherchen would die just five days later. Dallapiccola was in the trilogy like the first two parts, with total indisputable commitment: the sound attained an almost diabolic 5 3 Announcement for Die Orpheide by Gian Francesco Malipiero (Groe Haus). This was perhaps a preview performance. 4 The Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, presently an annual arts festival in Flor ence, was founded in April of 1933 by conductor Vittorio Gui and first directed by music critic Guido M. Gatti. 5

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64 6 Reception Scott Goddard penned a glowing review of in a November 1930 issue of The Chesterian viewing the triptych as ried [vocal writing] ranging 7 Henrietta Straus 8 Italian Expressionism Defined in Sette Canzoni This chapter will validate the Expressionist qualities of Sette Canzoni the first opera of the trilogy that was composed These Expressionist features are : subject matter (dichotomous situations: for example, theme is love versus desertion ), use of Sprechgesang ( in Song One, the old, blind man uses this vocalization when he is deserted) chromaticism (used throughout), dramatic and irregular texture (tension created by contr asting layers of music that are on t op of one another), rhythmic inst ability (use of mixed meter), contrasting and extreme dynamics, scenic design and lighting, extreme expression ( dramatic, lyrical, and jarring singing), subjectivity (the lack of sanity and reality experienced by the mother in Song Three), symbolism (each of the songs revolves around a duality of light and dark), exaggeration, distortion, and autobiographical implic ations (the situations of each song are are also explored: an unnamed central character (none of the ch aracters are given formal names: 6 7 8

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65 for example, the B ell Ringer, the Lamp Lighter, the Mother) who comes ba ck at the end of the play to her point of departure (e.g., in Song Three, a mother is distraught because her son has left to serve in the war, but, when he returns to the mother, she no longer acknowled ges him as her son because she has lost her grip on reality), a fast moving plot (the opera is only 40 minutes in length, the tempo is mostly fast paced, and the music never stops between songs), and savage or primal behaving characters (in Song Six, Il Ca mpanaro the bell ringer is sounding the church bell in order to warn others of a fire; meanwhile, he sings a vulgar song and acts as if he does not care about the danger). talian poetry, w hich can be viewed as an act o f nationalism and primitivism. This borrowing from the past is similar to the German Expressionist artists who cre ated woodcuts based on the late medieval woodcuts. One of the poets, Poliziano, hails from the same time period as the artists from the late medieval period Performance History Sette Canzoni was composed between 1918 and 1919, before the first and last pa rts of the trilogy. J. & W. Chester published the original score in 1919 Sette Canzoni has had more performances on its own than as a part of th e triptych. Its first performance (separate and prior to the other two parts of ) was on 10 July 1920 at the Opra (or Palais Garnier) in Paris This performance was given in French as Sept Ch ansons with French composer and conductor Gabriel Grovlez (1879 1944), director Georges Mouveau, and stage director Valdo Barbey. 9 The German premiere occurred on 30 March 1924 at Theatre Aachen, with conductor Friedrich Herzfeld (1897 1967). 9 The translation was provided by Henri Prunires.

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66 The American premiere, a concert organized by the League of Composers, occurred on 20 March 1925 in New York City at the Forty Eighth Street Theatre. The performance featured Italian conductor Tullio Serafin (1878 1968) with vocalists Richard Hale, Albert Rap poport, and Lucille de Vescovi. Another French performance took place in May of 1925 at the Thtre des Mathurins for the Exposition Internationale des A rts Dcoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris, with musical direction by French conductor, compos er, and violist Robert Siohan (1894 1985) and stage designer L adislao Medgy s The Italian premiere on 18 May 1926 was produced at the Teatro di Torino in Turin with conductor Vittorio Gui. This performance appeared on a double bill with Heure Espagnole (1909). T he stage set was likely based on Malipiero for this production, and Ern st Lert served as director. 10 Another Ita lian performance took place on 9 Rome, with Italian conductor Gino Mari nuzzi (1882 1945) and scenography sketches by Malipiero. T he Society for Contemporary Music gave a presentation in Philadelphia on 15 Ma y 1930 with Russian born American conductor Alexander Smallens ( 1889 1972 ). The Stadtteater in Danzig presented Sette Canzoni Teatro delle Arti gave a performance with Italian conductor Franco Capuana (1894 1969) on 7 May 1943. For the Maggio Musicale Fiorentine, Sette Canzoni was presented on 15 May 1948 at Teatro della Pergola in Florence Italian conductor, pianist composer and musicologist Gianandrea Gavazzeni (1909 96) was the conductor and Gianni Vagnetti was the stage designer. In another Italian production in 1960 Nino Sanzogno was the conductor, Lorenzo Ghiglia was 10 Schlmp, Gian Francesco Malipieros Musiktheater 189.

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67 the stage and costume designer, and Franco Enriquez directed the opera at Piccola Scala in Milan. Waterhouse witnessed what he said was a powerful performance of Sette Canzoni at the1969 E dinburgh Festival with Sanzogno conducting 11 The oper a was featured on a double Il Prigioniero Reception Waterhouse claims that Sette Canzoni 20th 12 verismo s tyle of the time, its overall strangeness and its dramatic structure caused uproar at the premiere, which almost drowned out the performance. 13 Musical Analysis The performance time for Sette Canzoni is approximately 40 minutes. There are more mute char acters than there are singing roles. Like Pantea there is a good deal of miming, and the chorus performs, for the most part, offstage. The final page of the score states that the opera was completed in Rome in January of 1919. The work is made up of se ven miniature music dramas. There is no cyclical nature, unification, nor plot linking the seven parts; however, there are musical themes connecting them all. The opera has continuous music, and expressive orchestral interludes link each song. Each piec e has a melodic song serving as its nucleus, as well as its own characters, in which the circumstances that occur are loosely based on darkness. 11 Wa 12 Waterhouse 13 Cooke, The Cambridge Companion 138 39.

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68 The libretto contain s quotations from old Italian texts. At times throughout Sette Canzoni Gian Francesco Monteverdi, is evident. Recitative is avoided altogether. In a 1973 radio interview, in which he sp oke to his pupil Mario Labroca (1896 1973), Malipiero said the following regarding recitative: 14 With these earlier operas, their composer wanted to reject the convention and ideals displayed by Vincenzo Bellini (1801 35) and Puccini. He said that Sette Canzoni fascination by the theatre and boredo 15 Luigi Pestalozza described Sette Canzoni 16 Waterhouse notes that each song in the opera has contrasting features: positive versus negative. Pestalozza senting excluding ] any principle of order, any idea of process [and] the optimism [is] always ideological. 17 The employed via symbolic means in these songs In Song One, Il Vagabondo ( The Vagabond ) a ballad singer entices a young female to abandon her blind companion. Waterhouse labels the conflict in this miniature d like and lyrical singing. tenne la staf With my b ), beginning on page 10 (Example 5 1) recalls medieval se cular monody and folk music in its 14 15 Canzoni 16 17 Ibid., 423.

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69 simplicity. Waterhouse compares the expressiveness of this vocal line to that of the wordless baritone solo in Pantea Example 5 1. Song One: Il Vagabondo 18 The playful expression of the ballad singer contrasts stridently with the apocalyptic ion that he has been forsaken. The orchestra Five measures befor e rehearsal no. 5 on page 29 (Example 5 2), t Sprechstimme manner, while the first and second violins and piano have upwar d moving runs. 18 Malipiero, Sette Canzoni 9 10.

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70 Example 5 2. Song One: Il Vagabondo 19 A Vespro ( At Vespers ), the second song, begins on page 32 and the curtain has just been closed. The curtain rises 10 measures after rehearsal no. 7. The piece commences with the lower woodwinds playing a drone. A continuous plainsong is exercised throughout this piece. For example, at rehearsal no. 6 on page 35, there is a chantlike melody in the oboe, followed by the English horn (Example 5 religious exal tation v 20 a woman is praying when a monk interrupts her because he wants to lock the church and kick her out. There is a chanted Marian litany in the background: a respond in unison. 19 Ibid., 29. 20

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71 Example 5 3. Song Two: A Vespro 21 Four measures before rehearsal no. 8 on page 45, the woman enters The litany has a layer of complicated instrumental parts superimposed upon it, suggestive o prayers (Example 5 4). Further stress is presented via a repeated Db that eventually interrupts a n F L ydian major chordal structure. on page 43. On the stage, it is after dark, and six of the seven candles in front of the painting of Mary have been extinguished. On page 56, 10 measures after rehearsal no. 9, the impatient monk blows out the final candle after he ushe rs the resistant woman away. 21 Malipiero, Sette Canzoni 35.

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72 Example 5 4. Song Two: A Vespro Marian Litany 22 Schlmp believes that specifying the time of day (sunset) is not necessary because the sunset is not visible on stage. He suggests that Mal ipiero was giving a symbolic meani ng of the day and of the seaso n, as he may have been influenced by the theatre of Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist Maurice Maeterlinck (1862 1949) 23 Beginning on page 57, a mother is distraught about her son who has gone to war in the third song, Il Ritorno ( The Return ). Militar istic music is used in the background before the song 22 Ibid., 49. 23 Schlmp, Gian Francesco Malipieros, 16.

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73 The influence of Le Sacre du Printemps is coveyed through a mixture of forced sound and unrelated triad s Example 5 5. Song Three: Il Ritorno 24 At rehearsal no. 11 on p age 71, she sings the lullaby 24 Malipiero, Sette Canzoni 71.

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74 feeling of reminiscence and pleasure as th e mother sings in triplets. There is also a C G drone in the accompaniment ( Example 5 5). son, lily the harsh, chromatic, descend ing chords and the repeated motive in the upper parts of the orchestra only add to this instability (Example 5 6) Example 5 6. Song Three: Il Ritorno 25 25 Ibid., 81.

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75 At rehearsal no. 13 on page 93, a group of young men (eight tenors) pass by while rejects him because she no longer acknowledges him as her son, a strong sign that she has lost is like a monologue with a Mussorgskian touch due to its level of intensity and psychological truth. 26 In the fourth song, ( The Drunkard ), beginning on page 105, the contrasting id ea is love versus drunkenness. Example 5 7. Song Four: 27 26 827. 27 Malipiero, Sette Canzoni 149 50.

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76 assault him. Just before the man knocks the drunkard to the ground, the drunken man repeats the him in diminished fourths followed by minor thirds ( Example 5 7). Example 5 8. Song Five, La Serenata ; 28 Act III of Tosca 29 28 Ibid., 165. 29 Puccini, Tosca 358. Used by permission of Dover Publications, Inc.

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77 side. 30 There is a mixture of lightness and darkness because the folksong is distorted with the effects of severe drunkenness. In the fifth song, La Serenata ( The Serenade ause the lover is grieving over a dead relative. The dichotomy attained is love versus mourning. In the prelude section leading up to the song (two measures before it begins on page 165), there seems to be a much slower recollection of Tosca s pecifically, the opening of Act III, where there are softly descending parallel triads in the strings (Example 5 8). The women, intonating their prayers in unison, interrupt the tos sing in unison in a monotonous and quick incantation of prayers for the dead. Il Campanaro ( The Bellringer ), the sixth song, begins on page 205 and relates to mortal danger versus indifferent frivolity. A man is ringing the church bell in order to war n others of a fire; however, the man is indifferent regarding the risk and instead sings a ribald song. The male 9), carefree attitude is in complete contrast with the dramatic and fear inducing music provided by the strings. T he strings depict the building tension of the scene in that they continue the repeated four note motive from earlier, but at a faster pace, as if the fire is becoming larger and increasingly out of instrumental music which is meant to represent the danger of the fire. 30 828.

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78 Example 5 9 Song Six: Il Campanaro 31 The final song, ( The Dawn of Ash Wednesday ) on page 264, takes place after Carnival, where clowns are terrified and run away from a scary bodily form; however, one of the clowns comes back to get his hat and takes a lover for himself (fearful penitents versus bold sinners). 32 Malipiero has described this seventh installment of the Sette Canzoni 33 The curtain opens to reveal shacks on a street in a small town. It is dawn A man, who is humming, puts out some lights. At page 282 (Example 5 10), the (1911). Thi s musical symbol can be interpreted as an eerie or ghost like representation. 31 Malipiero, Sette Canzoni 241 42. 32 Waterhouse 33

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79 Example 5 10. Song Seven, L'Alba delle Ceneri 34 The lamplighter sings an elegant, baritone song. The scene changes to a Chariot of Death procession in which a chorus participates. Their penitence contrasts with the upbeat music of the clowns (20 tenors, divided) who, beginning on page 294, disrespectf ully dance around the hearse unison, begins to sing with ostentatious solemnity via a plainchant. The ghostlike motive returns. A clown comes back to pick up his h at and goes away happily with a masked lady. The contrast between penitence and frivolity is stark and Malipiero achieves this musically. While the composer expresses religious fervor and reverence versus banality and indifference in this opera, his per sonal religious views are unclear. The author could not find 34 Malipiero, Sette Canzoni 281 82.

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80 him. Example 5 11. 35 Some Italian music critics labeled Sette Canzoni as a chamber theatre piece. Giannotto Sette Canzoni is] really not anti 19 th century theatre [but] 36 Also, first and foremost a means [of] in 35 Bartk, A kkszakll herceg vra 52. e, SZ48 (Op. 11) by Bela Bartok Copyright 1921 by Boosey & Hawkes Inc. Copyright renewed Reprinted by permission. 36 Rodoni,

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81 the most simple and natural [ way, w hile obtaining] the attentio n and sympathy of the spectator [who wants] t 37 None of the characters are named. The third song, featuring a devastated mother who loses her sanity, is the best repres her son, and, when he returns, she rejects him, and, again, she is alone (returning to her point of departure). Relevance and Application of Sette Canzoni This work is not well known in the o peratic world. In order to give this significant opera more attention, it should be double billed with a short opera from the standard repertory, such as Gianni Schicchi (1918). This type of pairing, with Sette Canzoni first, would create a clear contrast between darkness and light. Since the music is generally tonal the opera is an accessible work The audience could each episode or scene features different characters and there are not ju st one or two starring roles. The upbeat tempi in a good ly majority of the scenes present difficulties for the orchestral players and singers. powerful contrasting with light, a tendency towards comique grotesque, non stop action, avoidance of libretto, and a mixture of Expressionist storylines and singing with lighthearted and lovely vocal passages create a unique a nd noteworthy fixture for early 20 th century Italian repertoire. 37 Ibid.

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82 CHAPTER 6 CANTI DI PRIGIONIA ground On 3 February 1904, Luigi Dallapiccola was born to Italian parents in the disputed ther was a sympathizer of Italian territories which were under foreign rule). As a result, on 27 March 1917, the adolescent composer and his family were f orced to leave Pisino under police escort. They suffered for 20 months from internment in Graz by the Austro Hungarian government, an ordeal which ceased at the end of World War I in November of 191 8. Autobiographical Implications Although Dallapiccola di d not use the term Expressionism to describe his Canti di Prigionia (1938 41), he did state that it perse cution, as his wife, Laura Coen Luzzatto (1911 95), was Jewish, so the two were fre quently World War II Even though the composer viewed his Songs of Imprisonment as a form of pro test music, there was not any actual political protestation within the text of the work, for that would have been dangerous in 1941. Dallapiccola writes of this adoption: If I had suffered so much as an adolescent from the internment at Graz, when I saw the injustice visited upon my father, how should I describe my state of mind when I learned from the radio of the decisions of the Fascist Government on that fatal September afternoon? I should have liked to protest; but, at the same time, I

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83 was aware that any gesture of mine would have been futile. Only through music could I express my indignation. 1 Figure 6 1. Young Dallapiccola (undated) 2 Musical Styles Dallapiccola is usually credited as the first Italian composer to eventually adopt 12 note methods; however, when doing so, his own style of lyrical writing dominated his compositions. His pre dodecaphonic works, like the first pair of Cori di Michelangelo Buonarroti il Giovane of 1933, show influence of the neo madrigalian tradition, wh ich choral music from before World War I established These earlier works featured diatonicism and modal polyphony. By the mid luence of Berg, Webern, and the contrapuntally complex music of Busoni. He began to use an unorthodox version of serialism by 1 63. 2

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84 1942, and, from 1956 onward, his works became more angular with intricate textures, rhythmic flexibility, and an avoidance of octave doubling, while retaining lyricism. Dallapiccola wrote his opera, I l Prigioniero (1944 48), a few years after Canti Il Prigioniero is similar to Canti with its theme of i mprisonment, use of the morbid Dies Irae plainchant, mixture of tonal and atonal material, and Expressionist qualities. Dallapiccola wrote 13 choral works and featured a chorus in three of his operas (including Il Prigioniero ). These pieces exemplify his development as a composer where he moved from tonality and modality to, eventually, atonality. Dallapiccola only used s olo voice for the first five choral pieces. He was wary of solo singers, especially after encountering the prima donna syndrome of the verismo opera: held on to and clung to without end, their cadenzas tacked on for bravura effect, their arbitrarily capricious and superficial musicianship, and their general tastelessness. 3 Dallapiccola did not compose anything for the choral genre for fifteen years after creating the Canti His next choral work, Canti di Liberazione (1951 55), was a kind of sequel to the imprisonment theme, although less dramatic and purely serial. Inspired by Schnberg, especially after hearing the Austrian composer conduct his own Pierrot Lunaire at the Pitti Palace in Florence in 1924, Dallapiccola would utilize the 12 tone system of composition. Canti di Prigionia was one of the first works in which Dallapiccola comm 4 Lombardi is using the term committed music to mean serial music. 3 4

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85 5 The Italian composer, thus, brought a more lyrical and tonal style to 12 tone composition. When composing Canti Dallapiccola did not have the resources to strictly study works 1984), the Swis s composer of German and Russian extraction, was in touch with the serialism focused members. 6 The Swiss and Italian shared a mutual interest in the Viennese style. Dallapiccola reflected on this style and its influence on his compositions at that time i n a 1939 letter to Vogel: In my research on the twelve tone row I had noted that my music sounds diatonic, in general, even when it is based upon a twelve tone series. You take your research much further, which means that you very often arrive at consonan ce. From all this we can deduce several interesting things, perhaps the most 7 The composer had such an interest in dodeca Piano Variations, op. 27, String Quartet, op. 28, and the cantata Das Augenlicht op. 29. These reviews were published in the Italian music journal La Rassegna Musicale Dallapiccola took the following from Web ern : sound style, equilibrium in compositional structure, the use of the four forms of the row (expressed in canon ) within a short amount of time, and the connection between text and music. 8 Dallapiccola believed the 12 tone method was an effective tool f or granting expression to music: 5 Staines, et. al., The Rough Guide to Classical Music 151. 6 Vogel composed a choral piece about the artist Modigliani titled Meditazione sulla maschera di Amedeo Modigliani (1960). The text was by Swiss Italian writer and painter Felice Filippini (1917 88) This work is for sp eaker, soprano, alto, t enor, and bass solos, mixed c hoir and o rchestra 7 Dallapiccola, Letter to Wladimir Vogel, 18 December 1939. Used by permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux (Florence, Italy) and Anna L. Dallapiccola. 8 Fearn, The Music of L uigi Dallapiccola 59.

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86 It seemed to me that twelve tones would enable me to articulate a melody better than seven to write a richer and (as far as my capacities would allow) more expressive melody. To say nothing of the fact that for many year s I had observed how often the same succession of tones was used (and with not too dissimilar characteristics) by the great masters, the less great, and the very small ones. 9 Figure 6 2. Dallapiccola in Berlin (1968) 10 Hans Nathan believes because they are subject to variation. The row appears in its original form more than once and usually has a number of minor seconds and thirds, frequently in succession. 11 At the time of Canti tone music as an atmospheric, not constructive, effect. Canti 12 9 303. 10 Picture taken at the time of the premiere of Ulisse from Kultur im BR: Trends aus Literatur, Film und Musik. 11 Tone 12 Dallapiccola, Letter to Wladimir Vogel, 3 January 1940. Used by permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux (Florence, Italy) and Anna L. Dallapiccola.

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87 I talian Expressionism Defined in Canti di Prigionia This chapter validates the Expressionist qualities of Canti di Prigionia These traits are as follows: subject matter (texts about those who were imprisoned and executed), Sprechgesang usage (choral murm uring), chromaticism, distortion (use of the 12 tone mode of composition in contrast with tonality), rhythmic disability, contrasting dynamics, extreme expression (use of the morbid plainchant Dies Irae ), subjectivity, exaggeration (octave doublings occur throughout the to internment at Graz ). Performance History Preghiera di Maria Stuarda the first movement of Canti premiered as a stand alone composition on Brussels Radio on 10 April 1940, a few weeks before the Nazi invasion of Belgium. Belgian conductor Lonce Gras (1908 93) directed the performance The three movement Canti was first performed in Rome at Teatro delle Arti on 11 December 1941, w ith Fe rnando Previtali (1907 85) conducting. It was a tough time for a premiere, as it occurred on the day that Mussolini declared war on the United States. The English premiere occurred during the post war festival of the International Society for Contempora ry Music (ISCM) in London in 1946, where it was received as an important work. 13 In September of that same year, Canti was performed as a part of the Venice International Festival of Contemporary Music. In 1948, the work was produced at the Sagra Musicale Umbra, and the following year at the Maggio Musicale Fiorentina. Canti had its America n premiere in January of 1951. The U. S. Section of the ISCM gave this performance at t he invitation of the Juilliard School of Music in New York City. The 13 Ransom, icism and Viennese Craft 12.

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88 XXe Sicle festival. Subsequent performances have occurred with major orchestras and music conservatories. 14 Reception Prior to its premiere, Dallapiccola shared the score of the first movement, Preghiera di Maria Stuarda in December of 1939, with his composer friend Vogel. The latter found the text 15 The Canti was well received at the L ondon 1946 performance. Guido Panain believed 16 A German presentation in 1 957 via Hamburg Radio, directed by French born American conductor, violinist and composer Lorin Maazel (1930 ) was declared a success. 17 Musical Analysis: Instrumentation The three part choral work lasts approximately 25 minutes. It is a highly percussive piece, written for mixed chorus, two pianos, two harps, and a vast percussion section consisting of timpani, vib raphone, xylophone, bells, tambourine, triangle, cymbals, suspended cymbal, three tam tams, bass drum, tenor drum, and two side drums Dallapiccola enjoyed composing for piano because of its uncertain quality in terms of how long it takes for the sound t 14 Recent performances of Canti concert given on 6 Contrasts of 15 Vogel, Letter to Luigi Dallapiccola, 18 December 1939. Used by permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letter ario G. P. Vieusseux (Florence, Italy) and Anna L. Dallapiccola. 16 13. 17

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89 tones diminish by their very nature. And this is the reason we are always confronted with something unforeseen 18 Similar to the piano, the vibraphone, xylophone, timpani, bells, and harp have an uncertain decaying quality. In Canti the harp and piano parts are given melodic lines, while the pianos are also assigned block chords or clusters. The first movement features five par t choral writing (SSATB) and, beginning at me asure 52 on page 13 an expansion to six part divisions (SSAATB) signifying dramatic tension with In harsh chains ). The second movement is made up mostly of a four ment, a group of four soloists renders the canons. Text Dallapiccola viewed the text as crucial to the meaning of his music. He would memorize the whole text and read it aloud before setting it to music. 19 T he texts for the three movements are short; Dallapiccola appreciated brevity of text for the following reasons: When we face the problem of teaming music with words, text comprehensibility merely syllables set to music, as has been done so often in various periods of just to achieve maximum comprehensibility through repetition. 20 All three movements are based on historical people who were i mprisoned for heresy and, eventually, executed. The movements are: Preghiera di Maria Stuarda ( Mary Stuart's Prayer ); Invocazione di Boezio ( The Invocation of Boethius) ; and Congedo di Girolamo Savonarola ( Girolamo Savonarola's Farewell ). 18 19 Canti di Prigonia 20

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90 The Preghiera was based on the Queen of Scots by Austrian biographer, playwright, novelist, and journalist Stefan Zweig (1881 1942). He wrote the libretto for Richard Die Schweigsame Frau (1934). Sadly, Zweig committ ed suicide with his wife two months after the premiere of Canti He had been despairing over Europe and its future. Dallapiccola dedicated the Preghiera to Paul Collaer who was music director of Brussels Radio and a firm supporter of contemporary music. Concerning Preghiera Dallapiccola wrote: My intention was to transform the prayer of the queen as an individual into a song for all 21 Preghiera di Maria Stuarda O Domine Deus! speravi in Te. O care mi Jesu! nunc libera me. In dura catena, in misera poena, desidero Te. Languendo, gemendo et genu flectendo, Adoro, implore, ut liberes me. (Maria Stuarda) O Lord God, my hope is in Thee. O my dear Jesus, now set me free. For Thee, in harsh chains, in wretched punishment, I yearn In my languishing, groaning, and bending the knee, I worship, I beg Thee to set me free. (translated by David Seward) 22 The text for the Invocazione di Boezio came from book three of D e Consolatione Philosophiae ( Consolation of Philosophy ) by the philosopher Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (c.a. 480 524). Dallapiccola dedicated Invocazione to the Swiss conductor Ernest Ansermet (1883 1969). Invocazione di Boezio Felix qui potuit boni 21 22

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91 fontem visere lucidum, felix qui potuit gravis terrae solver vincula. III, 12) Happy is he who has been able to look upon the radiant fountain of the good. Happy is he who has been able to loose the bonds of the heavy earth. (translated by David Seward) 23 98), the tragic Meditation on the Psalm In Te Domine Speravi ( My Hope is in Thee, O Lord ). 24 Dallapiccola dedicated Congedo di Girolamo Savonarola to Sandro and Luisa Materassi. A violinist, Sandro was recital partner from 1930 until the 1970s in the Duo Dallapiccola Materassi. Congedo di Girolamo S avonarola Premat mundus, insurgant hostes, nihil timeo Quoniam in Te Domine speravi, Quoniam Tu es spes mea, Quoniam Tu altissimum posuisti refugium tuum. which he was prevented by death from finishing) Let the world press hard upon me and my enemies attack, I fear nothing. because my hope is in Thee, O Lord, because Thou art my hope, because Thou hast established Thy highest refuge. (translated by David Se ward) 25 23 Ibid. 24 Savonarola preached against Pope Alexander VI, born Roderic Llanol i de Borja (1431 1503). The monk claimed tha t God spoke to him and only him, but would later confess, while being tortured, that his visions were not true (which he later retracted, but then reconfessed). The Pope excommunicated the friar on 12 M ay 1497. Savonarola was later imprisoned, and, on 23 May 1498, he and two other friars were condemned as schismatics and heretics, hanged, and burned in the main square of Florence He wrote his unfinished Meditation In Te Domine Speravi a few days befor e his execution. 25

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92 First Movement: Preghiera di Maria Stuarda The opening movement begins with two sections: measures 1 through 16 and 17 through 25. The Dies Irae is absorbed in the instrumental introduction, and is played pianissimo by the harp and timpani. T he first 12 tone row is introduced in Piano I fro m measures 1 through 4. The chorus begins in a murmuring, toneless way, and then hums by using the bocca chiusa (closed mouth) technique. O 7, the choir utilizes Sch Sprechstimme ( Example 6 1). Example 6 1. Canti di Prigionia First Movement 26 26 Dallapiccola, Canti di Prigionia 4. Used by permission of Carisch.

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93 The polyphonic gesture of imitative entries is used frequently in Canti For example, in measures 17 through 19, the basses and tenors are paired, and the altos and sopranos are paired tremolandi ostinato in the instruments. 27 The Prayer begins at measure 26. The final section begins at measure 51 and lasts until the end of the Canti I n measures 44 through 47, the first sop ranos crescendo, climb to a high B and sustai n this high note for four measures. Second Movement: Invocazione di Boezio Dallapiccola wanted the second movement to be indicative of the following: . evidence . Among the various aspects of terror is the terror that freezes; there is not only that which finds its natural outlet in a shriek. I chose the first of these aspects and held the introduction throughout to a pianissimo shading. 28 This movement is in ternary form The three passages are as follows: section one is measures 1 through 132; section two is measures 133 through 183, and section three is measures 184 through 320. The first passage features racing instrumental sections. The instrumental introduction fe atures the piano playing fast arpeggiations of the first 12 tone row. The harps, vibraphone, and timpani play the Dies Irae which is set as a cantus firmus against the first row. Also, in measures 216 through 223 (Example 6 2), the first row is set in P ianos I and II and the Dies Irae chant in Harps I and II and Vibraphone. Row One is used in retrograde, inversion, and retrograde inversion and is expressed in the fast instrumental (especially piano) phrases. The text of the second movement is rhythmical ly regular, with 16 syllables to each line, 27 28

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94 gravis terrae solver vincu lyrical and bel canto style of writing. Example 6 2. Canti di Prigionia Second Movement 29 Third Movement: Congedo di Girolamo Savonarola This movement, like the second, is in ternary form. The fir st section comprises measures 1 through 32, the second, measures 33 through 66, and the last, measures 66 through 98. At the begi nning of the Congedo tension is notable between the chorus and piano. The choir uses 29 Dallapiccola, Canti di Prigionia 46. Used by permission of Carisch.

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95 octave doubling The second 12 tone row is presented from the four beat pick up measure For Thou ) is repeated, a long crescendo emerges. Section two has a triple canon. The tetrachord motive is shown in eighth note arpeggiations in measures 90 and 93. The central section of the Congedo di Savanarola is constructed as a rigorous multiple canon. Dallapiccola also employs parallel organum with the use of open fifths. Cori spezatti (split choir) is utilized. Example 6 3. Canti di Prigionia Third Movement 30 30 Ibid., 62. Used by permission of Carisch.

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96 The last movement is an ex act mirror of itself. The plainchant dominates this movement more so than in the previous two movements. The Dies Irae is harmonized with parts of the row and produces minor triads and seventh chords. In Example 6 3 (page 62 at measure 8) in the Piano I I part, part of Row One (E G Bb F#; A C Eb B; D F Ab Db) is used, specifically Eb A Ab Gb(F#) A with Gb(F#) 12 Tone Method Dallapiccola used two 12 tone rows as thematic material in Canti Each row is comprised of three tetrachords (e.g., Row One: E G Bb F#; A C Eb B; D F Ab Db), which outline a circle of fourths and are comprised of diminished triads (Row One: E G Bb; A C Eb; D F Ab). The first two tetrachords end with Augmented fifths (Row One: Bb F# Eb B) while the last ends with a Perfect 4 th (Row One: Ab Db). Row One appears in all movements (E G Bb F# A C Eb B D F Ab Db). Example 6 4. Row One Row Two is a kind of melody for the third movement (G D F A C E Eb Bb Db Cb Ab Gb). This row only appears in the third movement and occurs twice. Example 6 5. Row Two

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97 Row One is intr oduced in Piano I in measures 1 through 4 of the first movement Row Two is given in the third movement as a four beat pick up measure before measure s 1 through 4. A m elodic arch occurs in Row Two. Dallapiccola does not employ pure serialism in this work; rather, there is a mixture of chromaticism, dodecaphony, and tonali ty. A deeply religious aura is coveyed throughout Canti and the vocal writing is refined and expressive. Brindle asserts that Dallapiccola and other progressive composers used dodecaphony to symbolize freedom after experiencing a lengthy time of suppres sion. 31 Dallapiccola viewed the 12 tone system thusly: The twelve tone system intrigued me, but I knew so little about it! Nevertheless, I based the entire composition on a twelve tone series, and, as a symbolic gesture, counterpointed a fragment of the a Dies irae, dies illa Dies irae cantus firmus would facilitate the comprehension of my ideas. 32 Lyricism and Extreme Dynamics In Canti the lyricism indicative of Italian songwriting is evident in that the vocal lines are, for the most part, smo oth and befitting of the text. The instrumental writing is also voice like with a plethora of cantabile (songlike) lines. The dynamic markings throughout Canti are exaggerated. T he first and second movements are very soft for the most part, ranging from pppp to p while the last movement features frequent ff and fff markings, although the ending is given a pppp treatment. Crescendo and decrescendo occur through the work, evoking a Romantic and lyrical style. 31 32 Dallapiccola, Dallapiccola on Opera: Selected Writings 47.

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98 Dies Irae Motive The 13 th century plainchant melody of the Dies Irae 33 appears frequently in the work Dallapiccola employed the 12 tone technique for the text, w hich he wrote in Latin, and he used dodecaphony as a contrasting counterpoint to the liturgical motive. His style of serialism was is often heard in d Dorian mode. The 19 th century use of this dark melody was meant to convey morbidity, a musical emblem of death, and this should not be ignored when analyzing Canti One cannot avoid the score. A rch Form All three movements a re structured in an arch form more or less : the first movement i s the second is in A BCB A + B form, and the final movement form. The opening of Canti di Prigionia begins with a pp marking w ith the singers singing at a ppp timb The choral work also ends in pp (as it began), so as to create an overall a rch form that was typical of symbol of the arch is in the way Dallapiccola used tempi. The first movement is very slow, the second is quite fast, and the last is slow. Canons As in the Expressionist works by members of the Second Vie nnese School, Dallapiccola employs the use of canon throughout Canti Other techniques that mirror this School are: (1) 33 The text quoted in Canti The day of wrath, that day will dissolve the world in ashes as foretold by David and c.1265) or Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini (year unknown 1294), lector at the Dominican studium at Santa Sabina.

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99 serial melody, (2) large scale retrograde, (3) varied rhythm, (4) tempo choices to increase expressivity, and (5) sustained chord clus ters that are used as resting points throughout the work. At the center of the third movement, Congedo di Savonarola Dallapiccola wrote a note in the score that points to the specific canons, beginning in measure 33, where there is a canon at the fifth be tween contralto and soprano for the at measure 46, this canon elapses into a c anon at the fourth and, at measure 48, becomes a canon at the fifth between basses and tenors. There are also canons in the instrumental accompaniment throughout this section that are in direct as well as retrograde form s section, which expresses the view that faith in God is our only hope, contains canons which provide expressivity along with chromatic melodic lines Relevance and Application of Canti di Prigionia Although the work has not become a part of the standard choral repertoire, it has universal and dateless relevance. The idea of being a prisoner and the religious aspects provide this pi ece with a universa lly relevant frame. With Canti that it was in no wise [ sic ] 34 It is a difficult work to perform. The singers must have wide ranges and high tessituras (especially sopranos and altos). Altos sing as low as a low G and as high as a high F, while sopranos must sing a high Ab and Bb numerous times. Singers must als o have s tamina since the work contains almost non stop singing throughout. The meters are mixed, and the second movement is very fast with complex rhythmic patterns. The choir director must focus on repeatedly rehearsing the cues and entrances that occur after i nstrumental parts. For the 34

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100 instrumentalists, the timpani, vibraphone, chimes, xylophone, and tambourine have been said to be the most challenging to perform, especially due to the speed required. When it came to his mixture of the Second Viennese School a nd Italian lyricism, n] 35 He required expressive singing that was also beautiful singing, so one would sing these pieces as if they were singing in the Puccini or Verdian style. When presenting this work, the program must contain program n intentions, a mention of the time period in which the work was written, and translations of the Latin. 35

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101 CHAPTER 7 IL PRIGIONIERO With Il Prigioniero 1 In the seven scene opera, he employed a mixture of 12 tone rows and chro maticism. Serialism was used as a contrasting counterpoint to character and event related motives. Dallapiccola composed Il Prigioniero between 1944 and 1948. He dedicated Il Prigioniero to the memory of his friend and advocate Paolo Giordani, who was the director of th e Edizioni Suvini Zerboni from 1932 until 1948. 2 opera aft er simply reading the libretto [ and also ] spurred and encouraged me and helped me so 3 The Expressionist composer compose everything within his work. 4 Die Glckliche Hand Dallapiccola composed bot h libretto and music for Il Prigioniero Italian Expressionism Defined in Il Prigioniero This chapter will validate the Expressionist qualities of Il Prigioniero Expressionist features are : subject matter (imprisonment), use of Sprechgesang (utilized by The Mother), chromaticism, dramatic and irregular texture ( tension created by three separate ricercares ), rhythmic inst ability (use of mixed meter), contrasting and extreme dynamics, scenic design and lighting, expressivity (use of the 13 th century Dies Irae 1 2 Music publishing company, founded in 1907 in Milan by Emilio Suvini and Luigi Zerboni. 3 R. Malipiero, Lu igi Dallapiccola 75. 4 Griffiths Expressionism

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102 lyrical singing), subjectivity (The Prisoner does not truly experience freedom ; the manipulative ton e rows represents significant events), exaggeration, distortion (The Mother is dressed in black and standing in front of a black curtain, so that only her face is visible; use of the 12 tone mode of composition in contrast with tonality), and autobiographi cal implications (as an adolescent, Dallapiccol a and his family suffered from 20 months of internment in Graz by the Austro investigated: an unnamed central character (The Prison er) who comes back at the end of the play to his point of departure (he is imprisoned and is never free), a fast moving plot (the opera is 50 minutes long), and a savage character (The Jailer cruelly tricks the Prisoner). Performance History The first perf ormance was a radio broadcast on 1 December 1949 by Radio Audizioni Italiane (RAI), with conductor Scherchen directing the Turin orchestra and chorus. The first stage performance was on 20 May 1950 for the 13th Maggio Musicale Fiorentino at the Teatro Com unale Firenze in Florence. This production was c onducted by Scherchen and produced by Bronis aw Horowicz (1910 2005) the Polish composer, s inger, songwriter, and director of theatre and radio Set designer Enzo Rossi and choir director Andrea Morosini c ontributed to the presentation Hungarian dramatic soprano Magda Lszl (1919 2002) performed the role of The Mother, baritone Scipio Colombo was The Prisoner, Mario Binci was The Jailer, Mariano Caruso was the First Priest, and bass Giangiacomo Guelfi wa s the Second Priest. In a letter to Dallapiccola, RAI stipulated that the work must remain available to them for one year and the payment w ould be 100,000 lire. 5 5 Italiani, Radiotelevisione, Letter to Luigi Dallapiccola, 17 January 1949. Used by permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P Vieusseux (Florence, Italy) and Anna L. Dallapiccola

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103 In March of 1951, the first production outside of Italy took place for four nights in New Yor k City at the Juilliard Theater. Frederic Waldman directed this American production, and Frederic Cohen served as the producer The Juilliard School commissioned Dallapiccola to write a reduced orchestral version for this performance The English transl ation was by Harold Heiberg. A new production took place in Rome in 1952 as a part of a contemporary opera season Wozzeck The British premiere occurred on 3 May 1954 at Festival Hall in London. Scher chen conducted the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and the B.B.C. Chorus. Lszl played The Mother, Willy Heyer was The Prisoner, and Helmut Krebs was The Jailer. There was a 1956 live Bavarian Radio produc tion with Scherchen conducting. The primary protag onists were baritone Eberhand Wchter and soprano Helga Pilarczyk. Another American presentation took place at the New York City Center Theatre on 29 September 1960, with singers Norman Treigle, Richard Cassilly, and Anne McKnight, conductor Leopold Stokow ski (1882 1977) and directors Frederic Waldmann and Frederic Cohen. It should be noted that Dallapiccola had his operas performed in the local language. He viewed the text as crucial to the meaning of his music. He would memorize the whole text and rea d it aloud before setting it to music. 6 From 1949 until 1961, Il Prigioniero had 186 performances in concert or stage version. Since then, the opera has received less pr esence on the stage. From 2000 to 2008, the opera was performed in the following cities : Buenos Aires (Teatro Coln, 2000), London (English National Opera, 2000), Princeton (Opera Festival of New Jersey, 2001), Turin (Teatro Regio, 6 Ara

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104 May 2002), Nancy (Opra de Nancy et de Lorraine, February 2003), Vie nna (Wiener Volksoper, February thro ugh March and November 2003), Weimar (Deutsches Nationaltheater, reduced orchestra version, August and October 2003), Palermo (Teatro Massimo, March 2004), Mexico City (Opera Nacional de Mxico, April 2004), Frankfurt (Oper Frankfurt, June 2004 and Februar y and March 2005), Fl orence (Teatro Comunale: 67th Maggio Musicale, June 2004), Milan (Auditorium di Milano, concert version, November 2004), Catani a (Teatro Massimo Bellini, borrowed from the earlier production from Turin, 2004 ), Athens (Greek National O pera, November and December 2006), Hannover (Staatstheater, 2007), Paris (Opra National de Paris, May 2008), and Milan (Teatro all Scala, May 2008). More recently, Il Prigioniero has picked up momentum in the opera world, appearing with more frequency in different Western European cities: Limoges (January 2011), London (January 2011), Modena (March 2011), Bologna (April 2011), London (January 2012), Frankfurt (April and May 2012), Madrid (Nove mber 2012), and Lyon (April 2013). The New York Philharmonic p resented the most recent performance as a concert version in June of 2013 at Avery Fisher Hall. Il Prigioniero Alan Gilbert (1967 ) conducting. Singers included soprano Patricia Racette, bass bari tone Gerald Finley, tenors Peter Hoare and William Ferguson, baritone Sidney Outlaw, and The Collegiate Chorale with director James Bagwell. A 2014 performance is scheduled in Barcelona fr om 22 June 22 through 4 July at the Gran Teatre del Liceu. The ope ra will be presented as a Suor Angelica (1918)

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105 Reception Roderick argues that Il Prigioniero Turandot (1924 ), which has certifiably carved a position in the repertory. 7 For the 1949 RAI radio premiere, Austrian born British musician, writer and critic Hans Keller (1919 85) 8 wrote: s For if you lo th e musician who did not object to the untheatrical character of the piece. 9 In a letter dated 2 December 1949, the Ukrainian conductor Igor Markevitch (1912 83), who atte nded the premiere, said Il Prigioniero had great emotion and was an important work with dramatic tone. He also expressed that the opera was of high quality, with rare, dramatic beauty. 10 Markevitch th ought highly of Lszl whom he credits Dallapiccola with discovering. Scherchen was in top form, according to Markevitch. Malipiero, who attended the premiere, wrote a letter dated 9 December 1949 in which he was complimentary of 11 Massimo Mila thought that Dallapiccola had the following in mind when composing Il Prigioniero : 7 Roderick, Rebuilding a Culture: Studies in Italian Music after Fascism 1943 1953 246. 8 Keller was held by the Nazis in Austria during the Anschluss (the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938 ). He escaped to London, where he worked with sociolog ists on small group psychology. Keller also taught himself psychoanalysis by reading works by Freud, Glover Flgel, and Jones. He even practiced psychoanalysis and had one patient From Wintle 9 10 R. Malipiero, Luigi Dallapiccola: Saggi, Testimonianze, Carteggio, Biografia e Bibliografia 80. 11 Malipiero, Letter to Luigi Dallapiccola, 9 December 1949. Used by permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux (Florence, Italy), Anna L. Dallapiccola, and the Malipiero Collection at the Fondazione Giorgio Cini (Venice, Italy).

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106 a form of oratorio like theatre [ teatro oratoriale ], where the physical presence of the actors and stage en ds up as a cumbersome surplus, and all the dramatic substance of the action is transmitted through the music. 12 Dallapiccola received resistance at the premiere from the Italian Communist Party and the Catholic Church. The composer complained about the Ita lian Communists in Rome, known as Zafred in Testa, who launched an attack Dallapiccola opined: When we speak of the people who feel burned : was yesterday not the same 13 The Italian Communist Party was worried that the audience would view the 14 The Catholic Church did not appreciate the depiction of the Spanish Inquisition, especially since it was staged in 1950, the same year Inquisition to be taken literally, but rather as a symbol. Actually, he considered himself a ainst the 15 German philosopher sociologist, and musicologist Theodor Adorno (1903 69) heard the German premiere of Il Prigioniero in 1951. Adorno was critical of and underwhe lmed by the production. He opined that the 12 tone technique in Il Prigioniero 16 12 311. 13 Dallapiccola, Letter to Gian Francesco Malipiero, 16 February 1950. Used by permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux (Florence, Italy), Anna L. Dallapiccola, and the Malipiero Collection at the Fondazione Giorgio Cini (Venice, Italy). 14 Volo di Notte and Il Prigioniero 15 R. Malipiero, Luigi Dallapiccola, 91 92. 16 158.

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107 British writer Donald Mitchell (1925 ) reviewed the English premiere of 1954. He believed the opera h 17 It is noted that the text was not provided at the performance, and Mitchell believed the libretto must be ed Il Prigioniero War II. 18 With all of his praise towards the work, Mitchell was critical when it came to the lack of balance between voices and orchestra. Riccardo Malipier o 19 finds Il Prigioniero to be an easy work, in that there is greater communicability that is often completely independent from the aesthetic and intrinsic value of the work. 20 Synopsis The opera is rather short, at 50 minutes, with one prologue and one act. The story takes place in the latter half of the 16 th century in Saragossa during the revolt against Catholic rule in own creation, based on the following t La Torture ( Torture by Hope ) from the collection Nouveaux Contes Cruels ( New Cruel Stories ), and ( The Legend of Ulenspiegel and La mme Goedzak the torture that The Jailer inflicts on The Prisoner, and, f rom Dallapiccola ser 17 325. 18 Ibid. 19 Riccardo Malipiero (1914 2003) was an Italian composer who, from 1937 to 1939, studied with his uncle Gian Francesco Malipiero in Venice. Riccardo utilized the 12 tone technique and dedicated his Requiem for orchestra (1978) to Dallapiccola 20 R. Malipiero, Luigi Dallapiccola 11.

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108 more universally relevant. As the Inquisition targeted Jewish people, Il Prigioniero explores the torture. In the Prologue, The Mother recalls a recurring nightmare about Philip II (1527 98), the king of the Spaniards from 1556 until 1598 An unknown man moves toward The Mother, and she recognizes him. Philip changes his appearance and transforms h imself into Death. This is a The Mother visits her son in a dungeon in Scene One. The Prisoner tells her he has hope that The Jailer has given him. The Mother leaves as The Jailer approaches. In Scene Two, The Jailer encourages The Prisoner to have hope. The Jailer speaks of revolts in Flanders and Ghent, and how the ringing of the Bell of Roelandt represents the defeat of the Spanish Inquisition and King Philip. After The Jailer leaves, The Prisoner notic es the cell door has been left slightly open. At the beginning of Scene Three, The Prisoner makes his way out of the dungeon, but pauses to pray. When two priests appear, The Prisoner hides. He prays again and hears the Bell of Roelandt. Scene Four opens with The Prisoner escaping the dungeon and walking into a garden. He feels free; however, The Jailer entraps The Prisoner in his arms, and, when revealed as The s punished and is led to the stake. The Prisoner realizes that the hope of having freedom is the greatest torture. Sprechgesang and Sprechstimme The role of The Mother is, at times, sung with Sprechgesang employ Straussian lyricism. The solo singing roles use Parlato and Sprechgesang

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109 Dramatic Tension via Ricercares Much of the drama in Il Prigioniero lies within the orchestra, specifically in the Bergian ricercares. The ricercare is practical nature or illustrativ e of 21 Dallapiccola uses a fragmented version of ricercare. W ithin these fragments lie the contrast between expression and precision, creating dramatic tension. There are three separate ricercar es in the opera, all of which occur during Scene Three. Example 7 1. Il Prigioniero Firs t Ricercare 22 21 22 Dallapiccola, Il Prigioniero 85. Used by permission of Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.

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110 The first ricercare (Example 7 through 652 on page 85, beginning with a solo bass player, followed by solo first and second cellists, and finished by clarinets. The Prisoner uses Sprechstimme later at measures 655 through 657 for ). Example 7 2. Il Prigioniero Second Ricercare 23 23 Ibid., 88. Used by permission of Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.

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111 The second ricercare (Example 7 2) occurs soon after the first ricercare at measures 676 through 678 Prisoner is contemplating his escape. The theme begins with the first and second trombones, followed by first and third trumpets, and finishing with first and second clarinet s. The third ricercare, lasting from measure 731 through 734, is based on th e word Example 7 3. Il Prigioniero Third Ricercare 24 24 Ibid., 105. Used by permission of Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.

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112 At measure 807 (Example 7 3), the bell theme is heard playing a diminished fifth (D, Ab). At measure 811, the bass strings, pianoforte, and contrabassoon perform another dim inished fifth interval (C#, G), which is meant to evoke a Charles V (1500 58), Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 until 1556. This bell is representative of the opp ression felt by the Flemish people. Expressionist Scenery Earle calls the opera 25 He further supports this idea by stating Il Prigioniero are Expressionist. For instance, the Prologue pres ents The Mother who is in black and against a black curtain. The effect is such that making her representative of the Expressionist Urschrei 26 The Urschrei ( Primal Scream) is an Blicke but only their gazes since he looked into their eyes. 27 The 28 play Frhlings Erwachen (1890 91) : Scream! Scream! To Be You, Ilse! 25 Reading Il Prigioniero 26 Ibid. 27 Shawn, 62. 28 Donahue, ed., A Companion to the Literature of German Expression ism 19.

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113 Priapal! Thoughtlessness! That robs me of strength! This child of fortune, this child of the sun this maiden of pleasures on my way of woe! Oh! Oh! The Prisoner and The Mother are counter opposite of one another in that The Mothe r is outside, like the earth with its pains and its breathlessness. However, she is very much like her son since they are both human s who are tied to the day and the night, to the passing of the hours, and to waking and sleeping. 29 Example 7 In the Prologue, The Mother foretells t 30 motive narr ates her dream beginning at measure 39. The false sense in which is also reflected as a kind of omen for when The Mother expresses her tormenting, anxiety filled, and overwhelming dream. descending minor third (F E C#). In measure 240 on page 31 (Example 7 5), the Clarinetto piccolo in Mi b plays the motif in a quick succession of sixteenth note triplets expresse d in the following forms: prime (E Eb C), retrograde (Bb C# D), inversion (F F# A), and retrograde inversion (G Ab Cb). 29 R. Malipiero, Luigi Dallapiccola 11. 30 Luciano Berio based his Cinque Variazioni (1952 53) upon the three Berio dedicated the work to Dallapiccola. Berio studied with Dallapiccola in 1952 at the Tanglewood Music Center.

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114 note grouping, are sung by The Mother at the beginning of the o pera, and at the end of the opera by The Jailer (The Grand Inquisitor). It must have been no coincidence that Dallapiccola used the same musical material to represent the words brother and dream, for brotherhood in this context is a far fetched dream and unattainable. Also, both words have negative and dialectical applications: is a nightmare about the e nemy. Example 7 5. measure 240 ) 31 31 Dallapiccola, Il Prigioniero 31 Used by permission of Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.

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115 12 Tone Method When Dallapiccola composed his melodrama about a prisoner, he sought to portray the tragedy of the time period as well as the calamity of persecution. In the opera, the composer used the 12 tone technique to represent character s and events. His style of serialism was unlike s in that he used intervals, chromaticism, and lyrical singing. Repeated notes are also g avoids octave doublings, the Italian comp oser used doublings liberally. tone rows are easier Dallapiccola, serialism was just one of various com positional tools at his disposal. He used 12 32 Il Prigioniero is based on three 12 (Prayer Series), revolt (Liberty Series). All three rows are utilized with very sparse orchestrati on when, near the end of the opera, The Prisoner makes his way out of the prison. At the beginning of the Prologue, a three happen three times during the opera. The motif always occurs in the same form, instrumenta tion, and ff level (Example 7 6). Example 7 7, the Prayer Series (G# B D G F Bb A Eb E C C# F#), was derived from 32

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116 Example 7 6 measures 117 119) 33 Example 7 7 Prayer Series The Prayer Row is often accompanied wi th diminished seventh chords. The Mother sings this row when it first appears at measure 9 in the Pro logue after the opening chords The row is expressed in prime, retrograde, inversion, and retrograde inversion forms throughou t the work. 33 Dallapiccola, Il Prigioniero 18 Used by permission of Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.

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117 The Hope Series is made up of two hexachords (F# G G# A F B; Bb E C C# Eb D). These hexachords are almost purely chromatic in that the first through fourth, sixth and seventh, ninth and tenth, and eleventh and t welfth notes are chromatic. Example 7 8 Hope Series At measures 202 through 203, this row makes its initial appearance when it is sung by The Pris oner and doubled by the cello. Jailer is psychologically manipulating The Prisoner Even the shape of this row becomes a literal representation of hope since it begins with closed intervals and expands to a hopeful octave. Dallapiccola would later call this symbolic shaping of music an ideogram. For example, in his opera Ulisse (1968), he created a wave 34 The Liberty Series, also referred to as the Freedom Series contains two pentachords plus a minor third interval (C D F Ab Bb; Db Eb Gb A B; E G) The second, third, and fourth pitch es of the first chord are minor third intervals (D F Ab) and the same pitches of the second chord also reflect m inor thirds (Eb Gb(F#) A). This series is featur verse aria (measures 360 through 370), located at the epicenter of the opera. Example 7 9 Liberty Series 34

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118 The aria was the first music Dallapiccola composed after complet ing the entire libretto. In this song The Jailer sings about the wishes for freedom that is implied in t occurred in Flanders. in a Parisian musical journa l before the opera was finished 35 The Liberty Row appears in prime, inverted, retrograded, and retrograded inversion forms during the song Choral Intermezzi Example 7 10 Contrapunta l imitation in choir ( beginning at measure 869) 36 35 Ibid., 16. 36 Dallapiccola, Il Prigioniero 115. Used by permission of Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.

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119 The off stage chorus sings in Latin during two choral intermezzi: one between the Prologue and Scene One, and the other between Scenes Three and Four. These choral episodes symbol of hope, freedom, and despair. The sudden appearances of the chorus and their use of the Latin language faith. 37 The first intermezzo (beginning at measure 126) features block harmonies, contrapuntal imitations, and is forceful in tone. The second choral intermezzo, beginning at measure 823, takes place as The Prisoner escapes. For this intermezzo, Dallapic cola suggested the use of amplification via loudspeakers in the score: The sonority of the Second Choral Intermezzo must be formidable: every spectator must feel himself literally overwhelmed by the immensity of the sound. To this end there should be no hesitation in making use, if necessary, of 38 The mood of the second intermezzo is quieter than the first. The second intermezzo uses contrapuntal im it ations at measures 869 through 876 ( Example 7 10 ). Beginnin g on page 124, f rom measures 920 through 940 (the end), Dallapiccola employs self b orrowing when he uses music from his earlier choral work Canti di Prigionia (Example 7 11). The offstage chamber choir sings part of the music from the Preghiera di Maria Stuarda of the Canti di Prigionia 37 Fearn, The Music of Luigi Dallapiccola 126. 38 Il Prigioniero 107.

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120 scene (like The Prisoner 39 As in the model for Expressionist theatre, To Damascus Il Prigioniero has the unnamed central character coming back 40 Example 7 11 borrowing of his Canti di Prigionia (beginning at measure 920) 41 39 Die Glckliche Hand 85. 40 Ibid., 585. 41 Dallapiccola, Il Prigioniero 124. Used by permission of Edizioni Suvini Zerboni.

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121 Relevance and Application of Il Prigioniero Although the work has not become a part of the standard operatic repertoire, Il Prigioniero has universa l and dateless relevance. The idea of being a prisoner and the religious aspects provide this work with a universally relevant framework. Dallapiccola would later, in 1960, write about the challenges that both the composer and listener would face with these contemporary operas with open endings: that the action is not yet finished. Why do I love opera? Because it seems the question marks mine and others I should like to succeed in expressing a 42 Il Prigioniero is not easy to stage, for it is effectively a one man opera, with The Mother and The Jailer fulfilling limited parts. It is not a chamber opera, either, for the orchestral forces are vast (similar to Bartk thrilling, one act opera ) Difficulties in singing are notable. The singers must have wide vocal ranges and the ability to sing atonal passages. Also, the Parlato and Sprechstimme vocal styles take a certain skill level, while all vocalists must have voices that project well since the orchestra is so large. The bass who sings The Prisoner must have stamina since he performs throughout the opera. One challen ge in presenting Il Prigioniero is finding a work to pair it with in order to create a complete program. It could be grouped with Schnberg Ode to Napoleon (1942), a 15 minute piece for narrator, string quartet, and piano, composed during World War II a s a protest against tyranny. Another 20 th century, tragic, one act Italian opera about a prisoner that could appear in a double Suor Angelica a story about a 42 Dallapiccola on Opera 104.

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122 young Italian woman who is, as punishment, banished for life to a convent after having a child act opera Friedenstag (1938), a hymn to peace and a criticism of the Third Reich featuring contrasts between freedom and imprisonment. The musical concept of Il Prigioniero is summarized as two factors melting into one: t he expressive value of the sung word, and the value of the instrumental stamp, concurring to create the work in its enti rety 43 The idea of hope is given as a possibility for The Prisoner, only to be taken away at the ending (an unrequited hope), deeming it a crisis opera. In this regard, Il Prigioniero is a m odel for Italian Expressionism. 43 R. Malipiero, Luigi Dallapiccola, 19.

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123 CHAPTER 8 INTOLLERANZA 19 60 Nono was born in Venice, Italy, on 29 January 1924 into a family of artists: his grandfather Luigi was a painter, his great uncle Urbano a sculptor and his parents were amateur musicians who encoura He initially studied law in Padua, earning at the Venice Conservatory, where Nono would encounter the music of the Second Viennese School. Thanks to Malipiero, N ono met Maderna in 1946 and served an apprenticeship with him class format (beginning in 1948), and, l ater, via private lessons (1952 through 19 53). Wh ile teac hing at Darmstadt (1957 through 19 59), Nono was colleagues with Boulez, Maderna, Stockhausen, and, later, Henri Pousseur (1929 2009) and Berio. Figure 8 1. Malipiero and Nono (date unknown) 1 1 Image from Portale di Rodoni.

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124 Nono would develop a friendship with Dallapiccola, beginning in 1947, and sought his influence with a group of musicians who wanted to form a new musical language There is correspondence ( from 1955 to 19 66) from Dallapiccola, six letters to be exact, in which Nono is tro e amico 1953 through 1971, Nono In a supportive letter to Nono from 23 April 1961, Dallapiccola mentioned Intolleranza 1960 : I read in this morning that INTOLLERANZA 1960 will be given in Cologne next spring and I want to tell you immediately how much I rejoiced to learn that your work resumes its imposed way where the equivalent of t he Social Movement can not boast of four and a half million votes. 2 Nono became a member of the anti Fascist group, the Italian Resistance, near the end of World War II. He would join the Italian Communist Party in 1952 (the very group that protested Il Prigioniero a few years earlier). Communi sm would influence compositional process in the nine years that followed. His vision for his first opera, Intolleranza 1960 (1960 61), was inspired by experimental theatre from Pre Stalinist Russia In 1962, Nono became the first Western avant gar de composer to visit the Soviet Union 3 He created the two from eight politically charged texts including the poem Our March (1917) by the Russian futurist and socialist Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893 1930) ialism and married his daughter Nuria Schnberg (1932 ). Nuria has said that her life at home with Luigi was conditioned by his life (she refers to him as 2 Dallapiccola, Letter to Luigi Nono, 23 April 1961. Used by permission from the Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P Vieusseux (Florence, Italy), Anna L. Dallapiccola Nuria Nono, and the Archivio Luigi Nono (Venice, Italy). 3 Nono was inv i ted to the Soviet Union with the understanding that he was a leading figure of the Italian Communist Nikolai Karetnikov, a Moscow modernist, met with the composer and exchanged scor es and ideas about 12 note rows.

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125 by his tears 4 Luigi and Nuria had two daughters, Silvia (1959 ) and Ser ena Bastiana (1964 ). Around the time of writing Intolleranza 1960 Nono would tell his why not go in Los An example of how busy Nono was during this time is represented in a rec home with him for lunch. She had to prepare lunch at thei r home in Venice for all of thos e Nono died in his city of birth on 8 May 1990. He remains one of the most prominent composers of the 20th century. Musical Styles s influ ence, with their use of 12 note pitch serialism. Nono would later transform pitch serialism into a serialism of timbres, articulation, while Schnberg 5 styles developed through the influence of a number of international artists from other fields: Italian pain ter Emilio Vedova (1919 2006), Russian and Soviet theatre director, producer, and actor V sevolod Meyerhold (1874 1940), German theatre director Erwin Pisc ator (1893 1966), and Czech artist and scenic designer Josef Svoboda (1920 2002). 6 By the 1960s, Nono was particularly focused on the subject of the interval: the importance of the interval and what meaning it would convey. He was now composing all 4 Ritardi, no ricorda Intolleranza 1960 5 Spangemacher, 42. 6

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126 int erval rows ( Example 8 12 on page 150 ) De Benedictis describes the inherent benefits of using an all interval row, especially when considering the freedom it allows to be expressive: With the statistical control of pitch overcome by the constant circulati on of the all interval rows, the choice of intervals became increasingly intuitive, defined locally and directed towards the creation of complex sound surfaces (or better, harmonic surfaces) such as blocks, pitc fun ction is to] Gestalten [Form] 7 There were no more strictly serialistic grid systems; rather, Nono created the idea of an autonomous interval which completely replaced the concept of the pitch series in the organization of material. His works following Intolleranza 1960 were almost completely electronic in nature. Autobiographical Implications Nono composed Intolleranza 1960 in the small space of a 3 month period from late 1960 through the beginning of the following year Nuria reflected on how worried he was about having to write an entire work within such a restricted timeframe. She remembers him calling her while she was in Los Angeles and bargaining on the composition of the piece, wondering if he could take a shortcut by using an excerpt from his Il Canto So speso (1955 56). He argued that Gioachino Rossini (1792 1868) did this sort of self borrowing as well. Nono would later quote the fourth movement of Il Canto S ospeso as an orc hestral interlude in Part I of Intolleranza 1960 between S cene s Four and Five ( measures 500 through 544) This self quotation occurs at a very emotionally intense moment of the drama, between the scene that depicts the interrogations and the sc ene of torture. 7 Intolleranza 1960

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127 the Nazi occupation and the Resistance were fundamenta l to his general develo pment. The composer expressed his own feelings towards politics and other events of the day in Intolleranza 1960 especially regarding fascist violence, the working class. 8 political outlook on life was deeply reflected in his music: It was not for him a question of reproducing in music the emotions of suffering, scorn, anger, rebellion, desire and love of which the texts speak, or to which the titles of instrumental compositions refer; rather, it was the idea of formulating on a musical level, in the unshakable unity of sound, issues for which humanity demands urgent resolution: To listen is to know; sensitivity to the circumstances of suppression and abuse that determine human suffering is a prerequisite to their overcoming. 9 Italian Expressionism Defined in Intolle ranza 1960 The following Expressionist qualities will be explored: subject matter (intolerance, oppression), text (especially fragmented text), use of Sprechstimme (used especially in moments of stress ), mixture of chromaticism and serialism (intervallic emphasis at times on minor seconds; extreme dissonance of the orchest triadic tones (the work has no key signature), dramatic and irregular texture (blocking and layering of sound by voic es and orch estra), rhythmic insta bility (used throughout), scenic design and lighting (the use of the Magic Lantern, images of dramatic and violent real life events), extreme expression and dynamics ( fo r example, at the end of Scene Five, the torture scene, when the chorus is instructed to scream for a few measures from a quiet dynamic to fffff ), subjectivity, exaggeration (the vocal ranges of all singers are at the extremes of their ability), and distortion (use of serialism in contrast with intervallic relationships and emotionality). The characteristics Ich Drama unnamed central character who comes back at the end of 8 9 Ibid.

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128 the play to his point of departure (the Emigrant leaves the mine to go home and feels free, but is hen he is home, so he is not free), a fast movi ng plot (the opera is about one hour long), and characters who are savage, archaic, and display primal behavior (the Policemen who only speak or shout but never sing). Performance History The work is rarely st aged, since spectacle is a fundamental part of the piece. The first performance was given on 13 April 1961 at the Festival XXIV Internazionale di Musica Contempo ranea de La Biennale di Venezia. Bruno Maderna conducted the BBC Symphony Orchestra. Josef S voboda and Vaclav Kaslik directed, and Emilio Vedova designed the sets and costumes. Performers included tenor Petre Munteanu ( Emigrant ), soprano Catherine Gayer ( Companion ), contralto Carla Henius ( Woman ), baritone Heinz Rehfuss ( Algerian), bass Italo Ta ja (Tortured Man), and t he pre recorded po lyphonic choir of RAI in Milan with choir director Giulio Bertola. The festival also included performances of (1957) by Benjamin Britten (1913 76) and La Via della C roce (1961) by Giorgio Federico Gh edini (1892 1965). The managers of La Biennale censored some of the projected frames of the opera that depicted concentration camps and demonstrations by striker s. After only one rep eat performance two days later on 15 April, Intolleranza 1960 would not be performed again in Italian for another half 50th annive rsary at the Teatro La Fenice. A German version was produced in Cologne at the Opernhaus on 3 April 1962. Bruno Maderna cond ucted and Hans Lietzau directed the production which included singers Larry White, Catherine Gayer, Helene Raab, Hans Gunther Grimm, a nd Mark Elyn. Alfred Andersch (1914 80) translated the libretto into German

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129 The American premiere took place in Boston o n 21 Feburary 1965. The Boston Opera Group gave t his production, sung in English, at the Back Bay Thea ter. Bruno Maderna directed t director was Sarah Caldwell (1924 2006) and the stage design and t he costume design were created, respectively, by Josef Svoboda and Jan Skalicky, both of Czechoslovakia. The stage was bare for the scenery and costumes, while the effects were shown via the lighting and television, including still pictures that were flas hed on the stage. A second performance was presented the next evening. The cast included tenor Lawrence White as the Emigrant, soprano Beverly Sills as the Companion, contralto Margaret Roggero as the Woman, bass Erco le Bertolino as the Tortured Man, an d baritone Guus Hoekman as the Algerian. Nono experienced great difficulty getting to Boston, and the performances were postponed due to the composer being denied a visa since he was a member of the Italian Communist Party; however, he was granted a regula r work permit after the musicians involved went on strike to demand that Nono be given a visa. Just one week shy of the premiere, the visa was granted through the intervention of the Department of State. At the end of his trip to the United States, Nono visited Cuba. The initial performance on 21 February was delayed because the original lead tenor, John Moulson, fell ill. 10 Lawrence White was singing with the Kiel Opera in Germany at the time, and arrived at the performance with only four days to spare, causing this slight delay. The costume designer, Jan Skalicky, son of a former Czech counsel to the United States, announced that he would be defecting to the U.S. after this performance. 11 concert tr eatment as Suite da Co ncerto da Intolleranza 1960 for soprano, chorus, and orchestra (Ars Viva AV 78). The 10 11

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130 production on 29 August 196 9 featured soprano Catherine Gayer, the London Symphony Orchestra, and Italian conductor Claudio Abbado (1933 ) The fi rst Italian performance of the concerto version was presented in Milan at Teatro all S cala from 13 15 October 1971. On 10 May 1970, the Stdtische Bhnen Nrnberg Frth presented an updated version of the opera, titled Intolleranza 1970 in Nuremberg, with Wolfgang Weber directing, scene design by Peter Heyduck, projections by Lajos Keresztes, and choreography by Gnter Titt Adam Rauth directed the Nuremb erg opera chorus and the orchestra was under the baton of German conductor Hans Gie r ster (1925 95 ) Cesare Curzi was the Emigrant, Maria De Francesca was the Companion, Gerda Lammers played the part of the Woman, Barry Hanner portrayed the Algerian, and the Tortured Man was Fabio Giongo The reworking of Intolleranza included material related to the dramatic fascist coup in strike of 1970. Yaak Karsunke reworked and edited the text so that it represented a metaphor for German intolerance. The French premiere occurred in Nancy at the Grand Le Thtre on 26 March 1971. Th is ver sion, titled Intolleranza 197 1 was in French, and Martine Cadieu provided the text Both t he text and visuals were altered to reflect current French issues. Wolfgang Gayler (1935 ) directed the Orchestre Symphonique de Nancy and Les Percussion s de Strasbourg and Jean Claude Ribe r directed the production. Serge Marzolff created the scenography Lucien Robert designed the costumes the sound directors were Jack Delpaz and Walter Pohl, and Francoise Saur and Dany Mahler created the images and vi deo Caesar Curzi was the Emigrant, Maria De Fran cesca was his Companion, Michle Vilma was the Woman, Can Koral this production) played the part of the Algerian, and Frank Schooten portrayed the Tortured Man.

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131 The 1970 version was presented in Florence on 26 January 1974 and directed by Wolfgang W eber, Peter Heyduck, and Lajos Kereszter This time, Nono converted the work into a one act opera and presented it in the non native language of German. A run of Intollera nza 1960 took place in Hamburg at the Hamburgische Staatsoper on 10, 14, 17, 22 Feburary and 19 March 1985. Gnter Krmer directed, with scenic designer Andreas Reinhardt and costume designers Andreas Reinhardt and Danielle Laurent. The Emigrant was Will iam Cochran, his Companion was Slavka Taskova, the Woman was portrayed by Gabriele Schnaut, the role of the Algerian was double casted with Richard Salter and Uder Krekow, and the Tortured Man was alternately played by Urban Malmberg and Carl Schultz. Han s Zender (1936 ), German conductor and composer, conducted the orchestra and Albert Limbach directed the choir. A significant amount of time passed before Intolleranza 1960 was produced again, this time at the Staatsoper Stuttgart on 11 October 1992 with German conductor, pianist, and teacher Bernhard Kontarsky (1937 ) director Christof Nel and singers David Rampy, Urszula Koszut, Kathryn Harries, Wolfgang Probst, and Jerrold van der Schaaf. From 2000 through 2007, all performances of Intolleranza 1960 took place in Germany: 22 September 2000 (Kln, Bhnen der Stadt Kln); 28 September 2000 (Stuttgart, Staatsoper Stuttgart); 15 September 2001 (Berlin, Deutsche Oper); 1 October and 21 October 2001 (Bremen, Bremen Theater); 2 October 2002 ( Kln, Bhnen d er Stadt Kln ); 14 May 2003 ( Berlin, Deutsche Oper ); 25 September 2004 ( Saarbrcken, Saarlndisches Staatstheater ); and 13 May 2007 (Mnchen, Staatstheater am Grtnerplatz). A newer production took place at the Staatsoper Hannover from 9 September to 9 Nov ember 2010, conducted by German conductor Stefan Klingele (1967 ) directed by Benedikt von Peter, and with set designs by Katrin Wittig and costumes by Geraldine Arnold. Featured i n

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132 the cast were Mathia Schulz as the Emigrant, Karen Frankenstein as the Companion, Khatuna Mikaberidze as the Woman, Christopher Tonkin as the Algerian, and Tobias Schabel as the Tortured Man. A s previously stated, another new production occurred in Venice at the Teatro La Fenice from 28 January through 5 February 2011 to cele brate the 50 th anniversary of the premiere. This performance featured German conductor Lothar Zagrosek (1942 ) with direction, scenery, costumes, and lighting by Facolta di Design e Arti, IUAV di Venezia The Emigrant was Donald Kaasch, Cornelia Horak was the Companion, the Woman was Julie Mellor, Alessandro Paliaga played the Algerian, and Michael Leibundgut portrayed the Tortured Man. The most recent performance took place in Hannover at Staatsoper Han nover from 6 November through 7 December 2011, with conductor Klingele, director Benedikt von Peter, set designer Katrin Wittig, costume designer Geraldine Arnold, and lighting designer Susanne Reinhard. The cast was the same as that of the 2010 Hannover production. Except for Hannover, Cologne, Stuttgart, Berlin, and Venice, these premieres in different cities were one time occurrences. This phenomenon is what Angela Ida De Benedictis calls a first an Intolleran za 1960 12 Two commercial recordings of the opera exist, and both are in German. The first is a 1995 recording from the 1992 Stuttgart production at the Stuttgart State Opera, conducted by Bernhard Kontarsky (Teldec 4509 97304 2). The other recording (Dre yer Gaido 21030, 2012) is of a live performance at the Theater am Goetheplatz in Bremen from February of 2001. The chorus and auxiliary chorus of Theater Bremen Philharmonic Orchestra participated in t his production with German conductor Gabriel Feltz (19 71 ). 12 De inascere a 12.

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133 Reception Le Sacre du P rintemps except that the protests were premeditated and had nothing to do with the music; rather, they had everything to do with political stanc es a gainst Nono and 12 tone music. A group interrupted the performance by throwing stink bombs from the gallery. Neo Fascists were concerned that Nono was somehow contaminating Italian music. They also were critical of Nono for having a name that was a double neg ative. This extreme right collective was known as Ordine Nuovo. This assemblage not only catcalled and shouted at the stage, but also managed to throw leaflets all about with the following message: e of the festivals: from San Remo to Piedigrotta and Abbiategrasso at the Festival Internazionale di Musica Contemporanea, but the one thing lacking is Music. / We refuse to believe that this muddle of sounds and dissonances called dodecaphony has anything in the least to do with the Word governing the life of today. / Also lacking here is the concept of hierarchy, the fulcrum around which develop those values that have rendered tradition al Music Eternal. / It is simply an organization of notes that clash a mong themselves, which shows us what democracy is like when it is 13 Luig i Pestalozza of Milan spoke of the neo fascist group He described the yelling and profanity used during the performance tha t came from these unsavory audience members, as well as stink bombs that were launched into the stalls and orchestra pit 14 At one point, the stage designer shouted insults back at the demonstrators, challenging them to fight. Claude Rostand of La Monde of Paris also reviewed the V enice premiere He said the 13 130 footnote 88. 14 Gli Agenti Minacciava no di Espellere ohi Protes

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134 different parts of the world today 15 bi Moments after the di sturbing representation, protested in turn against these events. The second part of the [opera] wa s less agitat ed, but the screaming resumed mixed with applause after the fall of the curtain 16 s former teacher, Gian Francesco Malipiero, wrote negatively about the premiere a couple of years after the fact, saying that the presentation of such programs are useful for electoral rallies, not for any new art 17 A critic from La Tribuno del Mezzogiorno described the chorus as the most normal part of the opera. The reviewer noted Bergian influence as well as the igorous st andards of [the] tone, and electronics. 18 A harsh critique was directed towards the text which was, according to the critic, not understandable, save for a few exceptions. The reviewer believed that this work did not offer a A critic from La Suisse compared the stage work to Austrian Expressionism, with its its tumultuou s outputs, is really [reflective] of the sensitivity of the Venetian musician 19 review sums up his feelings about Intolleranza 1960 The critic ism becomes more pointed, 15 us ique C ontemporaine de pra de Luigi N ono. De 16 Ibid. 17 18 Mondiale di Grande Importanza al Festival di Musica Contemporanea pera (Intolleranza 196 0) nel 19 M., Al,

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135 20 For such an emotionally rinkled by daring sound intervals, meaningless. 21 organizational effort for the Venetian festival 22 Eugenio Gara of felt that the musical language of the opera was repressive in e other [while the] musician appears o ften 23 The English critic William Weaver provided another negative opini on regarding the visual effects. Weaver referred to the mouths commonplaces while dancers perform a boring, tasteless pantomime. 24 The German press at the prem iere in Cologne of 1962 reported that a section of the audience whistled for 18 minutes These ruffians attempted to undermine the success of the work; however, this action was sharply in contrast with the heavy and lengthy applause. 25 After attending the American premiere in Boston in 1965, a Time magazine reporter called Intolleranza 1960 20 lodie ma Piena di Strepiti e S par 21 Ibid. 22 urrasco 23 Intolleranza 1960 24 25 Ramazzotti, Luigi Nono 83.

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136 ear. 26 of Sunday s Josef Svoboda has remarked on how great the Boston production was because of its c ollaboration of live television with the ability to immediately play the filming of the show. Svoboda described the elaborate stage design and direction: were three projection screens: where actions were taken simultaneously from two rooms in two studies away from the theatre, on the streets of Boston in front of the theater, in the audience, and on stage. 27 Kevin Kelly of The Boston Globe described the impressionable visual effects: A p ictorial record of intolerance is flashed upon the screen, with documentary stills sometimes spaced with filmed tape of simultaneous stage action. The stills (bodies and bones piled up in a concentration camp, a man bloodied and frozen to death on a wall; a Negro whipped while chained to a tree; a grim, restive strike mob) are most often projected in the negative, occasionally in the positive, and the effect is a nightmare shifting from ugly reality to a kind of brute fantasy. 28 T he white audience had a str ong reaction when an image of them was converted from the positive to the negative, so that the on screen image appeared to be all black people. Some spectators began to protest, and Svoboda and Nono filmed them and transmitted these images for all to see A neo Fascist demonstration that took place in the front of the theatre was also filmed and projected. Harold Schonberg of The New York Times who attended the Boston premiere, saw a Polish Freedom Fighters picketer with a sign that labeled Nono as a Re d Fascist. Schonberg 26 pera: 27 28 Kelly, Intolleranza 1960 21.

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137 for the composer when he appeared on stage 29 at the end of the performance. Schonberg was compl imentary of the singers, including White, voice d tenor [who] handled the high tessitura with uncommon facility, and so did Beverly Sills. 30 Sills has expressed one of the harshest critiques of the opera and of the composer. Caldwell hired Sills to portray the role of the Companion for th e Boston production. The opera singer expressed her distaste for the experience in her autobiography: Intolleranza was written by Luigi Nono, an Italian Communist who had all the no re was thoroughly shocked to discover that the majority of Harvard students were not Communists. To his credit or, rather, to the credit of the Boston Opera Company he was making full use of the lavish service at the Copley Plaza Hotel. All that might have been overlooked if Intolleranza c piece of polemical garbage. Luigi and his opera were both Nonos. 31 For the Nuremberg production of 1970, Nono invited the audience to join him after the performance in a demons tration for Cambodia Nancy drew a record attendance. A reviewer of Le Monde thought the documentary and theatrical style of the work was less current and more out of style than television, Godard films, and the popularity of leftist demonstrations. 32 Libretto In a letter to Angelo Maria Ri pellino (1923 78) in January of 1960 and an earlier letter to Andersch in 1957, Nono mentioned an American film titled Intolerance (1916) directed by American film director David Wark Griffith (1875 1948) 29 30 Ibid. 31 Sills and Linderman, Beverly: An A utobiography 155. 32 Intolleranza 1960 Le Monde

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138 and a half hour running time, splices four episodes from different times: the fall of the Babylonian empire, the time of Christ of the Babylonian empire, Paris during the reign of Charles IX, and contemporary America. 33 Intolerance is meant to show the history of pr ejudiced thought and behavior Initially, Nono would outline a work that represented four different time periods, but the final stagework takes place within a single time period. Nono took the liberty of and text, partly because the composer did not think the characters fit into his ideal of musical theatre, but also because Ripellino caused multiple delays when submitting his libretto to Nono. The composer was at times frustrated because he could not com pose the actual music without the text, so, out of necessity, Nono became his own librettist. I n December of 1960, Otto Sertl Shne, asked Nono to send scenes to him as they were being composed. Nono would send a tota l of five separate submissions to Schott in order to facilitate the editorial process. 34 Ripellino was rather bitter, but still courteous and professional, when he realized that so many changes had been made to his original libretto. In the end, Nono crea ted the libretto from the writings of eight 20 th century authors: Ripellino, French Algerian journalist Henri Alleg (1921 2013), German playwright, poet, and theatre director Bertolt Brecht (1898 1956) Francophone poet, author, and politician Aim Csair e (1913 2008) French poet Paul luard (1895 1952) Mayakovsky, Czech journalist Julius 43) and French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, literary critic, political acti vist, and biographer Jean Paul Sartre (1905 80). Intolleranza 1960 was composed in just three months as a response to an invitation to Nono from Labroca, the director of the Venice Biennale Schott published the score at the end of 33 34 Ibid., 121.

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139 1962 with German text only, even though the original performance was in Italian (Mainz, Ars but Schott did not comply. Nono was discouraged with the publishing company, complaining 35 Early in 1966, Nono chose the publisher Ricordi, and this Italian edition was used for the 50 th anniversary production of 2011. Synopsis The opera is in two parts and lasts a little over one hour. Scenes One through Four are in the first half and Scenes Five throug h Seven make up the last half. Figure 8 2. Part I, Scene One Mining Town 36 35 Ibid., 129 footnote 85. 36 Image from De Benedictis and Mastinu, eds., Prima Assoluta 269.

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140 The performers are five singers, chorus, a mi me, and orchestra. The characters are An Emigrant (tenor), His Companion (soprano), A Woman (contralto), An Algerian (bariton e), and A Tortured Man (bass). The protagonist is an anonymous Emigrant (like the unnamed Man of Schnberg Die Glckliche Hand ). In Part I, just before Scene One, there is an opening chorus that sings an a cappella Vivere stare svegli (the text of which is projected above the stage), which is a taped portion that is relayed by loudspeakers around the auditorium. Scene One opens in a mining town (Figure 8.2). Figure 8 3 Part I, Scene Six Concentration Camp 37 By Scene Two, the Emigrant wishes to leave the mines. In Scene Three the Emigrant finds himself taking part in a demonstration, during which he is arrested (Scene Four), tortured (Scene 37 Image from De Benedictis and Mastinu, eds., 283.

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14 1 Five), and put in an unspe cified concentration camp (Scene Six, Figure 8 3). He is able to escape the camp with an Algerian prisoner (Scene Seven). In Scene One of Part II (Figure 8 4) the Emigrant wanders around the stage amidst projections, voices, and mi mes These happenings almost overwhelm him. Figure 8 4. Part II, Scene One projections, voices, and mimes 38 In Scene Two of Part II the Emigrant meets a woman (Companion) with whom he confronts intolerance (Figure 8 5). In Scene Three, the Emigrant and his Companion run off the Woman. The brass and percussion depict the river flooding everything and destroying the Emigrant and his Companion. During the epilogue, the final chorus requests that the audience 38 Image from De Benedictis and Mastinu, eds., 286.

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142 An die Nachgeboren en (To Those Born After). Figure 8 5. Part II, Scene Two Companion 39 th c entury resistance are nie wie never again! ) th e first slogan after the German war, N o pasar ( Do not pass! ) of anti Franco struggle in Spain death to fascism and freedom to the people ) of Italian Communist partisa against racism in the dirty war ) against the colonial war in French Indochina 39 Image from De Benedictis and Mastinu, eds., 295.

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143 In Scenes Four through Six, the ideas of arrest, torture, and imprisonment are musically depicted; for example, in Scenes Four and Five, there is staggering of chords in the strings whil e the use of low brass symbolizes suffering and doom. During Scene Four, the voice of Henri Alleg is heard on tape. Alleg was a reporter who was tortured while in prison during the Algerian War. The orchestration is employed to elicit certain thoughts; for example, military drums are used in between the questions of the interrogators. During Scene Five, the voice of Sartre is presented on tape while the prisoner is tortured. At the beginning of Scene Six, which takes place in the concentration camp, th e tolling of bells (chimes) is heard over the chorus of intelligen ce who died in a Nazi prison. Part II begins with a non musical collage of tape and film which includes slogans, critique of American capitalism, newspaper quotations, and a film clip of the atomic bomb explosion. This scene has been labeled as the musique concr te portion of the opera. 40 There is mimed dancing and machine noises are played via tape. Guilio Argon believes the flood near the end of the work represents misdeeds that are not episodes of a political struggle bitterly fo the free and yet inevitable product of political indifference, absenteeism. 41 The epilogue ends with a moralistic text which remi nds the author of the ending of Don Giovanni (1787) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 91). The depiction of Don Giovanni being dragged down to Hell is similar to the flood that killed everyone in its pa th. The contrast of the ending chorus commentary is stark, but also a way for the work to end on a brighter note and teach the audience 40 Gilbert, 11. 41 S em bianza E 135.

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144 a lesson. In Intolleranza 1960 must transcend the 42 As for the meaning of this theatrical work, Nono said the following: Intolleranza 1960 is the wakening of human awareness in a man who has rebelled against the demands of necessity an emigra nt miner and searches for a reason domination, he is beginning to rediscover human relations, between himself and others, when he is swept away in a flood with other people. The re remains his Symbol? Reportage? Fantasy? All three, in a story of our time. 43 Argon states that Intolleranza 1960 is a show distinctly anti anti bourgeois excludes from the new ritual entertainment, namely solidarity of interpreters and viewers in the celebration of the rite, the scenic human bourgeois type. 44 Later, Argon argues that no one intense be at that particular moment, a bourgeois, because [of the] strength and re lentless succession of emotions [which] arise above the level of mediocrity or mediumship that has in fact aes thetic bourgeois means to be in a S tat e of social and p 45 Argon calls the (Drama with Music) great themes of good an d evil, light and darkness, of y e 46 Argon believes Nono th e despera te desire to free ourselves, [the] dialectics of emotion 42 Gilbert, Dialectic M usic 95. 43 44 45 Ibid., 135. 46 Ibid., 136.

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145 and action, the rigor mortis of the expired symbol, which can no longer speak. 47 The theme of divineness that the work expresses is a theme of freedom. Block Style of Orchestral Writing Th e orchestral writing has been called pointillistic. 48 [and] 49 This block style of writing is represented by chords and the use of trills, shifting dynamic s ( attacks ) and strings using pizzicato For example, the orchestra plays the first heard chord, a n fff attack that is comprised of the C C# pitch continuum, which is sustained for 28 measures. There are more sudden attacks of loudness and use of percussion, followed by silence, and repeated all over again. These attacks are representative of violence in society. Percussion is used throughout the work, a possible symbol of militant and violent behavior. 12 Tone Method versus Communism highl y political Intolleranza 1960 uses serialism, which could be compared with communism. In serialism, notes are treated without hierarchy. Communism is based on the lack of a class system. I f a musical work is said to be communist Although he used musi c in a socio dodecaphonic music was not accepted by the general public, so the communist label has its limitations. On the other hand, communism was not acceptable to large populations of the gener al public, so the communist label may be 47 Ibid., 137. 48 49 Gilbert, Dialectic M usic 69.

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146 Intervallic Rows and Voicing Nono described the emotional disposition of each character as follows: the Soprano (Companion) is always strong and hardy, and sweet; the Baritone (Algerian) is d etermined, even in the face of death, and is conscious ; the Tenor (Emigrant) represents doubt, is uncertain, but also strong, resistant, and determined; the Contralto (Woman) is (perhaps) short tempered, and malignant, desperat e, and in love. The characte r row of the Baritone was also that of the Bass (Tortured Man) Each character was associated with one or more generative rows. Each row would utilize the alternation of two specific i ntervals. These intervals are fiv e of the six interval classes: majo r and minor second, minor third perfect fourth, and tritone. There are a total of seven rows for the protagonists of the opera. T he Tenor is given two rows: Row One (Example 8 1) is based on alternating tritone and perfect fourth intervals (Ab D G C# F# C F B E Bb Eb A ) while Row Two (Example 8 2) is based on alternating minor second and major second intervals (C C# E b D E F G F# Ab A B Bb ) The perfect fourth is seen as a symbol of ho pe. T he major second represents freedom The Tenor pro vides uncertainty for others throughout the opera, hence the wavering use of minor versus major second and augmented versus perfect fourth. For example, in measures 106 through 109 ) as (B A G# C# F# C F E Bb Eb A G) or (m7, M7, P4, dim5/Aug4, P4, M7, dim5/Aug4, P4, Aug4, m7). Example 8 1 Tenor Row One Aug mented Fourth and Perfect Fourth

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147 Example 8 2 Tenor Row Two Minor Second and Majo r Second Example 8 3 Part I, Scene One, Emigrant (pages 16 17) 50 Example 8 4 Soprano Row One Minor Third and Minor Second 50 Luigi N ono INTOLLERANZA. Copyright 1960 by Schott Mus ic GmbH & Co. KG. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors C ompany, sole U.S. and Canadian a gent for Schott Music GmbH & Co. KG.

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148 Example 8 5 Soprano Row Two Minor Second and Perfect Fourth The Soprano first row (A C C# E F D Eb F# G Bb B G#) is comprised of alternating minor third and minor second intervals (Example 8 4), and her second row (B C C# F# F Bb A E Eb Ab G D) has alternating minor second and perfect fourth intervals (Example 8 5). T he Soprano is representative of hope, force, and resistance. She is the only character to display the minor third interval. Example 8 6 Part II, Scene Two, Companion (page 152) 51 51 Lui gi N ono INTOLLERANZA. Copyright 1960 by Schott Mus ic GmbH & Co. KG. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors C ompany, sole U.S. and Canadian a gent for Schott Music GmbH & Co. KG.

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149 Her aria, sparsely accompanied by strings and percussion, is 252 measures in length. Her singing is also accompanied by the less sparse flute, vibraphone, and celeste. Example 8 6 is reflective of this sparseness in her extended aria, beginning with meas ure 73 on page 152, elektrischen vibrates the same electric al wires she sings (E D Eb A G Eb F Bb C C#) or (m7, m2, Aug4, m7/M2, m6, M2, P4, M2, m2). Example 8 7 Contralto Row Augmented Fourth and Minor Second Example 8 8 Part I, Scene Two, Woman (pages 35 36, measures 220 223) 52 52 Luigi N on o INTOLLERANZA. Copyright 1960 by Schott Mus ic GmbH & Co. KG. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors C ompany, sole U.S. and Canadian a gent for Schott Music GmbH & Co. KG.

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150 The Contra (F# C C# G Ab D Eb A Bb E F B) alternates between the intervals of the tritone and minor secon d (Example 8 7). To portray the Contra emotional blackmail and vengeance, Nono borrows the minor second and augmented fourth from marimba, and string pizzicato. In measures 220 through 223 (Example 8 8), the contralto pleads with the Emigrant and sings Stay! Stay! Stay! ) as ( A Eb D C# G Ab) or (Aug4, m2, m2, Aug4, M9/m2). Example 8 9 Baritone/Bass Row Major Second and Perfect F ourth Example 8 10 Part I, Scene Six, Tortured Man (page 108) 53 53 Luigi N ono INTO LLERANZA. Copyright 1960 by Schott Mus ic GmbH & Co. KG. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors C ompany, sole U.S. and Canadian a gent for Schott Music GmbH & Co. KG.

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151 (C D G A E F# B C# G# Bb Eb F) involves alternating major second and perfect fourth intervals (Example 8 9) whi rows. This is befitting because the Bari tone (Algerian) is associated with freedom and revolution. For example, beginning at measure 650 on page 108 (Example 8 aria which is sung by the Tortured Man in E A Eb Bb D B C# (C#) F# G F) or (m6, P4, Aug4/dim5, P5, M3, M6, M2, P4, m2, m7)). Example 8 11 Part I, Scene Seven, Emigrant and Algerian (page 122) 54 Also, during the duet (Example 8 11) between the Algerian (baritone) and Emigrant G# 54 Luigi N ono INTOLLERAN ZA. Copyright 1960 by Schott Mus ic GmbH & Co. KG. Copyright renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission of European American Music Distributors C ompany, sole U.S. and Canadian a gent for Schott Music GmbH & Co. KG.

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152 G F Bb E A G) while the Algerian sings (F# B A E C F# D F# D). This has been compared to Don Carlos (1867). 55 Example 8 12 All Interval Row The chorus sings an all interval ro w (Example 8 12) when they act as a singular force in Scenes Two, Four, Six, Eight, and Nine 639 through 653. Vocal Style Beginning with Il Canto So speso (1955 5 6) to texts by condemned prisoners of the European Resistance, Nono created a new style of singing which fragments the text. These fragmentations would occur from a single line to diverse types of textural layering Nono also manipulated the text with the use of a polyphonic madrigal style s imilar to that of Dallapiccola. When the text is fragmented, it i s all about the acoustics and phonetic properties of words. D ocumentary materials are often spoken (which is more realistic and direct), whereas poetic texts are sometimes faded out, syllabl e by syllabl e, into complex choral textures. Solo ( Example 8 6) Use of Chorus There are nine different choral pieces in Intolleranza 1960 When the chorus is on stage, playing the part of the miners or prisoners, it is not actually singing. The choral parts are pre 55 ctic Listening: Quotation and Montage in the Work of Luigi Nono

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153 recorded on tape. For the premiere performance, the preparation of electronic parts and choral works on tape were made at the RAI phonology studio in Milan with the help of Bruno Maderna. According to Nono, the chorus should have a complementary relationship with the 56 The chorus interacts with the main characters in different ways, sometimes as a commentary maker (an autonomous voice), and other times as an amplification of the individual s feelings (which reminds the writer Der Rin g des Nibelungen (1848 74) and the impl treatment of a singular theme with a small cast and instrumental ensemble is in direct contrast hour, four opera cycle featurin g a large orchestra with repeated and numerous motifs). Theatrical Design trip to Prague. Nono met Alfred Radok (1914 76) in November, the creator of the Magic Lantern Theatre. In a letter Nono penned to Palmiro Togliatti (1893 1964), a leader of the Italian Communist Party, the composer discussed his Intolleranza 1960 and his meeting with Radok. Nono expressed his desire to have Radok direct Intolleranza 1960 57 Nono also met Josef Svoboda (1920 2002) and expe rienced his Magic Lantern system This theatrical machine, used ga rde theater in Czechoslovakia. Lantern techniques, whereby simultaneous projections are put onto moving curtains that are 56 133. 57 Nono, Letter to Palmiro Togliatti, 30 January 1961 9 11.

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154 different shapes. For the design of Intolleranza 1960 the artist Vedova painted a mixture of collage and abstraction that was projected on Figure 8 6. Emilio Vedova and Luigi Nono (Venice, 1961) 58 The protagonist, sung by a teno r, is an unnamed migrant worker. said the following regarding focus on In the theatre he felt there had to be a central figure, as a priest who officiates a rite. And so the music [and] th e sound should come from all s ides, not from a single source. The principle was that. 59 German Expressionism, especially of the stage, most certainly influence d Nono around the time he composed Intolleranza 1960 books from this period in his life, including Paolo Chiarini Il Teatro Tedesco E spressionista (1959) and Il T eatro E spressionista Tedesco (1956 ). Nono dedicated this work to Schnberg and his opera Die Gl ckliche Hand The Italian described his appreciation for this Austrian monodrama: 58 Image from Eugenio da Venezia. 59

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155 Die Glckliche Hand was the st art of a modern conception of theater. In this an illustration of the other but each characterizing independently various situations. The chorus has a double function: the so norous and purely visual color and form are integrated into the scene in an autonomous and symbolic use. 60 Intolleranza 1960 shares commonalities with the E Expressionist semi monodrama Die Gl ckliche Hand Th e features a nameless migrant worker. The extreme diss is repres entative of the horrors of the E xpressionist subject matter: persecution by Fascists racial intolerance and struggles for freedom. Nono used a novel vocal technique that divided an d overlapped s. Vocal man ipulation is also seen via shouting and S prechstimme which Schnberg created and featured in Die Glckliche Hand During times of great agitation, the singers will resort to Sprechstimme ; for example, in Scene Two of Part I, when the Woman (contralto) is told that her lover, the Emigrant, wants to leave, she uses Sprechstimme du wie and now you flee like the wind again! ) In the Teldec recording, the singer takes the liberty of using Sprechstimme arzes r black reptile black worm ). Marinella Ramazzotti compares Intolleranza 1960 to Sch Expressionist works Die Glckliche H and and Moses und Aron (1930 32). 61 Die Glckliche H and used light pr ojections to express the symbolic meani ngs of the drama. In Moses und Aron Schnberg r epresented the spreading of rumors via the use of speakers which would be moved at 60 Nono eatro Musicale Attuale, 421. 61 Ramazzotti Luigi Nono 73.

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156 different points in the hall. Each 46 part chorus member would be backstage and speak directly into their individual telephone, so that the parts would sound mixed together in the auditorium. Relevance and Application of Intolleranza 1960 The Dreyer Gaido label released a new CD of Intolleranza 1960 (ASIN: B00B2KW1MW) on 26 March 2013, featuring the Bremen Philharmonic Orchestra a nd conductor Gabriel Feltz. As discussed, more performances have taken place since the 50 th anniversary in 2011. This type of political drama can and should be reshaped for the time period in which it is presented. The images and projections could be upd ated. Many scenes are still relevant to current times: the flood, torture scene, interrogation, intolerance, and racism. Although the chorus parts are taped, the singing is very difficult in that it is a cappella a t times. The melodic content is almost non existent, there are wide leaps in the singing parts, and the text is frequently fragmented, although lyrical singing is required. The vocal ranges for all voices employ the extremes of pitch, while the complex and rigid rhythm in both orchestra and vo ices requires considerable practice. It is incredible to imagine that this work was rehearsed for such a short period of time before its first performance. Maderna arrived only one week before the Venetian premiere. It was said that the atmosphere was s trained until Maderna arrived. 62 The success of the premiere is really a testament to the high quality and ability of conductor Maderna, the BBC Symphony, and the vocalists. When Schonberg gave the weighty comment in his 1965 review that Intolleran za 1960 for a mass audience; however, the storyline is relatable to just about any culture during any time 62 Taibon, Luigi Nono und sein Musiktheater 62.

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157 of humanity. The Expressionist narrative of death, to rture, and pain are palpable in this opera. History does repeat itself, and, as long as there is war, famine, flooding, underpaid workers, and intolerance of differences, the messages of Intolleranza 1960 will have lasting relevance.

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158 CHAPTER 9 EXPRESSIONI ST ITALIAN ART WORKS Italian Expressionism Defined in Art As outlined Conversazione in Giardino Max Jacob Cafe Singer and Madame Kisling Amleto will be studied for Expressionist qualities, including: t he psychologically intense subject matter ; violent d istortion; subjectivity; strong colors; symbolic usage of color; angular and rhythmical areas of flat or dissonant co lors which clash violently; colors that are heavily out lined in black; rough nature of urban life; rejection of balance artist created the work as a reaction to a personal crisis. Medardo Rosso 1 Born on 21 June 1858 in Turin, Rosso was a reclusive sculptor. From 1875 to 1879, he attended the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan. After serving in the military, he continued his studies at Brera Academy for 11 months during 1882 and 1883. It has been widely reported that he was expelled from the Academy in 1883 for protesting against the traditional teaching methods. 2 In reality, Rosso was ultimately expelled because he p unched a student, Casimiro Ottone, who would not sign his petition. 3 preference of contemporary subjects. After returning to Milan from a brief trip to Paris, he married Guiditta Pozzi in April of 1885. The 1 There is nothing material in the Claris, mpression nisme en Sculpture: Lettres et O pinio ns de Rodin, Rosso, Constantin M eumier etc... 55. 2 3 Heckler, Century European Sculpture 67 6 8.

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159 cou ple had one child, Francesco Evviva Ribelle Rosso in November. That same year, Rosso entered a competition to create a funeral monument in reverence to the music critic Filippo Filippi (1830 87). His confident nature is revealed when, after quickly fini shing the statue, Medardo grave before the judges even selected a winner. Rosso enjoyed two periods of intense artistic activity. The first occurred about a year before his first visit to Paris in 1884. The second happened whil e he was studying in Paris from about 1889 through 1894. In 1889, Medardo separated from his wife and moved to Paris. He would later claim etwe en 1890 and 1893 emphasized psychological activity (e.g. Bambina che Ri de ( Laughing Girl ), 1890) as well as the connection between th e figure and its surroundings. Rosso became a friend of sculptor Rodin in 1894. The two sculptors agreed to exchange Rosso gave Petite Ri euse ( Small Laughing Girl ) to Rodin, and Rodin gave Rosso a torso, probably ( The Walking Man ) 4 too pleased, even though Rodin was much more p opular overall. Rosso accused Rodin of plagiarism when Rodin created Balzac protagonist was a copy of that of his Bookmaker Even though these accusations were never discussed in writing, the press pic ked up on the gossip and gave it some momentum for some tionship with Rodin dissolved in 1898. It is believed that the Italian 4

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160 Rosso w as fixated during his late years on the idea that Rodin did not acknowledge what Rosso Towards the end of the century, Rosso focused on promoting his work. He spent much of his last 20 years (1907 through 1928) producing repeated recastings of old works, but not creating new art. His major supporter and collector of his works was the Dutch artist and exhibition organizer Etha Fles (1857 1948). Rosso met Fles in 1900 at the Exposition acking, Rosso exhibited works in the Netherlands, Berlin, Leipzig, Vienna, and London through the early 1900s. Fles would sometimes accompany Rosso on his travels. The artist would spend most o f his time in Venice during World War I but also lived in Pa ris, Milan, and with Fles in the Swiss village of Leysin. 5 The relati onship cooled somewhat after World War I Fles wrote a book about Rosso in 1922, describing him as a 6 It has never been made clear as to whether Rosso and Fles were lovers or friends. While in Milan in 1899, Rosso wanted to take his then 14 year old son out of town but was not able to even see Francesco. Medardo had trouble seeing his son because his ex wife, Guiditta, who had since remarried, was adamant about distrusting and not seeing him. 7 He 5 Leysin is now an alpine resort village and major winter sports center, located in the Bernese Alps of the C anton de Vaud in the Aigle district of Sw itzerland However, in the 19 th century, the village attracted thousands of people treat the disease. Leysin was known for sanatoriums wi th tuberculosis sufferers until the end of World War II. Prisoners of war from many nationalities were collected from German prison camps at the end of World War I and st artist Kokoschka visited the Mont Blanc sanatori um in Leysin. It was at this time that he painted portraits of aristocrats who had tube rculosis, portraits which are viewed as the epitome of Expressionist portrait painting (e.g., his Conte Verona of 191 0, oil on canvas). 6 28. 7 Caramel, Medardo Rosso: Impressions in Wax and Bronze, 1882 1906 111.

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161 reunited with his son when Francesco was an adult. Francesco accompanied his father to Venice in 1914, and was by his side when he passed away. Figure 9 1. Medardo Rosso (date unknown) 8 In 1913, Rosso met the art critic and friend of Mussolini, Margherita Sarfatti. After World War I, Sarfatti took Rosso under her wing and invited him to participate in the Prima mostra del novecento italiano when six of his works appeared at the Exhibition of Modern Italian Art at the Grand Central Art Galleries in New York. In 1915, Rosso often met Modigliani in Paris. he Italian critic and painter Ardengo Soffici (1879 1964) of 1904. He was partly 8

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162 also wrote two books about Rosso: Il Caso Meda rdo Rosso ( The Case of Medardo Rosso ) (B. Seeber, 1909) and Medardo Rosso: 1858 1928 ( Vallecchi Editore 1929). Rosso left Paris in 1922 and spent most of his remaining years in Milan. Near the end of his life, Rosso, suffering from diabetes, had to have his leg amputated because he suffered injuries to his foot when photographic plates fell on it. His heart gave out after the amputation and he died on 31 March 1928 at the Evangelico Clinic on Via Monterosa in Milan. In common with Fre nch American painter, sculptor, writer, and chess player Marcel Duchamp (1887 1968) Rosso destroyed all of his correspondence at t he end of his life. A Question of Labeling Sometimes labeled as Impressionist, Post Impressionist, and Symbolist, Rosso always label. In his sculptures, R catch the immediate impact and freshness of direct vision in which changing atmospheric effects break up the permanent identity of the objec 9 Fles (a s recalled by Fles in 1922): through the window but the diverse tonalities absorbed or reflected by our souls. Every single thing we look at is determined by the state of ou r souls. Each moment of great agitation in the soul conveys to us a greater fullness of life and movement than the mass of material depictions labeled sculptural art. Light, air, and color cannot be restricted any more than our thoughts, our entire natur e, of lightning, it should only attempt to capture whatever moves him deeply, whatever he senses as a powerful phemonemon. ut bouge 10 Not a single body is delineated, detached from the 9 10 He must capture it; noth ing is fixed,

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163 atmosphere surrounding it. Each one is submerged in light. Each is only visible, only exists due to the vibrations of light waves. And if these vibrations were somewhat stronger, for example then probably very little of our person that is, of the contrast of tonal values which makes us perceptible at all would still be visible; perhaps only one dominant tone would remain. 11 above conveys to us a greater fullness of life and movement than the mass of material depict ions Rosso was a modeler, not carver, of sculpture and he commonly left the backs of his sculptures unfinished, so the positioning of the work, as well as its surroundings and conditions of lighting, were very important to him. He created his first sculptures in wax in 1883. He used an inventive technique of putting wax over plaster. Wax is malleable and is capable of conveying movement. Its use was popular among late 19th century French sculptors Rosso utilized small wax figures in his Impressionist works and these castings were usually variants of yellow. De realist, but [only as a] realist that [reveals] the enchanting beauty of nature, of feeling, [and] of the heart, representing the vices and virtues, the beautiful and the deformed. 12 Rather than the typical heroic character found in sculptures, 13 In October of 1889, Rosso was admitted to the Hpital Laborisire in Paris. He stayed fo r about one month. This is where he probably finished the Malato spedale ( The Sick at the 11 Schwarz et. al. Medardo Rosso 92. 12 De Gu bernatis, Dizionario d egli Artisti Italiani Viventi: Pittori, S cultori, e Architetti 4 36. 13 Sculptures by Jules Dalou 206.

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164 Hospital ), Bambino M alato ( Sick Child ), and Bambina che Ri de ( Laughing Girl ). 14 Rosso said s he has rec eived, communicate all that struck his own sensibility, so that looking at his work, one feels entirely the emotion he 15 Conversazione in Giardino A wax over plaster version of Conversazione in G iardino dated 1893 to 18 96, is housed at the Museo Medardo Rosso in Barzio. Francesco, cast the wax version of Conversazione and opened the Museo in 1928. The Museo houses works by Medardo Rosso that were collected from his studies located in Paris and Milan. The bronze version of this statue, created between 1896 and 1897 (or between 1892 and 1893) is between 20 to 50 kilograms in weight, and measures 32 centimeters by 66.5 centimeters by 41.4 centimeters Rosso would sometimes forget the dates of his works or get them confused, hence, the difference in dates. Conversazione was either created in London or Paris, although the (GNAM) claims it was created i n London in 1893. 16 Only the front side of the statue should be observed, as Rosso did not want the public to sculptures are symbolic of the dark side, the w ay in which his projects would undo themselves, 17 14 Caramel, Medardo Rosso 109. 15 Ibid., 5. 16 Barr, Medardo Rosso 71. 17 Cooper, Medardo Rosso: Second Impressions 21.

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165 The work, as of 2011, was in restoration at the GNAM. When it was displayed in the Sala del Giardiniere room, i t was positioned in the corner so that the backside was not visible. Exhibitions Francesco Rosso donated Conversazione in Giardino to the GNAM in 1931. Edmond Claris gave the work its first exhibition in 1901 with the title Conversation en Plein A ir ( Outdoor Conversation Conversazione was never exhibited in Figure 9 2. Conversazione in Giardino 18 Conversazione in Giardino : Descriptive Analysis The figures appear to be fused to the group. One of the women is supposed to be Anne Loustau Noblet (of the wealthy Parisian collectors, the Noblet family). The bronze sculpture has a flat bottom. Two women are sitting on a bench. The standing man is facing the women and appears to have his hands grasped behind his back. The standing figure has been identified as 18 Arte Moderna (Rome, Italy).

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166 Rosso. As mentioned before, the silhouette of the standing man has been compared with that of Balzac 19 The woman in the center appears to be talking to the other woman on the ri ght side of the bench. The woman in the center has a hat on and her right arm is extended and resting on her right knee, while her left knee is slightly elevated. The woman on the right side is lunging towards the other woman. Both women have gowns on. Expressionism in Conversazione in Giardino Although Rosso created Conversazione in Giardino about one decade before the Expressionism movement, it has Expressionist qualities. The sculpture is mostly abstract and there is a s trong feeling of tension in the synthesis between figure and setting. The sharp edges of the shapes create strain while a good bit of distance is conveyed between the standing man and the two seated women. Also, because the work has a fused quality, this creates distortion. The s ate of mind (the woman in the center of the statue) seems to be the focus of the work. Amedeo Modigliani La Vita un Dono dei Pochi si Molti di Coloro che sanno e che hanno a coloro che non sanno e che non hanno 20 Modigliani was born in Livorno on 12 July 1884 to a Sephardic Jewish line of intellectual aristocrats Dedo, as his family called him, had a maternal great great grandfather, Solomon Garsin, who, in the 18 th century, immigrated to Livorno as a refugee. L ivorno, a port city, had a large Jewish community and was a refuge for people who were persecuted for their beliefs. 19 Bacci, Impressions in Light: Photographs of S culptures by Medardo Rosso (1858 1928) 175. 20 ches of his from 1919 (Reischuck, Amedeo Modigliani: Art and Life 59).

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167 growing up, and this had a searing effect on his health as an adult; specifically, he suffered through three major illnesses, incl uding tuberculosis and typhus. Amedeo enrolled at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence in 1902. The following year, he moved to Venice and continued his studies at the Istituto di Belle Arti for three years move to Paris in 1906 induced what would be the str ongest influence on his works: the late portraits of Post Impressionist painter Paul Czanne (1839 1906) Wilkinson cites Portrait of Pedro (1909) which features a deep blue background with a blue black jacket and rich earth y colors of the face. These characteristics are implicit of the following structure and volume are defined by the accretion of tightly knit sequences of colour patche 21 Between 1909 and 1914, Modigliani created sculpture and was influenced by African art. This influence was reflected in the elongated style of his portraits. It is believed that Modigliani quit sculpting because the dust from the creat ion process would irritate and worsen his tubercular cough. He began a tumultuous two year relationsh ip with Beatrice Hastings (the pen name of Emily Alice Haigh (1879 1943)) in 1914. During this time, he painted portraits of friends, lovers, and colleag ues, including Diego Rivera (1914), Pablo Picasso (1915), Mose Kisling (1915) Max Jacob (1916), and Jean Cocteau (1916). Schmalenbach states that, via his port raits, Modigliani was a kind of vie bohme 22 In 1917, the French art dealer Berthe Weill (1865 1951) gave Amedeo his only one man exhibition in his lifetime at her gallery in Paris. 21 22 Schmalenbach, Amedeo Modigliani: Paintings, Sculptures, Drawings 25.

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168 nude paintings, and t he police closed the exhibition on the grounds of obscenity Th e same year, Modigliani met French artist Jeanne Hbuterne (1898 1920) with whom he lived until his death. Jeanne would be the subject of more than two dozen portraits painted by Amedeo. The couple, who had a common law marriage had one child Jeanne M odigliani (1918 84). The daughter titled Modigliani: Man and Myth Modigliani died of tubercular meningitis, aggravated by drugs and alcohol, in Paris on 24 January 1920. His wife Jeanne, who was eight months pregnant, committed suicide the next day by throwing hers elf from a fifth floor window. The Expressionist Lifestyle the controlled and restrained nature of his work, especially his portraits, provides an unusual polarity. Modigliani lived during the great movements of Fauvisme (led by Matisse) and Cubism (of F rench painter and sculptor Georges Braque (1882 1963) and Picasso) but his own style remained sing ular. For much of his life in Paris Mod igliani drank a good deal of alcohol (especially absinthe), used hashish and other drugs, and had affairs with numerous women ( including those who posed for his nude paintings). children. 23 Allegedly, the artist would often strip naked at social events. Other shenanigans included painting a mural on the walls of the bathroom of a cafe with his fellow alcoholic and painter friend Maurice Utrillo (1883 1 955). 24 There is a 2010 print ad for Grande Absente absinthe that pays tribute to Modigliani. 25 The author thinks the tribute is in bad taste, given that 23 ransit of Amedeo Modigliani 24 P 25 Homage a Modigliani

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169 In art circles, hashish, cocaine and opium were as common as wine. By the time he reached his 30s, Modigliani was losing his teeth 26 The artist created Pierrot (1915), a self portrait that he rendered at the same time as the three portraits discussed in this se ction Modigliani saw himself as Pierrot, the sad clown and candid poet. His portraits, according to Ibanez, always reflect the introverted attitude he had, 27 Ibanez claims that a painting is a 28 Ibanez goes as far ed out of proportion represent the the steady head from the impulsive body). 29 The half closed eyes frequently seen in his paintings represent, for Ibanez, Modi l immaturity and egocentricism. Colman claims that Modigliani had automorphic perception which is the tendency to perceive others as physically more similar to themselves than they actually are. 30 Most of his portraits from the later period portrayed elongated faces and necks, which were features that resembled his own. but not in the sense of the 26 he Misunderstood Death of Modigliani 27 P 28 Ibid., 1. 29 Ibid., 4. 30 Colman

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170 Mannerism movement; rather, the comp ositional tension and distortion known in Mannerism are reflected via the distorted and elongated features and use of vivid colors. 31 Secrest argues that Modigliani used drugs as a way of hiding his secret, which was the recurrence of his tuberculosis. She presses further and claims that the tuberculosis had returned spasmodic coughing, stretches of lassitude and bouts of erratic behavior. 32 This argument calls into question whether or not Modigliani warned his friends or lovers of his highly contagious disease. Modigliani rarely dated his works, so the dates assigned to pieces are speculative and and three feature films, the most well known being Modigliani (2004) starring Andy Garcia in the title role, Omid Djalili as Pablo Picasso, and Udo Kier as Max Jacob. An earlier French film is Montparnasse 19 or Les Amants de Montparnasse ( The Lovers of Montparnasse ) from 1958, starr ing J acques Becker, Gerard Philipe as Modigliani, and Lili Palmer. Max Jacob Max Jacob painted around 1916 in Paris, France, is currently on display at the Cincinnati Art Museum in Cincinnati, Ohio. The oil on canvas has dimensions of 92.7 by 60.3 centimeters There exists another portrait of Max Jacob (1876 1944) from the same year, wherein Jacob is wearing a black top hat, titled Portrait of Max Jacob (1916), which is housed at Kunstsammlung Nordrhein Westfalen in Dsseldorf. Mary E. Johnston gav e Max Jacob to the museum in 1959. Henri Pierre Roch of Paris owned the work from 1917 to around 1952, when he probably lent it to the Sidney Janis Gallery 31 Sutton, An Investigation i nto the Works of Amedeo Modigliani with Accompanying Analytical Dra wings Interpolating t hese Works 3. 32 he M

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171 in New York. The work was given to the Hanover Gallery in 1958, and, the following year, lent to Theodore Schempp of New York, after which it was sold to the Cincinnati Art Museum. Exhibitions The exhibitions of Max Jacob Arts Center, Cincinnati, 18 April 18 Italiane del XX th Palazzo Reale, Milan, Italy, 30 April Italy, 16 July 15 September, 1960. (Palazzo Reale, Milan, no 137; cat. p. 199 and repro. p. 90); Society, Edinburgh, Royal Scottish Academy, 17 August 16 September 1963 London, The Tate Gallery, 28 September 3 Novembe Art in Gropius Bau, Berlin, 7 May Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 18 October 2002 12 January 2003; Kimbell Ar t Museum, Fort Worth, 8 February 2003 25 May 2003; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 23 June 2003 Jewish Museum, New York, 21 May 2004 19 September 2004; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 23 Octob er 2004 23 January 2005; and Bornemisza, Madrid, 8 February 2008 18 May 2008. Max Jacob : Descriptive Analysis edged cheeks, jaw, and eyebrows. His nose is pointy and long. The dome of his bald ing head is enlarged. The focal point of his face is grey, oversized eyes. His face as a whole is expressionless and drab, although his mouth is s mall and uncomfortably pursed.

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172 With his overly n arrow and slight chest, Jacob seems to be sitting because his elbows are bent. His tie (which is unevenly tied), jacket, eyes, and the wall behind him are black. His vest is visible underneath his jack et. Grey is also a dominant color. Expressionism in Max Jacob heavily outlined with straight, sloppy, and black lines. His larger than life eyes and oversized head are indicative of the distortion used in Expressionism. Figure 9 3. Max Jacob 33 33 Courtesy of the Cincinnati Art Museum (Cincinnati, Ohio).

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173 Autobiographical Implications and Relationships Max Jacob, who was once friends with Modigliani but had a falling out, called him in Pro ud, angry, insensitive, wicked and rather stupid, 34 reflect on une simple grandeur fut v cue par un aristocrate, et nous t'aimions ( Your life was of a modest grandeur as lived by an aristocrat, and we love 35 Figure 9 4. ( From left to right ) Modigliani, Max Jacob Andr Salmon, Manuel Ortiz de Zarate 36 Jacob w as a Jewish poet from Brittany. He died in a Nazi concentration camp (Drancy internment camp) in 1944. Jacob had attempted suicide three times as a child. He is only 40 years old in the portrait, but appears to be older, probably due to his stressful life. 34 Secrest, Modigliani: A Life 2 25. 35 Lanthemann, Modigliani, 1884 1920, Catalogue Raisonne 17. 36 Picture taken by Jean Cocteau on 12 August 1916 around 3 :00 p m in front of the Bouleva rd de Montparnasse post office. Image from Panorama.

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174 Cafe Singer Modigliani painted Cafe Singer oil on canvas, in 1917 in Paris, France. Its dimensions are 92 by 60 centimeters The portrait is housed at the National Gallery of Art (NGA) in Washington, D.C. Cafe Singer and Madame Kisling were given to the NGA as a part of the Chester Dale Beques t. Cafe Singer is featured on the cover of the Journal of the American Medical Association (vol. 282, no. 24, 22/29 De cember 1999). There are facial similarities with that of Max Jacob (Figure 9 3 ), with the high forehead, sullen expression, small mouth, and gauntness. The NGA received this work on 5 February 1963, although the date given in the NGA archive is 16 December 1962. Leopold Zborowski of Paris owned the painting, as well as Gaston Menier of Paris, and the work was sold to Arthur Tooth & Sons o f London. The Chester Dale Collection purchased it from Arthur Tooth & Sons on 6 May 1927. Exhibitions Exhibitions of Cafe Singer 1884 1920 Retrospe ctive Exhibition of 1943 (illustrated h Century Paintings & Sculpture of the (illustrated p. 58); and 18 March 1984. Cafe Singer : Descriptive Analysi s green, and the irises are barely visible. Her eyes and face are almond shaped. She has a long forehead. She is slightly frowning and has flushing on her

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175 cheeks and neck. The length of neck is elongated and exaggerated. Her eyebrows almost disappear into the background. Her dark brown hair is parted left of center, her bangs are short and somewhat curly, and her long hair is in an up do. Figure 9 5. Cafe Singer 37 ess is black on the bottom half The top half of her dress has greens mixed with black and grey. Her shoulders are slight in build and s lumped Her right hand is neck neckline. A protrusion appears to exist on the outside of her right hip. The singer is holding a black parasol 37 C ourtesy of the National Gallery of Art ( Washington D.C.).

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176 or fan in her left hand (which is bar ely visible since it is a black object layered over her black dress). The background of the painting is a mixture of pale greens, blues, and greys. There is a division (lines) in the wall behind the singer, which are in line with her waistline. Modiglian a mirror Expressionis m in Cafe Singer is a way to intensify the mo emotional qualities. The m odel appears to be physically tired due to her terse expression, facial redness, and slouched posture. This portrait reflects the rough nature of The lower half of her dress contains bristly and d ownward paint strokes that are not filled in. Madame Kisling Madame Kisling oil on canvas, was commissioned around 1917 in Paris, France. Its dimensions are 46.2 by 33.2 centimeters As stated previously, the work is house at the NGA. It was first owned by Etienne Bignou of Paris. Chester Dale bought the work from Bignou from Leichester Galleries on 20 April 1927 for 215 pounds. Exhibitions Exhibitions of Madame Kisling the Chester Dale Collectio Art, Washington, D.C., 1952, reproduced (b/w) p. 43, 2 nd edition, 1960, reprod uced (b/w) p. 45;

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177 and an Anniversary Exhibition 18 March 1984, celebrating the centenary of the Madame Kisling : Descriptive Analysis Rene Kisling (1896 a white collared shirt with blue undertones, and a black jacket. Her wide neck is elongated and columnar, and her angular head is cocked to the right at a 45 degree angle. The lower part of the face is bending away from the viewer and to the left. Her eyes are especially large with greyish black color that covers almost the entire eye space so that the irises are barely visible. Her strawberry brown hair is in a fl apper style, cut just above the ears, with bangs hanging close to the eyes. Her nose, cheekbones, and chin are well defined a nd chiseled. One cheek is more ly moved to the right. The background has three panels of color: from left to right, grey, brown (almost black. There is a division on the left side of the background that is brown and cuts the painting in half ( very nearly matching the background color of the central panel). Modigliani signed his name on the bottom right side in black, which is barely noticeable since it is overlapping with the black jacket. Expressionism in Madame Kisling The few angular and s makeup as a meditative and reflective individual. Her large eyes and thick neck are out of proportion. Modigliani used a strong color (red) for her mouth and necktie a characteristic of Expressionist painting.

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178 Figure 9 6. Madame Kisling 38 Autobiographical Implications and Relationships Modigliani painted two portraits of Rene Kisling, the wife of Polish born French painter Mose Kisling (1891 1953). Rene was known for her strong personality and good nature. She representative of the bohemian counterculture of Paris. Her husband would later imitate her appearance. Modigliani was Mose Amedeo. At wedding party on 12 August 1917 Modigliani took center stage by 38 C ourtesy of the National Gal lery of Art ( Washington D.C.).

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179 wrapping himself in a sheet he snatched from the brida l bed and portraying the ghost of Hamlet's father. Rene was not amused. The wedding party went on for several days. F our days after the wedding, Mose was found passed out naked in the gutter on the Boulevard du Montparnasse. 39 Figure 9 7. Mose and Rene Kisling (date unknown) 40 Mino Maccari L ife is a factory of memories from the past. Our destiny is to create from the past 41 Maccari was born on 24 November 1898 in Siena. He had no formal artistic training and became known as th century. In 1913 Maccari partici pated as a volunteer in the first class of the Re gia Accademia Navale in Livorno, but he was declared unfit due to visual impairments. However, Maccari was called to arms in 1916, and, the following year, met his future wife, Anna Marie Sartori, in Modena. Maccari 39 40 Image from Flickr. 41 Maccari, Letter to Italo Cremona, 22 August 1935, XXXIX.

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180 participated in World War I as an artillery officer. During his service, he was taken prisoner by the Austro Germans and interned in Hungary in 1918 In 1920, aft er graduating from law school at the Facolt di Giurisprudenza of Siena participated in the March on Rome, and also became an attorney ass igned to the civi l and criminal court of Siena. That same year, he married Anna in Bologna, with whom he had four children: Duccio (1924), Marco (1930), Giuseppe (1937), and Bruna (1940). Maccari left his law firm in 1926 and focused on his reputation as an artist. In a handwritten postcard from 1931 to painter and printmake r Giorgio Morandi (1890 1964) Maccari expressed that, since he was unemployed, he would try painting, which he explained was a difficult medium for him. 42 is the only possib ility I have of remain of Fine Arts in Bologna. Nine years later, he was appointed Professor of Engraving in Naples, after which he moved to Rome and remained there until 1970. Mino teamed up with others to create Il Selvaggio produced from 1924 until 1943. Founded by Angiolo Bencini, the magazine also received contributions by f ascist artist intellectuals such as Soffici, Curzio Malaparte (1898 1957) Piero Bargellini (1897 1980) Giovanni Papini (1881 1956), Ottone Rosai (1895 1957) Berto Ricci (1905 41), and Leo Longanesi (1905 57). Maccari would see the publication through until its end as the managing director. II Selvaggio i Crisis of June of 1924. 43 From March of 1926 through December of 1930, the magazine was published in 42 Maccari, Letter to Gio rgio Morandi, 22 February 1931, LXI. 43 The Matteotti Crisis was a political c onfrontation between liberal s and the Fascist government that took place after Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated by Fascists in June of 1924. It was believed that this crisis wo uld affect opposition deputy.

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181 Florence. After being stationed in Turin between 30 January and 30 December 1931, the In the late 1920s, the magazine was known for its antimodernist leanings and it trashed a concoction 44 The group that created Il Sel vaggio promoted the Strapaese (super countryside) artistic movement. The Strapaese expou nded a rural populist Fascism. Strapaese sword the rural and village ch aracter of the Italian people, [to be] a bulwark against the invasions 45 This fascism is not to be confused with Nazism. One type of fascism, above all associated with Zeev Sternhell, 46 anti revision of Marxism. 47 Another type of fascism, related to Emilio Gentile, George Mosse, and Jeffrey Schnapp, has a pessimistic view of humankind where independent thought was discouraged and traditions were upheld. Both schools of thought sought to spiritualize politics. The Italian intellectuals of the day were well acquinted with Il Selvaggio They saw America as modernist, and believed it was disarming and corrupting Europe. When it came to race, the writers of Il Selvaggio wanted a purely Italian one, and wrote negatively about Americanism (as they equa ted it with Jews and Judaism) while also attacking Protestants, Anglo 44 Brose, 291. 45 Adamson 46 Sternhell, an Israeli historian and writer, was a leading expert on Fascism and posited that the beginnings of Fascism stemmed from revolutionary fa r wing groups: legitimism, orleanism, and bonapartism. 47 555.

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182 48 clearly summed up the modernist rhetoric: The province is healthy and the cities are polluted; the provinc es produce and the cities consume; the provinces create and the cities falsify; the provinces have faith in their ideals and the cities don't know what they believe; the provinces love sacrifice in order to make people more noble, the cities love money in order to doll themselves up and enjoy; the one wants men of action and thought, the other wants buffoons and schemers. 49 Initially, Maccari wished to use Il Selvaggio to amuse Mussolini, but later became a critic of While both the writers of Il Selvaggio and the Fascists were striving for the same romanticization of the simple past in the Il Selvaggio was similar to one of the most important magazines of German Expressionism, Der Sturm (1910 32), which was edited and published by Herwarth Walden. Like Il Selvaggio it contained poems, articles, prose, announcements of new books and events, as well as wood cuts and engravings on linoleum. Unlike Il Selvaggio which reminisced about the past, Der Sturm was focused on modern art that took the culture by storm. Maccari later became a regular contributor to the magazine Il Mondo (1949 66). After World War II the artist worked in the world of theatrical staging; for example, in October of 1950, he envisioned the sets and costumes fo Il Turco in Italia at Teatro Eliseo in Rome. The production featured American soprano Maria Ca llas (1923 77) and was directed by Gavazzeni Maccari passed away on 16 June 1989 in Rome. He was surrounded by his wife and children at their home. 48 49 Adamson, 561.

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183 Figure 9 8. Mino Maccari (1972) 50 Amleto The first print of Amleto was featured on page 53 of Il Selvaggio volume 12, number 10, on 31 December 1935. It was signed and numbered in black and measured 27 .5 by 26 .5 centimeters The print was created from a linoleum block which was 47 .3 by 34 .5 centimeters The work was corner of the page. The print featured the following poem as published in the previously mentioned edition of Il Selvaggio : 50 Ferdinando

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184 THE BRITISH HAMLET Chi punta e poi non spara un uomo nella bara Chi spara spera Chi non spara spira Chi il grilletto non pigia Pu far la valigia 51 A second version of Amleto appearing in 1943, was a print in color (black and yellow) measuring 28 .3 by 26 .1 centimeters There were 89 numbered copies, signed and titled Amleto Print number 60 is housed at the Tito Balestra Foundation in Longiano. In 1935, Maccari repeatedly worked with linoleum and engraving. In a letter to his fellow artist and friend, Italo Cremon a (1905 79), 52 which, to him, justified his existence. 53 On 5 December 1935, the British Foreign Secretary, Samuel Hoare, raised the possibility of a Franco British med iation f or Ethiopia (Hoare Laval Pact). 54 is a criticism of the British Prime Minister of the day, Stanley Baldwin. The Georgetown Library has an undated print of Amleto (it is possibly from the original 1935 version). It is likely that Maccari destroyed the actual wood block in order to prevent duplication. The engraving is cut into the end of the wood piece or end grain. The t ype of wood is unknown for this engraving. Milee St one Art Gallery of California gave the print to the 51 fire tip and then / He is a man in his coffin / Who shoots hope / Who fails to fire the loop / Who 52 Cremona and Maccari edited an idiosyncratic and satirical bi monthly magazine of art and literature called C ircolare Sinistra (Torino, 1955 56), which had contributors such as Salvador Dal (1904 89) and French surrealist painter Yves Tanguy (1900 55). 53 Maccari, Letter to Italo Cremona, 22 August 1935, XXXIX. 54 Under the Hoare Laval Pact Italy would gain the b est areas of Ogaden and Tigray, as well as economic influence over the southern portion of Abyssinia and a corridor t o the sea at the port of Assab. Mussolini almost agreed to the plan, but a negative commentary regarding the pact was leaked on 13 Dece mbe r. The British government reverted its commitment to the plan and both Hoare and French Prime Minister Pierre Laval were forced to resign.

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185 L ibrary on an unknown date The print has a yellow background. Although the donor insisted it was the wood engraved version, l inoleum was probably used for this print. Exhibitio ns h included 45 wood and plate engravings from 1920 t o 1987 55 From 8 May through 16 September 2007, Amleto Charles Marvin Fairchild Memorial Gallery at Georgetown University Library in Washington, D.C. The exhibition featured the colored print (which Georgetown labeled prin t 1 out of 19, pen cil signed, and measuring 28.3 by 26 .2 centimeters archive. The entire collection of Il Selvaggio which includes woodcut prints for much of its artwork, is housed in the Biblioteca Comunale in Col Amleto : Descriptive Analysis A young boy looks distressed with his left hand on his face while his eyes and mouth are sleeved coat or robe like top with a tied waistband, pants, and shoes. He holds a gun in a pointed position in his right hand. The right hand is noticea bly larger than the left hand. There are eight birds in all, and they look as if they want to peck the boy The birds appear t o be crows or ravens, but possess the longer beaks of storks. Two of the birds are arm. Of the two birds that are on top of the gun, one of them is peck ing at the barrel. The birds appear to be moving in a counter These bird s seem to be an omen of death. 55 Camemolla maggio a Mino Maccari 13 14.

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186 This skeleton could be represe ntative of the boy (like a relative) shape se On the right side of the artwork, t here is an alarm clock on top of a table that has a bell. The time is set to 6:33. The boy is leaning on the table with his left arm and sitting on a wooden stool. There is a pipe and matchsticks underneath his left arm. The floor looks like tile, while the wall appears to be wood. Figure 9 9. Amleto 56 56 Image used by permission of M arco Maccari (Cinquale, Italy) and courtesy of Christen E. Runge, Art Collection Special Collections Research Center, Lauinger Library, Georgetown University ( Washington, D.C.)

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187 Expressionis m in Amleto Amleto reflects a t roubled young version of the anti hero. The graphic style of the print is reflective of German Expressionism. Hamlet holds a gun and a skeleton grabs his leg. This The Expressionists common ly created woodcuts For example, in Moscow, Kandinsky published 12 2 primitive looking woodcuts t hat he called Poems Without Words (1903), cl early Songs W ithout Words (1829 45). In 1913, Kandinsky created a book of linked poems and woodcuts called Klnge (Sounds). He believed the work of art has to resonate as an expression of the inner sound. Autobiographical Implications and Relationships In the office of Il Selvaggio works of foreign artists who utilized Expressionism were on the walls, such as Kubin, George Grosz (1893 1959) Kokoschka, James Ensor (1860 1949), and Francisco Goya (1746 1828). These works had direct influence on Maccari as reflected in his illustrations and wood engravings for Il Selvaggio in the 1930s, including Amleto Expressionism in Italian Art Rosso was the only artist of the three to be labeled with a specif ic art movement, Impressionism. His works also reflected characteristics of other movements, including Realism, Symbo lism, and Expressionism. explored Cubism and Exoticism, but also had a deeply Expressionist touch in some of his portraits. Both Modigliani and Rosso made a stronger impact in France than their native country. They were not blessed with good health, nor did they have stable or long lasting relationships. climate of the day. Some of his draw ings are cartoon like, while paintings a nd woodcuts are

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188 Expressionist. Maccari was not a socialite like Modigliani, nor a recluse like Rosso. He remained a family man, and lived the longest. Though his life was difficult, Modigliani has been the most com mercially successful of the three men. In the Archives Lgales Amedeo Modigliani (Modigliani Archives) in Rome, there is a section that is exclusively focused on the rights to and reproduction of his artwork. hat the writer recently spotted a print ad at Panera All artists in this study were affected by either the displacing and unnerving effects of war, or their own internal war, especially Modigliani. The aesthetics of Expressionism were These artists contributed to the Expressionist aesthetic through specific works. R Conversazione in G iardino conveys tension between people and insinuates psychological Max Jacob Cafe Singer and Madame Kisling all contribute to an Expressionist tone with hollow and vacant eyes, sharp and angular feature s, tense mouths, and Amleto portrays an antagonizing and tension filled scenario, depicting violence, lack of courage, and death.

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189 CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION becomes one single, piercing shriek. Art screams too, into the deep darkness, screams for help, for the spirit. 1 The Expressionism label can be applied to an individual piece of music or art; however, this descriptive is often shared with other styles (s uch as Impressionism and Realism). The author succeeded in finding Expressionist qualities within the analyzed works. Expressionism within Italy was fueled by social, political, and personal events in the essionism in Italy provided a meaningful discussion of how artistic movements affected communities outside of the standard area of Expressionism. Italian Expressionism and composers and a rtists studied in this document are not typically included in standa rd undergraduate music and art textbooks; rather, these textbooks treat the movement as a localized event. For example, the 9 th edition of Music: An Appreciation makes no mention of Malipiero, Dallapiccola, or Nono, and Rosso, Modigliani, and Maccari receive no acknowledgment in of Western Art Both textbooks treat Expressionism as an Austro German movement. Expressionism was not just an Austro German trend. The two W orld Wars directly affected artists and the sentiment of Expressionism pervaded throughout Western Europe. The term Expressionism, therefore, can have a more expansive application. Expressionism in Musical Works Expressionist qualities were discovered in Pantea and Sette Canzoni Canti di Prigionia and Il Prigioniero Intolleranza 1960 The third, 1 Quote by Hermann Bahr (1863 1934), Austrian critic, writer, playwright, and director, who wrote about Expressionism in his Expressionismus of 1916. From Furness Expressionism 48.

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190 fourth, and fifth works had Expressionist titles, while all compositions had highly emotional content. l crisis during World War I inspired Pantea a work about imprisonment. Pantea embodies Expressionism because of its subject matter: Pantea, the main character, is imprisoned; Pantea has halluncinations and unattainable desire; the piece is short; the sa vage and wordless baritone tempts Pantea to leave her prison where she faces death; wordless singing (which is similar to speechlike singing or Sprechgesang ); the heavy application of chromaticism; light versus dark musical moments; mixed meter with dramat ic shifts; contrasting and extreme dynamics; like singing; archaic canon representing Death; use of old Italian poetry; and repeated motives. Sette Canzoni features dichotomous situations wherein none of the c haracters are given formal names, the work is quick moving without pauses, Sprechgesang is used, savage behavior is displayed, there is frequent chromaticism, tension is created by contrasting and layered panels of music, mixed meter is utilized, contrasti ng and extreme dynamics are given, dramatic singing and mental instability are conveyed, and darkness versus light is featured in each song. lif e: his wife, who w as Je wish, had to hide during World War II, and he spent over a year i n internment in Graz during World War I Through Canti di Prigionia Dallapiccola made his r acial policies. Both Il Prigioniero and Canti di Prigionia share an Expressionist theme of imprisonment, the gloomy Dies Irae plainchant, and some serialism. Canti di Prigionia also utilizes Expressionist charactertistics such as t exts about those who were imprisoned and executed, Sprechgesang via choral murmuring, chromaticism, distortion via the use of the 12

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191 tone mode of composition in contrast with tonality rhythmic insta bility, contrastin g dynamics, and exaggeration via the octave doublings that o ccur throughout the work. Expressionism signified in Il Prigioniero included: The Prisoner who is imprisoned and is never free, use of Sprechgesang chromaticism, tension generated by three ricercares, use of mixed meter, a short plot, contr asting and ex treme dynamics, The Prisoner savage behavior and the three 12 tone rows which represent significant events German Expressionism, especially of the stage, most certa inly had influence on Nono around the time he composed Intolleranza 1960 World War II, the Nazi occupation, and the Resistance were reflected in his works during this time. Intolleranza 1960 featured Expression ist properties: intolerance; oppression; the main character, an Emigrant, who leaves the mine to go home and feels free, but is killed by a flood when he is home so he is never free; use of Sprechstimme in stressful moments; a short length; intervallic em phasis on minor seconds; savage characters like the Policemen who do not sing but instead shout or speak; blocking and layering of sound by voi ces and orchestra; rhythmic insta bility throughout; the application of the Magic Lantern and images of dramatic a nd violent events; extreme expression and dynamics; extremes in the vocal ranges of all singers; and the employment of serialism in contrast with intervallic relationships and emotionality. Expressionism in Art Works Conversazione in Gi ardino Modi Max Jacob Cafe Singer and Madame Kisling Amleto had Expressionist attributes. Based on title alone, there is no indication of Expressionism. Amleto was created via woodcut, the medium that the Austro German Expressionists favore d The other favored medium was painting, used by Modigliani.

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192 Rosso had great difficulty in finding popularity and recognition, and his strained relationship with a more famous sculptor, Rodin, may have caused this lack of acknowledgment. Rosso also was separated from his son during developing years. Th e calamities of life can be found in some of his sculptures including the Conversazione in G iardino a mostly abstract work that conveys great tension between the people as well as their surroundings. Modigliani grew up poor, had horrible illnesses, and dr ank himself to death; hence, he lived his life in a signaturely Expressionist way. His paintings were autobiographical and solemn. Max Jacob is overwhelmed by angular lines and geometrical shapes. In Cafe Singer the model is physically stressed: she i s frowning and has flushing on her cheeks and elongated neck. The angular and sure lines in Madame Kisling give insight into Rene personality. Maccari served as an artillery officer in World War I and experience d imprisonment via intern ment. Because his life intersected with the trauma of war and internment, his historically significant Amleto fits the Expressionist definition better than the works of Modigliani and Rosso that the author analyzed. The Amleto woodcut print refected Macc political stance and the harsh climate of the world. The depiction of a troubled and young anti hero and graphic style of the print is emblematic of German Expressionism. Connections There are multiple connections between the artists discussed in th is dissertation. Malipiero taught Nono and corresponded with Dallapiccola and Nono. Nono studied under the conductor Scherchen, who conducted works by Malipiero and Dallapiccola. Dallapiccola and Nono wrote letters to one another, and Nono was inspired tone mode of composition. Dallapiccola and Maccari were interned, while Malipiero was displaced due to wartime circumstances. Modigliani and Rosso connected in Paris. Both Italians turned

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193 Frenchmen lived in and made a career in Fran ce. Maccari and Rosso were friendly with Soffici, the Fascist intellectual, writer, and painter. Maccari and Rosso served in the Italian military. Reflection, Receptivity and Further Study The Italian musical and artistic traditions were different from that of the Germans and Austrians who created their works directly under the influence of Freudian psychology Expressionism has Austro German origins because of psychoanalysis. Th e Expressionist works of the Italians alluded to more of a stylized repres entation of the emotions as well as the emotions of the composer unlike that of the Austro Germans who were concerned with digging deeper into the inner psyche and conscience. The author believes the Italian works utilizing Expressionism had a broader reach than those of the Austro Germans. The musical works in this document generally received more acceptance from the audience and critics than the sometimes limiting works of Sc hnberg Schnberg has said that he did not care about the reception of his works: When I was younger I used to be very d not care. regardless of the public reception afraid I shall hav e to look to the future for it. 2 More exploration of the movement could include an Expressionist analysis of additional individual works by the aforementioned Italian artists, as well as works by their friends or colleagues, including Berio and Picasso. Asking what influence the wars had on an artist and how their feelings and struggles were reflected in their work opens up a large area of musical psychoanalysis. Thes e questions could be posed to more modern works that ref lect the Expressionist sentiment. 2 usic?

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194 The designation Expressionism is not a one size fits all term; rather, its application is dependent upon the individual piece of music or art. In this vein, the works discussed in this dissertation are models for Italian Expressionism.

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195 LIST OF REFERENCES Adams Laurie Schneider A History of Western Art (3 rd ed.; Boston, Mass. : McGraw Hill, 2001). Adamson, Walter L. The Culture of Italian Fascism and the F ascist Crisis of Modernity: The Case of II Selvaggio, Journal of Contemporary History 30/4 (Oct. 1995) 555 75. Trans. by Susan H. Gillespie Essays on Music (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002) 135 61. Giornale del Mattino (Firenze, 15 April 1961). Ambros, August Wilhelm The Boundaries of Music and Poetry Trans. by J. H. Cornell (New York: G. Schirmer, 1893). Announcement for Die Orpheide by Gian Francesco Mal i pier o (Groes Haus, Hindenburgwall, 31 October 1925). Arasimowicz George Luigi Dallapiccola Canti di Prigonia Ex Tempore 2/1 (1982) http://www.ex tempore.org/george/george.htm Argon, Guilio Carlo Una Ierofania che Rivela il Simbolo Sotto la Sembianza E rlani SvobodaMagika: Polyvisioni sceniche di Josef Svoboda: Intolleranza 1960 di Nono, Faust interpretato da Strehler, La Traviata di Verdi Soqquadri (Matelica, Italy: Halley, 2006) 131 38. Arnason, H. Harvard History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Photography ( 5 th ed.; Upper Saddle River N.J .: Prentice Hall, 2004). Aronowitz The Oxford Companion to Western Art ed. by Hugh Brigstocke, Oxford Art Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordartonline.com _____ Brcke, Die The Oxford Companion to Western Art ed. by Hugh Brigstocke Oxford Art Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordartonline.com _____ Expressionism The Oxford Companion to Western Art e d. by Hugh Brigstocke Oxford Art Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordartonline.com Bacci, France sca. Impressions in Light: P hotogra phs of Sc ulptures by Medardo Rosso (1858 1928) (Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University, 2004).

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196 Banks usic? Los Angeles Times ( 27 June 1937) Arnold Schnberg Center http://www.schoenberg.at/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1020&Item id=735&lang=de Barr, Margaret Scolari. Medardo Rosso (New York: A rno Press, 1972). Bartk, Bla. A kkszakll herceg vra (Moscow: Muzyka, 1969). Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com Brindle, Reginald Smith. The Musical Times 97/1356 (February 1956) 75 76 Brose, Eric Dor Attitudes toward Technology in Germany and Italy, 1919 19 45 German Studies Review 10/2 (May 1987) 273 97 Brunk Medardo Rosso (Dsseldorf: Richter Verlag, 2004) 14 39. Caldwell, John Grove Music Online Oxford Music Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com nde O Strapaese ( September 1998 ) 13 14. Caramel, Luciano. Medardo Rosso: Impressions in Wax and Bronze, 1882 1906 (New York: Kent Fine Art, 1988). Claris, Edmond. Constantin Meumier etc... (Paris: La Nouvelle Revue, 1902). Colman Andrew M A Dictionary of Psychology Oxford Paperback Re ference (3 rd ed.; Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) 71. Comerlati Doriana, ed. Modigliani: The Melancholy Angel (New York: Rizzoli International Pub., 2002). Cooke, Mervyn. The Cambridge Companion to T wentieth C entury Opera ( Ca mbridge University Press, 2005). Cooper, Harry, et. al. Medardo Rosso: Second Impressions (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003).

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197 The New York Times (18 March 2011) http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/20/books/review/book review modigliani by meryle secrest.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 Crawford, Dorothy L. and John C. Crawford. Expressionism in Twentieth Century Music (Bloomington, Ind. 1993 ). Die Glckliche Hand Gesamtkunstwerk The Musical Quarterly 60/4 (October 1974) 583 601. Dallapiccola, Luigi. Canti di P rigionia (Milano: Carisch, 1939 ). _____. Dallapiccola on Opera: Selected Writings ed. by Rudy Shackelford. Musicians on Music I ( London: Toccata Press, 1987). _____. Il P rigioniero ( Milano: Suvini Zerboni, 1948). _____. Letter to Gi an Francesco Malipiero, 16 February 1950. Firenze: Fondo Dallapiccola Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux _____. Letter to Luigi Nono, 23 April 1961. Firenze: Fondo Dallapiccola Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux _____. Letter to Wladimir Vogel, 18 December 1939. Firenze: Fondo Dallapiccola Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux _____. Letter to Wladimir Vogel, 3 January 1940. Firenze: Fondo Dallapiccola, Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux _____ ew: Essays on Twentieth Century C h o ral Music by T hose Who Wrote I t ( Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963) 159. ______ Deryck Cooke Music Survey 4/1 (1951) 318 32. _____ Parole e M usica (Milan: Il Saggiatore, 1980) 171 78. _____ and Jonathan Schiller. Canti The Musical Quarterly 39/3 (July 1953) 355 72 Modigliani, Chagall, Soutine, Pascin: Some Aspects of Expressionism Trans. by Lucia Krasnik (Milan: Edizioni del milione, 1953).

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198 Davismoon, Stephen, ed. Luigi Nono (1924 1990): Fragments and Silence Contemporary Music Review 18/ 2 (Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999). _____, ed Luigi Nono (1924 1990): The Suspended Song. Contemporary Music Review 18/1 (Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999). De Benedictis, Angela Ida. o del VeneziaMusica e dintorni 35 ( July 2010 ) 12 15. _____ and Giorgio Mastinu, ed s. Intolleranza 1960: a nni dalla Prima A ssoluta (Venezia: Marsilio Editori, 2011). The Dramaturgical and Compositional Genesis of Luigi Nono's Intolleranza 1960 twentiethcentury music 9 (2012) 101 41. D e Carvalho : Quotation and Montage in the Work of Luigi Nono, Stephen Davismoon, ed. Luigi Nono (1924 1990): Fragments and Silence Contemporary Music Review 18/ 2 (Netherlands: Har wood Academic Publishers, 1999) 37 85. De Gubernatis, Angelo. Dizionario degli Artisti It al iani Viventi: Pittori, Scultori e Architetti (Firenze: Le Monnier, successori, 1889). Donahue, Neil H., ed. A Companion to the Literature of German Expressionism (Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House, 2005). Dallapiccola and the Politics of Commitment: Re R eading Il P rigioniero Radical Musicology 2 (2007) http://www.radical musicology.org.uk/2007/earle.htm Eugenio da Venezia http://www.eugeniodavenezia.eu/e n/amici_pittori.php?id=6 Expressionism The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms Oxford Art Online Oxford University Press http://www.oxfordartonline.com Fanning, David Expressionism Grove Music Online Oxford Music Online Oxford University Press http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com Fearn Raymond. Italian Opera since 1945 (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997). _____. The Music of Luigi Dallapiccola (Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2003). _____. Vol o di N otte and Il P rigioniero Italian Opera since 1945 (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publi shers, 1997) 1 22.

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199 Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/37892495@N08/3557461074/ Foster, Hal, et al. Art Since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism (New York, N Y .: Thames & Hudson, 2004). Furness, R.S. Expressionism Critical idiom (London: Methuen, 1973) vol. 29. Grove Art Online Oxford Art Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordartonline.com Gara, Eugenio. Intolleranza 1960 in (Milano: 23 April 1961). Gelli, Piero, and Filippo Poletti eds. pera Boe ( Ed. a ggiornata ; Milano: Baldini Castoldi Dalai 2007) vol 124. Portale di Rodoni http://www.rodoni.ch/malipiero/immagini/nonorid.jpg Music Sales Classical http://www.musicsalesclassical.com/composer?category=Works&workid=10348 Gilbert, Janet Monteith. Dialectic Music: An A na s Intolleranza (D.M.A. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 1979). Griffiths Paul Expressionism The Oxford Companion to Music e d. by Alison Latham Oxford Music Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com Grout, Donald and Claude Palisca A History of Western Music (5 th ed.; New York, N Y .: Norton & Company, 1996). Hahl Koch, Jelena, ed. Arnold Schoenberg/Wassily Kandinsky: Letters, Pictures and Documents Trans. by John C. Crawford ( Boston Mass.: Faber and Faber, 1984). Hanslick, Eduard The Beautiful in Music: A Contribution to the Revisal of Musical A esthetics (London: N ovello Ewer and Co., 1891). Hawley, Henry. The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 58/7 (September 1971) 199 209. Heckler, Sharon Haya. elf: Medardo Rosso and the Role of the Imagination in Nineteenth C entury European Sculpture ( Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1999).

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200 Henri, Leigh, Opera di Gian Francesco Malipiero, Saggi di Scrittori Italiani e St ranieri con una I ntroduzione di Guido M. Gatti, Seguiti dal Catalogo delle di Guido M. Gatti Seguiti dal Catalogo delle O pera con utore e da Ricordi e Pensieri dello St esso (ed. di Treviso; Treviso, Libreria Canova, 1952) 7 15 Ibanez, Felix Marti. Gentry 8 (F all 1953 ) 1 4 Illiano, Roberto, ed. Italian Music During the Fascist Period (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2004). Italiani Radiotelevisione L etter to Luigi Dallapiccola, 17 January 1949 Firenze: Fondo Dallapiccola Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux Kamien, Roger. Music: An Appreciation ( 9 th ed.; New York, N Y .: The McGraw Hi ll Companies, Inc., 2008). X III Maggio Musicale Fiorentino. VII Cong Music Review 11/3 (August 1950) 210 12 Kelly, Kevin Intolleranza 1960 in The Boston Globe (Boston, Mass.: 22 February 1965) 21. Ken nedy, Michael and Joyce Bourne Kennedy. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of M usic ( 5 th ed.; Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007 ) Kleiner, Fred S. and Christin J. Mamiy a. of Western Art (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing, 2007). KPFK Folio 90.7 FM, page 10, Internet Archive http://www.archive.org/stream/julyfolio68kpfkrich/julyfolio68kpfkrich_djvu.txt Kultur im BR: Trends aus Literatur, Film und Musik http://www.br.de/themen/kultur/inhalt/literat ur/luigi dallapiccola100~_v image853_ 7ce44e292721619ab1c1077f6f262a89f55266d7.jpg?version=aa5c3 Medardo Rosso, http://medardorosso.org Lanthemann, J. Modigliani, 1884 1920, Catalogue Raisonne 1970). Levi, Erik, Roberto Illiano, ed. Italian Music During the Fascist Period (Turnhout, Belgiu m: Brepols, 2004) 3 40.

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201 Lombardi, Fran Liner notes for Dallapiccola: Il Prigioniero (Sony Classical SK 68323, 1995) 6 8. rima a Venezia Luigi Nono? Intolleranza 1 La Suisse (Ginevra, 10 May 1961). Maccari, Mino. Letter to Giorgio Morandi, 22 February 1931, Omaggio a Mino Maccari: Nel Centenario della Nascita Il Lungo Dialogo di Maccari con il suo T empo : M ostra A ntologica 1921 1989 ed. by Giuseppe Nicoletti (Firenze: Edizioni Pan anti, 1998) LXI. _____. Letter to Italo Cremona, 22 August 1935, Omaggio a Mino Maccari: Nel Centenario della Nascita Il Lungo Dialogo di Maccari con il suo T empo : M ostra A ntologica 1921 1989 ed. by Giuseppe Nicoletti (Firenze: Edizioni Pan anti, 1998) XXXIX. _____ Mino Maccari (Bologna: Galleria La nuova loggia, 1970). Grove Art Online Oxford Art Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordartonline.com Gazzettino di Venezia ( 19 January 1963). _____. Letter to Luigi Dallapiccola, 9 December 1949. Firenze: Fondo Dallapiccola Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux _____ Pantea: Dramma Sin fonico (London: J. & W. Chester, Ltd., 1920). _____. Sette Canzoni (London: J. & W. Chester, 1919). Malipiero, Riccardo. Luigi Dallapiccola: Saggi, Testimonianze, Carteggio, Biografia e B ibliografia ed. by Fiamma Nicolodi (Milano: Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, 1975). Mariani, Renato, Gli Herzgewchse C. Orselli, ed. Historiae Musicae Cultores (Firenze: Olschki, 1976) vol. 30 http://www.rodoni.ch/malipiero/marianipantea.html Matthews, Charles, Ten Pages (or More) http://tenpagesormore.blogspot.com/2011/07/6 modigliani life by meryle secrest pp.html Meloni, Francesco. Mino Maccari: Catalogo Ragionato delle Incisioni (Milano: Electa, 1979). http://www.rodoni.ch/malipiero/mila.html

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202 _____ rig La rassegna musicale 20/4 (October 1950), 303 11. http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=SearchResult&STID=2S5RYD5GY4U Mitchell, Donald. The Musical Times 95/1336 (Jun e 1954) 325. Modigliani, Amedeo, Cafe Singer National Gallery of Art (Washington, D.C.) http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art ob ject page.46519.html _____ Madame Kisling National Gallergy of Art (Washington, D.C.) http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art object page.46650.html ___ __ Max Jacob Cincinnati Art Muse um (Cincinnati, Ohio) http://www.cincinnatiartmuseum.org/explore/collection/collections/?u=6037581 Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America (New York, N Y .: Norton, 1991). Mullarkey Maureen ransit of Amedeo Modigliani The Weekly Standard 16/29 (11 April 2011 ) http://www.weeklystandard.com/articles/modern martyr_556137.html Radio 3 http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b019lzms Music Review 27/4 (November 1966) 294 312 _____. The Twelve Tone Compositions of Luigi Dallapic The Musical Quarterly 44/3 (July 1958) 289 310. Nono, Luigi La Ressegna Musicale No. 31 (1961), 418 24. _____ Intolleranza 1960 (Mainz: Ars Viva Verlag, 1962). T rans. by Kenneth Chalmers. Liner notes for Intolleranza 1960 (Teldec 4509 97304 2, 1995) 10 24. _____. Letter to Palmiro Togliatti, 30 January 1961, Luigi Nono: Carteggi, C oncernenti Politica, Cu ltura e Partito Comunista I taliano ed. by Antonio Trudu. Studi di musica veneta 3 (Firenze: Leo S. Olschki, 2008) Archivio di Luigi Nono, 9 11.

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203 Time 85/10 (5 March 1965) 66 67. Wine Spectator (30 April 2010) 80. Tempo no. 12 (September 1945) 12 13 Panorama http://www.panorama.it/images/j/e/jean cocteau amedeo modigliani max jacob/19664331 3/Jean Cocteau Amedeo Modigliani Max Jacob_gal_landscape.jpg Gli Agenti Minacciava no di Espellere ohi P rot Avanti! (Milano: 16 April 1961 ) nni della Favola del Figlio Ca mbiato Illiano, ed. Italian Music During the Fascist Period (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2004), 401 26. us ica Contemporanea pera (Intollera nza 1960) nel suo Complesso ha S t upito e Disorientato ma non ha C La Tribuna del Mezzogiorno (14 April 1961). Program notes for Pantea by Gian Francesco Malipiero, 1964 1965 season, no. 8 (Rome: Teatro 15. Puccini, Giacomo. Tosca (Mineola, N .Y.: Dover Publications, 1991). Ramazzotti Marinella. Luigi Nono Nuovi Mondi S ono pos, 2007) vol. 1. Randel, Don Michael, ed. The Harv ard Dictionary of M usic ( 4 th ed .; Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003 ) 303. Ransom, Lynne M. (D.M.A. dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1987). Reischuck Albert W. Amedeo Modigliani: Art and Life (M.A. thesis, Kent State University, 1991). Intolleranza 1960 in Le Monde (Paris: 28 March 1971). Richard, Lionel. Phaidon E ncyclopedia of Express ionism: Painting and the Graphic Arts, Sculpture, Architecture, Literature, Drama, the Expressionist Stage, Cinema, M usic (Oxford: Phaidon, 1978).

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204 Rinaldi, M pari: Intolleranza 1960 Il Messaggero di Roma (Firenze: 15 aprile 1961). Ritardi, Veniero. Nono ricorda Intolleranza 1960 VeneziaMusica e dintorni 35 (Venezia: Euterpe Venezia, July 2010) 16 19. Roderick, Peter. Rebuilding a Culture: Studies in Italian Music after Fascism, 1943 1953 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of York, 2010). The Oxford Companion t o Western Art e d. by Hugh Brigstocke, Oxford Art Online Oxford Univ ersity Press, http://www.oxfordartonline.com icizia tra G. F. Malipiero e A. Lualdi alla Luce di Alcune Lettere I Italian Music During the Fascist Period (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2004), 427 546. Rostand, Claude. Au Festival de Musique C ontempo O pra de Luigi Nono. De notre Envoy S Le Monde Paris ( Paris: 17 April 1961). Scarpa, Gino ed. Oper a di Gian Francesco Malipiero, Saggi di Scrittori Italiani e S tranieri con una I ntroduzione di Guido M. Gatti, Seguiti dal C atalogo delle di Guido M. Gatti utore e da Ricordi e Pensieri dello S tesso (ed. di Treviso; Treviso, Libreria Canova, 1952). Schlmp, Tilman. Gian Francesco Malipieros Musiktheater Trilogie Hochschulschriften XXXVI (Frankfurt am Main; New York: Peter Lang, 1999) Musikwissenschaft, vol. 188. Schmalenbach, Werner. Amedeo Modigliani: Paintings, Sculptures, Drawings (Munich: Prestel Verlag, 1990). The New York Times (February 22, 1965) 15. Schwarz, Dieter, et. al. Medardo Rosso (Dsseldorf: Richter Verlag, 2004). Secrest, Meryle. Modigliani: A Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2 011). The Musical Quarterly 67/3 (July 1981) 405 36. Pacific Coast Philology 13 (October 1978) 94 100.

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205 Shawn, Allen. (Boston, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003). Sills, Beverly and Lawrence Linderman. Beverly: An A utobiography (Toronto ; New York: Banta m Books, 1987). Simms, Bryan R., Mu sic of the Twentieth Century: Style and Structure (2 nd ed.; New York: Schirmer Books; London: Prentice Hall International, 1996). Slonimsky, Nicolas, ed. (8 th ed.; New York: Schirmer Books, 2001). Soby, James Thrall and Alfred H. Barr, Jr. Twentieth Century Italian Art (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1949). Spangemacher, elationship between Luigi Nono and Arnold Schnberg Stephen Davismoon, ed. Luigi Nono (1924 1990): The Suspended Song Contemporary Music Review 18/1 (Netherlands: Harwood Aca demic Publishers, 1999) 31 46. Staines, Joe et. al. The Rough Guide to Classical Music (5 th ed.; London; New York: Rough Guides, 2010). Stolba, K. Marie. The Development of Western Music: A History (2 nd ed.; Madison, Wis.: Brown & Benchmark, 1994). The Nation 112/2918 (New York: The Nation Company, 1921) 822. Sutton, Gary L. An Investigation into the Works of Amedeo Modigliani with Accompanying Analytical Drawings I nterpolating t hese W orks (M.S. thesis, Central Missouri State College, 1967). SvobodaMagika: Polyvis ioni S ceniche di Josef Svoboda: Intolleranza 1960 di Nono, Faust I nterpretato da Strehler, La Traviata di Verdi Soqquadri (Matelica, Italy: Halley, 2006) 145 48. Taibon, Mateo. Luigi Nono und sein Musiktheater (Wien: Bhlau, 1993). Vlad, Roman. Luigi Dallapiccola Trans. by Cynthia Jolly (Milano: Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, 1957). Vogel, Wladimir. L etter to Luigi Dallapiccola, 18 December 1939. Firenze: Fondo Dallapiccola Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario G. P. Vieusseux

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206 Vogt Paul and Ita Heinze Greenberg Expressionism Grove Art Online Oxford Art Online Oxford University Pres s, http://www.oxfordartonline.com Waterhouse John C. G. T Tempo New Series, no. 199 (January 1997) 47 48. _____ Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 108 (1981 1982) 126 40. _____ Gian Francesco Malipiero 1882 1973: The Life, Times, and Music of a Wayward Ge nius (London, U.K.: Routledge, 1999). _____ Malipiero, Gian Francesco Grove Music Online Oxford Music Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com _____. The Musical Times 110/1518 (August 1969) 826 28. _____ The New Grove Dictionary of Opera ed. by Stanley Sadie Grove Music Online Oxford Music Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com _____, ed. Malipiero: Scrittura e Critica Curated by Maria Teresa Muraro (Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore, 1984). Grove Music Online Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com The Musical Times 102/1420 (June 1961), 366. Wilkinson, Alan G., Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordartonline.com Grove Music On line Oxford Music Online Oxford University Press, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com DISCOGRAPHY Dallapiccola, Luigi. Dallapiccola: Il Prigioniero. CD; includes Ca nti di Prigionia Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and Choir, Esa Pekka Salonen, conductor (Sony Classical SK 68323, 1995). Malipiero, Gian Francesco. 2 CDs. Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Hermann Scherchen, conductor (Tahra TAH 190 191 1996).

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207 Nono, Luigi. Intolleranza 1960. CD. Staatsoper Stuttgart, Bernhard Kontarsky, conductor (Teldec 4509 97304 2, 1995).

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208 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Emil y A. Bell received her Ph.D. from t he University of Florida in December of 2013 Hailing from Gainesville, Florida, she received her B.M. in Voice Performance from Oberlin College Conservatory of Music and M.A. in Arts Administration from Florida State University. As a graduate assistant at the University of Florida Emily taught an introductory music history class fo r non music majors. While pursuing her Ph.D., she sang in the Opera program at the University and also at community events. Emily has enjoyed presenting her resear ch at regi onal and national conferences including those of the College Music Society and t he National Association for Humanities, and also at the Pacific Northwest Musi c Graduate Students Conference and Klutznick Harris Symposium Her academic pursuits were temporarily put on hold due to multiple physical health ailments, most of which she has overcome. Emily currently resides in the Washington D.C. m etro politan area with her husband, Joey.