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1 AN ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIENCES OF TRANSFER STUDENTS PARTICIPATING IN DUAL ENROLLMENT PROGRAMS IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA By ANGEL M IGUEL RODRIGUEZ A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013
2 2013 Angel Miguel Rodrguez
3 To my lovely and beautiful wife Carol and my children Xaymara and Jason
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my wife Carol for her endless support. I also wish to acknowledge my parents, who worked hard and supported all of my educational endeavors. I also wish to acknowledge my dissertation co chair, Dr. Dale F. Campbell, for his continuous support and m otivation in addition to providing unique learning and networking opportunities throughout my doctoral program. Special thanks to each of my committ ee members Dr. Larry Tyree and Dr. Barbara McDade Gordon for serving on my committee and for their sincere support, guidance and learning opportunities. I n particular, I thank Dr. Art Sandeen my dissertation chair, for taking a special interest in my t opic and continuous ly revising, and make recommendation s toward improving my dissertation Many th anks to each of my doctoral cohort colleagues and members of the Thank you for the engaging discussions and sharing your expertise an d laughter with me. Finally, I would like to acknowledge Broward College for giving me my first full time college position of a twenty plus year career in higher education and providing financial support toward my degree.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10 Importance of the Study ................................ ................................ .......................... 11 Just ification of the Study ................................ ................................ ................... 13 The Purpose of this Study ................................ ................................ ................ 14 2 DUAL ENROLLMENT LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ...................... 16 Subject Vocabulary and Definitions ................................ ................................ ........ 16 Dual Enrollment Program in Florida ................................ ................................ ........ 18 Dual Enrollment Programs in Selected States ................................ ........................ 21 Arizona ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 23 California ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 23 New York ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 24 Ohio ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 25 National Dual Enrollment Programs ................................ ................................ ........ 26 Outcomes of Dual Enrollment ................................ ................................ ................. 30 Contribution to College Readiness ................................ ................................ ......... 31 Policy Questions Regarding Dual Enrollment ................................ ......................... 32 Future Policy and Research on Dual Enrollment ................................ .................... 34 Dual Enrollment Support Programs ................................ ................................ ........ 35 Dual Enrollment Transfer Students ................................ ................................ ......... 36 Data Collection about Dual Enrollment Programs ................................ ................... 42 Knowledge about College Life ................................ ................................ ................ 45 Justification for the Research ................................ ................................ .................. 47 Summary of L iterature Review ................................ ................................ ................ 48 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 50 Conceptual Fra mework that Guides the Study ................................ ....................... 50 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 50 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ........................... 52 Interview Process ................................ ................................ ............................. 53 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ......................... 53 Participant Selection Strategies ................................ ................................ ........ 54 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 54
6 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 56 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 58 ................................ ................................ .................... 60 St udent Support at Transfer Universities ................................ ................................ 62 Lack of Preparation for Life at the University ................................ .......................... 65 Academic Majors and Graduation within Two Years ................................ .............. 68 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 72 Summar y ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 74 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ....................... 76 Research Sample and Methodology ................................ ................................ ....... 78 Research Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 78 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 80 Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 81 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 82 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ................................ 83 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 84 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 85 BIOGRAPHIC AL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 94
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 framework ................................ ............................ 51
8 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education AN ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIENCES OF TRANSFER STUDENTS PARTICIPATING IN DUAL ENROLLMENT PROGRAMS IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA By Angel M iguel Rodrguez December 2013 Chair: Art Sandeen Cochair: Dale Campbell M ajor: Higher Education Administration The State of Florida Senate Bill (SB) 1908 of 2008 created a new diploma designation for high school students who complete four or more accelerated college credit courses in Advance Placement (AP), International Bacca laureate (IB), and/or Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE), or who participate in dual enrollment wherein students enroll in postsecondary instruction and concurrently receive both secondary and postsecondary credit The goal of this study is to qualitatively analyze the experiences of transfer students participating in dual enrollment programs in the state of Florida Additionally, the study is intended to fill the knowledge gap regarding this expanding population This research used a purposeful sampling technique to select 15 participants who enrolled in a college academy dual enrollment program in south Florida The significance of the study is to gain useful knowledge to imp rove the dual enrollment program and the support systems at transfer universities so future students will be more prepared to handle their initial transfer to the university level and find more support once they transfer.
9 The results of this study suggest that dual enrollment transfer students are often negat ively impacted by the actual, or their perceived, lack of support at transfer universities and by not having the opportunity to experience university life or varied elective courses after transfer. High schools, community colleges and dual enrollment pro grams could benefit by doing a better job of providing guidance and realistic expectations of university life. Additionally, at transfer universities, guidance counselors and advisors should be aware of developmental theories and theory and be sensitive to the unique needs of dual enrollment transfer students.
10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the State of Florida, students can graduate from high school with an Associate of Arts (AA) or Associate of Science (AS) degree and transfer to four year universities to complete their Bachelor degrees in two more years. This program which allows students to graduate from high school while earning an AA or AS degree is called concurrent or dual enrollment. According to Allen (2010), dual enro llment is defined as a collaborative program between high schools and colleges in which high school students enroll in college courses, earning college credit. The Florida legislature instituted dual enrollment programs over 38 years ago. According to Ha le (2001), the reasons for the implementation of dual enrollment programs are as follows: the promotion of rigorous academics and to provide more educational options to students; to save students time and money on a college degree; to provide greater acade mic opportunities for students at small rural schools; to increase student aspirations to go to college ; and to accelerate student progress towards a degree in order to free up additional space on campus to meet the increased demands for college access by the children Florida statute FS240.116 (1), enacted in 1973, provides high school students with options such as dual enrollment for college access (Heath, 2008). In Florida, Senate Bill (SB) 1908 of 2008 requ ires high school students to maintain a minimum academic standing to participate in dual enrollment. Moreover, t his law creates a new diploma designation for high school students who complete four or more accelerated college credit courses in Advance Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and/or Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE), or who participate in dual enrollment wherein students enroll in postsecondary instruction and receive both secondary and postsecondary credit (Clark, 2008). Community and state colleges in
11 Florida offer academically gifted high school students, participating in dual enrollmen t, the opportunity to obtain associate of arts (AA) degree s while concurrently completing their high school degrees The two year program places high school juniors and seniors into college level courses, often times on a college campus, thus providing a unique learning experience to the students. By the time some dual enrollment students finish high school; they will have simultaneously earned their associate degrees and can transfer to four year institutions to complete their bachelor degrees. Importance of the S tudy The research problem stems from the fact that matriculation data regarding dual enrollment transfer stud ents is available; however, no information documenting their persistence rate s and /or transfer experie nces, including transfer shock, was identified in the literature. According to Allen (2010), research studies are needed to determine the impact of dual enrollment programs on student access and success in college. Moreover, a 2007 study of Florida dual enrollment data conducted by Columbia University did not cover a long enough period of time to determine whether dual enrollment had an impact on degree a ttainment (Melinda, Calcagno, Hughes, Wook, & Bailey, 2007 ) and no other longitudinal study was found In addition, dual enrollment transfer students often may not have the prerequisites to be considered juniors at the university level (K. Ehlers, persona l communication, August 27, 2011) In her doctoral dissertation about community college experiences of high school dual enrollment students, Heath (2008) suggests as a topic for future studies to look at the notion of transfer shock as it relates to dual enrollment students and at the long term cost analysis of dual enrollment programs. Transfer shock is defined as a decrease in the grade point average when community college students transfer to universities (Carlan &
12 Byxbe, 2000; Ishitani & McKitrick, 20 10; Laanan, 2004; Townsend, 2001). Research to understand and explain the experiences of community college transfer students from the social and psychological perspective or the factors that contribute to transfer shock is very limited, as is information development at four year institutions (Allen, 2010; Heath, 2008; Hunt & Carroll, 2006; Karp, 2007; Laanan, 2004). Additionally, i n many cases, the institution to which the studen t transfers does not accept all Questions about the quality of dual enrollment courses lead to issues regarding transferability of these courses. The University of Florida (UF), for example, has a policy that a maxim um of 45 semester hours granted by a combination of AICE, AP, IB and CLEP (College Level Examination Program) credits ( http://www.admissions.ufl.edu/ugrad/trapib.html ) can be applied to a deg ree program. Moreover, at UF students can only transfer up to 60 credit hours of community college r credit satisfies the http://www.admissions.ufl.edu/ ugrad/frdualenroll.html ). During a conversation with one of the parents of a dual enrollment student, she conveyed that although the student had the prerequisites from the community college, the university ma de it clear that if he did not retake the same courses offered by the university, the university c ould not guarantee his acceptanc e into its concentration program (Dr. Kathy Jackson personal communication). In 2006, a Hunt and Carroll study of Flori da dual enrollment students reveal ed that universities
13 give preferential admission to students with AP credits versus dual enrollment st udents. The implications of this particular finding indicate that although high school students in the state of Florida are encouraged to take dual enrollment courses, those courses are not considered as rigorous as AP courses. Hence, choosing to take du al enrollment Nevertheless, other research using the NELS:88 national data suggests that dual enrollment transfer students were successful in transferring almost all of their community college courses (Melguizo, Kienzl, & Alfonso, 2011). Although the Melguizo, Kienzl, and Alfonso study (2011) is a more valid study, the data collected is from a cohort of national high school graduates in the early 1990s and not representa tive of the state of Florida. In fact, to date, this researcher has not found any research examining the experiences of transfer students participating in dual enrollment programs in Florida or any other state. Justification of the S tudy High school stude nts in the state of Florida are encouraged to participate in dual enrollment programs. These students concurrently enroll in colleges potentially earning an AA or AS degree by the time they finish high school. Quantitative data about student enrollment in dual enrollment programs is abundant (Melguizo, Kienzl, & Alfonso, 2011). Boswell (2001) found that the F lorida legislature requires local school district s to pay all of the tuition costs and books for students enrolled in concurrent enrollment programs This requirement is pursuant to the Educational Scholarships, Fees, and Financial Assistance Statute (FS 1009.25 ) Statewide, in 2011 12, college data revealed that the estimated loss of tuition to colleges resulting from academic dual enrollment progr ams was $58 million as compared to the Florida Legislature Office o f
14 Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability ( OPPAGA ) figures, which estimated the loss at $43 million ( Sikes 2013) According to the Florida Department of Education c ommunity colleges are absorb ing the direct costs of instruction (FLDOE, 2013) Therefore, finding out if the investment in dual enrollment programs is rticularly as it pertains to three areas: 1) saving students tim e and money on a college degree, 2) lessening the financial burden on the state; and 3) accelerating student progress towards a degree in order to free up additi onal space on campus to meet increased demands for college access. This qualitative study will address the experiences of dual enrollment transfer students and whether these students are saving time and money by completing their bachelor degrees within two years of transfer. The study of the transfer experiences and insights of students participati ng in dual enrollment programs in Florida is important because the state requires that school districts and community colleges su bsidize the cost of these students attending college Community colleges are waiving tuition and fees ; while school districts pay for books and transportation This information is important to dual enrollment transfer students as well as the institutions to which they transfer. The P urpose of this S tudy The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences and insights of 1 5 dual enrollment transfer students in the state of Florida and to study the notion of transfer shock as it relates to the se students The study uses a q ualitative methodology to investigate thi s and related research issues Qualitative research is defin ed as collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, documents, and material culture (Onwuegbuzie, Leech, & Collins, 2010; Rossman & Rallis, 2003; Savenye &
15 Robinson, 2004). Moreover, qualitative research attempts to describe a situation as it exists and determine patterns or trends that emerge (Slavin, 2007). At this stage in the research, dual enrollment students are generally defined as students who completed at least 60 credits or earned an AA or AS degree at the time of transfer to the university level.
16 CHAPTER 2 DUAL ENROLLMENT LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents a review of dual enrollment and the associated literature. The criterion for inclusion in this literature review is based upon both an electronic and traditional databas e search using adjusting, community college, dual enrollment, transfer students, transfer shock, and transfer to university as key words. The search was limited to peer reviewed journals published from 1997 forward. The review focus es on several a reas, the first of which is a discussion of the subj ect vocabulary and of ambiguiti es in definitions. This is followed by a review as it pertains to the state of Florida other states and nationally. The literature review then discusses the outcomes of dual en rollment students and contribution to college readiness. The next step is a present ation of a review of what has been, and still needs to be, done in the field regarding policy After the policy review is a review of the literature on trans fer students and the support provided to these students, including, but not limited to, a rticulati on and data collection. This is followed by a discussion of the literature majors and knowledge about college lif e as well as the way in which four year institutions classify dual enrollment transfer students Finally, the researcher use s the literature to justify this qualitative research. Sub ject Vocabulary and Definitions According to Allen (2010), dual enrollme nt is defined as a collaborative program between high schools and colleges in which high school students enroll in college courses, earning college credit. The Office of Community College and Research and Leadership together with the Illinois State Board of Education and the Illinois Community College Board used a Delphi study to clarify dual credit definitions and
17 prioritize issues in Illinois (Kim, Barnett, & Bragg, 2003). The following consensus regarding the definitions of terms was reached based upon the results of two rounds of the Delphi survey conducted by a panel of experts consisting of secondary and postsecondary personnel and Illinois state representatives. 1. Articulated Credit : Articulated credit programs align secondary and postsecondary courses to allow students who successfully complete selected high school courses to become eligible to apply for credit in the corresponding college courses. 2. Dual Credit : Students receive both high school and college credit for each college level class suc cessfully completed. 3. Dual Enrollment : Students are concurrently enrolled (and taking college level classes) in high school and college. 4. Intensive Dual Enrollment Programs wherein students take dual enrollment courses during the 11th and 12th grade years to concurrently satisfy both the requirements for a high school diploma and an According to Heath (2008), the Broward College Academy High School is an example of an intensive dual enrollment program. In his monograph The Dual Credit Phe nomenon Challenging Secondary School Students A cross 50 States the author identified four models for dual credit programs (Andrews, 2001): 1. students receive college credit for courses they take at the high school taught by qualified high school teachers; 2. college faculty members teach at the high school; 3. college courses are taught by college faculty members at a location other than the high school and limited to high school students; and 4. college courses are taught by college faculty members at a location o ther than the high school and include high school and college students. Established in 1999 by 20 founding institutions, the National Alliance for Concurrent Enrollment Programs (NACEP) created a set of standards to be used in assessing or improving qualit y in dual credit or concurrent enrollment programs. This year,
18 identified key elements of quality in the areas of curriculum, faculty, students, assessment, and program evaluation. According to NACEP, their standards se rve as a model for other states and have been incorporated into s tate policy by 15 states (NACEP, 2012). Hoffman, Vargas and Santos (200 9) found there is no settled terminology in what they call dual enrollment pathways. This term has been used to describe a structure for dual enrollment in which students participate in a variety of preselected sequences of college activities within the h igh school, including a preselected sequence of two to four college courses, sometimes preceded by study skills courses. This pathway allows unique opportunities to students who are unlikely to qualify for college courses before graduation and is used by the College Now Program of the City University of New York. Dual E nrollment P rogram in Florida In the State of Florida, students can graduate from high school, while attending a dual enrollment program, with an Associate of Arts (AA) or Associate of Scien ce (AS) degree and transfer to four year universities to complete their b achelor degrees in two more years. Florida high school students are required to have a minimum academic standing to participate in a dual enrollment program. Heath (2008) explained that t his kind of program is defined as intensive dual enrollment or concurrent dual enrollment wherein students satisfy their last two years of high school by taking dual enrollment cours es and concurrently obtaining high school diploma s and associate deg ree s A 2009 study found that Florida has one of the most highly articulated and centralized public education systems in the country (Hoffman, Vargas, & Santos, 2009), including a statewide dual enrollment program for high school students. Students can
19 t ake courses during or after school hours and during the summer. The state of Florida home education student in a postsecondary course creditable toward high school comp 271). There are two variations of the dual enrollment program. In one option, colleges and school districts have agreements to offer college level courses at high schools, wherein the courses are usually taught by qualified high school teachers. Alternatively, concurrent enrollment programs enable high school students to register and attend college courses taught by college faculty on campus while receiving both high schoo l and college credit for their coursework (Boswell, 2001). Kim, Barnett, and Bragg (2003) reported that the biggest concern related to the quality and integrity of dual credit programs has to do with ensuring that they are taught at the college level by q ualified teachers. Researchers examined the effect of location of dual enrollment courses on student satisfaction with their classes by interviewing three students from high school and college based dual enrollment courses (Burns & Lewis, 2000). Their r esults indicate d that the students who did not leave the high school to take dual enrollment courses felt no difference between their dual enrollment courses and their other high school courses. However, students who left their high schools and took cours es on a college campus felt they learned more than just academics. Dual enrolled high school students who took courses on a college campus stated they felt more independent, responsible and grown up (Burns & Lewis, 2000).
20 Because of concerns over the qual ifications of those teaching dual enrollment courses, particularly at the high school level, the State of Florida specifically addresses the issue in the law. Legislation in Florida spells out the requisite qualifications of those Articulated Acceleration program: Community college and high school faculty, teaching credit courses in humanities/fine arts; social/behavioral sciences; and natural sciences/mathematics must have completed at least 18 graduate semester hours in the teac discipline. In most dual enrollment programs, a community college or university may share faculty members to teach a dual enrollment course or a high school teacher with the appropriate credentials may teach a college level course (Allen, 2010). In California, academic and many career related disciplines. In Florida, instructors must also possess an additional 18 credit hours in the teaching area. For a high school teacher to be hired as an adjunct by a community college, he or she must meet the qualifications of a co llege instructor. Golann and Hughes (2008) reported that some California high schools have difficulty finding instructors to teach dual enrollment courses in high subject they are teaching When looking at dual enrollment courses taught by qualified high school teachers and those taught by other instructors, Perkins and Windham However, in 2012, Evenbeck and Johnson argued th at rather than attempt to replicate a college experience elsewhere, the model for early college should be to conduct classes on college campuses so students can participate in a true collegiate experience.
21 Community and state colleges in Florida offer acad emically gifted high school student s the opportunity to obtain an Associate of A rts (AA) degree while concurrently completing high school requirements. The two year program places high school juniors and seniors into college level courses, often times on a college campus, thus providing a unique learning experience to the students. By the time dual enrollment students finish high school; they will have simultaneously earned their AA degrees and can transfer to four year institutions to complete their bach elor degrees. A recent publication by Educators for Social Responsibility examines ways to increase college access through school based models of postsecondary preparation, planning and support of students. The author recommends a model for developing co llege access programs to support all students in urban high schools. The integrated whole school model consists of the development of a rigorous and engaging curriculum for all students, with opportunities to enroll in advanced courses, from AP to early c ollege and dual enrollment (Lieb er, 2009). Moreover, Lieber discussed the importance of high school and college faculty working together to create a seamless alignment to ensure student succ ess. The report also recommended that policy makers allow both co lleges and high schools to collect Full Time Equivalent (FTE) funds for students enrolled in dual enrollment programs. Dual Enrollment Programs in Selected States Dual enrollment programs enacted over 38 years ago provide high school students with options, such as dual enrollment, for college access (Heath, 2008). Florida Statute, FS1007.27, also known as the articulated acceleration mechanisms, requires that all twenty eight community colleges, the Florida Virtual School and Campus, and certain four year institutions offer dual credit courses. Although dual
22 enrollment programs were once limited to high achieving students, they are increasingly available to average achieving students. In the State of Florida, dual enrollment programs are also available to home schooled students (Hunt & Carroll, 2006). Florida Statute FS240.116(1) requires school superintendents and community college presidents to implement articulation agreements that specify, among other things, the following: courses and programs for du al enrollment, eligibility requirements for student responsibilities regarding student screening prior to enrollment and l hours earned through dual enrollment and early admission programs to high school credit based on mastery In 2006, over 37,000 Florida students participated in dual enrollment programs with participants completing an average of five college courses (Allen, 2010). The state of Florida has two sets of admission requirements for dual enrol lment students. Students applying for an academic degree must have a 3.0 GPA while students who plan to apply for career and technical certificate programs must have a 2.0 GPA (Allen, 2010). L iterature regarding the dual enrollment program in states othe r than Florida was limited c onsidering the fact that dual enrollment and dual credit program development has now been identified in various forms i n all 50 states (Andrews, 2004). However, i n 2001, Robertson, Chapman and Gaskin published the book Systems for Offering Concurrent Enrollment at High Schools and Community Colleges This book reviews dual enrollment programs in Arizona, California, Illinois, Ohio and Virginia.
23 Arizona In Arizona, dual enrollment programs are available in all ten of the community between secondary and post secondary education. A leg islative statute legally enables high school governing boards to award dual enrollment college courses tow ard high school graduat ion requirements when the following standards are met (Puyear, Thor, & Mills, 2001): 1. credits will be granted by the community college, 2. courses offered will have been evaluated and will have met the official college curriculum appro val process to include outlines, competencies, grading policies, and attendance requirements, 3. students admitted to a college course will follow established admissions assessment and placement policies, 4. faculty members must have community college certific ation and must be selected and evaluated by the college, using approved college procedures, and 5. any text used must be college approved. California Helfgot (2001) published a chapter in which the author discussed how Cerrito College in California has creat ed valuable partnerships with four unified school districts for their concurrent enrollment program. In the spring of 1998, a policy change waived tuition fees for any high school student enrolled in a Cerritos College class and allowed credits to be awar ded by both the high school and the college. According to Helfgot, one of the benefits of the dual enrollment program is the opportunity to employ high school faculty members who meet the college's minimum qualifications to teach some of the classes on th e high school campuses since high school teachers attract more students to the program (2001, p. 48). In California, the Santa Monica College dual
24 enrollment program has established articulation with the K 12 system. The dual enrollment program provides an opportunity for minority and first generation students to learn about colleges and improve their study skills, and it gives them more information about the process of attending college (Hugo, 2001, p. 72). New York In 2007, Karp, Calcagno, Hughes, Wook, and Bailey reviewed dual enrollment programs in Florida and College Now of New York. In Florida, they found that students participating in dual enrollment were 16.8% more likely to attend college compared to their non dual enrollment peers. They also fo und that registering in five or more dual enrollment courses did not result in a statistically increased likelihood of enrolling in a four year institution. With regard to participation in the New York College Now program, the authors did not find a stat istically significant relationship between participation and persistence in the second semester of college (Karp, et al., 2007). One limitation of the New York College Now data set was that it contained dual enrollment participation for career and technic al education students only while the data set for Florida contained data for all dual enrollment students. Both data sets were limited to students enrolled at universities or colleges in their corresponding states. Additionally, in both New York and Flor ida, the authors found that high levels of participation did not positively influence the likelihood of enrolling full time or persisting to the second term at the university. Although both the works of Karp, et al., (2007) and Robertson, Chapman, and Gask in (2001) are descriptive in nature and use quantitative data sets on student
25 transfer to universities or their respective states, the authors d id not follow up or provide any indication of student success once students complete d their first year of colleg e. Ohio The PSEO program was originally enacted in Ohio in 1989 in response to Ohio Senate Bill 140, Sec. 336S.011 (1989). According to Jordan (2001), the program was established to provide qualified high school students with the opportunity to take colle ge level courses and experience a college level environment while receiving both high school and college credit. There are two sets of admission criteria The first set dictates that twelfth grade students must possess a 2.7 cumulative GPA (3.0 for eleve nth graders), and they must have successfully completed Ohio's ninth grade proficiency examination. The alternative or second set of criteria requires students to have achieved an ACT score of 22 or higher or an SAT score of 1150 or higher (Jordan, 2001). The state of Ohio views dual enrollment programs as an option for high school students who desire to take challenging coursework or are interested in enhancing their high school experience and not necessarily as a way of concurrently earning an AA or AS degree. Virginia The chapter on dual enrollment in Virginia traces the history of dual enrollment in the state from 1988 through 2001. Although there is a signed agreement between the Virginia Superintendent of schools and Virginia community colleges titled The Virginia P lan for Dual Enrollment, the authority of implementation is delegated to each community college (Catron, 2001). As is the case with other states, only a small number of courses are offered on the college campus while the majority are taught in high school s. Accordingly, some four year colleges and universities question whether
26 high schools can provide an environment equivalent to a college campus (Catron, 2001). National Dual Enrollment Programs According to Boswell (2001), 38 states have state level poli cies for concurrent dual enrollment high school students in college level courses while 10 other states have concurrent enrollment agreements at the institutional level, with two states having no dual enrollment programs. However, a review of the literatu re indicates that only one state, New Hampshire does not have a dual enrollment program. By 2009, the number of states with dual enrollment policies increased to 42 (Hoffman, Vargas, & San tos, 2009). Research data published in 2006 showed about half of the states mandate d that high school students be given access to dual credit or dual enrollment courses (Bragg & Kim, 2006). Most states limit the ways tuition and fees for dual enrollment programs are apportioned between high schools and post secondary i nstitutions. A study of state policies toward dual enrollment conducted by Boswell in 2001 found fifteen states require d either the state or local school district to pay all or most of the tuition costs for students enrolled in concurrent enrollment prog rams. These states include d California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. In eig hteen other states, students were responsible for all tuition and fe es although they may have receive d some support from individual districts Those states include d Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, New York, Nevada, North Carolina, Rho de
27 found that students participating in dual credit courses perform as well as other college students in two year institutions (Hanson, 2001; WSBCTC, 2009). Kotamraju (20 07) analyzed state level data to determine the relationship between participating in Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO), the dual enrollment that participants in dual en rollment had higher GPA s and a higher probability of receiving post secondary credential s than students who had no dual enrollment experience. The same year, Blanco, Prescott and Taylor released a research report finding that high school students who took college courses through PSEO program, on average, earned degrees faster than the general population The median time to earn an associate degree was 2.7 years for PSEO students, compared to 3.8 years for all other students. In 2003, Venezia, Kirst, and A ntonio conducted research in the largest majority effects of two different dual enrollment experiences in science: summer residential programs on a university campus and in school courses taught by college faculty. The authors concluded that both programs seem to have a similar positive impact on In 2002, Spurling and Gabriner compare d 377 dual enrollment students who went on to matriculate at City College of San Francisco (CCSF) with 2,274 first time freshmen at CCSF who graduated from San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) high schools without du al enrollment experience Resu lts showed that students with prior CCSF experience passed 58% of their units once matriculated at CCSF, while
28 students without prior experience passed 53% of their units. Moreover, dual enrollment participants also had higher average GPAs in all categori es than non participants. For dual enrollment participants, the average GPA was 2.61, compared to non GPAs which averaged 2.34. The authors concluded that these findings suggest that concurrent enrollment programs have a positive impact upo n l ater student performance at CCSF (Spurling & Gabriner, 2002). An institution may retain a student to degree completion by granting credit for work completed at the college level if the student has already completed some of the work at that institution. Moreover, dual enrollment programs can attract top high school students who might otherwise not have considered a community college or local university (Schmit, 2011). According to the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (WSBCT), R unning Start is a program that allows eleventh and twelfth grade students to public universities. The program started in 1990 with a reimbursement rate of 80% of the cos t. In 2008, the Running Start reimbursement rate covered approximately 60% of the cost of educating students. Th e same admissions procedures were used for dual enrollment and all other college and university s tudents. The WSBCT program used a national p lacement test to determine if students are ready for college level work. In 2008, Runnin g Start did not pay for remedial non credit co urses. However, if students were not ready f or college level work, they were encouraged to return to their high school s (WSBCT, 2009).
29 The latest Running Start a nnual report available indicate d that students completed more of the credits they attempted, with better grades, than other recent high school graduates who were attending college. In 2007 08, Running Start served 17,327 students who earned time they graduated from high school (WSBCT, 2009). Eimers and Mullen (2003) studied the relati onship between students who took dual credit and/or advanced placement (AP) in high school and their first year retention rate and academic performance at the University of Missouri System. Their results indicate d that students earning dual credit while in high school do not appear to do significan tly better than other students who enter college with no dual credit. However, they found that students who entered a college with dual enrollment credits returned to their second year at a higher rate (89%) than other students having earned no dual credi t (76%) Dual enrollment students were more academically prepared before entering college than no college credit students as demonstrated by their high school rankings and average higher ACT score of 25.8 for dual credit students compared to 24.7 for no c ollege credit students. However, holding academic ability constant, multiple regression results showed that dual credit students did not perform significantly better in first year GPA than students without dual credits (Eimers & Mullen, 2003). The Kentuck y Council on Postsecondary Education (2006) researched the impact of dual enrollment in Kentucky from the postsecondary perspective, examining dual enrollment course taking and the matriculation and success of dual enrollment students in regular postsecond ary study. Results suggested that dual enrollment third
30 of a letter grade among students who matriculated into four year public institutions while having no impact on retent ion. Southside Virginia Community College Office of Institutional Research surveyed dual credit alumni and with a 29.2% return rate found the following: 93.79% of the dual credits transferred successfully to universities; dual enrollment classes were compared favorably to the on campus classes taken; and there was a near unanimous response recommending continuation of the program (Andrews, 2004). Outcomes of Dual Enrollment When legislators and states proposed dual enrollment programs, they had a set o f goals or outcomes in mind about the benefits of dual enrollment to their respective states. Some of those outcomes in Florida included shortening students' time to degree, broadening the scope of curricular options available to high school students, and increasing the depth of study in a particular subject (Hunt & Carroll, 2006, p. 40). States seem to be pushing dual enrollment programs, while, according to Andrews 2004, the federal government, while acknowledging their interest in dual credit programs, has yet to add anything of significance to the movement. Research on short term effects is very limited, particularly due to the difficulty in controlling the variables affecting dual enrollment participation. Research directly related to short term eff ects of dual enrollment comes from a study of dual enrollment in Florida (Karp, et al., 2007). experimental methods, the authors found that igh school diploma. Dually enrolled students were 4.3% more likely than non dually enrolled students to earn a high school diploma.
31 has found that students participating in dual credit courses perform as well as other college students in two year institutions (Hanson, 2001). Heath (2008) surveyed 275 alumni of the College Academy at Broward Community College, an intensive dual enrollment public high school in Florida, and found that dual enrollment st udents were satisfied with their experiences. Contribution to College Readiness A study that examined the relationship between participation and location of dual credit enrollment courses and the educational aspirations of high school students found that c oncurrent enrollment location was a significant predictor of educational aspirations. Students participating in dual credit enrollment on a college campus had higher educational aspirations than participants of dual credit enrollment at a high school (Smi th, 2007). However, limitations of this study, including the fact that the participants in the study were predominantly White (93%); the schools were in a primarily rural setting; results were based on self reports ; and no assumptions can be made as a par t of this study linking the relationship to cause and effect precluded Smith from formulizing generalizations. A 2007 research report found that high school students who took college courses through Ohio Post Secondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) were more likely to attend college. Nearly 71% of PSEO participants who graduated from high school in 2003 enrolled in Ohio public colleges, substantially more than the 59% of Ohio high school graduates who went to college anywhere in 2002 Howeve r, data used for this study was not student specific; therefore, researchers could not determine whether students who participated in PSEO were already college bound (Blanco, Prescott and Taylor, 2007).
32 arch Center (CCRC) examined the outcomes of 2000 01 and 2001 02 Florida high school graduating cohorts who entered postsecondary public institutions in Florida. Students with dual enrollment experience (n=36,217 ) and a dually enrolled subgroup of CTE stud ents (n=4,654) were tracked. Some of the key results from this study (Karp, et al., 2007) included: 1. school diploma. 2. Dual enrollment students were 4.3% more likely to earn a diploma than their peers. 3. Participation in dual enrollment was positively related to enrollment in college and increased the likelihood of initially enrolling in a four year institution by 7.7% Policy Questions Regarding Dual Enrollment There is no nati onal standard for dual enrollment policy regarding enrollment, admission, or acceptance of dual enrollment courses. Each state determines its policy regarding dual enrollment programs. However, the NACEP standards have been adapted or incorporated into s tate policy in 15 states (NACEP, 2012). Because dual enrollment students are enrolling in college courses, they often have to meet the same entry standards as regularly matriculating college students Nationwide, 38% of the colleges with dual enrollment p rograms indicated that their requirements were the same as admission standards for regular college students, with 62% indicating that their admission requirements were different for dually enrolled students (Kleiner & Lewis, 2005). Additionally, some prog rams set admission requirements using GPA, test scores, and student essays to screen program participants. Others had no such requirements, and students need ed only sign up to
33 participate (Hughes, Karp, Fermin, & Bailey, 2006), while a few states regulate only the age of dually enrolled students (Hughes, Karp, Bunting, & Friedel, 2005). Other academic eligibility requirements reported by 31 % of the institutions included: recommendations or permission (from a high school principal, guidance counselor, or a parent/guardian), course prerequisites, strong high school attendance, junior or senior grade level. In most cases, students are required to be a junior or senior (Kleiner & Lewis, 2005). The American Association of State Coll eges and Universities recomm ended establishing a minimum age and involving parents in the admissions process (AASCU 2002). Karp, et al., 2004 reported that Arizona, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, and W isconsin regulate d the age of junior and senior students only. Conversely, Alabama, Arkansas, Ohio, and South Dakota admi t t ed freshmen and sophomores into their dual enrollment progr ams. In Main, dual enrollment wa s open to high school s tudents of any age if they had a 3 .0 grade point average, met course prerequisites, and had high school and parental permission While students should be academically qualified to engage in college level work, Lerner and Brand (2005) point ed out that programs and universities need to be c areful to ensure their admissions standards do not create barriers for student participation. The College Now Program at CUNY colleges considers New York Regents scores, SAT or PSAT scores, and/or GPA to decide whether dual enrollment students can take a c ourse for college credit (Allen, 2010). In some cases, state policies can limit student access to dual enrollment courses when the policy limits course location,
34 Bail ey, Hughes, & Fermin, 2004). Some states require that dual enrollment courses be offered only on college campuses. Such programs must then develop ways to transport high school students from their high schools to the college and vice versa. Dual enrollme nt has additional costs outside of course related expenses These costs are incurred by both the school district and the college offering dual enrollment courses. Among the additional costs are books, transportation, tutoring, and support services. More over, there is a need for professional development and planning time for faculty who deliver the courses. According to Lieber (2009), a continuing challenge with dual enrollment programs around the country is the limited funding by many states to school d istricts and colleges offering dual enrollment programs. Future Policy and Research on Dual Enrollment Although the results of dual enrollment research have been largely positive (Hughes, et al., 2006; Karp, et al., 2007; KCPE, 2006; Smith, 2007; Spurlin g, & Gabriner, 2002) explained that more rigorous research studies are needed to determine the impact of these programs on student access and success in college (Allen, 2010; p. 16). In 2010, Allen reported there were several dual enrollment areas that n eed ed additi onal research One such area was the need for additional solid research that established a causal link to positive college outcomes This remains a key issue and will likely drive the direction of future research and policy (p.37). Another a rea of particular interest that requires additional attention is the need to look for opportunities to conduct studies that will provide a control for the self selection of students into dual
35 enrollment programs. Additionally, research should be conducted to better understand the factors that contribute to student success. Students, teachers and administrators need research based information to guide decisions about enrollment and implementation of dual enrollment programs. Hence, in addition to the abov e, additional research is needed to link dual enrollment programs to other critical issues in higher education including student retention and degree completion (Hughes, et al., 2005; Karp & Hughes, 2005; Kim, Kerby, & Bragg, 2006). In the absence of rese arch driven evidence of what works in dual enrollment programs, it is challenging to convince policymakers and institutional leaders to allocate resources to these programs (Allen, 2010). More research is also needed to determine how to encourage minority and underrepresented students to participate in dual enrollment programs. Moreover, there is a research need to identify policy and/or institutional barriers that limit dual enrollment access to these students. According t o Hoffman (2003), far more is ne eded to be known systematically about the barriers for underrepresented students and how they can overcome these barriers (p. 6). Dual Enrollment Support Programs Shkolnik (2008) recently reported that most students in Early College High Schools were satis fied with their dual enrollment experience: 80% said that if they could start over, they would choose the ECHS again. Most dual enrollment programs are expected to provide, and do provide, very strong student support while students are still in high schoo l. However, according to Hughes, et al., 2006, there is considerable variation in the support services available to students. Services vary as to whether they provi de academic or personal support and help with college preparatory activities
36 including co llege applications or financial aid. The location of the support may also vary. Support may be offered at the high school or college, or through a collaboration of the two. In most cases, the support provided includes help with course selection and acad emic support as needed (Hoffman, Vargas, & Santos, 2009). A study of specialized dual enrollment programs in Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) programs had an excellent student support system which provided a plethora of services including: academic tutoring, individual and group academic advising, statewide college site visits, summer and year round volunteer medical field opportunities, university presentations, local engineering and medical professional guest speakers, four year university transition assistance, scholarship search workshops, career awareness, case management sessions, and engineering and health related event participation (Gonzalez & Chavez, 2009, p. 931). A recent s tudy of the AACU (2012) suggested that ideally, dual enro llment students should be provided with support at their high schools to help ensure their success and facilitate a seamless transition between high school and college. Another recent report indicated that college faculty may be unfamiliar with teaching d ual enrollment high school students and are challenged by how best to engage these students and what level of support to provide them to ensure their success (Hughes & Edwards, 2012). Despite these studies, the researcher did not find any literature on st udent support programs for dual enrollment transfer students or programs designed to help these students adapt to university life. Dual Enrollment Transfer Students Easy transfer of course credit from high school to college, and then from community college to four year institutions, is an essential component of any successful dual enrollment program (Krueger, 2006, p. 5). Ultimately, the students are at the
37 mercy of the institutions to which they are transferring. For example, according to Burns (2000), t he University of Florida does not accept dual enrollment chemistry hours from any college or university unless the student meets standard admissions requirements. Community college students build relationships at their colleges with faculty, staff and othe r students. Transfer students who need a nurturing learning environment may be unable to succeed without it and, thus, may have difficulty after transfer or may even choose not to transfer to another academic environment (Townsend, 2007, p. 135). A quali tative analysis of a 103 students who transferred from a public community college to a public state university indicates that many students enrolled at the community college with a specific intent other than earning an associate degree (Cejda & Kaylor, 200 1). Preparing institutions to receive community college transfer students has become an innovative and vital goal to improve educational access (Peterman, 2000). However, according to Carlan and Byxbe (2000), the more nurturing and protective orientation of community college instructors may contribute to their students' transfer shock at four year institutions. Earning a two year degree or taking dual enrollment credits does not guarantee the host university will accept all of the credits. Students who t ransfer without rigorous as AP courses, in which credit is awarded via a nationally nor & Carroll, 2006, p. 45). Most public universities award AP students one preference point and dual enrollment students half a preference point, while others do not give dual enrollment students any points (Hunt & Carroll, 2006).
38 Johnstone and Del Genio (2001) conducted a survey of 451 colleges and universities, filled out principally by the office of academic affairs, asking about their acceptance of college credit earned while still in high school Nearly one third of all institutions ind offered in high schools. In 2009, NYU announced it would no longer award academic credit for college classes that also count for high school credit (i.e. dual credit, concurrent enr ollment), commencing with students who enter ed in the fall of 2009. According to the university, Faculty members at NYU are suspicious of such credits and, when t he courses are taught by a high school teacher in a high school setting, this suspicion is raised even higher (Heggen, 2008). Johnstone and Del Genio (2001) found that an analysis of policies and practices of postsecondary institutions showed great differe nces between two and four year colleges a nd universities in the extent to which they wil l accept college learning in high school. In all models, it is up to the college or university whether the courses will be accepted for college credit at all, or merel y used, if at all, for admissions or placement purposes. Florida uses a common course numbering system to facilitate transfer between colleges and four year universities (Kruger, 2006). Under this system, all credits earned in dual enrollment courses list ed in the statewide directory must be accepted at all postsecondary institutions in the state (Hunt &Caroll, 2006). However, even in Florida, dual enrollment course transferability can be problematic. Lake City Community
39 College (LCCC) in rural Florida t programs to teach vocational dual enrollment classes. However, LCCC continues to with dual enrollment credit as oppo sed to AP credit (Hunt & Caroll, 2006, p.45). Nevertheless, because Florida has articulation agreements, students who transfer with an associate degree are covered under the law, while those without the degree may face problems transferring their coursewo rk. Transfer shock is defined as a decrease in the grade point average when community college students transfer to universities (Carlan & Byxbe, 2000; Ishitani & McKitrick, 2010; Laanan, 2004; Townsend, 2001). Research to understand and explain the experi ences of community college transfer students from the social and psychological perspective or the factors that contribute to transfer shock is very limited, year institutions (Allen, 2010; Heath, 2008; Hunt & Carroll, 2006; Karp, 2007; Laanan, 2004). Moreover, particularly in the State of Florida, transfer students come from diverse backgrounds According to Bailey and Karp (2003), dual enrollment programs could potentially d iscourage those students who are academically or emotionally unprepared to handle the demands of college. Universities have the potential to organize intervention strategies and programs promoting student transfer success. However, most institutions are m aking only minimal efforts to address the needs of dual enrollment transfer students. In a study of transfer institutions, only one third of the campuses reported having programs
40 specifically designed for transfer students (Swing, 2000). Most students tr ansferring from a community college to a four year institution find the process is difficult. In a report on Expanding Pathways in California, the authors recommended that one of the ways to facilitate smooth transitions from high schools to community co lleges is by improving communication between community colleges and high schools regarding requirements and the transfer of college credit for dual or concurrent enrollment coursework (Hoachlander, Stearns, & Studier, 2008). The authors also recommended t hat community colleges streamline transitions and promote dual enrollment courses at the regional or statewide level through agreements, thus ensuring transferability of credits. Research conducted in 2007 by Urso and Sygielski about successful community c ollege transfer students found that: Students will find their share of struggles along the way. These may include things like adjusting to a significantly larger campus, finding success in classes that are markedly larger than the community college course s, and adapting to a new and different social scene. Transfer counselors at the four year schools must integrate into their mindset the responsibility of both getting these students in the door through streamlined application processes and strengthened ar ticulation agreements and helping them find success during their early time at their school (p. 17). It is difficult to clearly identify the factors associated with transfer student success. However, Melguizo, Kienzl, and Alfonso (2011) reported that succ essful community college transfer students are defined as those who earned more than 10 credits toward a degree and subsequently earned more than 59 credits at the time they enrolled at a four year university. Today, almost 50% of the students enrolled in public higher education are enrolled in community colleges (Cohen & Brawer, 2008). Therefore, nearly half of all high school students with aspirations to attend a university
41 follow the community college transfer path, which requires being accepted as tra nsfer students at a four year university where they can complete their bachelor degrees. Consequently, enrolling community college transfer students at a university might be cost effective because universities generally require no more than two, rather th an four, years of institutional financial support (Dowd, Cheslock, & Melguizo, 2008). According to the literature, only a small percentage of community college students manage to transfer to four year institutions. The national estimates for the transfer rate range from 25% to 40% (Melguizo, Kienzl, & Alfonso, 2011). Most dual enrollment students earned honors and high honors during their dual enrollment program but could not maintain that academic level once transferred. This is what has been referred t semester grades were higher than those of typical community college transfer students (Finch, 1997 a s cited in Puyear, Thor, & Mills, 2001). Similar results were found in averages one year after high school graduation were statistically significantly higher after high school graduation than those o f their non participating peers (Karp, et al., 2007). In California, the higher education system relies heavily on community colleges and has comprehensive statewide transfer and articulation agreements. Despite these agreements, a 2007 report about how the California policy creates barriers to degree completion concluded that of the 60% of students who are seeking a degree or certificate, only about 25% succeed in transferring to a university and/or earning an a certificate within six years (Shulock & Moore, 2007). In the
42 Heath (2008) study, one third of the student respondents who graduated from a d ual enrollment program with an a placement at the university a s freshman or juniors. Data Collection about Dual Enrollment Programs The Laanan TSQ) is a Likert type scale that may be used to assess transfer students' experiences at public and private four year universities (Laana n, 2004). In Laanan's article on transf er students, the author provided the reliability and validity information of the instrument. The instrument has a validity of .81 to .94. The closer the validity to the value of one, the higher the validity of the instrument (Creswell, 2009). In many cases, transfer students may not have the prerequisites to be considered juniors at the university (K. Ehlers personal communication, August 27, 2011). A study conducted by Cejda & Kaylor (2001) found that there was n o particular benefit to dual enrollment students who completed their associate degrees. In fact, t he students being admitted to the university did not have guaranteed admission or junior standing. Individuals with clear goals participating in dual enrollm ent programs can have a smooth transition from high school to college (Mokher & McLendon, 2009). However, d ual enrollment students may not be mature enough to deal with the demands of the four year university setting. Flaga (2006) found it unclear whethe r maturity plays a role in the success of transfer students. These results are similar to the results of a recent study of transfer students from community colleges. That study found maturity very difficult to measure but showed maturity correlated with performance and attainment (Melguizo, Kienzl, & Alfonso, 2011). The reason for most community college student achievement is perseverance. Glass and Harrington (2002) found that communit y
43 college transfer students had a higher retention rate than native university students. Townsend and Wilson (2006) reported that college transfer students may need more assistance initially than they are given, partly because of the large size of the university. ege education does not fully prepare one for the more self 2000). Karp, et al. (2007) revealed that studies on dual enrollment generally suffer from the following shortcomings: 1. Studies generally lac k comprehensive data to include in their outcomes analyses, as few programs or states have comprehensive K 16 data systems. Therefore, most studies are based on fairly narrow samples or populations of students, primarily due to limited or unavailable data 2. Studies often do not use rigorous statistical methods to control for preexisting student characteristics, even when such data are available. Most states use academic performance as admission criteria for placement into dual enrollment programs. However, most dual enrollment research does not address the self selection and academic characteristics of students, and, therefore, does not control f or these characteristics which lead to student success independent of participation in dual enrollment programs. It is necessary to have a randomized design and control for as many variables as possible. According to Hughes, et al., (2006), policymakers should support outcomes comparison groups, and follow students through college matriculation and graduation. Otherwise, positive findings may be due to unaccounted factors rather than to dual enrollment participation (Bragg & Kim, 2006; Karp, et al., 2004; Karp, et al., 2007). Many of the studies about dual enrollment benefits are methodologically flawed
44 because they fail to account for differences in academic chara cteristics, aspirations and motivations of participants and non participants (Bragg & Kim, 2006, p. 2). A study that controlled for many such variables found that dual enrollment in Florida and New York City is positively associated with the likelihood of obtaining a high school diploma, initially enrolling in a four year institution, enrolling full time, and continuing college enrollment through the second semester (Karp, et al., 2007). Swanson (2008) found that dual enrollment participation may play a sig nificant graduate level degree. To address the limitations of the study and build o n previous research, Swanson (2008) used the same NELS: 88/00 data set used in a prior study. Some 213,000 dual enrollment students were identified as : 1) graduating in 1992 using restricted data sets and variables constructed by the NCES from the NELS: 88 /2000 and the Post secondary Education Transcript Study (PETS:2000) ; and 2) regist ered at post secondary institutions after participating in dual enrollment programs while in high school. This allowed the researcher to study this cohort for 12 years until 2000, when they were 26 or 27 years old. Dual enrollment programs have changed significantly since that time. Accordingly, it is difficult to make any conclusions about dual enrollment effectiveness using data on students graduating high school before m ost dual enrollment programs even existed in the forms they are today (Karp, et al., 2007). The NELS data only collects information about dual enrollment through the PETS which samples students who enroll in college after high school. According to
45 Allen college enrollment, an important outcome for educators and policymakers (p. 22). A report released by the Florida Department of Education (2006) found that 2004 2005 students w ith dual enrollment experience maintained a higher GPA in the State University System than those who had not participated in dual enrollment. After one year at the university, the averag e GPA was 0.12 points higher for students with dual enrollment experi ence, compared to those without dual enrollment experience. A 2004 report by the Florida Department of Education found that dual enrollment students with a 3.0 GPA graduated from community colleges at higher rates than similar students who did not particip ate in dual enrollment There was a difference of between 12% and 16% in the dual enrollment students and non dual enrollment students who completed an associate of arts degree (FLDOE, 2004). Knowledge about College Life In The School to College Transitio n (2004) McDono ugh recommended that colleges and universities develop or expand dual enrollment and other school to college bridge programs that assist students in making a successful transition to college. However, there is a lack of preparation of dual enrollment students to the expected academic life at the universi ty once they transfer particularly as it relates to class size, study habits and academic expectations. By visiting the college campus and taking classes on campus, dual enrollment students can begin to understand what will be expected of them as college students, potentially increasing their confidence and helping them to navigate the transition (Bailey, Hughes, & Karp, 2002; Noel & Levitz, ram are expected to perform at the same level as any other students at the institution of higher education (Jordan, 2001).
46 High school students taking dual enrollment classes also have an increased motivation. High school teachers found that dual enrollm ent students did not complain about class expectations and more readily approached their college classes (Puyear, Thor, & Mills, 2001). Research indicates that while high school based dual enrollment students learned to take responsibility for their acade mic progress, they were not exposed to other college demands. In particular, they were not expected, nor did they learn, to navigate new social spaces or bureaucracies (Karp, 2007) which are common on college campuses. Evenbeck and Johnson (2012) argue d that little consideration is given to the intellectual development that should ultimately be produced through the intellectual development into consideration. Laanan (2004) stated that preparing community colleges so they, in turn, are able to prepare dual enrollment students with regard to the expectations of the transferring university would facilitate students' transitions. A qualitative study by Burns and Lewis (2000) fo und that all subjects perceive significant value in participation in a dual enrollment program. Their research also suggests that participants perceive dual enrollment courses taken on a college campus to be of greater value than those taken on a high sch ool campus and that, regardless of location, dual enrollment was a worthy endeavor. In order to investigate the ways dual enrollment serves as a means for students to learn the norms and expectations of the role of college student, Karp (2007) conducted in depth interviews and observations of students in their first semester of a
47 dual enrollment course. Karp (2007) stated merely renaming a high school course related learning. Many dual enrollment programs offer cour ses designed to give students the skills needed to succeed in college also known in Florida as student life skills (SLS). Among the possible skills covered in these courses are note taking, time management and test taking. These courses also emphasize th e importance of making use of campus resources and developing relationships with faculty members. In 2007, researchers examined the effects of these types of SLS courses offered in Florida (Zeidenberg, Jenkins, & Calcagno, 2007). Using a multivariate ana lysis that controlled for test scores, race, gender, and age, the researchers found that for students who did not need to take remedial courses, SLS enrollment was associated with a nine percent increase in the chances of completing a degree program. For those who needed to take remedial courses, SLS enrollment was associated with a five percent increase in the chances of completion of college courses. These results indicate d that SLS enrollment increases the chances of degree completion. Justification fo r the Research T here are several areas that need additional research in dual enrollment. One such area is the need for additional research that establishes a causal link to positive college outcomes (Allen, 2010). According to the literature research wa s needed to link dual enrollment programs to other critical issues in higher education including student retention and degree completion (Hughes, et al., 2005; Karp & Hughes, 2005; Kim, Kerby, & Bragg, 2006). Moreover, there is a research need to identify policy and/or institutional barriers that limit dual enroll ment access to these students. According to
48 Hoffman (2003), far more needs to be known systematically about the barriers for underrepresented students and how they can overcome these barriers (p. 6). Most institutions are making only minimal efforts to address the needs of dual enrollment transfer students. According to Swing (2000) in a study of transfer institutions, only one third of the campuses reported having programs specifically design ed for transfer students. Transfer students may need more assistance initially than they are given, partly because of the large size of the university (Townsend & Wilson, 2006). Moreover, pre vious studies by Carlan & Byxbe be tr ue that community college education does not fully prepare one for the more self they, in turn, are able to prepare dual enrollment students with regard to the expectations of the transferring university would facilitate students' transitions ( Laanan, 2004). Summary of Literature Review This literature review is a summary of the research performed regarding dual enrollment programs from 1997 to present. Dual enrollment programs are diverse and vary by state. Two states do not have dual enrollment programs; 10 states have concurrent enro llment agreements at the institutional level; and 38 states have state level policies for concurrent dual enrollment high school students in college level courses. The state of Florida has one of the most articulated and centralized public education syst ems in the country. Local school districts pay all or most of the tuition costs for students enrolled in concurrent enrollment programs In 2011 2012, 50,054 students were enrolled in dual enrollment programs (FLDOE, 2013) Literature
49 regarding the dual enrollment program in states other than Florida is limited. Moreover, Florida dual enrollment literature published to date appears to be primarily, if not completely, quantitative and does not address transfer students. The lack of qualitative research exploring the experiences of transfer students participating in dual enrollment programs in the state of Florida forms the basis of the research proposal. There is no current research paper or book that explores this issue.
50 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Conceptual Framework t hat Guides the Study A review of the literature suggests there are three frameworks that can be applied to dual enrollment. These frameworks are Astin (1999), Pascarella and Terenzini (2005) and Tinto (19 75 ). Several factors affect refers to the amount of effort a student invests in studying and participating in his or her college structural characteristics and how students interact with its environm ent. relationship are depicted in Figure 1 1 eory, departure from the meanings the individual assigns to those interactions. According to Tinto (1975), Structural integration deals with meeting the institutional standards of the college or cation with the beliefs, values and norms of the institution. There is consider able consensus among scholars
51 Shederick, 2004). Student retention in an institution is affected by the degree to which the students develop relationships with faculty, s taff, and other students (Tinto, 2007). Figure 1 1 Note: R eprinted by permission from Tinto, Vincent. 1975. "Dropout from Higher Education: A Theoretical Synthesis of Recent Research" Review of Educational Research 45 (1) (Page 95, Figure 1 1). American Educational Research Association. Looking more particularly at nstitution s lens, students persist because they can identify themselves and build relationships, with individuals in the institution and share the values and beliefs of the institution. Moreover, according to Berger and Braxton (1998) successful first year retention in this type of institutional setting is based to a great extent on how well campuses can effectively communicate rules and expectations, enforce rules fairly, and encourage students to participate in decision Considering this statement, dual enrollment transfer students typically do not receive any form of college orientat ion to help them become familiar, and build relationships with the institution. The extent to which the student and the social system of the
52 work considers so cial integration. Tinto social integration occurs both at the level of the college or university and at the level of a subculture of an institution (Tinto, 1975, p.107). According to T interactionalist theory suggests the greater the student level of academic and social integration, the greater the influence on student retention and subsequent graduation. T he researcher hypothesizes that maturity level and positive interactions with the institution and its environment within the a bove constructs are positively related to persistence of d ual enrollment transfer students in postsecondary education. Research Methodology Historically, samples in qualitative research are small. A number of issues can affect sample size in qualitative r esearch; however, the guiding principle should be the concept of saturation meaning when collecting additional data, do not shed any further light on the issue (Mason, 2010, p. 2). According to Rossman and Rallis (2003), if a researcher is conducting a qu alitative study involving long interviews, it is unwise to have a sample of more than three to five people (p. 139). The appropriate sample size in qualitative research is one that answers the research question. For simple questions or very detailed stud ies, the appropriate sample size might be in single figures (Marshall, 1996, p. 523). There are times when a sample of 10 might be seen as adequate (Sandelowski, 1995, p. 179). This is a view shared with other researchers. Atran, Medin and Ross (2005) s uggested that in some of their studies "as few as 10 on a few participants, in contrast, encourages an in depth understanding not possible with a larger sample (Rossman
53 that generalizability is the ultimate goal of all good research, and quantitative Taking these sample size rec ommendations from the literature into consideration, the researcher will interview a diverse mix of 15 students who participated in dual enrollment programs in the state of Florida and tran sferred to Florida universities. To the extent possible, the inter view s of will be conducted in person. Qualitative research techniques grounded in the interpretivism epistemology will form the core of the data analysis. Ethnographic methods of interview, document review, and content analysis techniques will be utilize d (Rossman & Rallis, 2003). The study will use qualitative research methodologies to analyze and reduce data. Interview Process Meetings and interviews with students will take place face to face whenever possible, at universities, in public locations or v ia Skype. All of the questions in the interview will focus on the experiences of students who attended community colleges as participants in the State of Florida dual enrollment and advance placement programs once they transferred to four year universitie s. As the study unfolds, some aspects of the research design may be modified. Research Questions Prior to taking these steps, the researcher will frame the research questions in a manner that makes them appropriate for qualitative research. Accordingly, the researcher developed the following research questions: 3. What are the experiences and insights of dual enrollment transfer students participating in Flor ida dual enrollment programs?
54 4. What are the expectations of transfer universities with regard to dual enrollment students, and how do these universities communicate those expectations to the students? 5. How was the institutional support system once the student transferred to the university compared to the support system at the community college? 6. What factors did students perceive as having contributed to or delayed completion of their education in two years at the university? Participant Selection Strate gies The study was limited to dual enrollment students in the State of Florida who transferred to a Florida state university. Participants will be interviewed, and, with their permission, the interviews will be recorded. In qualitative research, the sett ing and sa mple are purposively selected through what is called purposeful sampling techniques. example of the phenomenon and the setting in which you are most likely t o see whatever it is you are interested in (p. 75). This form of sampling technique is the most commonly utilized in qualitative research (Marshall, 1996). In general, sample sizes in qualitative research should not be so large that it is difficult to ex tract thick, rich data (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2007, p. 242). The researcher will utilize purposeful sampling techniques, including, but not limited to, professio nal networks, to obtain names and contact information of potential participants and will email them, informing them about the research topic. Once they express an interest in participating in the study, the interviewer will communicate with them to schedule convenient days, times and places to conduct the interviews. The study will not be restrict ed to one location. Methodology The main methodology for collecting data about dual enrollment that has been used in the field is quantitative. This type of research can give an excellent picture of a
55 population. The advantage of quantitative research is that it is easy to collect great quantities of data; however, it has limitations including the design and definition of control and experimental variables such as the instrument used for data collection and the interpretation and analysis of the data. Qu alitative data research provides data collection in a natural setting as well as offering multiple sources of data and an inductive data analysis. Additionally, during the interview process the research builds on the participants' meanings (Creswell, 2008 ). The disadva ntage of using qualitative research is that it is time consuming and its generalization is limited since the The most appropriate method of collecting data about the experiences of transfer student s participating in dual enrollment p rograms in the state of Florida is through the use of interviews in qualitative research. Savenye and Robinson (2004) argue that the questions a researcher strives to answer are what should drive the choice of methods. by other researchers studying dual enrollment and transfer students have been quantitati ve (Karp, Calcagno, Hughes, Jeong, & Bailey, 2007). Some researchers have argued that qualitative research represents not simply a methodology, but a worldview, paradigm or perspective (Luetkehans & Robinson (2000). Some of the unknown issues associated with quantitative studies from the methodological perspective are the problems transfer students encounter at the transfer university; what support, if any, is provided; and how students cope with their new demands. Moreover, qualitative data would provid e the participants' meanings (Creswell, 2008).
56 Limitations The limitations of research are influences the researcher cannot control. These limitations place restrictions on the methodology and conclusions that could be drawn from the research. Some of t he limitations of this qualitative research on experiences of transfer students participating in dual enrollment programs in the state of Florida may include the following: the analysis of the data, the nature of self selection, the kinds of questions aske constraints. In qualitative research, validity involves determining the degree to which construction of rea lity of him or herself (Cho & Trent, 2006). For that reason, after the interviews are transcribed, the researcher may review the transcripts with the participants to verify and clarify the information. In most educational research studies, the investigat or determines ahead of time what will be observed and recorded, guided, but not limited by, the research questions (Savenye & Robinson, 2004, p. 1052). The participants will not have edit orial rights in the final paper To maintain reliability, the re searcher should be certain he truly listens to interpretations (Savenye & Robinson, 2004). This process ensures credibility and rigor in the research process. This is w hat Rossman and Rallis (2003) call collaborative action research. Qualitative research studies typically require considerably more time to design, collect, and analyze data and to report the results than do quantitative studies (Savenye & Robinson, 2004, p. 1049). Therefore, there is a time constraint limitation associated
57 with this research, which requires the research to be completed accurately and efficiently within a limited timeframe. ns honestly is another possible limitation. Therefore, the findings apply only to the institution s or population sampled. Additionally, self selec tion might skew the findings as well as the conclusions regarding the transfer policy and practice. Self se lection is a nother threat to validity (Creswell, 2008; Dooley, 2001). Volunteers tend to be less representative of specified populations and to differ from non volunteers. They als o tend to be more educated, have more liberal social views and have a high er socioeconomic status (Myers & Hansen, 2005).
58 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter documents the experiences of 15 students who transferred to four year universities in the state of Florida following their participation in t he dual enrollment program. and one transferred to transferred from College Academy Eleven of the participants identified themselves as female; four of the participants identified themselves as male. The researcher employed a qualit ative methodology for purposes of coding and analysis. The researcher meticulously read through each transcript seeking out common themes and assigning individual color codes to each recurrent theme. Microsoft Word and The Personal Brain software ( www.thebrain.com ) were used to link the transcripts together. The researcher assigned color coding and page numbers to participants and their corresponding themes. Analysis and coding of the interview transcripts revealed four distinctive themes. The first theme that emerged was the impact of the way individual participants defined their goals and selected their major areas of study, prior to transferring to universities Most students completed an AA degree which allowed the m to transfer to four year universities but did not always fulfill all prerequisites for their chosen majors. Additionally, many students sought to change majors after transferring, a variable that does not comport with the expedited graduation goal of th e dual enrollment program.
59 a bachelor degree in two more years. The second theme was the level of support provided to participating students during the dual enrol academy) versus the support provided to them at the university level once they student oriented. Classes are sm all, and students attend as a cohort. In most cases, continuously motivating them along the way. That is not the case at transfer universities, where students must be proacti ve and seek help. Hence, participants were often frustrated and/or unprepared as a result of the polarity of support between The third theme derived from the data was the lack of preparation of some dual enrollment students to the expected academic demands at the university once they transferred. All but one participant were unaware of expected demands as to financial aid, class size, study habits, and academic expectations, in general. For example, most dual enrollment students did not need to apply for financial aid at Community College apply for financial aid at their transfer universities. Moreover, classe s at Community ere often in the hundreds, frequently resulting in transfer shock. The fourth theme that emerged was that although most of the participants completed an AA o r AS degree before transferring to a four year university, they did not
60 all graduate within two years of transfer. The primary reasons for the delay, despite the fact that these students were considered juniors by their admissions offices, were some lacke d the prerequisites for their majors (often being forced to retake courses they choices of majors resulting in conflicts with institutional cultures that did not support th Individuals with clear goals participating in dual enrollment programs can have a smooth transition from high school to college ( Mokher & McLendon, 2009) However, stu dents who have not clearly stated their goals, or are uncertain what major to pursue, may not fully benefit from the dual enrollment program. One of the students interviewed realize Going to college for two years during high school gave me a free two years of my life, a nd I spent those dual enrollment program as an opportunity to expedite attainment of a four year degree. One of the comments most commonly expressed by participants wa Despite the general goal of advancing two years by the time of transfer, some dual enrollment students who transferred to four year universities in Florida, particularly those who earn ed an AA degree without a clear and definitive major, did not complete their declared majors and/or obtain bachelor degrees within two years. As one such participant commented:
61 It was basically that I changed my mind a good amount. I would take classes, and although I did well in every class, I would change interest even though I was doing well in the classes. I just started to be interested in something else. That was pretty much it. was still completing a bachelor degree in less time and saving money in the process. One of the my AA because I did not have the prerequisites for the biology and chemistry program I ultimately chose prerequisites in music I needed so it took me four years to complete my four year sentiment was echoed by another student who commented: Before I graduated, I changed my major so I needed to take the prerequisites to obtain a professional degree. I spent an additional year doing the prerequisites. I attended two colleges, but after one year I was able to transfer. Additionally, some students transferring with a clear idea of their majors also changed majors once they transferred. As one respondent explained: I changed my mind after the first semester. So when I got there, I was doing architecture, and I felt very confident in that. I chose architecture because, for one thing, I liked the field. And, I felt like I could tap into my cr eative side, my mathematical side, as well as my desire to help people. I thought architecture could do all of those things. But, when I went to school, and I was doing the work, I just did not connect with the work at all. It was actually very devastat ing to me because I thought I had this level programs at four year universities created obstacles, including not b eing permitted to change majors and d elayed graduation This study found that some of the problems
62 transfer students experienced included choosing majors they ultimately did not wish to pursue once they took major concentration courses; no t having the option of taking electives outside of their respondents expressed this inflexibility caused some of their dual enrollment peers to completely withdraw from their universities. Some students graduated later than initially anticipated because they did not know the requirements of their programs and departments with regard to placement One participant w as indignant that the college at the university to which the student was admitted would not allow her to take courses outside of her major. She remarked: year students Student Support at Transfer Universities When students are admitted to a university with an AA or AS degree, they are considered juniors by counselors and advisors and are, therefore, not permitted to enroll in elective courses outside of their majors if doing so delays graduation and/or if the course requires payment using financial aid and/or scholarship monies. Junior transfer students must enroll in core major courses. This creates conflict with the dual en rollment student who wants to explore other options academically but is not permitted to do so by the institution. Some of the participants stated their advisors told them if they failed to complete their selected degrees in two years, they would be dismi ssed from their departments. These experiences are similar to those of some students who 2008). Four of the participants ended up changing their declared majors. One finished
63 her degree in the area she was admitted into and returned to college to obtain a different degree after not being allowed to change her major. Another student is in his first year at the university and changed the major he was admitted under. Th ose who were permitted to change majors struggled to be able to change departments, and not all departments were accommodating. The following quote from one such participant cles sociology] were interesting, but, realistically, there are not many career optio ns for you. Another student found the college to be accommodating and commented about situation, knowing I was only going to be a 20 year ol The lack of support on the part of counselors and/or advisors for dual enrollment students constrains their development and can lead to student failure. Regarding the advisors at the university, one participant stated: We found out pretty early when I was a dual enrollment student that it does not matter how many advisors you go to. If you go to five advisors, you are going to get five different answers. You have to figure things out after the first year, or at [ Townsend (2007) found that tudents who need a nurturing learning environment may be unable to su cceed without it and, thus, may have difficulty after transfer or may even choose not to transfer to another academi As an example of the importance to some students of maintaining a nurturing
64 environment, one participant stated she he we had that. There was no reason a business. You have to make nice, but I don't feel t hat family connection I had at ]. Yet another participant made the following comment regarding the lack of support by her grades, or you need to switch your major or leave the sch Some tasks students deal with earlier in their college educations include Inkelas, Vogt, Longerbeam, Owen, et. al. 2006). Becau se of their early age and lack of maturity, dual enrollment transfer students may not have achieved these tasks before arriving at the university, thus putting them at risk. One participant who took two years off before transferring to a university made t he following observation: It was interesting because while in the dual enrollment program I was mostly like middle aged people They were people like me who are older than fresh men. One of the participants who transferred to the College of Pharmacy at University transfer student support, finding the transfer college provided similar support to [Coll ege Students transferring to this program are considered graduate students
65 and not undergraduates, as most transfer students would be. Accordingly, the support system is very unique and similar to the type of support dual enrollment transfe r students a re accustomed to during high school. As the participant commented: The support system was very similar to the support system in my high school, no need to figure out which classes to take because it was pretty regimented as [it was in] the du al enrollment program. The support structure was very good. Conversely, a participant at a different transfer university remarked: whereas in the dual enrollment program, they are so worried about you passing, if something seemed wrong they approached you or asked Whereas, at [Univer you, but they would not ask you. You had to ask them. It was a little different. Class size s were smaller at the dual enrollment C olleg allowing participant s to develop a great r apport with faculty and staff. However, that kind of relationship was more difficult to cultivate at the university. As one respondent participant re e support at [College A cademy than at [University Lack of Preparation for Life at the University Most of the participants stated that their dual enrollment classes prepared them academically and provided them with a support system. As one of the participants very eloquently commented: was v
66 accessible. A lot of the teachers were very accessible and engaged with the students as well. So, it felt very nurturing in terms of being able to ask questions about schoo l work and about life, in general. This view was espoused by all of the participants interviewed, each of whom spoke very highly of the teachers, s However, the participants almost uniformly complained that the high school dual enrollment environment did little to prepare them for the challenges at the university Another particip my friends, we felt out of touch the first semester. We were focused on academics, but The high school suppo rt system is evident in the analysis of the cultural printed tu Most dual enrollment programs are expected to provide, and do provide, very stron g student support while students are still in high school ( Gonzalez & Chavez, 2009; Hoffman, Vargas, & Santos, 2009). Some participants in level courses, they still treated us l in classes with peers who were their same age and like minded, and class sizes were limited to 30 s tudents. Once transferred to universities most students were surprised by the size of their class es which, in some cases, were upwards of 300 students. As one participant put it during the interview:
67 [The first day] at the university, it was honestly a nice day. But, like I was et there because when they taught the classes in my high school, it was a class size of about 30 students: a regular high school class. At the university, there are two hundred kids in one class. s really funny because I was the youngest person in my class. So, I had to get used to all of the other Most participants lost their peer support and were emotionally unprepared for the transition to a cademic life at the university, as demonstrated by the following comments of one participant: I felt like an outsider, looking at all the things going around. At first, I was a little lonely. The thing is that at the university, in general, you have to j oin clubs and groups. It would have been fun if I would have joined a club or something [during my first semester]. Hooker and Brand (2010) explained that students need to receive early signals about their readiness for postsecondary education. A unique story of one participant However, because she was awarded a scholarship, she continued to take the minimum number of classes required to retain the scholarship while working and traveling. After returning to fulltime attendance to complete her degree, during which time she took evening classes, the most of the time. Evening classes are mostly for people who already have their
68 made the following comments regarding her preparedness following the dual enrollment program: Because of the high demand of the dual enrollment program, I was able to handle the graduate level studies. Most of my peers were overwhelmed by the workload, but because I was [in the dual enrollment program] I was already balancing the stress level of both the high school and college curriculum which helped me manage the 18 credits I had to take at the graduate level. Academic Majors and Graduation w ithin Two Years Most of the students were accepted as juniors at their transferring universities. These students had predefined majors and a college within the university they applied to, and were admitted into. Despite this, by their own accounts, most of them w ere immature and lacked the necessary experience to determine what careers they wanted to pursue. As one of the participants vehemently expressed: I think one thing that is very central to my story is that I did not quite feel prepared to enter a four yea someone makes at 17 or 18, they In the Heath (2008) study, one third of the student respondents who graduated confusion in placement at the university as freshman or juniors. Only one student from participant described the experience as follows: We attended a transfer orientation because we were already juniors. We toured where math and science m ajors primarily took their classes. We went to the transfer office and the main office and were given a tour of the campus.
69 In fact, many of the participants were required to take part in freshman orientation and a few had to take First Year Experience or Student Life Skills (SLS) courses. One of the participants was indignant that the university forced her to take an SLS course and stated: One thing that really frustrated me for the first semester was that we had to take this class, to help you acclimate, the first year experience. Even though I tested into the department as a dual enrollment student and had already been in college for like three years, they still required me to take it. It was a waste of time; the whole thing frustrated me. There were requirements that are so distracting and irrelevant to what I wanted to be doing. Another respondent noted: There was confusion with my classification. They made me go to freshman orientation; that was rid iculous. At orientation, I was classified freshman classes. I needed higher level classes. [Univer ave me a hard time. Only one of the participants applied, and was admitted, as a freshman despite having earned an AA degree because the major he applied for was health science. As students took their core courses, some started to realize the majors they selected were not the careers they wanted to pursue. Unfortunately for dual enrollment transfer students, most of the time, the system is very inflexible and does not allow the exploration of courses that traditional first year students at the same insti tution are afforded. As one participant lamented: The university needs to be flexible about how students transfer There should be some kind of negotiation of how students transfer in the degree, and you know your major. When questioned about preparedness for college and taking advantage of the dual enrollment program, one participant commented:
70 I would say it's a great experience if a student knows how to take responsibility, especially if the student wants to go to [medical] school, something that may take eight years, because getting two years done struggling. You get your prerequisites out of the way. In response to the question of whether the student completed the degree within two years of transfer, one respondent remarked: You don't want to rush your experience. These are things you will never get back. During high school I was so set on getting there as soon a s I I was like, if this is my goal, I will reach it, and I don't want to completely rush. Especially with the medical school, it looks good that we finish quickly, but it also s hows a lack of experience. I could have finished my classes in two years if I stayed a bio major and focused only on my sciences. Earning an AA or AS degree during the dual enrollment program does not automatically guarantee a student will be admitted i nto his or her major of choice at the university level. Some programs have prerequisites that must be completed, particularly in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) fields, before students are admitted. As one of the participants stated year in the college, after earning my AA, to be able to complete the program Another participant described her experiences with regard to her choice of major in the following quote : Yet, another participant, after being admitted into the sociology department year institution, like for me, sociology, I graduated with that degree primari ly because I had no idea what I wanted to
71 college and has been admitted to complete the prerequisites to a nursing program, with aspirations to complete a bachelor degree in nursing. In some cases, the university was very inflexible as expressed by one participant: Many, Another participant complained me longer because I did not complet e the prerequisite for a sequential course and had The lack of guidance and communication as to university program requirements did not prevent most of the participants interviewed from graduating; ho wever, some did not graduate within two years while others encountered unanticipated circumstances that impacted their goals and objectives. Of the 15 participants interviewed, all of whom should have earned their degrees within two years of transfer, only eight actually accomplished that feat. At the time of this report, 11 participants persisted or graduated from their original majors while four participants changed majors. After transferring, two participants are currently in their second year; two gra duated from their universities after three years; one remained four years, and one participant, five years after transferring, changed her major for the third time and is currently starting her prerequisites for her latest major. The one exception occurre
72 Theoretical Frame work college years. Identity is a major issue students deal with during their college years (Chickering & Reisser, 1993; Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn, 2010). As such, it is important to allow students to explore and develop Moreover, universit ies should provide support and clearly delineate what is academically expected of their students That opportunity only occurs if students have a chance to socialize and engage in social integration i mpacts retention. Tinto (2007) revealed that retention in an institution is affected by the degree to which students develop relationships with faculty, staff and other stu dents. Tinto posited academic and social interactions with the institution can lead to either attri tion or completion (Tinto, 1975). The results of these findings confirm Tinto's theory regarding the significance of academic and social interactions between students and institutions and the manner in which those interactions contribute to integration. Academic integration consists of ability to meet explicit institutional standards of the college or university, such as earning passing grades (Kuh, Kinzie, Buckley, B ridges, & Hayek, 2006). The normative institution, such as an engineering school that values the physical sciences over the arts
73 (Kuh, et al., 2006). This r esearcher s an important factor in the success of respondent, dual enrollment transfer students with regard to completion of their bachelor degrees. This was particularly true as it related to the admission of th ese students into specific programs or colleges. Lack of structural another college or major after transfer. Several respondents complained about their lack of unders tanding of institutional standards of their universities, especially as they related to change of major. One respondent explained: I would start taking a class in another field and then change my interest again. Fortunately, I was able to persuade my ad visor to work with me regarding my change of major. If I had not been persuasive, I would have been stuck in a major I no longer wished to pursue, as was the case with several of my peers who dropped out. Another participant lamented : kind of hard to change your major once you have so many credits. So, they were saying you come in with this AA degree, and you know any substantive structural integration, resulting in a lack of understanding of what wa s expected of them as dual enrollment transfer students. Tinto defines social interaction as student integration into the social system of the institution, which occurs primarily through informal peer group associations, semi formal extracurricular activities, and interaction with faculty and administrative personnel within eflected their perceived o teacher who teaches at
74 Yet another participant commente but I didn't feel that family connecti on I had at [Colle ge A cademy ]. ties from Tinto's lens, most respondents persisted because they were ult imately able to successfully integrate, both academically and socially. Dual enrollment participants of this study built relationships with other students, faculty and staff at their institutions. Additionally, most participants compromised to accommodat e the values and beliefs of their universities, thus enabling them to integrate and persist in their postsecondary e ducation. Summary This chapter began with a description of the sample population participating in the study, followed by a description of the analysis and coding of the interview transcripts which revealed four distinctive themes. After describing the themes found in this study, analyses of the qualitative data proceeded, and the results were reported. Below is a summary of the results. The first theme was transferring to universities. Respondents earning AA degrees did not necessarily have the prerequisites for their declared majors. There were two reasons for this. First, some transfer universities did not accept certain prerequisite courses taken at Second, some students chose majors t hat required AS degrees to be able to graduate within two years of transfer. Accordingly, both the associate degree earned, and major
75 selection, at the time of transfer impeded or facilitated participants timely earning their bachelor degrees. The secon d theme was the level of support provided to participants at oriented, with continuous, pr eemptive student support and services. At transfer universities, students were expected to autonomously navigate the system and seek assistance when necessary. transfer univ ersities. Students were required to independently learn about, and cope with, applying for financial aid; class sizes that were much larger than at Community 300 students; and more rigorous academic expectations, i n general. The fourth and final theme was participants failing to earn bachelor degrees within two years of transfer despite the fact that most completed AA or AS degrees before transferring. The reasons for the delay included lack of prerequisites (or ac cepted prerequisites) for their majors and/or changing of majors, resulting in conflicts with institutional cultures. Chapter 5 presents a discussion of these results, the implications drawn and s uggestions for future research.
76 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECO MMENDATIONS Dual enrollment is a Florida academic program created to enable high school students to concurrently enroll in college. The program was also instituted with the goal of sav ing students and the state money by expediting th e completion of a college degree; while simultaneously free ing up additional space on campus to meet ever increas ing demands for college acces s. The intent of the program is for high school students to earn college credits, and potentially obtain associat e of arts or science degrees by the time they finish high school. Dual enrollment programs were designed and accelerate the process of students earning college degrees. Th is study addresses key problem s regarding the dual enrollment program in the state of Florida. The topic was selected to address a void in the literature with regard to the transfer experiences of dual enrollment students. A lthough matriculation data on dual enrollment transfer students is available, there is no information in the literature documenting the persistence rate s of these students. Moreover, no studies have been published regarding the transfer experiences of dual enrollment students once they register at four year institutions. Allen (2010) found a need for research studies to determine the impact of dual enrollment prog rams on student success Florida dual enrollment literature published to date is primarily quantitative and does not address transfer students The lack of qualitative research exploring the experiences of transfer students participating in dual enrollment programs in the state of Florida forms the basis of t his research.
77 The researcher performed an extens ive literature review of peer reviewed journals published from 1997 forward. The literature revealed there are four definitions of dual enrollment, and ambiguities among these definitions. The four definitions are: 1) high school students receive college credits for taking college courses taught by qualified high school teachers; 2) college faculty members teach at high schools; 3) college faculty teach college courses to high school students on college campuses; and 4) college faculty teach college cours es to high school and college students on college campuses, (Andrews, 2001). The general literature on dual enrollment demonstrated that the program has been identified in various forms in all 50 states (Andrews, 2004) However, literature regarding dual enrollment programs outside of Florida was limited to Arizona, California, New York, Ohio, and Virginia. Most published studies pertaining to dual enrollment were conducted in Florida. Review of the literature revealed that dual enrollment was enacted in Florida as a statute. The dual enrollment program in Florida covers all of the costs of courses, books and transportation for those students participating in the program. The dual enrollment program was established to promote accelerated degree attainme nt and as one of the most studied of its kind and has been used as a model by other states. The literature review on transfer students and the support provided to the se students confirmed that although a plethora of support is provided to these students while they are dually enrolled (AACU, 2012; Hoffman, Vargas, & Santos, 2009 ; Hughes & Edwards, 2012 ), there are no support programs that specifically target dual
78 enroll ment transfer students. Colleges committed to the Completion Agenda should involve all faculty, administrators, support staff, and returning students to help new students make connections in their first encounters with the college ( p.18) Finally, some literature on college readiness of dual enrollment students indicated that by taking classes on campus, dual enrollment students underst oo d what was expected of them as college students (Bailey, Hughes, & Karp, 2002; Noel & Levitz, 2011) However, despite this literature the researcher found that dua l enrollment participants were often unprepared for university life In particular, they were not expected, nor did they learn, to navigate new social spaces or bureaucracies (Karp, 2007). Mo reover, they did not realize the full impact of transferring as juniors. Research Sample and Methodology Fifteen students who participated in the dual enrollment program in the state of Florida were interviewed regarding the ir experiences as they transferr ed to four year Florida universities. P articipants were selected using a purposeful sampling technique. Purposeful sampling technique is the most commonly utilized methodology in qualitative research (Marshall, 1996). T hese p articipants were interviewed and, with their permission, the interviews were recorded. was the theoretical framework used for this research. According to the interactionalist theory, the greater the student s level of academic and social integration the greater the influence on student retention and subsequent graduation ( Tinto, 1975 ) Research Findings The 15 self identified dual enrollment students who transferred to universities in the state of Florida had unique experiences; however they shar ed common threads.
79 These threads included not having clear goals; changing their declared majors once accepted; lack of support or not knowing how to navigate the support system at the university; and not being prepared emotionally and/or intellectually f or university life and rigor. These findings have important implications for practice and policy, which will be discussed later in the chapter. High school counselors, teachers and parents often encourage students to participate in dual enrollment progr ams because some view the last year of high school as insufficiently challenging. The state of Florida requires that high school students complete at least four or more college credit courses. Although high school students can be very successful taking c ollege courses in the nurturing environment of their high schools, or among their peers in community colleges, this environment does not necessarily prepare them academically or emotionally for the rigor s and demands of four year institutions. Moreover, t hey may not have the emotional maturity to thrive in a four year university environment. Many respondents surveyed by Heath (2008) indicated that the small size of the dual enrollment program was crucial to their success in high school by providing a close knit family environment. However, that was not t he case once participants transferred. After transferring, many of the participants lost contact with their peers and support system. The lack of knowledge of how to obtain support at four year universities, and the isolation of these very young and, in many cases, immature students who had not yet developed their identities, put them on track for potential failure and disappointment. All of the participants interviewed stated they enroll ed in the dual enrollment program to expedite earning a bachelor degree. However, some respondents did not
80 accomplish that objective due to unforeseen obstacles. These barriers included some students changing majors due to dissatisfaction with thei r declared concentration; inability to meet academic requirements for their majors; failure to integrate into the culture of the transfer university; and/or developing other career interests after transfer. xperiences as transfer students in Florida dual enrollment programs. Respondents were particularly frustrated by the treatment they received from their university departmental advisors, many of who m insisted, as juniors, they timely complete their declare d majors and advised them not to take electives outside of their departmental majors. Discussion The results of this research revealed that most dual enrollment students, by their own admission, are not mature enough to deal with the demands of the four y ear university setting. Although Flaga (2006) found it unclear whether maturity plays a role in transfer student success, most participants interviewed stated unequivocally that their immaturity impacted both their academic and social integration. The re sults of this study are similar to the results of a recent study of transfer students from community colleges. That study found maturity very difficult to measure but showed m aturity correlated with performance and attainment ( Melguizo, Kienzl & Alfonso, 2011). The reason for the participants their perseverance and their ability, in some cases, to change majors. The present results agree with Townsend and Wilson (2006) who found that transfer students may need more assistance initially than they are given, partly because of the large size of the university. t may be true that community college education does not fully prepare one for the more self directed environme nt of senior
81 colleges (Carlan & Byxbe, 2000). The present study adds to these results, demonstrating that both community colleges and transfer universities need to better prepare dual enrollment students for the social and academic challenges and rigor s of university life and provide support throughout the process. Implications These findings have significant implications for the practice of dual enrollment and transfer programs at the university level Hoffman, Vargas, and Santos (2009) see accelerated learning options as an important school and college success rates ; however, if students do not persist once transferred, Furthermore, there is a heavier financial burden on the state of Florida when students remain at transfer universities longer than anticipated, especially when those students frequently change their majors or drop out. Two implications for practice emerge d from this s tudy. The first implication is the need for educators at the high school level/ expectations of transfer universities with regard to dual enrollment students. These discussions should include a detailed explanation of the rigid academic requirements associated with transferring as a junior, especially as these requirements relate to having to timely complete selected majors and l imitations placed on students taking electives outside of their departments. The lower divi sion institutions should also encourage and teach students to be autonomous while in the program and to seek assistance outside of the high school. Dual enrollment educators should also suggest that students explore electives outside of their declared maj ors before transferring to a university and emphasize the need to proactively seek out support once transferred
82 (Flaga, 2006). Finally, dual enrollment educators at community college s should explain that dual enrollment transfer students will be younger than many of their peers who may be more mature They should also advise students of the option to apply as f reshmen and explain the importance of attaining social integration The second implication pertains to the university level. Transfer univers ities should ideally develop a separate orientation program for dual enrollment students Higher education leaders may benefit from creat ing and implement ing professional development programs for advisors and counselor s so they understand the unique needs and circumstances of dual enrollment transfer students. Universities should also provide a support system that caters to the needs of dual enrollment students. Moreover, deans and administrators should be flexible with regard to permitt ing students to explore academic options outside of their departments. Employing these initiatives may increase student persistence and their overall satisfaction with transfer universities. Limitations The findings of this study offer a unique set of res ults regarding the experiences of 15 transfer students participating in dual enrollment programs in the state of Florida. However, it is important to understand the limitations of this research investigation. Some limitations of the study may inc lude the following: the validity of the data, the kinds of questions asked the nature of self selection and The validity of the data in qualitative research involves determining the degree to which the claims about the research correspond to the participant s The questions asked by the investigator and what the investigator observed and recorded were potential limitations since interview questions were predetermined. Self selection
83 is a threat to validi ty as well because volunteers tend to be less representative of the specified population. Moreover self selection might skew the findings and conclusions regarding transfer policy and practice, as all students came from the College A cademy program an d from south Florida. Hence, the findings apply only to the inst itution or population sampled. T honestly is another possible limitation. Recommendations for Future Research Several researc h investigations could be performed in the future regarding the experiences of transfer students participating in dual enrollment programs in the state of Florida Because the sample of 15 students came from the same college College one of t he recommendations for future studies and research is to replicate this study by using a different sample size and /or geographical location of the to include ethnicity, an d study its effect on the experiences of dual enrollment transfer students. Additional research stud ies could also be conducted to compare the relationships between gender and transfer experiences The researcher also recommends that a study be conducted at a transfer university, implementing a pilot program catering to dual enrollment students. Further research should be conducted to study the effectiveness of dual enrollment as one of the six key programs and practices college s are implementing to ensure student success and completion ( ). Finally, future studies could also replicate this study using a validated questionnaire to eliminate any potential instrument bias that may be present.
84 Conclusion Florida law re quires t hat high school students take four or more college credit courses or participate in a dual enrollment program. On its face, this practice seems reasonable since students can potentially earn an associate of arts or associate of science degree by t he time they finish high school, thus saving time and money. However, the results of this study indicate that dual enrollment transfer students are often negatively impacted They are also challenged by the actual, or their perceived, lack of support at transfer universities and by not having the opportunity to experience university life or varied elective courses after transfer. As a result of the lack of support, maturity and preparedness with regard to academic and social integration, these first year transfer students often do not attain bachelor degrees within two years of transfer. These barriers could also detrimentally affected persistence rates of transfer students According to study participants, with regard to their dual enrollment peers, no t only are some students taking longer than anticipated to complete their bachelor degrees, some are dropping out of the universities altogether. High schools, community colleges and dual enrollment programs could benefit by doing a better job of p roviding guidance and realistic expectations of univers ity life. Additionally, at transfer universities guidance counselors and advisors should be aware of developmental theories and and be sensitive to the unique needs o f dual enrollment transfer students. Moreover, universities should be flexible as to course and major selection of these students and provide special orientation and support to enhance social and academic integration and expedited degree attainment. Finally, colleges and school districts should attempt to resolve the contentious issue of funding dual enrollment programs
85 LIST OF REFERENCES American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2002). The open door: Assessing the promise and prob lems of dual enrollment. AASCU State Policy Briefing, 1 (1), 1 10. Allen, D. (2010). Dual enrollment a comprehensive literature review & bibliography. New York: CUNY Collaborative Programs, Office of Academic Affairs. Retrieved online http://www.cuny.edu/academics/k to 12/databook/library/ DE_LitReview_August2010.pdf Andrews, H. A. (2004). Dual credit research outcomes for students. Community College J ournal of Research and Practices 28 415 422. Andrews, H. A. (2001). The dual credit phenomenon! Challenging secondary school students across 50 states. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. Atran, S., Medin, D. L., & Ross, N. (2005). The cultural mind: E nvironmental decision making and cultural modeling within and across populations Psychological Review, 112 (4), 744 776. BC Academy, 2010. Why students are choosing the College Academy at BC. Retrieved online http://www.collegeacademyatbcc.org Bailey, T., Hughes, K. L., & Karp, M. M. (2002). What Role Can Dual Enrollment Programs Play in Easing the Transition between High School and Postsecondary Education? The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education 24 18 29. Bailey, T. R., & Karp, M. M. (2003). Promoting college access and success: A review of credit based transition programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Ad ult Education. Retrieved online http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED482497.pdf Berger, J. B., & Braxton, J. M. (1998) Revising Tinto's Interactionalist Theory of Student Departure through Theory Elaborat ion: Examining the Role of Organizational Attributes in the Persistence Process. Research In Higher Education, 39 (2), 103 119. Blanco, C., Prescott, B., & Taylor, N. (2007). The promise of dual enrollment: Cincinnati, OH: Knowledge Works Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.kwfdn.org/resource_library/publications/pseo_report.asp Boswell, K. (2001). State Policy and Postseco ndary Enrollment Options: Creating Seamless Systems. New Directions for Community Colleges 113 7 14. Bragg, D ., & Kim, E. (2006). Dual credit and dual enrollment. Champaign, IL: Office of Community College Research and Leadership, University of Illino is at Urbana
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94 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Angel M iguel Rodri guez was born and raised in San Juan, Puerto Rico. He received his B accalaureate of Science D egree in Marine Biology from the University of Puerto Rico, Humacao College i n December 19 85 He earned a Master of Science Degree in June 1989 from the University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Rodriguez i s employed by Broward C ollege (f/k/a Broward Community College) For more than 2 2 years, he has passionately supported the community college mission of open door access During his tenure at Brow ard College, he graduated with his doctorate in Hig her Education Administration from the University of Florida in December 20 13 Rodriguez is a S cience P r ofessor and the recipient of the Motorola Endowed Teaching Chair (2009) and the Stephen C. Barker Endowed Teaching Chair (2013) at the Downtown Center of Broward College, Fort Lauderdale Florida. He has received numerous recognitions during his tenure as a graduate student a t the university of Florida including the University of Florida Presidential Service Award ( 2010 2011 ); the Kappa Delta Phi Honor Society C. Glen Hass Laureate Scholarship (2012); the National Hispanic Community College Council Fellow ship from the National Community College Council ( 2011 2012 ); and the Dr. James L. Wattenbarger Fellowship f rom the University of Florida ( 2013 )